WorldWideScience

Sample records for arrester beds

  1. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs’ interaction with their microhabitats. PMID:27434044

  2. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats.

  3. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  4. Daily Arrests

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...

  5. Pittsburgh Police Arrest Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...

  6. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  7. The European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper it is generally examined the institution of the European arrest warrant according to the latest changes and additions through the adoption of a new European legislative act. The paper is a continuation of research in the area of judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. It may be useful to the judicial bodies with the responsibilities of issuing and executing a specific European arrest warrant and to academics and students in law schools. The research results, the essential contribution, the originality consist of the general examination of the institution, the critical remarks and proposals for amending and completing certain provisions insufficiently clear.

  8. Runway Arrested Landing Site (RALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Runway Arrested Landing Site includes an underground complex located on a Mod 2, Mod 3, and Mod 3+ arresting gear and are located under the runway and accurately...

  9. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  10. [Arrest of maturation in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; Bellocci, M; Martini, M; Bruno, B; Moscardelli, S; Fabbrini, A; Properzi, G

    1982-07-30

    The ultrastructural aspects of the germinal epithelium of 10 infertile men affected by maturative arrest of spermatogenesis were studied. We noted an increased number of malformed germinal cells. Marginal nuclear vescicles were present in spermatogonia of patients affected by spermatogonial arrest. The few spermatid present in the germinal epithelium of the patients affected by a spermatidic arrest presented changes of the nuclear condensation, the acrosome, and the tail. The Sertoli cells presented an immature aspect of the nucleus and changes of the "mantle". A possible correlation between the Sertoli cells changes and the altered spermatogenesis was proposed.

  11. Analysis of Crack Arrest Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-15

    vload(m) vp tn(m) Vertical Source Load (kN) on wedge HY80 Finite Element 0.0122 0.0099 3.81x10 -4 144 Steel Calculations Experiment 0.0122 --- 3.74x10-4...curve, are bona fide measures of the fracture arrest capability of tough ductile steels . The second is that the J-values represent the crack driving...fibrous mode of crack extension. (b) A new test method for studying fast fracture and arrest in tough steels . (c) Measurements of fast fracture and crack

  12. 14 CFR 1203b.103 - Arrest authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1203b.103 Section 1203b.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.103 Arrest authority. (a) NASA...

  13. 33 CFR 154.822 - Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. 154.822 Section 154.822 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.822 Detonation arresters, flame arresters, and flame screens. (a)...

  14. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... your daily activities. Why Do I Need Bed Rest? Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  15. Neurologic management following cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, N G

    1989-10-01

    Optimal neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest requires careful attention to the details of both intracranial and extracranial homeostasis. A high index of suspicion regarding the potential causes and complications of cardiac arrest facilitates discovery and treatment of problems before they adversely affect neurologic outcome. The future is bright for resuscitation research: Our fundamental understanding of cerebral ischemia and its consequences has dramatically improved, and this knowledge can hopefully be transferred to clinical useful modes of therapy. However, the transition from a promising, therapeutically effective intervention in animals to the demonstration that treatment is effective following cardiac arrest in humans is an important and difficult step. The patient population is heterogeneous before the insult, the duration and severity of the insult are variable, and the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation varies among institutions. Therefore, the only means of demonstrating clinical efficacy is the performance of a large clinical trial. The Resuscitation Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh has developed and coordinated a multicenter, multinational team of investigators who have completed one definitive trial of postarrest barbiturate therapy and are currently completing a similar trial using a calcium entry blocker. Despite the formidable obstacles posed by such comprehensive efforts, they provide the mechanism for determining whether the cost of a new treatment modality is justified by the likelihood of improved mortality or morbidity.

  16. Cognitive impairment after sudden cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Jaszke-Psonka, Magdalena; Piegza, Magdalena; Ścisło, Piotr; Pudlo, Robert; Piegza, Jacek; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Hese, Robert T.; Gorczyca, Piotr W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the incidence and severity of the impairment of selected cognitive functions in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in comparison to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA and healthy subjects and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and the duration of cardiac arrest on the presence and severity of the described disorders. Material and methods The study group comprised 30 cardiac arrest survivors, the reference group comprised ...

  17. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  18. Time series analysis as input for clinical predictive modeling: Modeling cardiac arrest in a pediatric ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Curtis E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thousands of children experience cardiac arrest events every year in pediatric intensive care units. Most of these children die. Cardiac arrest prediction tools are used as part of medical emergency team evaluations to identify patients in standard hospital beds that are at high risk for cardiac arrest. There are no models to predict cardiac arrest in pediatric intensive care units though, where the risk of an arrest is 10 times higher than for standard hospital beds. Current tools are based on a multivariable approach that does not characterize deterioration, which often precedes cardiac arrests. Characterizing deterioration requires a time series approach. The purpose of this study is to propose a method that will allow for time series data to be used in clinical prediction models. Successful implementation of these methods has the potential to bring arrest prediction to the pediatric intensive care environment, possibly allowing for interventions that can save lives and prevent disabilities. Methods We reviewed prediction models from nonclinical domains that employ time series data, and identified the steps that are necessary for building predictive models using time series clinical data. We illustrate the method by applying it to the specific case of building a predictive model for cardiac arrest in a pediatric intensive care unit. Results Time course analysis studies from genomic analysis provided a modeling template that was compatible with the steps required to develop a model from clinical time series data. The steps include: 1 selecting candidate variables; 2 specifying measurement parameters; 3 defining data format; 4 defining time window duration and resolution; 5 calculating latent variables for candidate variables not directly measured; 6 calculating time series features as latent variables; 7 creating data subsets to measure model performance effects attributable to various classes of candidate variables; 8

  19. Cells on the run: shear-regulated integrin activation in leukocyte rolling and arrest on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Ronen; Ley, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The arrest of rolling leukocytes on various target vascular beds is mediated by specialized leukocyte integrins and their endothelial immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) ligands. These integrins are kept in largely inactive states and undergo in situ activation upon leukocyte-endothelial contact by both biochemical and mechanical signals from flow-derived shear forces. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that leukocyte integrin activation involves conformational alterations through inside-out signaling followed by ligand-induced rearrangements accelerated by external forces. This activation process takes place within fractions of seconds by in situ signals transduced to the rolling leukocyte as it encounters specialized endothelial-displayed chemoattractants, collectively termed arrest chemokines. In neutrophils, selectin rolling engagements trigger intermediate affinity integrins to support reversible adhesions before chemokine-triggered arrest. Different leukocyte subsets appear to use different modalities of integrin activation during rolling and arrest at distinct endothelial sites.

  20. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  1. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. EPA and other agencies all consider bed bugs a public health pest, but bed bugs are not known to transmit disease.

  2. Physeal arrest of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua M; Little, Kevin; Kozin, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common pediatric fractures. Although most of these fractures heal without complication, some result in partial or complete physeal arrest. The risk of physeal arrest can be reduced by avoiding known risk factors during fracture management, including multiple attempts at fracture reduction. Athletes may place substantial compressive and shear forces across the distal radial physes, making them prone to growth arrest. Timely recognition of physeal arrest can allow for more predictable procedures to be performed, such as distal ulnar epiphysiodesis. In cases of partial arrest, physeal bar excision with interposition grafting can be performed. Once ulnar abutment is present, more invasive procedures may be required, including ulnar shortening osteotomy or radial lengthening.

  3. In-hospital Cardiac Arrest at Cork University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E; Deasy, C

    2016-01-01

    We describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at Cork University Hospital over a one year time period (2011), prior to the implementation of national early warning scoring (NEWS) systems. There were 43 217 coded CUH admissions, in 2011, to 518 in-patient beds. The Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Database was used to identify adults (>/= 18 years) who sustained IHCA. Available Utstein variables were collected. Fifty-two patients were found to be incorrectly coded IHCA. 17 of 63 (27.0%) IHCA survived to discharge. IHCA with shockable rhythm had significantly higher survival. IHCA survival was significantly lower on wards versus any other hospital location. Median days of stay prior to arrest were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. All survivors (n = 17) had intact neurological outcome post-event. Our outcomes from IHCA are poorest on hospital wards when compared to other areas of the hospital. Those that survive have excellent function and one-year survival.

  4. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods: This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results: Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion: Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  5. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest following trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidel, B A; Kanz, K-G

    2016-11-01

    For decades, survival rates of cardiac arrest following trauma were reported between 0 and 2 %. Since 2005, survival rates have increased with a wide range up to 39 % and good neurological recovery in every second person injured for unknown reasons. Especially in children, high survival rates with good neurologic outcomes are published. Resuscitation following traumatic cardiac arrest differs significantly from nontraumatic causes. Paramount is treatment of reversible causes, which include massive bleeding, hypoxia, tension pneumothorax, and pericardial tamponade. Treatment of reversible causes should be simultaneous. Chest compression is inferior following traumatic cardiac arrest and should never delay treatment of reversible causes of the traumatic cardiac arrest. In massive bleeding, bleeding control has priority. Damage control resuscitation with permissive hypotension, aggressive coagulation therapy, and damage control surgery represent the pillars of initial treatment. Cardiac arrest due to hypoxia should be resolved by airway management and ventilation. Tension pneumothorax should be decompressed by finger thoracostomy, pericardial tamponade by resuscitative thoracotomy. In addition, resuscitative thoracotomy allows direct and indirect bleeding control. Untreated impact brain apnea may rapidly lead to cardiac arrest and requires quick opening of the airway and effective oxygenation. Established algorithms for treatment of cardiac arrest following trauma enable a safe, structured, and effective management.

  6. Theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Maldonado, R; Medina-Noyola, M

    2008-05-01

    We present a first-principles theory of dynamic arrest in colloidal mixtures based on the multicomponent self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of colloid dynamics [M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 72, 031107 (2005); M. A. Chávez-Rojo and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E76, 039902 (2007)]. We illustrate its application with a description of dynamic arrest in two simple model colloidal mixtures: namely, hard-sphere and repulsive Yukawa binary mixtures. Our results include observation of the two patterns of dynamic arrest, one in which both species become simultaneously arrested and the other involving the sequential arrest of the two species. The latter case gives rise to mixed states in which one species is arrested while the other species remains mobile. We also derive the ("bifurcation" or fixed-point") equations for the nonergodic parameters of the system, which takes the surprisingly simple form of a system of coupled equations for the localization length of the particles of each species. The solution of this system of equations indicates unambiguously which species is arrested (finite localization length) and which species remains ergodic (infinite localization length). As a result, we are able to draw the entire ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of the binary hard-sphere mixture.

  7. Cardiac Arrest: Obstetric CPR/ACLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Benjamin; Lipman, Steven

    2017-01-10

    In contrast with other high-resource countries, maternal mortality has seen an increase in the United States. Caring for pregnant women in cardiac arrest may prove uniquely challenging given the rarity of the event coupled by the physiological changes of pregnancy. Optimization of resuscitative efforts warrants special attention as described in the 2015 American Heart Association's "Scientific Statement on Maternal Cardiac Arrest." Current recommendations address a variety of topics ranging from the basic components of chest compressions and airway management to some of the logistical complexities and operational challenges involved in maternal cardiac arrest.

  8. The obesity paradox in cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-02-01

    Evidence from clinical cohorts indicates an obesity paradox in overweight and obese patients who seem to have a more favorable short-term and long-term prognosis than leaner patients. Although obese cardiac arrest victims are theoretically more difficult to be resuscitated due to difficulties in providing adequate chest compressions, ventilation, and oxygenation, research so far has shown that there is an obesity paradox in cardiac arrest.

  9. Surface Electrocardiogram Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghani, Samy A.; Rosenthal, Todd M.; Morin, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart disease is a major cause of death in industrialized nations, with approximately 50% of these deaths attributable to sudden cardiac arrest. If patients at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest can be identified, their odds of surviving fatal arrhythmias can be significantly improved through prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. This review summarizes the current knowledge pertaining to surface electrocardiogram (ECG) predictors of sudden cardiac arrest. Methods: We conducted a literature review focused on methods of predicting sudden cardiac arrest through noninvasive electrocardiographic testing. Results: Several electrocardiographic-based methods of risk stratification of sudden cardiac arrest have been studied, including QT prolongation, QRS duration, fragmented QRS complexes, early repolarization, Holter monitoring, heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, signal-averaged ECG, T wave alternans, and T-peak to T-end. These ECG findings have shown variable effectiveness as screening tools. Conclusion: At this time, no individual ECG finding has been found to be able to adequately stratify patients with regard to risk for sudden cardiac arrest. However, one or more of these candidate surface ECG parameters may become useful components of future multifactorial risk stratification calculators. PMID:27660578

  10. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  11. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  12. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  13. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  14. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  15. Cardiac arrest: comparison of paramedic and conventional ambulance services.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study conducted in the Greater Vancouver area compared survival rates in prehospital cardiac arrest managed by an advanced life support (paramedic) service with those in cardiac arrest managed by conventional ambulance service. Management by the paramedic service was associated with higher survival rates for patients found in cardiac arrest but not for patients who suffered the arrest while the ambulance was present. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders was associated wit...

  16. Modes of induced cardiac arrest: hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia - Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Marcos Aurélio Barboza de; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseini; Cortez, José Luis Lasso; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The entry of sodium and calcium play a key effect on myocyte subjected to cardiac arrest by hyperkalemia. They cause cell swelling, acidosis, consumption of adenosine triphosphate and trigger programmed cell death. Cardiac arrest caused by hypocalcemia maintains intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels, improves diastolic performance and reduces oxygen consumption, which can be translated into better protection to myocyte injury induced by cardiac arrest.

  17. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  18. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  19. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Virtual Test Bed 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Virtual Test Bed Donald T. Resio U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Phone...into three parts: 1) assembly of field and laboratory data sets for testing ; 2) set-up of a benchmark system; and 3) exercising the benchmark system

  20. Nuclear reactor melt arrest and coolability device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, Theo G.; Dinh, Nam Truc; Wachowiak, Richard M.

    2016-06-14

    Example embodiments provide a Basemat-Internal Melt Arrest and Coolability device (BiMAC) that offers improved spatial and mechanical characteristics for use in damage prevention and risk mitigation in accident scenarios. Example embodiments may include a BiMAC having an inclination of less than 10-degrees from the basemat floor and/or coolant channels of less than 4 inches in diameter, while maintaining minimum safety margins required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  1. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  2. Rheology and structural arrest of casein suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Dahbi, Louisa; Alexander, M.; Trappe, Véronique; Dhont, J. K. G.; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rheology of milk powder suspensions is investigated up to very high concentrations, where structural arrest occurs. The main component of the milk powder investigated is casein, so that the suspensions can be regarded as casein suspensions. Four concentration regimes are identified. For effective casein volume fractions less than 0.54 the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity is similar to that of hard-sphere suspensions. However, due to the elastic deformation of the casei...

  3. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  4. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  5. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  6. Aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váchová J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general solution of aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester. Governing equations are presented in form of Lighthill acoustic analogy, as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation. This equation is based on conservation laws of fluid mechanics rather than on the wave equation. Thus, the FW-H equation is valid even if the integration surface is in nonlinear region. That’s why the FWH method is superior in aeroacoustics. The FW-H method is implemented in program Fluent and the numerical solution is acquired by Fluent code.The general solution of acoustic signal generated by lightning arrester is shown and the results in form of acoustic pressure and frequency spectrum are presented. The verification of accuracy was made by evaluation of Strouhal number. A comparison of Strouhal number for circumfluence of a cylinder and the lightning arrester was done, because the experimental data for cylinder case are known and these solids are supposed to be respectively in shape relation.

  7. Arrest scenarios in concentrated protein solutions - from hard sphere glasses to arrested spinodal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradner, Anna; Bucciarelli, Saskia; Casal, Lucia; Foffi, Giuseppe; Thurston, George; Farago, Bela; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of an arrest transition in concentrated colloid suspensions and its dependence on the interaction potential is a hot topic in soft matter. Such arrest transitions can also occur in concentrated protein solutions, as they exist e.g. in biological cells or are increasingly used in pharmaceutical formulations. Here we demonstrate the applicability of concepts from colloid science to understand the dynamics of concentrated protein solutions. In this presentation we report a combination of 3D light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and neutron spin echo measurements to study the structural properties as well as the collective and self diffusion of proteins in highly concentrated solutions on the relevant length and time scales. We demonstrate that various arrest scenarios indeed exist for different globular proteins. The proteins chosen are different bovine lens crystallins. We report examples of hard and attractive glass transitions and arrested spinodal decomposition directly linked to the effective pair potentials determined in static scattering experiments for the different proteins. We discuss these different arrest scenarios in view of possible applications of dense protein solutions as well as in view of their possible relevance for living systems.

  8. Arrest History and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior.

  9. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  10. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  11. Arresting developments: trends in female arrests for domestic violence and proposed explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleon-Granados, William; Wells, William; Binsbacher, Ruddyard

    2006-04-01

    This article represents an effort to generate more systematic and specified discussion on the topic of unintended consequences in the movement to decrease violence against women. In this case, the consequence is increases in female arrests for domestic violence. This article builds on recent discussions by first using a sample of data to examine felony domestic violence arrest rates for men and women. The data support the conclusion that domestic violence arrests of women have increased. Second, the article presents six explanations that are derived from existing literature. Although the authors do not offer empirical tests of these explanations, this presentation can play an important part in better understanding the outcomes of criminal justice policies that are aimed at increasing victim safety.

  12. Arrests of women for driving under the influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, E R; McCoy, M L; Toonen, L A; Kuntz, E J

    1988-01-01

    Police records of arrests of women in Wichita, Kansas for driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol for a 5-year period (1980-1984) were studied. The proportion of arrests of women increased from 10.6 to 14.5% of total arrested. Women in their 20s comprised the largest age group; single women were greatly overrepresented. More than one-half of the arrested women were employed outside the home; a substantial proportion (30.8%) were unemployed at the time of arrest. The average blood alcohol level of those tested was 183 mg/dl. Characteristics of arrestees are discussed in terms of changes in the social roles and expectations of women. Although time of arrest was similar to that of men (i.e., night), arrests of women were more evenly spread across the days of the week. Within the 5-year period, the rate of recidivism for DUI was 7.43%. The implications of arrest and recidivism patterns are discussed. A change in legal and arrest procedures was found to have the same effect on arrests of women as it had on those of men, suggesting that the changes did not produce differential treatment by police.

  13. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  14. Hydroxylated PBDEs induce developmental arrest in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Crystal Y., E-mail: Crystal_usenko@baylor.edu; Hopkins, David C.; Trumble, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephen_trumble@baylor.edu; Bruce, Erica D., E-mail: Erica_bruce@baylor.edu

    2012-07-01

    The ubiquitous spread of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has led to concerns regarding the metabolites of these congeners, in particular hydroxylated PBDEs. There are limited studies regarding the biological interactions of these chemicals, yet there is some concern they may be more toxic than their parent compounds. In this study three hydroxylated PBDEs were assessed for toxicity in embryonic zebrafish: 3-OH-BDE 47, 5-OH-BDE 47, and 6-OH-BDE 47. All three congeners induced developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner; however, 6-OH-BDE 47 induced adverse effects at lower concentrations than the other congeners. Furthermore, all three induced cell death; however apoptosis was not observed. In short-term exposures (24–28 hours post fertilization), all hydroxylated PBDEs generated oxidative stress in the region corresponding to the cell death at 5 and 10 ppm. To further investigate the short-term effects that may be responsible for the developmental arrest observed in this study, gene regulation was assessed for embryos exposed to 0.625 ppm 6-OH-BDE 47 from 24 to 28 hpf. Genes involved in stress response, thyroid hormone regulation, and neurodevelopment were significantly upregulated compared to controls; however, genes related to oxidative stress were either unaffected or downregulated. This study suggests that hydroxylated PBDEs disrupt development, and may induce oxidative stress and potentially disrupt the cholinergic system and thyroid hormone homeostasis. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs induce developmental arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. ► Hydroxyl group location influences biological interaction. ► OH-PBDEs induce oxidative stress. ► Thyroid hormone gene regulation was disrupted following exposure. ► To our knowledge, this is the first whole organism study of OH-PBDE toxicity.

  15. Predictors for outcome among cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrandt-Johansen, Ida Maria; Norsted, Kristine; Schmidt, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundIn the past decade, early treatment of cardiac arrest (CA) victims has been improved in several ways, leading to more optimistic over all prognoses. However, the global survival rate after out-of-hospital CA (OHCA) is still not more than 5-10%. With a better knowledge of the predictors...... determined the 90-day mortality and neurological outcome at discharge for CA patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), in regard to determine the importance of the predictors for mortality and neurological outcome, with emphasize on combining initial rhythm and time to return of spontaneous...

  16. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  17. Electrothermal model for complete metal-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E. Guedes da; Naidu, S.R. [UFPB, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Lima, A. Guedes de [CEFET-PB, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2001-01-01

    A computational, electrothermal model for a complete metal-oxide surge arrester based on the implicit form of the finite-differences method is presented. The model is used to calculate the cooling curve after the application of overvoltages and the temperature variations during standard test. The model has been checked against experiments carried out on a test section and a complete surge arrester and the behaviour of a hypothetical surge arrester during standard tests simulated. (Author)

  18. Postoperative cardiac arrest in children with congenital heart abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The exact survival rates and markers of survival after postoperative cardiac arrest in children with congenital heart abnormalities are unknown. METHODS In this one-year study, we identified children younger than seven years of age with postoperative cardiac arrest in our pediatric cardiac intensive care unit database. Parameters from perioperative, pre-arrest, and resuscitation periods were analyzed for these patients. Comparisons were made between survivors and non-survivors afte...

  19. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  20. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  1. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  2. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  4. A Bed-Deformation Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2001-12-01

    Although deformation of sediment beneath ice masses may contribute to their motion and may sometimes enable fast glacier flow, both the kinematics and mechanics of deformation are controversial. This controversy stems, in part, from subglacial measurements that are difficult to interpret. Measurements have been made either beneath ice margins or remotely through boreholes with interpretive limitations caused by uncertain instrument position and performance, uncertain sediment thickness and bed geometry, and unknown disturbance of the bed and stress state by drilling. We have used a different approach made possible by the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, which enables human access to the bed of Engabreen, Norway, beneath 230 m of temperate ice. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.4 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed and filled with sediment (75 percent sand and gravel, 20 percent silt, 5 percent clay). Instruments were placed in the sediment to record shear deformation (tiltmeters), dilation and contraction, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure. Pore pressure was manipulated by feeding water to the base of the sediment with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. After irregular deformation during closure of ice on the sediment, shear deformation and volume change stopped, and total normal stress became constant at 2.2 MPa. Subsequent pump tests, which lasted several hours, induced pore-water pressures greater than 70 percent of the total normal stress and resulted in shear deformation over most of the sediment thickness with attendant dilation. Ice separated from the sediment when effective normal stress was lowest, arresting shear deformation. Displacement profiles during pump tests were similar to those observed by Boulton and co-workers at Breidamerkurjökull, Iceland, with rates of shear strain increasing upward toward the glacier sole. Such deformation does not require viscous deformation resistance and is expected in a

  5. Resuscitation, prolonged cardiac arrest, and an automated chest compression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Martin; Jørgensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Lars S;

    2010-01-01

    The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest.......The European Resuscitation Council's 2005 guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasize the delivery of uninterrupted chest compressions of adequate depth during cardiac arrest....

  6. Evolution of the dragonfly head-arresting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The arrester or fixation system of the head in adult Odonata is unique among arthropods. This system involves the organs of two body segments: the head and the neck. It consists of a skeleton–muscle apparatus that sets the arrester parts in motion. The parts comprise formations covered with complicated microstructures: fields of microtrichia on the rear surface of the head and post-cervical sclerites of the neck. The arrester immobilizes the head during feeding or when the dragonfly is in tandem flight. Thus, it may serve as an adaptation to save the head from violent mechanical disturbance and to stabilize gaze in a variety of behavioural situations. This study shows the evolutionary trend of the arrester in the order Odonata by using scanning electron microscopy and measurements of arrester structures in 227 species from 26 odonate families. The arrester design occurring in the Epiophlebiidae, Gomphidae, Neopetaliidae, Petaluridae and Chlorogomphinae is suggested to be the basic one. Two convergent pathways of head-arrester evolution among Zygoptera and Anisoptera are proposed. The possible functional significance of the arrester system is discussed.

  7. Predictive Value of Brain Arrest Neurological Outcome Scale (BrANOS) on Mortality and Morbidity After Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahutoğlu, Cengiz; Uyar, Mehmet; Demirağ, Kubilay; İsayev, Hasan; Moral, Ali Reşat

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are several prediction scales and parameters for prognosis after a cardiac arrest. One of these scales is the brain arrest neurological outcome scale (BrANOS), which consists of duration of cardiac arrest, Glasgow Coma Scale score and Hounsfield unit measured on cranial computed tomography (CT) scan. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of BrANOS on predicting the mortality and disability after a cardiac arrest. Methods We retrospectively investigated cardiac arrest patients who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit (ICU) within a 3-year period. Inclusion criteria were age over 18 years old, survival of more than 24 hours after cardiac arrest and availability of cranial CT. We recorded the age, sex, diagnosis, duration of cardiac arrest and hospital stay, mortality, Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) and BrANOS score. The primary endpoint of the study was to establish the relationship between mortality and BrANOS score in patients who survived for more than 24 hours after a cardiac arrest. The secondary endpoint of the study was to determine the 2-year life expectancy and GOS after cardiac arrest. Results The mean age of the patients was 57±17 years (33 females, 67 males). ICU mortality rate was 57%. The BrANOS mean score was 10.3±3.2. There was a significant difference between survivors and non-survivors in terms of the BrANOS score (8.8±3.2 vs. 11.6±2.7; p14 predicted death with 100% accuracy. All the patients without disability had a BrANOS score of <10. The BrANOS score also correlated well with GOS (p<0.001). The 2-year life expectancy rate was 31% in patients who survived more than 24 hours after a cardiac arrest. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated that BrANOS provided reliable data for prognostic evaluation after a cardiac arrest. PMID:28058140

  8. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K.; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  9. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  10. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  11. Sublingual Microcirculation is Impaired in Post-cardiac Arrest Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Omar, Yasser; Massey, Michael; Wiuff Andersen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: We hypothesized that microcirculatory dysfunction, similar to that seen in sepsis, occurs in post-cardiac arrest patients and that better microcirculatory flow will be associated with improved outcome. We also assessed the association between microcirculatory dysfunction and inflammatory...... markers in the post-cardiac arrest state. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the sublingual microcirculation in post-cardiac arrest patients, severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and healthy control patients using Sidestream Darkfield microscopy. Microcirculatory flow was assessed using...... the microcirculation flow index (MFI) at 6 and 24h in the cardiac arrest patients, and within 6h of emergency department admission in the sepsis and control patients. RESULTS: We evaluated 30 post-cardiac arrest patients, 16 severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and 9 healthy control patients. Sublingual...

  12. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    challenges, due to the victim’s physical location, which brings an inherent risk of delay (or altogether absence) of recognition and treatment of cardiac arrest. A low frequency of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and low 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were identified nearly ten......BACK COVER TEXT Cardiac arrest is an emergency medical condition characterized by the cessation of cardiac mechanical activity; without immediate and decisive treatment, a victim’s chances of survival are minimal. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a particular arrest subgroup that poses additional...... years ago in Denmark. These findings led to several national initiatives to strengthen bystander resuscitation attempts and advance care. Despite these nationwide efforts, it was unknown prior to this project whether these efforts resulted in changes in resuscitation attempts by bystanders and changes...

  13. Performance of metal oxide gapless surge arresters for HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diseko, N.L.

    1990-09-01

    An examination of the electrical stresses which may be imposed upon metal oxide surge arresters in a dc converter station is undertaken by means of simulation of the dc system and associated ac systems in the time domain using a digital computer program. Detailed models of a dc link are developed for temporary overvoltage stresses and steep front stresses. The most critical stresses for each type of dc station arrester due to converter faults and converter malfunctions are identified. The energy stresses were generally determined to be dependent on the converter control and protection strategies adopted during the faults. The arrester energy stresses for faults on both the line side and valve side busses of the converter transformer were determined to be sensitive to the instant of fault application and the duration of the fault. The arrester stresses for ac bus faults were analyzed in detail to determine their statistical distribution relative to the point on wave at which the fault occurred in each affected phase, and to the instant of fault clearance in each phase. Generally, the highest stresses occur for sequential fault occurrence in the phases compared with simultaneous faults. The studies indicate that the stresses in the arresters in a dc pile experiencing the worst duty depend on the number of arresters represented. Modelling only one arrester of a series-connected group does not provide correct results when the fault condition imposes duty on more than one of the arresters in the group. The study also indicates that the highest stresses do not necessarily occur in the single arrester connected across the valve with the highest prospective overvoltage. Hence the capability to represent all valve arresters within one pole is necessary when determining the most onerous stresses. 11 refs., 79 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fei Yan; Xin-Yan Liu; Yun-Fei Cheng; Zhi-Yi Li; Jie Ou; Wei Wang; Feng-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy.The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest.Methods:Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group).Results:Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups.The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group.Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45),and none was detected in the artificial abortion group.M.luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test).In addition,no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest.Conclusions:M.luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors.

  15. Pollution performance of 110 kV metal oxide arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzan, K.; Pohl, Z. [Technical Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Grzybowski, S. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koehler, W. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    Pollution test results of single unit 110 kV metal oxide surge arresters with porcelain housing according to the solid layer and salt fog methods are presented. During 6 hours of testing, the internal and external charge and maximum temperature along the varistor column were measured. The formation of single stable dry bands on the housing was often observed, especially during salt fog tests. In such cases, the varistor temperature can reach about 70 C. The simple electrical model of the arrester enabling calculations of voltages and currents as a function of arrester and pollution parameters is shown.

  16. Evolution of the dragonfly head-arresting system

    OpenAIRE

    Gorb, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The arrester or fixation system of the head in adult Odonata is unique among arthropods. This system involves the organs of two body segments: the head and the neck. It consists of a skeleton–muscle apparatus that sets the arrester parts in motion. The parts comprise formations covered with complicated microstructures: fields of microtrichia on the rear surface of the head and post-cervical sclerites of the neck. The arrester immobilizes the head during feeding or when the dragonfly is in tan...

  17. Neurological and circulatory outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in progress: influence of pre-arrest and arrest factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, E O

    1998-01-01

    Possible correlations between the circulatory and neurological responses to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the influence of pre-arrest factors (demographic data, medical history and aetiology of circulatory arrest) and arrest factors (location of arrest, ECG configurations, and duration of resuscitation) on the course of circulatory and neurological recovery were investigated in 111 victims of circulatory arrest. At the start of resuscitation 57 patients (Group I) had some brain function and 54 (Group II) had no brain function. Sixty nine patients (62%) had circulation restored but 54 (78%) were left with heart failure. Forty one patients (39%) survived the first day, 26 (63%) with heart failure; only 34 (31%) were alive after 48 h, 17 (50%) with heart failure. Half of the patients surviving 24 or 48 h had awakened. Consciousness returned in 32 patients (29%) during the first 48 h, more frequently in Group I than in Group II. Patients in Group I had a higher incidence of in-hospital arrest and had their circulation restored more often than those in Group II. Survival and post-resuscitation heart failure was alike in the groups. The pre-arrest factors explored did not modify the circulatory or neurological outcome whereas initial ventricular fibrillation was significantly related to recovery of consciousness. The revivability of spontaneous circulation and of neurological functions was found thus mainly to be determined by global ischaemia sustained prior to and during CPR.

  18. Hybrid simulation of metal oxide surge-arrester thermal behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.; Raghuveer, M.R. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-01-01

    A finite-difference-based technique for simulating the thermal behaviour of a metal oxide surge arrester (MOSA) was described. The improved hybrid thermal modelling technique was claimed to accurately represent heat-transfer modes. Fin theory was used to represent arrester sheds. The proposed model, which relies on simple measurements at the arrester terminals, yields the temporal variation of temperature in a MOSA in both the axial and radial direction. The thermal behaviour of a MOSA under steady-state and transient conditions can be simulated using such a model under different environmental conditions. The accuracy of the modelling technique was demonstrated experimentally by measurements conducted on an arrester. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anna Sina P; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Kjaergaard, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality following initial survival of cardiac arrest remain high despite great efforts to improve resuscitation techniques and post-resuscitation care, in part due to the ischemia-reperfusion injury secondary to the restoration of the blood circulation. Patients...... resuscitated from cardiac arrest display evidence of endothelial injury and coagulopathy (hypocoagulability, hyperfibrinolysis), which in associated with poor outcome. Recent randomized controlled trials have revealed that treatment with infusion of prostacyclin reduces endothelial damage after major surgery...... and AMI. Thus, a study is pertinent to investigate if prostacyclin infusion as a therapeutic intervention reduces endothelial damage without compromising, or even improving, the hemostatic competence in resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. Post-cardiac arrest patients frequently have a need...

  20. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  1. Usage of Lightning Arrester Line to Feed Light Electrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani B. Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In remote areas, light loads (tens of kilowatts are scattered and situated in the field of high voltage lines (66KV and above. These loads are very far from the main feeders/sub-stations (33KV-0.380KV. Feeding such loads in the traditional ways like provision of Diesel-Powered Stations, installation of new distribution lines from the Feeding Centers, or building new Sub-Stations are not practical ways from the economical point of view, because it requires huge additional expenses and will increase electrical power losses. These expenses are not worthy for such loads and therefore, it is necessary to search for other methods to supply them. One of these methods is to use the lightning arrester line as capacitive divider to supply the light loads. In this research, the induced voltage of the lightning arrester line was calculated when it is isolated from the earth. We found the capacitance between lightning arrester line versus the phases and lightning arrester. It was also found the selective power out of the lightning arrester line and the required length which is to be isolated from the earth keeping the main function of the lightning arrester line. When economically comparing between supplying the light electrical loads by traditional ways and the method of lightning arrester, it was found the advantage of using lightning arresters to supply such loads. Also, by using the traditional methods, it was noted that there is a power loss in the power transmission lines by a percentage of 1.8%.

  2. Al-Qaeda arrest casts shadow over the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Dacey, James

    2010-01-01

    "Cern remains on course for the imminent switch-on of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) despite the media frenzy following the recent arrest of a physicist who had been working at the facility. The researcher in question is a 32-year-old man of Algerian descent who is expected to face trail in France - the country in which he was arrested" (0.5 page)

  3. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strap of old box spring covering that is housing adults, skin castings, feces, and eggs. (Photo courtesy ... Bed bugs can survive and remain active at temperatures as low as 7°C (46°F), but they die ...

  4. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  5. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  6. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Bed Bugs Share Facebook Twitter ... integrated pest management. Preparing for control is very important whether you are considering hiring a professional or ...

  7. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  8. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  9. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  10. Respiratory Arrest in an Obese Pregnant Woman with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Iwashita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pregnant, non-Japanese-speaking Peruvian, and, thus, with communication difficulty, suffered hyperemesis gravidarum and had respiratory arrest, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The obese pregnant woman (prepregnancy weight: 107 kg had vomited and lost 15 kg in bodyweight over appropriately 2 weeks prior to the arrest but had not complained due to communication difficulty, which, together with her obesity, prevented a Japanese obstetrician from noticing her severe condition. 1,000 mL of low potassium fluid plus thiamine was administered. She became unable to stand, suggesting lower-extremity-proximal-muscle weakness, and then respiratory arrest occurred. Hypopotassemia (2.3 mEq/L, pulseless electrical activity, and muscle weakness suggested the presence of severe potassium deficiency, which may have caused respiratory muscle paralysis, leading to the respiratory arrest. Hypercapnea was severer than expected for compensatory hypoventilation, indicating the presence of concomitant severe hypoventilation, which may also have contributed to respiratory arrest. She recovered with electrolyte and volume replacement. Respiratory arrest can occur with hyperemesis gravidarum, and obesity and communication difficulties can prevent the early detection of severe conditions.

  11. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Kristian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6 mmol/L and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45. As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. Conclusion Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

  12. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Flythe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes. This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose.

  13. Exploration of the arrest peptide sequence space reveals arrest-enhanced variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymer, Florian; Hedman, Rickard; Ismail, Nurzian; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2015-04-17

    Translational arrest peptides (APs) are short stretches of polypeptides that induce translational stalling when synthesized on a ribosome. Mechanical pulling forces acting on the nascent chain can weaken or even abolish stalling. APs can therefore be used as in vivo force sensors, making it possible to measure the forces that act on a nascent chain during translation with single-residue resolution. It is also possible to score the relative strengths of APs by subjecting them to a given pulling force and ranking them according to stalling efficiency. Using the latter approach, we now report an extensive mutagenesis scan of a strong mutant variant of the Mannheimia succiniciproducens SecM AP and identify mutations that further increase the stalling efficiency. Combining three such mutations, we designed an AP that withstands the strongest pulling force we are able to generate at present. We further show that diproline stretches in a nascent protein act as very strong APs when translation is carried out in the absence of elongation factor P. Our findings highlight critical residues in APs, show that certain amino acid sequences induce very strong translational arrest and provide a toolbox of APs of varying strengths that can be used for in vivo force measurements.

  14. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  15. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  16. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  17. Nursing students’ knowledge about arrest rhythms and their treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kyrgianidou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Knowledge of health professionals for the arrest rhythms, is considered particularly important for the early recognition and proper treatment. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge of nursing students on arrest rhythms and how to treat them. Material and Methods: The sample studied included 151 students from the Department of Nursing A' (n = 60, 40% and B' (n = 91, 60%, TEI of Athens, of whom 83% (n=125 were women and 17% (n=26 were men with a mean age of 23 years. Data collection was performed with specially designed questionnaire, that apart from demographics and students’ education level, it included ten questions about arrest rhythms’ knowledge and also self-assessment questions of their level of knowledge. The data were analyzed with the SPSS package v.19, using the criteria t-Test and χ2. Results: Of all the participants in the research, 95% (n = 144 did not answer correctly more than 6 questions from a total of 10. The students of the Department of Nursing A’ recognized with greater accuracy the arrest rhythms (p = 0.003. Those studying in lower semester acknowledged best the arrest rhythms (p = 0.002. Students who had recently attended course in basic or advanced resuscitation recognized best the arrest rhythms (p = 0.006. Older students knew better right treatment of the arrest rhythms (p = 0.037. Also, students who had attended the course of cardiac nursing in the last year, knew better the right treatment (p <0.001. Finally, the level of self-assessment was in line with the actual level of knowledge of students (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Continuous attendance of courses, education on certified programs and refresh courses help to maintain a good level of knowledge for longer periods.

  18. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ferullo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions.

  19. Changing the guard: Polymer replaces porcelain for surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, T.; Gleimar, H. E. G.

    2002-07-01

    Surge arresters are safety devices which quickly and effectively limit the over voltages that can arise in transmission networks following lightning, switching and other transient events. The earliest forms of overvoltage protection, a simple air gap between electrodes, have long since been replaced by a new generation of gapless arresters with series-connected, non-linear zinc oxide varistors contained in a porcelain housing. Now these porcelain type surge arresters are being replaced by a new type, called PEXLIM (Polymeric EXcellent LIMiter), which uses the same block of zinc oxide as the porcelain type, but its housing is made of silicon rubber, a polymer. The new lightweight insulation material shows a number of properties superior to the porcelain, such as enhanced product safety and ease of handling. It is also more durable, resilient, yet solid and compact, water-repellent, lightweight, resistant to aging or light or ultra-violet radiation, as well as fire, has good electrical properties, and is environmentally friendly since it does not contain any substances harmful to the environment. These properties make this new type of surge arrester highly suitable for use in earthquake-prone areas; it can also replace more expensive and maintenance-intensive equipment. Having successfully broken into the lower voltage systems, these new type of surge arresters are now rapidly gaining ground at the higher voltage levels. ABB, the developer of PEXLIM, has already supplied these arresters to North America for use in an 800-kV grid. As further proof of its growing popularity, last year PEXLIM made up over half of the surge arrester production for applications up to and including 245 kV. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Visualizing Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Murakami

    Full Text Available Vpr is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with multiple functions. The induction of G2 arrest by Vpr plays a particularly important role in efficient viral replication because the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat is most active in G2 phase. The regulation of apoptosis by Vpr is also important for immune suppression and pathogenesis during HIV infection. However, it is not known whether Vpr-induced apoptosis depends on the ability of Vpr to induce G2 arrest, and the dynamics of Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis have not been visualized. We performed time-lapse imaging to examine the temporal relationship between Vpr-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis using HeLa cells containing the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator2 (Fucci2. The dynamics of G2 arrest and subsequent long-term mitotic cell rounding in cells transfected with the Vpr-expression vector were visualized. These cells underwent nuclear mis-segregation after prolonged mitotic processes and then entered G1 phase. Some cells subsequently displayed evidence of apoptosis after prolonged mitotic processes and nuclear mis-segregation. Interestingly, Vpr-induced apoptosis was seldom observed in S or G2 phase. Likewise, visualization of synchronized HeLa/Fucci2 cells infected with an adenoviral vector expressing Vpr clearly showed that Vpr arrests the cell cycle at G2 phase, but does not induce apoptosis at S or G2 phase. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of HeLa/Fucci2 cells expressing SCAT3.1, a caspase-3-sensitive fusion protein, clearly demonstrated that Vpr induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Finally, to examine whether the effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and apoptosis were reversible, we performed live-cell imaging of a destabilizing domain fusion Vpr, which enabled rapid stabilization and destabilization by Shield1. The effects of Vpr on G2 arrest and subsequent apoptosis were reversible. This study is the first to

  1. Sculpting Pickering Emulsion Droplets by Arrest and Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher; Wei, Zengyi; Caggioni, Marco; Spicer, Patrick; Atherton, Tim

    Pickering emulsion droplets can be arrested into non-spherical shapes--useful for applications such as active delivery--through a general mechanism of deformation followed by absorption of additional colloidal particles onto the interface, relaxation of the droplet caused by surface tension and arrest at some point due to crowding of the particles. We perform simulations of the arrest process to clarify the relative importance of diffusive rearrangement of particles and collective forcing due to surface evolution. Experiment and theory are compared, giving insight into the stability of the resulting capsules and the robustness of the production process for higher-throughput production in, for example, microfluidic systems. We adapt theoretical tools from the jamming literature to better understand the arrested configurations and long timescale evolution of the system: using linear programming and a penalty function approach, we identify unjamming motions in kinetically arrested states. We propose a paradigm of ``metric jamming'' to describe the limiting behavior of this class of system: a structure is metric-jammed if it is stable with respect to collective motion of the particles as well as evolution of the hypersurface on which the packing is embedded. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  2. Investigating Different ZnO Arresters Models against Transient Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babaee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide surge arresters have dynamic characteristics that are significant for over voltage coordination studies involving fast front surges. Several models with acceptable accuracy have been proposed to simulate this frequency-dependent behavior. In this paper, various electrical models are presented for surge arrester performance simulation against lightning impulse. The desirable model is obtained by using simulation results of the existing models and experimental tests. The IEEE proposed model is a proportional model can give satisfactory results for discharge currents within a range of time to crest for 0.5 to 45 :s but due to no existing residual voltage resulting switching current on the manufacture's datasheets decrease its performance generally. In this study the maximum residual voltage due to current impulse is analyzed too. In additional, the amount of discharged energy by surge arrester is focused.

  3. Numerical study of fracture arrest on snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Frigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Under the hypothesis of a perfectly brittle phenomenon, avalanche triggering can be investigated numerically by means of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM. Since, however, the real phenomenon is intrinsically dynamical, another aspect to investigate is represented by dynamic fracture propagation. In this paper, we model dynamic crack propagation into a dry snow slab and we investigate the possibility to arrest the crack propagation through the presence of weak zones distributed along the extension of the snow slope. Assuming that the weak layer is almost collapsed, we simulate the efficiency of artificial voids in the slab to arrest fracture propagation, into the framework of Dynamical Fracture Mechanics. We put forward here a new philosophy for the use of artificial discontinuities (void into the snowpack able to perform as crack arresters distributed along the snow slope area: the target is to split a large avalanche slab into smaller slabs, causing small avalanches to propagate with less catastrophic effects.

  4. Alphaherpesvirus Subversion of Stress-Induced Translational Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée L. Finnen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we provide an overview of translational arrest in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and the tactics used specifically by alphaherpesviruses to overcome translational arrest. One consequence of translational arrest is the formation of cytoplasmic compartments called stress granules (SGs. Many viruses target SGs for disruption and/or modification, including the alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. Recently, it was discovered that HSV-2 disrupts SG formation early after infection via virion host shutoff protein (vhs, an endoribonuclease that is packaged within the HSV-2 virion. We review this discovery and discuss the insights it has provided into SG biology as well as its potential significance in HSV-2 infection. A model for vhs-mediated disruption of SG formation is presented.

  5. Alphaherpesvirus Subversion of Stress-Induced Translational Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnen, Renée L.; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of translational arrest in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and the tactics used specifically by alphaherpesviruses to overcome translational arrest. One consequence of translational arrest is the formation of cytoplasmic compartments called stress granules (SGs). Many viruses target SGs for disruption and/or modification, including the alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Recently, it was discovered that HSV-2 disrupts SG formation early after infection via virion host shutoff protein (vhs), an endoribonuclease that is packaged within the HSV-2 virion. We review this discovery and discuss the insights it has provided into SG biology as well as its potential significance in HSV-2 infection. A model for vhs-mediated disruption of SG formation is presented. PMID:26999187

  6. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. METHODS: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists...... patients. EEGs were recorded in 103 patients at a median 77 hours after cardiac arrest; 37% had a highly malignant EEG and all had a poor outcome (specificity 100%, sensitivity 50%). Any malignant EEG feature had a low specificity to predict poor prognosis (48%) but if 2 malignant EEG features were present...

  7. Fronts under arrest: Nonlocal boundary dynamics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Scott G; von Brecht, James H

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a minimal geometric partial differential equation framework to understand pattern formation from interacting, counterpropagating fronts. Our approach concentrates on the interfaces between different states in a system, and relies on both nonlocal interactions and mean-curvature flow to track their evolution. As an illustration, we use this approach to describe a phenomenon in bacterial colony formation wherein sibling colonies can arrest each other's growth. This arrested motion leads to static separations between healthy, growing colonies. As our minimal model faithfully recovers the geometry of these competing colonies, it captures and elucidates the key leading-order mechanisms responsible for such patterned growth.

  8. Delayed hippocampal damage in humans following cardiorespiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito, C K; Feldmann, E; Pulsinelli, W A; Plum, F

    1987-08-01

    Transient ischemia in animals produces delayed cell death in vulnerable hippocampal neurons. To see if this occurs in humans, we reexamined brain slides from all patients with anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and a well-documented cardiorespiratory arrest. Eight patients dying 18 hours or less after cardiac arrest had minimal damage in hippocampus and moderate damage in cerebral cortex and putamen. Six patients living 24 hours or more had severe damage in all four regions. The increase in damage with time postarrest was significant only in the hippocampus. Delayed hippocampal injury now documented in humans provides a target for possible therapy that can be initiated after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  9. Optimizing Survival Outcomes For Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julianna

    2016-10-01

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.

  10. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  11. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  12. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  13. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  14. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  15. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  16. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, E E; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S;

    2016-01-01

    There are large variations in the incidence, registration methods and reported causes of sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death (SCA/SCD) in competitive and recreational athletes. A crucial question is to which degree these variations are genuine or partly due to methodological incongruities....

  17. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  18. Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest in an Adult Burn Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-07

    Outcomes after cardiac arrest in an adult burn center§,§§ Jonathan C. Wilton, Mark O. Hardin , John D. Ritchie, Kevin K. Chung, James K. Aden...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wilton J. C., Hardin M. O., Ritchie J. D., Chung K. K., Aden J. K., Cancio L. C., Wolf S. E., White C. E., 5d

  19. Parenting and Women Arrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…

  20. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  1. Cdc20 control of cell fate during prolonged mitotic arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The fate of cells arrested in mitosis by antimitotic compounds is complex but is influenced by competition between pathways promoting cell death and pathways promoting mitotic exit. As components of both of these pathways are regulated by Cdc20-dependent degradation, I hypothesize that variations...

  2. Design of Lightning Arresters for Electrical Power Systems Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Abdulwadood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of how the lightning strikes and their effects on power distribution systems can be modeled, where the results give a clear picture of how to eliminate the devastating impact, caused by lightning, by using lightning arresters. The program ATP-Draw (Alternative Transient Program was used to simulate the problem and was applied on a part of a power network.The simulation was done once when the lightning strikes a transmission line and a substation with no lightning arresters in use and once more with their use. The source of the lightning was represented by the ATP models (Type-15 surge function and Type-13 ramp function and the surge arrester was represented by the MOV-Type 92 component. The voltage was recorded at the substation 110/22 kV and at all loads in the electric network, and was drawn by the PlotXWin program. The results obtained indicate that the voltages induced by the lightning can reach values of the order of millions over insulation flashover levels for 22 kV equipment, where is clearly seen in Fig. 12 to 16 and Tab.10, which requires the installation of lightning arresters.

  3. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  4. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Søholm, Helle;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopres...

  5. The arresting phase determines the total healing time of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ping

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Radiation is an important cause of delayed wound healing, and there still exist many questions regarding the patterns and mechanisms of wound healing. This study investigated the characteristics of wound healing after varying doses of local radiation and explored possible causes of the delay in healing caused by radiation. Methods: A full-thickness dorsal longitudinal skin tissue, 2 cm in diameter, was excised after local irradiation on one side of the back of swine, and the other side was wounded as a control. The size of the wound area was re-corded every two days after injury. Pathological changes, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, immunohisto-chemistry and apoptosis levels (TUNEL assay were mea-sured at different time points after wounding. Results: The course of wound healing can be divided into four phases, namely: the arresting phase, the healing priming phase, the fast healing phase, and the healed phase. Although the total wound healing time was closely corre-lated to the dose of irradiation (R 2 = 0.9758, it was more dependent on the length of the arresting phase (R 2 =0.9903 because once the arresting phase ended, the wound healed at a similar speed regardless of radiation doses. Pathologi-cal analysis showed that compared with the control side there were more necrotic tissues, slower epithelial crawling, as well as fewer blood vessels and cellular components in the irradiated side at the arresting phase, while other phases revealed no significant difference concerning these measurements. Immunohistochemistry showed that the ir-radiated wounds had significantly less PCNA-positive and more TUNEL-positive labeling of cells in the arresting phase than in other phases. Moreover, the changes were posi-tively related to the radiation doses, but there was no obvi-ous difference in cell proliferation or apoptosis among the healing priming phase, fast healing phase or healed phase, whether on the control side

  6. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  8. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  9. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  10. 10 CFR 1047.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-general guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) After the arrest is effected, the arrested person shall be advised of his or her constitutional right against self-incrimination (Miranda warnings). If the circumstances are such that making...

  11. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  12. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. 30 CFR 77.508-1 - Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508-1 Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings. Lightning arresters protecting exposed telephone wires entering buildings shall be provided...

  14. Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, Heleen; Immink, Rosa S.; Broekema, Josien J.; Ter Maaten, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing rates of in-hospital cardiac arrest, improving resuscitation outcomes is essential. Mechanical chest compressors seem to be related to improved outcome in out-of hospital cardiac arrest; however, the literature on its use in in-hospital cardiac arrest is scarce. We used the Medline p

  15. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  16. Modes of induced cardiac arrest: hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia--literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; Santos, Carlos Alberto dos; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseini; Cortez, José Luis Lasso; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The entry of sodium and calcium play a key effect on myocyte subjected to cardiac arrest by hyperkalemia. They cause cell swelling, acidosis, consumption of adenosine triphosphate and trigger programmed cell death. Cardiac arrest caused by hypocalcemia maintains intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels, improves diastolic performance and reduces oxygen consumption, which can be translated into better protection to myocyte injury induced by cardiac arrest.

  17. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  18. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  19. A Case of Morgagni Hernia Resulting with Respiratory Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Çöl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni’s hernia is seen at a rate of 3-4% among all diaphragmatic hernias. It develops from a defect in the pleuroperitoneal membrane. Herniation of the omentum is seen most commonly, that of the colon frequently, and herniation of small bowel and stomach is seen rarely. When being examined due to anemia and dyspnea, a 53-year-old male patient suffered from a respiratory arrest and was hence intubated and placed under treatment at the intensive care unit. On radiological examination, a giant diaphragmatic hernia was observed bilaterally, more marked on the right side. On laparotomy, especially on the right side, the caecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the appendix, the omentum and part of the small bowel was seen to be herniated. Primary diaphragmatic repair + right hemicolectomy + end-to-end ileo-transversostomy was performed. We have reported this case because it was a giant hernia which caused respiratory arrest.

  20. Cardiac Arrest in a Pregnant Patient Diagnosed with Bochdalek Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Karabacak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bochdalek hernia is thought to be the result of a defect of the pleuroperitoneal fold and the septum transversum fusion in the 8th week of gestation. The majority of these patients present with respiratory distress after delivery; asymptomatic progress until adulthood is an extremely rare clinical occurrence. The adult form of a Bochdalek hernia accompanying pregnancy is a rare entity. A 39-year-old, 24-week pregnant patient applied to Emergency service with epigastric pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography was planned due to the abdominal pain; sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred during the procedure. In this case report, congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a young pregnant woman who underwent cardiac arrest is presented.

  1. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  2. Thermal Arrest Memory Effect in Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rudajevova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilatation characteristics were measured to investigate the thermal arrest memory effect in Ni53.6Mn27.1Ga19.3 and Ni54.2Mn29.4Ga16.4 alloys. Interruption of the martensite-austenite phase transformation is connected with the reduction of the sample length after thermal cycle. If a total phase transformation took place in the complete thermal cycle following the interruption, then the sample length would return to its original length. Analysis of these results has shown that the thermal arrest memory effect is a consequence of a stress-focusing effect and shape memory effect. The stress-focusing effect occurs when the phase transformation propagates radially in a cylindrical sample from the surface, inward to the center. Evolution and release of the thermoelastic deformations in both alloys during heating and cooling are analyzed.

  3. Anaphylaxis with Latrodectus Antivenin Resulting in Cardiac Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Christine M.; Hong, Jeannie J.; Beuhler, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Latrodectus mactans antivenin is a safe and effective therapy for severe black widow spider envenomations when given to most patients. We report a case of a 37-year-old male with a history of asthma that was given L. mactans antivenin for symptoms related to a black widow envenomation and developed a severe anaphylactic reaction resulting in cardiac arrest. When traditional therapies failed, the patient was given methylene blue for anaphylactic shock resulting in a 30-h period of hemodynamic ...

  4. Luminescence from Tube-Arrest Bubbles in Pure Glycerin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岐岱; 王龙

    2004-01-01

    Single transient cavitation bubble with luminescence has been generated in pure glycerin by using the ‘tube arrest'method. The analyses of high-speed photograph and light emission data suggest that the light emission would be a single bubble sonoluminescence. The luminescence pulse width is observed to wry from sub-nanosecond to about 30 ns. The width and intensity of luminescence pulses increases with the height of the liquid column height and decreases with the liquid temperature.

  5. Comments on metal oxide surge arresters surges energy absorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.L.B. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Zanetta, L.C. Jr. [E. Politecnica Univ. de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an approach to determine the energy absorption capacity of metal oxide surge arrester resistors. The proposed approach deals with the discharge current peak versus discharge current time relation. A testing method and a statistical evaluation are proposed. After determining the discharge current withstanding limit of the tested metal oxide resistors, the prospective energy absorption capacity limit is computed. Finally, comments on the obtained results are presented.

  6. Prognostic Value of Brain Diffusion Weighted Imaging After Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijman, Christine A.C.; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley; Hsia, Amie W.; Eyngorn, Irina; Bammer, Roland; Fischbein, Nancy; Albers, Gregory W.; Moseley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcome prediction is challenging in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors. We assessed the feasibility and prognostic utility of brain diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) during the first week. Methods Consecutive comatose post-cardiac arrest patients were prospectively enrolled. MRI data of patients who met predefined specific prognostic criteria were used to determine distinguishing ADC thresholds. Group 1: death at 6 months and absent motor response or absent pupillary reflexes or bilateral absent cortical responses at 72 hours, or vegetative at 1 month. Group 2A: Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score of 4 or 5 at 6 months. Group 2B: GOS of 3 at 6 months. The percentage of voxels below different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds was calculated at 50 × 10−6 mm2/sec intervals. Results Overall, 86% of patients underwent MR imaging. Fifty-one patients with 62 brain MRIs were included in the analyses. Forty patients met the specific prognostic criteria. The percentage of brain volume with an ADC value below 650–700 × 10−6 mm2/sec best differentiated between group 1 and groups 2A and 2B combined (p<0.001), while the 400–450 × 10−6 mm2/sec threshold best differentiated between groups 2A and 2B (p=0.003). The ideal time window for prognostication using DWI was between 49 to 108 hours after the arrest. When comparing MRI in this time window with the 72 hour neurological examination MRI improved the sensitivity for predicting poor outcome by 38% while maintaining 100% specificity (p=0.021). Interpretation Quantitative DWI in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors holds great promise as a prognostic adjunct. PMID:19399889

  7. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  8. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  9. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  10. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, an overview on common research-oriented software products for SDR development, namely GNU Radio, Iris, and ASGARD, will be provided, including how to practically start the software development of simple applications. Finally, best practices and examples of all the software platforms will be provided, giving...

  11. A large specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a prostitute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon D Brewer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially.

  12. The European integration in criminal field the European arrest warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Marco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with some thesis in connection with the European arrest warrant experience, what will be an interesting test for many EU countries. It affects prerogatives always reserved to state-power and main expression of national sovereignty. Anyway, bringing up to the theoretical elaboration of the so-called "third pillar", it needs to set them in action, and verify if European states are really willing to create a common juridical space putting apart claims and prejudices. Most of appraisals addressed to European arrest warrant seem to repudiate just the principle of mutual confidence in respective judiciary systems, principle the new form of cooperation is based on. Briefly, they assert a decision issued by another Member State wouldn't assure all guarantees as own juridical system. Reform would surely have been more effective and consistent if, before creating a common procedure substantial rules were set. European arrest warrant was born in order to replace the long and complex extradition system with a quick and effective tool, fit for contrasting new forms of criminality, that are able to profit boundary openings in order to escape justice.

  13. Out-of-hospital therapeutic hypothermia in cardiac arrest victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite many years of research, outcome after cardiac arrest is dismal. Since 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommends in its guidelines the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34° for 12 to 24 hours in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. The benefit of resuscitative mild hypothermia (induced after resuscitation is well established, while the benefit of preservative mild to moderate hypothermia (induced during cardiac arrest needs further investigation before recommending it for clinical routine. Animal data and limited human data suggest that early and fast cooling might be essential for the beneficial effect of resuscitative mild hypothermia. Out-of-hospital cooling has been shown to be feasible and safe by means of intravenous infusion with cold fluids or non-invasively with cooling pads. A combination of these cooling methods might further improve cooling efficacy. If out-of-hospital cooling will further improve functional outcome as compared with in-hospital cooling needs to be determined in a prospective, randomised, sufficiently powered clinical trial.

  14. The WCSAR telerobotics test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, N.; Zik, J.; Teeter, R.; Crabb, T.

    1988-01-01

    Component technologies for use in telerobotic systems for space are being developed. As part of this effort, a test bed was established in which these technologies can be verified and integrated into telerobotic systems. The facility consists of two slave industrial robots, an articulated master arm controller, a cartesian coordinate master arm controller, and a variety of sensors, displays and stimulators for feedback to human operators. The controller of one of the slave robots remains in its commercial state, while the controller of the other robot has been replaced with a new controller that achieves high-performance in telerobotic operating modes. A dexterous slave hand which consists of two fingers and a thumb is being developed, along with a number of force-reflecting and non-force reflecting master hands, wrists and arms. A tactile sensing finger tip based on piezo-film technology has been developed, along with tactile stimulators and CAD-based displays for sensory feedback and sensory substitution. The telerobotics test bed and its component technologies are described, as well as the integration of these component technologies into telerobotic systems, and their performance in conjunction with human operators.

  15. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  16. Arrest of Avalanche Propagation by Discontinuities on Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, B.; Chiaia, B.

    2009-04-01

    Considering the spatial variability of the snow cover, the paper analyses, in the framework of Fracture Mechanics, the Mode II fracture propagation on snow cover that leads to large dry slab avalanches. Under the hypothesis of a perfectly brittle phenomenon, avalanche triggering is usually investigated numerically by means of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (McClung, 1979; Chiaia et al., 2008). Since, however, the real phenomenon is intrinsically dynamical, another aspect to investigate is represented by dynamic fracture propagation. In this paper, we model dynamic crack propagation into a dry snow slab, to assess the possibility of crack arrest due to the presence of weak zones distributed along the snow slope. As a consequence of the first triggering mechanism (the Mode II fracture propagation on the weak plane), the secondary Mode I crack propagation in the crown is studied by means of numerical simulations based on Dynamic Elastic Fracture Mechanics and on the theory of crack arresters. By taking into account kinetic energy and using the FEM software FRANC 2D (Wawrzynek and Ingraffea, 1993), several paths of crown fracture propagation and their stability have been investigated. The snowpack is considered as a linear-elastic plate (2D problem), whose physical and mechanical parameters are chosen according to classical literature values. To investigate the possible arrest of crown fracture, we apply the theory of crack arresters, usually adopted for pipelines and perforated steel sheets fracture problems. To study crack arrest, different crack paths are simulated, in discontinuous (equipped with different shapes and geometries of artificial voids) snowpacks. The simulations show the effectiveness of these weak zones, to reduce substantially the crack driving force of the propagating fracture. This means that, increasing spatial variability tends to stabilize the snow slope, eventually splitting a major avalanche event into smaller, independent avalanches. Our

  17. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  18. Cardiac arrests in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: A retrospective analysis of 73,029 procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Goudra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Airway difficulties leading to cardiac arrest are frequently encountered during propofol sedation in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. With a noticeable increase in the use of propofol for endoscopic sedation, we decided to examine the incidence and outcome of cardiac arrests in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy with sedation. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, cardiac arrest data obtained from the clinical quality improvement and local registry over 5 years was analyzed. The information of patients who sustained cardiac arrest attributable to sedation was studied in detail. Analysis included comparison of cardiac arrests due to all causes until discharge (or death versus the cardiac arrests and death occurring during the procedure and in the recovery area. Results: The incidence of cardiac arrest and death (all causes, until discharge was 6.07 and 4.28 per 10,000 in patients sedated with propofol, compared with non–propofol-based sedation (0.67 and 0.44. The incidence of cardiac arrest during and immediately after the procedure (recovery area for all endoscopies was 3.92 per 10,000; of which, 72% were airway management related. About 90.0% of all peri-procedural cardiac arrests occurred in patients who received propofol. Conclusions: The incidence of cardiac arrest and death is about 10 times higher in patients receiving propofol-based sedation compared with those receiving midazolam–fentanyl sedation. More than two thirds of these events occur during EGD and ERCP.

  19. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field

  20. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  1. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  2. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  3. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  4. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  6. Case study: flame arresters and exploding gasoline containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbring, Lori C

    2006-03-17

    This paper describes the case study of a portable plastic gasoline container explosion and fire. While working at home on a science project to determine the burn rates of different types of wood fuel, a 14-year-old boy was severely burned after flames traveled back up into the portable gasoline container and exploded. A witness heard the explosion and reports that the flames went perhaps 10 ft in the air. It is shown by experimentation that a flame arrester installed in the pour opening of the portable gasoline container would have prevented an explosion inside the gasoline container.

  7. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is released in response to inflammatory stimuli, and plasma levels are associated with long-term outcomes. The ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation triggers an inflammatory response...... analysis shoved an AUC of 0.76 at 6 hours. In the subgroup of CA of cardiac cause, the AUC was 0.84. CONCLUSION: suPAR levels at 6 and 36 hours after CA were significantly higher in nonsurviving patients compared with survivors; however, the overlap in suPAR levels between the outcome groups...

  8. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration.

  9. [Cardiac arrest in newborn of mother treated with labetalol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, X; Monsalve, C; Comas, C; Botet, F; Nalda, M A

    1993-01-01

    The use of beta-adrenergic antagonists for the control of high blood pressure associated to pregnancy is frequent. Their use is related with the appearance of undesirable effects of the fetus. The case of neonatal cardiac arrest attributed, to the administration of labetalol to the mother is presented. The high transplacentary passage, the different pharmacokinetics of the drug in the newborn and the clinical evolution of the patient suggests its involvement. It is concluded that labetalol may cause severe undesirable effects in newborns and fetal heart rate of the mother and neonate should be monitored upon use of this drug.

  10. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  11. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described b

  12. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  13. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  14. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  15. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...

  16. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  17. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  18. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Effectiveness of installing two pairs of distribution surge arresters in parallel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Nakada, Kazuo [Hokurika Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Lightning strokes with a large amount of energy sometimes occur on the Sea of Japan coast in winter. Winter lightning often damages overhead power distribution lines, in particular, those supplying power to high structures located in mountainous areas. We have investigated that the ratio of surge arrester outages with respect to all damaged installations on such power distribution lines is largest at approximately 50%. We have examined the effectiveness of installing two pairs of surge arresters in parallel on a single pole as a method for preventing distribution surge arrester outages experimentally. We have clarified that to install surge arresters in parallel is effective in reducing the energy absorbed by surge arresters if these surge arresters have almost the same discharge voltage and voltage-current characteristics. (author)

  20. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  1. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  2. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications, and Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride; this off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol, and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  3. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regul...

  4. Brazilian production development of class 2 polymeric surge arresters for transmission line application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellallibera, Adriano A. [Industria Eletromecanica Balestro, Mogi Mirim, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianoad@balestro.com; Andrade, Antonio Donizetti de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Guara; Duarte, Jose Vicente Pereira; Gois, Paulo Marcio Batista; Markiewicz, Rubens Leopoldo [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], Emails: andonize@cemig.com.br, anacris@cemig.com.br, vicente@cemig.com.br, pgois@cemig.com.br, rlmark@cemig.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper shows the steeps of Brazilian class 2 ZnO lightning surge arrester development and production, aiming to attend the goal of CEMIG transmission lines performance improvement against lightning discharges action. The description of CEMIG transmission lines performance, before and after the ZnO lightning arresters installation, the necessity of use of ZnO lightning surge arrester, the prototypes manufacture, tests, problems and solutions are presented. (author)

  5. Application and Analysis for Surge Arrester on Lightning Protection of Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daxing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively reduce lightning stroke outage rate, effect of lightning protection with surge arrester on transmission line has been generally acknowledged relative to other lightning protection measures. This article introduces in such aspects as the working principle of line surge arrester and effect of lightning protection, and also explores application for lightning arrester of distribution network to achieve difference lightning protection and improve the lightning protection performance of distribution network.

  6. Application and Analysis for Surge Arrester on Lightning Protection of Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively reduce lightning stroke outage rate, effect of lightning protection with surge arrester on transmission line has been generally acknowledged relative to other lightning protection measures. This article introduces in such aspects as the working principle of line surge arrester and effect of lightning protection, and also explores application for lightning arrester of distribution network to achieve difference lightning protection and improve the lightning protection performance of distribution network.

  7. A palmitoyl conjugate of insect pentapeptide Yamamarin arrests cell proliferation and respiration

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A palmitoyl conjugate of an insect pentapeptide that occurs in diapausing insects causes a reversible cell-cycle arrest and suppresses mitochondrial respiration. This peptide compound also causes growth arrest in murine leukemic cell line expressing human gene Bcr/Abl and a farnesoyl peptide induces embryonic diapause in Bombyx mori. These results demonstrate that the insect peptide compounds can lead to the understanding of a common pathway in developmental arrest in animals and may provide ...

  8. Metal oxide surge arrester research at the University of South Australia: An evaluation of polymer housed arresters and a new device for condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghurst, A.H. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Buratto, F. [Powercor Australia Ltd., Southbank, VIC (Australia); Krieg, T.W. [ETSA Transmission, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The use of polymer housed surge arresters within Australia has dramatically increased over the last 2-3 years. Unfortunately, the development of standards for testing polymer housed arresters has not kept pace with the development of these components. This paper describes on-going research at the Australian Electrical Testing Centre, University of South Australia, aimed at furthering knowledge about the performance of metal oxide surge arresters in the field. One project seeks to evaluate a range of polymer-housed arresters from different manufacturers with respect to seal integrity and accelerated ageing under a variety of environmental conditions. Test equipment being developed to perform the tests is described, and those parts of the new draft Australia standard relating to the performance of polymer-housed arresters critically reviewed. A second project involves the development of a new hand-held device for the measurement of that component of arrester leakage current which is in phase with the applied voltage. This parameter is widely accepted as a key indicator of the condition of a metal oxide arrester. The new device should be an order of magnitude cheaper than comparable commercial equipment currently available, and employs a micro controller to perform the required signal processing. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 11 refs.

  9. Innovative Bed Load Measurement System for Large Alpine Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.; Habersack, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the work is to figure out the bed load transport processes using direct and surrogate measurement methods for the free flowing reach of the Drau River and its most important tributary Isel River, both large Alpine gravel-bed rivers, situated in the south western part of Austria. There are some techniques for bed load measurements in natural streams; we used collecting moving particles and indirectly determining transport intensity at the study sites. Former measurements in the study reach were performed also using mobile bed load samplers and fixed bed load samplers. Individually they all are adequate bed load measurement instruments - used in combination they are complementing one another, whereas each applied separately leads to specific deficits. The investigation payed special attention on results out of the geophone installations, whereas steel plate vibrations (the plates are mounted on top of concrete structures even with the river bed surface) caused by bed load particles with a diameter larger than about 20 mm are inducing a signal into the geophones. The signal above a defined threshold voltage than is recorded in a computer system as the sum of impacts during one minute intervals. The spatio-temporal distribution of the transported bed load material, its amount and the transport processes itself could be figured out for the first time out of continuous data collection since 2006 for large alpine gravel-bed rivers. Before building up the gauging stations there were no continuous recordings of bed load transport processes in large alpine rivers over their entire cross section, hence the investigation promises a better process understanding and the possibility to determine bed load transport rates and a rough approximation of the grain size distributions of the transported bed load material under different flow conditions. A relation between detected geophone records, the flow discharge and direct bed load sampling methods (Large Helley Smith

  10. Testing of long-flashover arresters designed for distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Filho, Orsino; Mello, Darcy Ramalho de; Oliveira, Gloria Suzana Gomes de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: orsino@cepel.br, darcy@cepel.br, gloria@cepel.br; Podporkin, Georgij; Wey, Acacio [Streamer Electric Company (Russian Federation)], E-mails: georgij.podporkin@streamer.ru, acacio.wey@bighost.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Outages of overhead power lines due to lightning strokes are one of the main causes of shortages of electric supplies and economic losses of power utilities. Pole-top metal oxide arresters can protect distribution lines against induced over-voltages, but they can be destroyed in case of direct lightning stroke. Long Flashover Arresters (LFAs) have been developed and used successfully for this purpose and have no possibility of being destroyed because the current flows externally along its surface. Since field experience with 10 kV LFAs has been very successful, it was decided to work on developing 13.8 kV LFAs, considering that it is the predominant voltage level of overhead distribution lines in Brazil and other countries. The performance of LFA for quenching and dielectric tests has been investigated through laboratory tests under conditions that typically represent electrical energy distribution systems. Details about these tests and their results are presented in this paper. Information about their design and applications are also shortly presented (author)

  11. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2015-11-07

    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  12. A Case of Cardiac Arrest Due to Late Diaphragm Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Mergan Ižliklerden

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic diaphragm hernias are seen in 0.5-6% of blunt traumas and early diagnosis of these cases is difficult. Traumatic diaphragm hernias can produce symptoms and be diagnosed in weeks, months, and sometimes in years. A 20-year-old male patient had a history of a fall from a tree eight years prior. He had complaints of postprandial pain in the epigastrium continuing for several years. Over the previous two weeks, the patient%u2019s complaints of chest pain and difficulty in breathing increased. On PA chest graphy, increased air fluid levels were seen in left lower zone. The patient that hospitalized for examination had a mediastinal shift suddenly and caused cardiac arrest on the second day. By performing anterolateral thoracotomy, the patient received cardiac by manual cardiac massage. Following a response to resuscitation, during exploration of the patient, it was observed that the stomach was perforated towards the thorax. The stomach and the diaphragm were primary repaired and he was discharged on the postoperative seventh day. It is difficult to diagnose diaphragm ruptures in early periods following trauma and thus causes a delay in treatment. This study presents a case that was diagnosed eight years after blunt trauma and had cardiac arrest due to mediastinal shift preoperatively.

  13. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Andrea O.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Wesenberg Kjaer, Troels; Horn, Janneke; Ullén, Susann; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Rosén, Ingmar; Åneman, Anders; Erlinge, David; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P.; Cronberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Methods: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists, blinded to outcome, evaluated prospectively recorded EEGs in the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM trial) that randomized patients to 33°C vs 36°C. Routine EEG was performed in patients still comatose after rewarming. EEGs were classified into highly malignant (suppression, suppression with periodic discharges, burst-suppression), malignant (periodic or rhythmic patterns, pathological or nonreactive background), and benign EEG (absence of malignant features). Poor outcome was defined as best Cerebral Performance Category score 3–5 until 180 days. Results: Eight TTM sites randomized 202 patients. EEGs were recorded in 103 patients at a median 77 hours after cardiac arrest; 37% had a highly malignant EEG and all had a poor outcome (specificity 100%, sensitivity 50%). Any malignant EEG feature had a low specificity to predict poor prognosis (48%) but if 2 malignant EEG features were present specificity increased to 96% (p EEG was found in 1% of the patients with a poor outcome. Conclusions: Highly malignant EEG after rewarming reliably predicted poor outcome in half of patients without false predictions. An isolated finding of a single malignant feature did not predict poor outcome whereas a benign EEG was highly predictive of a good outcome. PMID:26865516

  14. Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate variation in airway management strategies in one suburban emergency medical services system treating patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. Method. Retrospective chart review of all adult OHCA resuscitation during a 13-month period, specifically comparing airway management decisions. Results. Paramedics demonstrated considerable variation in their approaches to airway management. Approximately half of all OHCA patients received more than one airway management attempt (38/77 [49%], and one-quarter underwent three or more attempts (25/77 [25%]. One-third of patients arrived at the emergency department with a different airway device than initially selected (25/77 [32%]. Conclusion. This study confirmed our hypothesis that paramedics’ selection of ventilation strategies in cardiac arrest varies considerably. This observation raises concern because airway management diverts time and energy from interventions known to improve outcomes in OHCA management, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation. More research is needed to identify more focused airway management strategies for prehospital care providers.

  15. Computation Molecular Kinetics Model of HZE Induced Cell Cycle Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ren, Lei

    2004-01-01

    Cell culture models play an important role in understanding the biological effectiveness of space radiation. High energy and charge (HZE) ions produce prolonged cell cycle arrests at the G1/S and G2/M transition points in the cell cycle. A detailed description of these phenomena is needed to integrate knowledge of the expression of DNA damage in surviving cells, including the determination of relative effectiveness factors between different types of radiation that produce differential types of DNA damage and arrest durations. We have developed a hierarchical kinetics model that tracks the distribution of cells in various cell phase compartments (early G1, late G1, S, G2, and M), however with transition rates that are controlled by rate-limiting steps in the kinetics of cyclin-cdk's interactions with their families of transcription factors and inhibitor molecules. The coupling of damaged DNA molecules to the downstream cyclin-cdk inhibitors is achieved through a description of the DNA-PK and ATM signaling pathways. For HZE irradiations we describe preliminary results, which introduce simulation of the stochastic nature of the number of direct particle traversals per cell in the modulation of cyclin-cdk and cell cycle population kinetics. Comparison of the model to data for fibroblast cells irradiated photons or HZE ions are described.

  16. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  17. Mix bed type desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Shuichi; Shiozawa, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Seiichi

    1998-12-18

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  18. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality.

  19. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Megan; Moughan, Beth; Alfonsi, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Aronoff, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30) and sleep location “other” than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9) as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77) and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86) reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors. PMID:28229101

  20. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  1. Free running droplets on packed powder beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P.; Bian, Xun; Sedev, Rossen

    2013-06-01

    We observed that water drops placed on horizontal beds of fine molybdenite particles move freely over the bed surface for about 1 second. The drops collect an irregular coating of unevenly distributed particles as they bounce and roll. We manipulated the distance that the drops travel, and hence the area of the droplet surface coated with particles, by varying the water surface tension and the kinetic energy of the initial droplet impact on the bed surface. Our results highlight the role of contact angle hysteresis in particle encapsulation of liquid drops.

  2. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  3. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  4. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.

  5. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  6. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  7. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bed bugs easier to see. Be sure to purchase a high quality encasement that will resist tearing ... Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on December ...

  8. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Bed-wetting that starts in adulthood (secondary enuresis) is uncommon and requires medical evaluation. Causes of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. References Adult nocturnal enuresis. National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/ ...

  9. IceBridge BedMachine Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains bed topography beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet based on mass conservation derived from airborne radar tracks and satellite radar. The data...

  10. D7 debris-bed experiment. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G W; Ottinger, C A; Lipinski, R J

    1983-08-01

    The D7 experiment investigated heat removal from a shallow, stratified bed of UO/sub 2/ particulate in sodium. The particle diameters ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, with the largest particles at the bottom. The bed thickness was 74 mm and the average porosity was 41%. The incipient dryout power varied from 0.43 W/g to 0.25 W/g as the sodium subcooling (saturation temperature minus overlying pool temperature) was reduced from 390/sup 0/C to 170/sup 0/C. These powers were only slighlty above the incipient boiling powers. Such low dryout powers are believed due to the interaction of capillary force with bed stratification. With a subccoling of 130/sup 0/C several sudden decreases in the saturation temperature occurred. These are believed due to channel formation, which causes a reduction in the capillary pressure in the bed.

  11. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.

    1990-01-01

    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  12. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling bed bugs is complex. Using an integrated pest management (IPM) approach incorporates both non-chemical and pesticide methods. Success depends on the extent of the infestation, clutter on site, and resident participation.

  13. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  14. 46 CFR 32.20-10 - Flame arresters-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame arresters-TB/ALL. 32.20-10 Section 32.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-10 Flame arresters—TB/ALL. Flame arresters must be of a type...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-63 - Spark arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spark arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-63 Section 30.10-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-63 Spark arrester—TB/ALL. The term spark arrester means any device, assembly, or method of...

  16. Temporal Differences in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagai, Akshay; McNally, Bryan F; Al-Khatib, Sana M;

    2013-01-01

    Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care.......Understanding temporal differences in the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has important implications for developing preventative strategies and optimizing systems for OHCA care....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-23 - Flame arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-23 Section 30.10-23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-23 Flame arrester—TB/ALL. The term flame arrester means any device or assembly of a cellular,...

  18. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marguery, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period o

  19. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  20. 10 CFR 1049.5 - Exercise of arrest authority-General guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effected, the person arrested shall be advised of his constitutional right against self-incrimination... right would result in imminent danger to the Officer or other persons, the Protective Force Officer may postpone this requirement. The person arrested shall be advised of this right as soon as practicable...

  1. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant. 287.3 Section 287.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without...

  2. Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen that requires a specific structure called infective filament to penetrate the plant tissue. Although able to grow, this filament is cell cycle arrested on the plant surface. This cell cycle arrest is released once the filament penetrates the plant tissue. The reasons and mechanisms for this cell cycle arrest are unknown. Here, we have tried to address these questions. We reached three conclusions from our studies. First, the observed cell cycle arrest is the result of the cooperation of at least two distinct mechanisms: one involving the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) cascade; and the other relying on the transcriptional downregulation of Hsl1, a kinase that modulates the G2/M transition. Second, a sustained cell cycle arrest during the infective filament step is necessary for the virulence in U. maydis, as a strain unable to arrest the cell cycle was severely impaired in its ability to infect corn plants. Third, production of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, is incompatible with an active cell cycle. The inability to infect plants by strains defective in cell cycle arrest seems to be caused by their failure to induce the appressorium formation process. In summary, our findings uncover genetic circuits to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on the plant surface, thus allowing the penetration into plant tissue.

  3. Mental Condition and Ventricular Size in Arrested Hydrocephalus: an Analysis of 29 Shunt‐independent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTZER, G.J.; de LANGE, S.A.; ORBAAN, I.J.C.; GELSEMA, R.

    1971-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of the diameter of the ventricular system, in a series of 29 patients with arrested hydrocephalus who had become shunt‐independent, showed that enlargement of the ventricles does not necessarily play a part in the arrest of hydrocephalus, for in many of these cases the ventri

  4. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...

  5. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  6. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  7. Recent Trends of Technology of Zinc-Oxide Surge Arrester for Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.S.; Kim, K.U.; Cho, H.G. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Park, T.G. [Changwon National University (Korea); Park, S.H. [KEPCO (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    Metal-oxide surge arresters were developed in the late 1970s, and were immediately recognized as significant breakthrough in over-voltage protection of power system. Work was continued throughout the world on the design, development and application of metal-oxide surge arresters. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  8. The influence of fibrous bed bulk density on the bed properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šećerov-Sokolović Radmila M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean properties of seven different fibrous materials and the properties of their different bed bulk densities were investigated. The morphology of the surface, size and geometry were measured by optical microscopy. The bed porosity was measured by the weighing method. The experimental bed permeability, in a high range of bulk density, was calculated from the values of the sanitary water pressure drop at a constant temperature of 15°C, since the data followed Darcy's law. The Reynolds number for a fibrous bed was calculated using a relation from the literature. The Reynolds number was less than 1 for all ranges of fluid velocity. Three empirical relations for fibrous bed permeability were used and compared with the experimental data. It was determined that the empirical data depended on the fiber diameter and fraction of solid in the bed. The relative error linearly increased with increasing fiber diameter.

  9. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.

    2007-07-01

    The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s{sup -1}), amplitude (0 mm-1 mm), bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m) as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups). The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within {+-}15%, was proposed. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Bed dynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed with rod promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a gas-solid fluidized bed with different rod promoters have been investigated in terms of bed expansion and fluctuation, minimum fluidization velocity and distributor-to-bed pressure drop ratio at minimum fluidization velocity. Experimentation based on statistical design has been carried out and model equations using factorial design of experiments have been developed for the above mentioned quantities for a promoted gas-solid fluidized bed. The model equations have been tested with additional experimental data. The system variables include four types of rod promoters of varying blockage volume, bed particles of four sizes and four initial static bed heights. A comparison between the predicted values of the output variables using the proposed model equation with their corresponding experimental ones shows fairly good agreement.

  11. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  12. PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS IN GAS-SOLIDS FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiaotao Bi; Aihua Chen

    2003-01-01

    Pressure fluctuation data measured in a series of fluidized beds with diameters of 0.05, 0.1, 0.29, 0.60 and 1.56 m showed that the maximum amplitude or standard deviation increased with increasing the superficial gas velocity and static bed height for relatively shallow beds and became insensitive to the increase in static bed height in relatively deep beds. The amplitude appeared to be less dependent on the measurement location in the dense bed. Predictions based on bubble passage, bubble eruption at the upper bed surface and bed oscillation all failed to explain all observed trends and underestimated the amplitude of pressure fluctuations, suggesting that the global pressure fluctuations in gas-solids bubbling fluidized beds are the superposition of local pressure variations, bed oscillations and pressure waves generated from the bubble formation in the distributor region, bubble coalescence during their rise and bubble eruption at the upper bed surface.

  13. Anaphylaxis with Latrodectus antivenin resulting in cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christine M; Hong, Jeannie J; Beuhler, Michael C

    2011-12-01

    Latrodectus mactans antivenin is a safe and effective therapy for severe black widow spider envenomations when given to most patients. We report a case of a 37-year-old male with a history of asthma that was given L. mactans antivenin for symptoms related to a black widow envenomation and developed a severe anaphylactic reaction resulting in cardiac arrest. When traditional therapies failed, the patient was given methylene blue for anaphylactic shock resulting in a 30-h period of hemodynamic stability. Despite initial resuscitation, the patient ultimately died 40 h after presentation. Under the right circumstances, L. mactans antivenin remains a safe and effective therapy for severe black widow envenomations. However, anaphylaxis is a risk for those receiving this therapy, even when the antivenin is diluted and given as an infusion. We report the first death related to diluted L. mactans antivenin given as an infusion.

  14. Standardized EEG interpretation accurately predicts prognosis after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westhall, Erik; Rossetti, Andrea O; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest using a single routine EEG and standardized interpretation according to the terminology proposed by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. METHODS: In this cohort study, 4 EEG specialists......, blinded to outcome, evaluated prospectively recorded EEGs in the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM trial) that randomized patients to 33°C vs 36°C. Routine EEG was performed in patients still comatose after rewarming. EEGs were classified into highly malignant (suppression, suppression...... with periodic discharges, burst-suppression), malignant (periodic or rhythmic patterns, pathological or nonreactive background), and benign EEG (absence of malignant features). Poor outcome was defined as best Cerebral Performance Category score 3-5 until 180 days. RESULTS: Eight TTM sites randomized 202...

  15. First permanent molar root development arrest associated with compound odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Sachin A; Patil, Anil; Varekar, Aniruddha

    2013-07-04

    Trauma or infection to the primary tooth may have deleterious effects on the underlying developing tooth buds. Anatomically the root apices of primary teeth are in close proximity to the developing permanent tooth buds; hence spread of infection originating from pulp necrosis of primary tooth may not only affect the underlying tooth bud but may also affect the adjacent tooth buds. The extent of malformation depends on the developmental stage of tooth or the age of patient. Presented here is a rare case of complete arrest of maxillary first permanent molar root growth due to spread of periapical infection originating from second primary molar leading to failure of its eruption and finally extraction. Histopathlogical analysis revealed compound odontoma associated with maxillary first permanent molar.

  16. Complement Inhibition as a Proposed Neuroprotective Strategy following Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad E. Zacharia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a devastating disease process with neurological injury accounting for a disproportionate amount of the morbidity and mortality following return of spontaneous circulation. A dearth of effective treatment strategies exists for global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (GCI/R injury following successful resuscitation from OHCA. Emerging preclinical as well as recent human clinical evidence suggests that activation of the complement cascade plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GCI/R injury following OHCA. In addition, it is well established that complement inhibition improves outcome in both global and focal models of brain ischemia. Due to the profound impact of GCI/R injury following OHCA, and the relative lack of effective neuroprotective strategies for this pathologic process, complement inhibition provides an exciting opportunity to augment existing treatments to improve patient outcomes. To this end, this paper will explore the pathophysiology of complement-mediated GCI/R injury following OHCA.

  17. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  18. A Unique Case of Cardiac Arrest following K2 Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD accounts for up to 450,000 deaths every year in the United States (Zipes et al. (2006. Most cases of sudden cardiac death occur in subjects with no prior history of heart disease (Myerburg et al. (1998. The incidence of sudden death in a general population has been shown to increase contemporaneously with substance abuse (Phillips et al. (1999. The causative association of sudden death with cocaine, methadone, and volatile agents is well established (Adgey et al. (1995 and Isner et al. (1986. We describe a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest temporally related to abuse of the synthetic cannabinoid street drug known as K2. To our knowledge, there are no previously documented cases of sudden cardiac death associated with synthetic cannabinoids although they have been linked to myocardial infarction in teenagers despite normal coronary angiography (Mir et al. (2011.

  19. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: real-life suspended animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Katherine H; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2013-01-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a cerebral protection technique that was developed in the 1950s and popularized in the 1970s. It has become one of the three most common cerebral protection techniques currently used in aortic arch surgeries, with the other two being antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). At our institution, DHCA has been the cerebral protection technique of choice for over a quarter century. Our clinical experience with DHCA has been very positive, and our clinical studies have shown DHCA to have outcomes equal to (and sometimes better than) those of ACP and RCP, and DHCA to be very effective at preserving neurocognitive function. Other institutions, however, prefer ACP or RCP to DHCA. Each technique has its own set of pros and cons, and the question regarding which technique is the superior method for cerebral protection is hotly debated.

  20. Acanthamoeba induces cell-cycle arrest in host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissons, James; Alsam, Selwa; Jayasekera, Samantha; Kim, Kwang Sik; Stins, Monique; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2004-08-01

    Acanthamoeba can cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and eye keratitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of these emerging diseases remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were determined. Two isolates of Acanthamoeba belonging to the T1 genotype (GAE isolate) and T4 genotype (keratitis isolate) were used, which showed severe cytotoxicity on HBMEC and HCEC, respectively. No tissue specificity was observed in their ability to exhibit binding to the host cells. To determine the effects of Acanthamoeba on the host cell cycle, a cell-cycle-specific gene array was used. This screened for 96 genes specific for host cell-cycle regulation. It was observed that Acanthamoeba inhibited expression of genes encoding cyclins F and G1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6, which are proteins important for cell-cycle progression. Moreover, upregulation was observed of the expression of genes such as GADD45A and p130 Rb, associated with cell-cycle arrest, indicating cell-cycle inhibition. Next, the effect of Acanthamoeba on retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation was determined. pRb is a potent inhibitor of G1-to-S cell-cycle progression; however, its function is inhibited upon phosphorylation, allowing progression into S phase. Western blotting revealed that Acanthamoeba abolished pRb phosphorylation leading to cell-cycle arrest at the G1-to-S transition. Taken together, these studies demonstrated for the first time that Acanthamoeba inhibits the host cell cycle at the transcriptional level, as well as by modulating pRb phosphorylation using host cell-signalling mechanisms. A complete understanding of Acanthamoeba-host cell interactions may help in developing novel strategies to treat Acanthamoeba infections.

  1. Segmental Dynamics of Forward Fall Arrests: System Identification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fall-related injuries are multifaceted problems, necessitating thorough biodynamic simulation to identify critical biomechanical factors. Methods A 2-degree-of-freedom discrete impact model was constructed through system identification and validation processes using the experimental data to understand dynamic interactions of various biomechanical parameters in bimanual forward fall arrests. Findings The bimodal reaction force response from the identified models had small identification errors for the first and second force peaks less than 3.5% and high coherence between the measured and identified model responses (R2=0.95). Model validation with separate experimental data also demonstrated excellent validation accuracy and coherence, less than 7% errors and R2=0.87, respectively. The first force peak was usually greater than the second force peak and strongly correlated with the impact velocity of the upper extremity, while the second force peak was associated with the impact velocity of the body. The impact velocity of the upper extremity relative to the body could be a major risk factor to fall-related injuries as observed from model simulations that a 75% faster arm movement relative to the falling speed of the body alone could double the first force peak from soft landing, thereby readily exceeding the fracture strength of the distal radius. Interpretation Considering that the time-critical nature of falling often calls for a fast arm movement, the use of the upper extremity in forward fall arrests is not biomechanically justified unless sufficient reaction time and coordinated protective motion of the upper extremity are available. PMID:19250726

  2. Cardiac arrest secondary to type 2 Kounis syndrome resulting from urticaria and angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Suzy; Child, Nick; Burdon-Jones, David; Connor, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    A 43-year-old man with no cardiac history presented with chest pain followed by cardiac arrest. He was successfully defibrillated and underwent primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty to a culprit coronary artery lesion. He later re-presented with a diffuse urticarial rash and lip swelling, reporting that these symptoms had been present for 4 weeks before his cardiac arrest and voicing concern that a further cardiac arrest may be imminent. A diagnosis of post-viral or idiopathic autoimmune urticaria and angioedema was made. Given the absence of cardiac symptoms before the development of the rash, it was hypothesised that coronary artery spasm precipitated by histamine release due to his dermatological condition contributed to his myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. The final diagnosis was therefore cardiac arrest secondary to type II Kounis syndrome, resulting from idiopathic autoimmune or post-viral urticaria and angioedema.

  3. Application of Powell's optimization method to surge arrester circuit models' parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Vita, V.; Ekonomou, L.; Chatzarakis, G.E. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Powell's optimization method has been used for the evaluation of the surge arrester models parameters. The proper modelling of metal-oxide surge arresters and the right selection of equivalent circuit parameters are very significant issues, since quality and reliability of lightning performance studies can be improved with the more efficient representation of the arresters' dynamic behavior. The proposed approach selects optimum arrester model equivalent circuit parameter values, minimizing the error between the simulated peak residual voltage value and this given by the manufacturer. Application of the method in performed on a 120 kV metal oxide arrester. The use of the obtained optimum parameter values reduces significantly the relative error between the simulated and manufacturer's peak residual voltage value, presenting the effectiveness of the method. (author)

  4. Replicatively senescent cells are arrested in G1 and G2 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhiyong; Ke, Zhonghe; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Most human somatic cells do not divide indefinitely but enter a terminal growth arrest termed replicative senescence. Replicatively senescent cells are generally believed to arrest in G1 or G0 stage of the cell cycle. While doing cell cycle analysis on three different lines of normal human fibroblasts we observed that 36-60% of the replicatively senescent cells had 4N DNA content. Only up to 5% of senescent cells had more than one nucleus ruling out the possibility that the 4N cell population were G1-arrested bi-nucleated cells. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the 4N cells are tetraploids, because actively dividing pre-senescent cultures lacked the 8N tetraploid G2 population. Collectively these results suggest that the 4N population consists of G2 arrested cells. The notion that a large fraction of senescent cell population is arrested in G2 is important for understanding the biology of replicative senescence. PMID:22745179

  5. Near death experiences, cognitive function and psychological outcomes of surviving cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, S; Spearpoint, K; Fenwick, P B

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is associated with a number of cognitive processes as well as long term psychological outcomes. Recent studies have indicated that approximately 10-20% of cardiac arrest survivors report cognitive processes, including the ability to recall specific details of their resuscitation from the period of cardiac arrest. In addition it has been demonstrated that these cognitive processes are consistent with the previously described near death experience and that those who have these experiences are left with long term positive life enhancing effects. There have also been numerous studies that have indicated that although the quality of life for cardiac arrest survivors is generally good, some are left with long term cognitive impairments as well as psychological sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorder. This paper will review near death experiences, cognitive function and psychological outcomes in survivors of cardiac arrest.

  6. Development of an Electro–Thermal Model for ZnO Surge Arrester Under Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Melgoza–Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An electro–thermal model for a Zinc Oxide (ZnO surge arrester under contamination tests is presented. The model is based in three sub–models: electrical, thermal and contamination, which interact in order to obtain the surge arrester performance under contamination tests. The electrical model is obtained from measurements and is based on a capacitance and a non–linear resistor. The thermal model takes into account the heat generated and dissipated by the column of varistors and its surroundings. The contamination is represented by a dynamic impedance obtained from measurements in the arrester column during contamination tests. The full model is validated by calculating the temperature increase during contamination tests carried out in a two units ZnO surge arrester, class 190 kV. Finally, the results of the effect of several design and construction parameters in the voltage and temperature distribution in the arrester columns during contamination tests are presented.

  7. Water produced with coal-bed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas produced from coal beds (coal-bed methane, CBM) accounts for about 7.5 percent of the total natural gas production in the United States. Along with this gas, water is also brought to the surface. The amount of water produced from most CBM wells is relatively high compared to conventional natural gas wells because coal beds contain many fractures and pores that can contain and transmit large volumes of water. In some areas, coal beds may function as regional or local aquifers and important sources for ground water. The water in coal beds contributes to pressure in the reservoir that keeps methane gas adsorbed to the surface of the coal. This water must be removed by pumping in order to lower the pressure in the reservoir and stimulate desorption of methane from the coal (fi g. 1). Over time, volumes of pumped water typically decrease and the production of gas increases as coal beds near the well bore are dewatered.

  8. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingwen Li; Pradeep Gopalakrishnana; Rahul Garg; Mehrdad Shahnam

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD-DEM simulations of small-scale systems.Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing,bed expansion,bubble behavior,solids velocities,and particle kinetic energy.Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters.However,a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters,indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20-40 particle diameters.Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds.Hence,for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns,the effect of wails has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  9. Multiscale statistical characterization of migrating bed forms in gravel and sand bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Lanzoni, Stefano; Wilcock, Peter R.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2011-12-01

    Migrating bed forms strongly influence hydraulics, transport, and habitat in river environments. Their dynamics are exceedingly complex, making it difficult to predict their geometry and their interaction with sediment transport. Acoustic instrumentation now permits high-resolution observations of bed elevation as well as flow velocity. We present a space-time characterization of bed elevation series in laboratory experiments of sand and gravel transport in a large 84 m long, 2.75 m wide flume. We use a simple filtering and thresholding methodology to estimate bed form heights and report that the shape of their probability density function (pdf) remains invariant to discharge for both gravel and sand and has a positive tail slightly thicker than Gaussian. Using a wavelet decomposition, we quantify the presence of a rich multiscale statistical structure and estimate the scale-dependent celerity of migrating bed forms, showing the faster movement of smaller bed forms relative to the larger ones. The nonlinear dynamics of gravel and sand bed forms is also examined, and the predictability time, i.e., the interval over which one can typically forecast the system, is estimated. Our results demonstrate that flow rate as well as bed sediment composition exert a significant influence on the multiscale dynamics and degree of nonlinearity and complexity of bed form evolution.

  10. Control of the Bed Temperature of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler by using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYGUN, H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating fluidized bed boilers are increasingly used in the power generation due to their higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Such boilers require an effective control of the bed temperature, because it influences the boiler combustion efficiency and the rate of harmful emissions. A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PSO-PID controller for the bed temperature of a circulating fluidized bed boiler is presented. In order to prove the capability of the proposed controller, its performances are compared at different boiler loads with those of a Fuzzy Logic (FL controller. The simulation results demonstrate some advantages of the proposed controller.

  11. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  12. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  13. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  14. Arrest functions of the MIF ligand/receptor axes in atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eTillmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has been defined as an important chemokine-like function (CLF chemokine with an essential role in monocyte recruitment and arrest. Adhesion of monocytes to the vessel wall and their transendothelial migration are critical in atherogenesis and many other inflammatory diseases. Chemokines carefully control all steps of the monocyte recruitment process. Those chemokines specialized in controlling arrest are typically immobilized on the endothelial surface, mediating the arrest of rolling monocytes by chemokine receptor-triggered pathways. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 functions as an important arrest receptor on monocytes. An arrest function has been revealed for the bona fide CXCR2 ligands CXCL1 and CXCL8, but genetic studies also suggested that additional arrest chemokines are likely to be involved in atherogenic leukocyte recruitment. While CXCR2 is known to interact with numerous CXC chemokine ligands, the CLF-chemokine MIF, which structurally does not belong to the CXC chemokine sub-family, was surprisingly identified as a non-cognate ligand of CXCR2, responsible for critical arrest functions during the atherogenic process. MIF was originally identified as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, but is now known as a potent inflammatory cytokine with chemokine-like functions including chemotaxis and leukocyte arrest. This review will cover the mechanisms underlying these functions, including MIF’s effects on LFA1 integrin activity and signal transduction, and will discuss the structural similarities between MIF and the bona fide CXCR2 ligand CXCL8 while emphasizing the structural differences. As MIF also interacts with CXCR4, a chemokine receptor implicated in CXCL12-elicited lymphocyte arrest, the arrest potential of the MIF/CXCR4 axis will also be scrutinized as well as the recently identified role of pericyte MIF in attracting leukocytes exiting through venules as part of the pericyte 'motility

  15. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5120 - Manual adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual adjustable hospital bed. 880.5120 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5120 Manual adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A manual adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a manual...

  17. [Comparison of PAHs distribution in stabilized sludge by sludge drying bed and reed bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Bo; Sun, Hong-Jie; Ran, Chun-Qiu; Li, Jin-Feng; Xie, Yao

    2013-03-01

    The difference in the removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in planted and unplanted sludge drying bed was investigated. Pilot-scale sludge drying bed and reed bed had the same size of 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.3 m (L x W x H), and the bed height consisted of a 65 cm media layer and a 65 cm super height. Both beds had a ventilation pipe which was mounted on the drainage pipes. The experiment lasted for three years, and the first two years was the sludge loading period, and the third year was the natural stabilization period. In the first two years, a total thickness of 8.4 m of sludge was loaded and the average sludge loading rate was 41.3 kg x (m2 x a)(-1). After the three-year stabilization, the contents of the sixteen PAHs decreased with time in both the sludge drying bed and the reed bed. The total PAHs contents in the surface, middle and bottom sludge layers in the sludge drying bed were 4.161, 3.543 and 3.118 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 26.91%, 37.77% and 45.23% of removal; and the values in the reed bed were 2.722, 1.648 and 1.218 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 52.18%, 71.05% and 78.60% of removal. The average PAHs removal in the reed bed was 29.86% higher than that in the sludge drying bed. In the stabilized sludge, the removal of low-molecular-weight PAHs predominated. The results suggested that reed played a positive role in the removal of PAHs.

  18. Installation rules for low-voltage lightning arresters; Regles d'installation des parafoudres basse tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignardot, D. [Schneider Electric, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1998-06-01

    Following assessment of lightning risk and selection of a suitable lightning arrester for the installation, knowledge of good practice in arrester installation is crucial in obtaining genuinely effective protection. Major concepts here include earthing diagrams, building equipotentiality, lightning arrester cascade arrangements, and device disconnection and coordination plans. Understanding of these concepts is important in ensuring effective protection against overvoltages of atmospheric origin. (authors)

  19. Location of cardiac arrest in a city center: strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in public locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2009-01-01

    . Areas with major train stations (1.8 arrests every 5 years per area), large public squares, and pedestrianized areas (0.6 arrests every 5 years per area) were main predictors of frequent cardiac arrests. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve wide AED coverage, AEDs need to be more widely distributed than recommended...

  20. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  1. Bed Stability and Debris Flow Erosion: A Dynamic "Shields Criterion" Associated with Bed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjas, A.; Hill, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are mass movements that play an important role in transporting sediment from steep uplands to rivers at lower slopes. As the debris flow moves downstream, it entrains materials such as loose boulders, gravel, sand and mud deposited locally by shorter flows such as slides and rockfalls. To capture the conditions under which debris flows entrain bed sediment, some models use something akin to the Shields' criterion and an excess shear stress of the flow. However, these models typically neglect granular-scale effects in the bed which can modify the conditions under which a debris flow is erosional or depositional. For example, it is well known that repeated shearing causes denser packing in loose dry soils, which undoubtedly changes their resistance to shear. Here, we present laboratory flume experiments showing that the conditions for entrainment by debris flows is significantly dependent on the aging of an erodible bed even for narrowly distributed spherical particles. We investigate this quantitatively using particle tracking measurements to quantify instantaneous erosion rates and the evolving bed structure or "fabric". With progressive experiments we find a signature that emerges in the bed fabric that is correlated with an increasing apparent "fragility" of the bed. Specifically, a system that is originally depositional may become erosional after repeated debris flow events, and an erodible bed becomes increasingly erodible with repeated flows. We hypothesize that related effects of bed aging at the field scale may be partly responsible for the increasing destructiveness of secondary flows of landslides and debris flows.

  2. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2010-02-15

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification to control of cell division during vulval organogenesis.

  3. Comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, have been compared for the reforming of methane for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversi

  4. Theoretical comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, has been compared for ultra-pure hydrogen production via methane reforming. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion

  5. NONUNIFORM OPEN CHANNEL FLOW WITH UPWARD SEEPAGE THROUGH LOOSE BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2003-01-01

    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  6. Experiments on the dryout behavior of stratified debris beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE)

    2015-10-15

    In case of a severe accident with loss of coolant and core meltdown a particle bed (debris) can be formed. The removal of decay heat from the debris bed is of prime importance for the bed's long-term coolability to guarantee the integrity of the RPV. In contrast to previous experiments, the focus is on stratified beds. The experiments have pointed out that the bed's coolability is significantly affected.

  7. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling inhibits the survival during prolong S/G2 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Sviatoslav S.; Knorre, Dmitry A.; Severin, Fedor F.

    2015-01-01

    Cell senescence is dependent on the arrest in cell cycle. Here we studied the role of mitochondrial retrograde response signaling in yeast cell survival under a prolonged arrest. We have found that, unlike G1, long-term arrest in mitosis or S phase results in a loss of colony-forming abilities. Consistent with previous observations, loss of mitochondrial DNA significantly increased the survival of arrested cells. We found that this was because the loss increases the duration of G1 phase. Unexpectedly, retrograde signaling, which is typically triggered by a variety of mitochondrial dysfunctions, was found to be a negative regulator of the survival after the release from S-phase arrest induced by the telomere replication defect. Deletion of retrograde response genes decreased the arrest-induced death in such cells, whereas deletion of negative regulator of retrograde signaling MKS1 had the opposite effect. We provide evidence that these effects are due to alleviation of the strength of the S-phase arrest. PMID:26624981

  8. Is extracorporeal rewarming indicated in avalanche victims with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiorespiratory arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Peter; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Birgit; Moroder, Luca; Ruttmann, Elfriede

    2014-12-01

    International guidelines recommend using extracorporeal rewarming in all hypothermic avalanche victims with prolonged cardiac arrest if they have patent airways and a plasma potassium level≤12 mmol/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome data to determine if available experience with extracorporeal rewarming of avalanche victims supports this recommendation. At Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, 28 patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest following an avalanche accident were resuscitated using extracorporeal circulation. Of these patients, 25 were extricated from the snow masses with no vital signs and did not survive to hospital discharge. Three patients had witnessed cardiac arrest after extrication and a core temperature of 21.7°C, 22°C, and 24.0°C, two of whom survived long-term with full neurological recovery. A search of the literature revealed only one asystolic avalanche victim with unwitnessed hypothermic cardiac arrest (core temperature 19°C) surviving long-term. All other avalanche victims in the medical literature surviving prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest suffered witnessed arrest after extrication with a core temperature below 24°C. Our results suggest that prognosis of hypothermic avalanche victims with unwitnessed asystolic cardiac arrest and a core temperature>24°C is extremely poor. Available outcome data do not support the use of extracorporeal rewarming in these patients.

  9. Discrimination, arrest history, and major depressive disorder in the U.S. Black population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lighty, Quenesha; Yang, Lawrence H; Greenspoon, Michelle; Miles, Rashun J; Slonim, Tzachi; Isaac, Kathleen; Brown, Monique J

    2014-09-30

    Everyday discrimination contributes negatively to depressive symptomatology among Blacks in the US and being arrested could add to this depression. Using data from the National Survey on American Life, the present study determined the association between an arrest history and major depressive disorder (MDD), while accounting for discrimination among African Americans, US-born Afro-Caribbeans and first-generation Black immigrants. Findings from logistic regression analyses adjusted for discrimination suggested an arrest history is associated with 12-month MDD (Adjusted OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.02-2.10) and lifetime MDD (Adjusted OR=1.56 CI=1.17-2.09). Accounting for drug and alcohol dependence attenuated the association between arrest history and 12-month MDD, but not lifetime MDD. The associations between arrest history and both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and discrimination and lifetime MDD varied by ethnic/immigrant group. Specifically, while the association between arrest history and MDD (both 12-month and lifetime) was strongest among US-born Afro-Caribbeans, evidence consistent with the immigrant paradox, the association between discrimination and lifetime MDD was particularly relevant for first-generation Black immigrants, suggesting discrimination may hinder the protection of first-generation status. Mental health prevention and treatment programs should target the stress associated with being arrested and experiencing discrimination among US Blacks.

  10. IHI-FW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Omata, K.; Ishimoto, R.; Asai, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The technology and application of the circulating fluidized bed boiler (IHI-FW) are outlined. Circulating fluidized bed boilers have various features as compared with bubbling fluidized bed boilers as follows; a high combustion efficiency, efficient use of limestone for desulfurization, low NOx emission, adaptability to various fuels and capability to cope with load change. The IHI-FW boiler is furthermore featured by water-wall furnace of all-welded structure, water-cooled/steam cooled cyclone, and simple circulating system. The 30 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler was introduced into the Tsu Works, Omikenshi Co., Ltd., Japan for private power generation. The boiler equipped with a backup heavy oil burner mainly uses semi-anthracite coal, and besides sulfur capture and NOx reduction functions of a bed, a bag filter with a high dust collecting efficiency is installed in an exhaust gas system. The installation period was reduced to 2.5 months, a half of conventional ones, by more assembly in a factory followed by less field works. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  12. Wear prediction in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, E.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-06-01

    A procedure to model the wear of surfaces exposed to a fluidized bed is formulated. A stochastic methodology adapting the kinetic theory of gases to granular flows is used to develop an impact wear model. This uses a single-particle wear model to account for impact wear from all possible-particle collisions. An adaptation of a single-particle abrasion model to describe the effects of many abrading particles is used to account for abrasive wear. Parameters describing granular flow within the fluidized bed, necessary for evaluation of the wear expressions, are determined by numerical solution of the fluidized bed hydrodynamic equations. Additional parameters, describing the contact between fluidized particles and the wearing surface, are determined by optimization based on wear measurements. The modeling procedure was used to analyze several bubbling and turbulent fluidized bed experiments with single-tube and tube bundle configurations. Quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted wear rates was found, with some exceptions for local wear predictions. This work demonstrates a methodology for wear predictions in fluidized beds.

  13. Nonlinear Mechanism of Bed Load Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Haijue; BAI Yuchuan; NG Chiu-On

    2009-01-01

    From the group movement of the bed load within the bottom layer, details of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of bed load movement are discussed in this paper. Whether the sediment is initiated into motion cor-responds to whether the constant term in the equation is equal to zero. If constant term is zero and no dispersive force is considered, the equation represents the traditional Shields initiation curve, and if constant term is zero with-out the dispersive force being considered, then a new Shields curve which is much lower than the traditional one is got, The fixed point of the equation corresponds to the equilibrium sediment transport of bed load. In the mutation analysis, we have found that the inflection point is the demarcation point of breaking. In theory, the breaking point corresponds to the dividing boundary line, across which the bed form changes from flat bed to sand ripple or sand dune. Compared with the experimental data of Chatou Hydraulic Lab in France, the conclusions are verified.

  14. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  15. Performance analysis of surge arrester on high voltage systems using ATP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallagownden, P.; Magumane, A.H. [Univ. Teknologi Petronas, Perak (Malaysia); Kanth, K.S.R. [Tenaga National Berhad (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    Lightning strikes are among the major factors that cause failures in electrical power systems. Phase to ground arresters are commonly installed at power transformer terminals to offer some lightning protection. However, it is important to understand the performance of metal oxide arresters under very fast transient overvoltages in order to determine the protection zone of the arrester and to achieve economical benefits. This study investigated lightning overvoltage protection in a complete three-phase scheme of a 500 KV substation. Overvoltages originated from direct lightning stroke on a phase of a real overhead line (OHL) model. The effect of the separation distance of the arrester from the transformer connected at the open end of the substations was investigated as well as the performance of the arrester for different substation configurations. In the first scenario, the connection of the arrester and transformer was done with a direct connection of an overhead line. In the second scenario, the connection of these devices was done through a cable. Both the overhead line and cable lengths were varied and the maximum overvoltages coming to the transformer were recorded. The results showed that there is a direct proportionality between overvoltages and length of the overhead line or cable. As long the length of the line or cable between the arrester and the transformer was increased, the vulnerability of the transformer to receive high overvoltages also increased. Surge overvoltages were found to be very sensitive to impedance of the line or cable. The direct connections of overhead lines between the arrester and transformer make it necessary to add some protective device. It was suggested that surge arresters should be installed every 200 meters along the overhead lines in order to ensure the safety of equipment. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Survival in patients without acute ST elevation after cardiac arrest and association with early coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankiewicz, J; Nielsen, N; Annborn, M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether early coronary angiography (CAG) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of a presumed cardiac cause is associated with improved outcomes in patients without acute ST elevation. METHODS: The target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM) trial...... the first 6 h after arrest. Primary outcome was mortality at the end of trial. A Cox proportional hazard model was created to estimate hazard of death, adjusting for covariates. In addition, a propensity score matched analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 252 patients (46 %) received early CAG...

  17. Coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest in patients who had neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel L; Kocher, Minider S; Berven, Sigurd; Kasser, James

    2003-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of four patients in whom a pattern of coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest and metaphyseal irregularities developed. These patients were all treated with neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and presented with a progressive gait disturbance and pain, leg-length discrepancy, and limited abduction. Imaging revealed coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest. Two patients (three hips) underwent proximal femoral valgus osteotomy, one patient underwent fixation of a femoral neck fracture with subsequent greater trochanter transfer, and one patient is being observed. This case series suggests an association between neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and this unusual pattern of coxa vara with proximal femoral growth arrest.

  18. A palmitoyl conjugate of insect pentapeptide Yamamarin arrests cell proliferation and respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosinori; Yang, Ping; An, Ying; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Ito, Kikukatsu; Imanishi, Shigeo; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Uchiyama, Yusuke; Imai, Kunio; Ito, Shigeki; Ishida, Yoji; Suzuki, Koichi

    2010-05-01

    A palmitoyl conjugate of an insect pentapeptide that occurs in diapausing insects causes a reversible cell-cycle arrest and suppresses mitochondrial respiration. This peptide compound also causes growth arrest in murine leukemic cell line expressing human gene Bcr/Abl and a farnesoyl peptide induces embryonic diapause in Bombyx mori. These results demonstrate that the insect peptide compounds can lead to the understanding of a common pathway in developmental arrest in animals and may provide a new peptidominetic analog in the development of biopharmaceuticals and pest management.

  19. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  20. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Past a Permeable Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venugopal

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates mass flow velocity heat transfer rates and velocity/temperature distributions in the viscous, incompressible and slightly conducting fluid past a permeable bed in three different configurations namely (1 Couette flow (2 Poiseuille flow and (3 free surface flow, under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. To discuss the solution, the flow region is divided into two zones : Zone 1 (from the impermeable upper rigid plate to the permeable bed in which the flow is laminar and governed by Navier-Stokes equations, and Zone 2 (the permeable bed below the nominal surface in which the flow is governed by Darcy law. The paper also investigates the effects of magnetic field, porosity and Biot number on the physical quantities mentioned above.

  2. Methane desorption from a coal-bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.P. Feldman; T.A. Vasilenko [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Donetsk Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2007-11-15

    We study the desorption of methane from a coal-bed. A model taking into account both methane diffusion in coal-blocks and its filtration through the system of open pores and cracks is developed. Methane pressure in the coal-bed is found for an arbitrary instant of time. Dependency of the rate of methane release upon the block size, open and closed porosity, viscosity, solubility, bed pressure and temperature is established. We derive the effective coefficient of diffusion of methane in blocks containing closed pores filled with gaseous methane. It is shown that at a hindered diffusion methane is distinctly divided into the 'quick' and the 'slow' one. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  4. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  5. Efficiency of Thin Magnetically-Arrested Disks Around Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Avara, Mark J; Reynolds, Chris S

    2015-01-01

    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion disks around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disk theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height $H$ to radius $R$ of $H/R\\approx 0.10$) disks around moderately rotating BHs with $a/M=0.5$. First, our simulations, evolved for $108,000r_g/c$ (gravitational radius $r_g$ and speed of light $c$), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disk and builds-up to the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) state. Second, our simulations of thin MADs show the disk achieves a radiative efficiency of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\approx 15\\%$ (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of $\\eta_{\\rm r}\\sim 8\\%$ for $a/M=0.5$ and gives the same luminosity as a NT disk with $a/M\\approx ...

  6. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS......: A higher risk of SCA was observed in patients with OPD (n = 190 cases [15%], 622 controls [11%]) than in those without OPD (OR adjusted for cardiovascular risk-profile 1.4 [1.2-1.6]). In OPD patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile (OR 3.5 [2.7-4.4]) a higher risk of SCA was observed than in those...

  7. Dexmedetomidine Related Bradycardia Leading to Cardiac Arrest in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Chen2, K-S. Chen1,2, K. M. Chang2, W. M. Lee1,2, S. C. Chang1,2 and H. C. Wang1,2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old, mixed breed female dog (16 kg underwent an exploratory laparotomy following ultrasonographic diagnosis of foreign body and a segment of small intestine intussusceptions. The patient was classified as an ASA II. Ketamine (1mg/kg, IV, and dexmedetomidine (2.5 µg/kg, IV, and morphine (0.6 mg/kg, SC were given as anesthetic premedication. Propofol (0.1 mg/kg, IV titrated to a total amount of 4 ml (2.5 mg/ kg was given for intubation. Asystole was occurred. Cardiac resuscitation was then conducted immediately. Atipamezole (0.1 ml was injected, but showed no response on ECG. Atropine (0.02 mg/kg was then injected, and a second dosage was given. Two-three mins later, the heart rate at 84 beats/min. The NIBP showed 203/132 with MAP 153 mmHg, and the SpO2 showed 95% after the cardiac function was regained. Dexmedetomidine related bradycardia leading to cardiac arrest has been suggested in this case.

  8. A Literature Review Revisiting Phenytoin-Induced Sinus Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsai, Shireen; Hariri, Imad; Taleb, Mohammad; Yoon, Youngsook

    2016-01-01

    Classically, phenytoin (PTN) infusion for the treatment of status epilepticus has been proven to be associated with cardiovascular toxicity, including dysrhythmias, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse. Subsequently, fosphenytoin (FOS) was introduced on the market in 1997 with claims of having less cardiac toxicity. However, since then, many accounts of cardiac events have been reported undermining these claims. FOS gained popularity due to its water solubility, which allows 3 times faster infusion in comparison with PTN with less venous irritation and local toxicity. FOS is the phosphate ester prodrug of PTN and is rapidly converted to PTN independent of the dose and rate of administration. Intravenous FOS and PTN are bioequivalent. Adverse cardiac effects of both intravenous FOS and PTN have been correlated to the rate of infusion, concentration of the agent, known risk factors, or pre-existing hypersensitivity, and most cases have been identified after infusing a loading dose of these medications. This case report is unique, in that, the patient developed sinus arrest while concurrently receiving oral PTN and intravenous FOS. Clinicians should be more cognizant of the association of FOS and PTN with adverse cardiac events. Baseline electrocardiogram should be obtained on all patients prescribed FOS or PTN to identify underlying cardiac problems that may place the patient in a higher risk category. Telemetry should be performed on all patients receiving PTN in an inpatient setting.

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN ARREST WARRANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin, MARINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Treaty of Amsterdam stipulated the fact that the European Union must maintain and develop an area of freedom, security and justice, freedom assuming the existence of a common judicial area in which European citizens are able to seek justice in any of the member state same as in their own country. This goal aims to eliminate the possibility that criminals exploit the differences between the legal systems of the member states, imposing that the judgments are recognized and enforced abroad without the formalities laid down by the classical conventions on international judicial assistance. The Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, materialized the decision taken in Tampere, following that between EU Member States to be replace the formal extradition procedure of the people who evade the execution of a sentence of imprisonment imposed by a judgment of conviction became final, with a simplified surrender procedure..

  10. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  11. Mechanics of motility initiation and motility arrest in crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recho, Pierre; Putelat, Thibaut; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-11-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires transformation of a symmetric state into a polarized state. In contrast, motility arrest is associated with re-symmetrization of the internal configuration of a cell. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by the increased contractility of motor proteins but the conditions of re-symmetrization remain unknown. In this paper we show that if adhesion with the extra-cellular substrate is sufficiently low, the progressive intensification of motor-induced contraction may be responsible for both transitions: from static (symmetric) to motile (polarized) at a lower contractility threshold and from motile (polarized) back to static (symmetric) at a higher contractility threshold. Our model of lamellipodial cell motility is based on a 1D projection of the complex intra-cellular dynamics on the direction of locomotion. In the interest of analytical transparency we also neglect active protrusion and view adhesion as passive. Despite the unavoidable oversimplifications associated with these assumptions, the model reproduces quantitatively the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and reveals a crucial role played in cell motility by the nonlocal feedback between the mechanics and the transport of active agents. A prediction of the model that a crawling cell can stop and re-symmetrize when contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold still awaits experimental verification.

  12. Efficiency of Super-Eddington Magnetically-Arrested Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    McKinney, Jonathan C; Avara, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The radiative efficiency of super-Eddington accreting black holes (BHs) is explored for magnetically-arrested disks (MADs), where magnetic flux builds-up to saturation near the BH. Our three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) simulation of a spinning BH (spin $a/M=0.8$) accreting at $\\sim 50$ times Eddington shows a total efficiency $\\sim 50\\%$ when time-averaged and total efficiency $\\gtrsim 100\\%$ in moments. Magnetic compression by the magnetic flux near the rotating BH leads to a thin disk, whose radiation escapes via advection by a magnetized wind and via transport through a low-density channel created by a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet. The BZ efficiency is sub-optimal due to inertial loading of field lines by optically thick radiation, leading to BZ efficiency $\\sim 40\\%$ on the horizon and BZ efficiency $\\sim 5\\%$ by $r\\sim 400r_g$ (gravitational radii) via absorption by the wind. Importantly, radiation escapes at $r\\sim 400r_g$ with efficiency $\\eta\\approx 15\\%$ (lumi...

  13. Near-death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) have become the focus of much interest in the last 30 years or so. Such experiences can occur both when individuals are objectively near to death and also when they simply believe themselves to be. The experience typically involves a number of different components including a feeling of peace and well-being, out-of-body experiences (OBEs), entering a region of darkness, seeing a brilliant light, and entering another realm. NDEs are known to have long-lasting transformational effects upon those who experience them. An overview is presented of the various theoretical approaches that have been adopted in attempts to account for the NDE. Spiritual theories assume that consciousness can become detached from the neural substrate of the brain and that the NDE may provide a glimpse of an afterlife. Psychological theories include the proposal that the NDE is a dissociative defense mechanism that occurs in times of extreme danger or, less plausibly, that the NDE reflects memories of being born. Finally, a wide range of organic theories of the NDE has been put forward including those based upon cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, and hypercarbia; endorphins and other neurotransmitters; and abnormal activity in the temporal lobes. Finally, the results of studies of NDEs in cardiac arrest survivors are reviewed and the implications of these results for our understanding of mind-brain relationships are discussed.

  14. Motion and Arrest of a Molten Liquid on Cold Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli-Dastjerdi, Faryar

    Spreading of liquid drop on cold solid substrates followed by solidification involves heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and phase change physics. Coupling of these physical phenomena, although present in many industrial applications and nature, renders the physical understanding of the process challenging. Here, the key aspects of molten liquid spreading and solidifying on cold solid substrate are examined experimentally and theoretically. A novel hypothesis of spreading solidifying drops on cold solid substrates is introduced that emphasizes on early stages of the drop solidification at the solid-liquid-gas interface. The derived equations of the drop motion and arrest, stemmed from the development of the presented hypothesis, are in accord with obtained empirical results. The hypothesis is then thoroughly tested with new sets of experiments: i) Drop impact experiments, ii) Inclined plate experiments. In addition, the solidification of static supercooled drops and the initiation mechanism of an intermittent stage (recalescence) are addressed. Also, a peculiar delay-freezing property of hydrophobic surfaces is examined under varying liquid flow rates and substrate temperatures. Moreover, a new phenomenon of cold-induced spreading of water drops on hydrophobic surfaces due to premature condensation followed by thin-film formation at the trijunction is explored and the effect of physical parameters such as relative humidity, the substrate temperature, initial contact angle, surface roughness, and drop volume are investigated. This study will significantly advance the current understanding of dynamic interaction between molten liquid and cold solid substrates.

  15. DNA damage mediated transcription arrest: Step back to go forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenders, Leon

    2015-12-01

    The disturbance of DNA helix conformation by bulky DNA damage poses hindrance to transcription elongating due to stalling of RNA polymerase at transcription blocking lesions. Stalling of RNA polymerase provokes the formation of R-loops, i.e. the formation of a DNA-RNA hybrid and a displaced single stranded DNA strand as well as displacement of spliceosomes. R-loops are processed into DNA single and double strand breaks by NER factors depending on TC-NER factors leading to genome instability. Moreover, stalling of RNA polymerase induces a strong signal for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These toxic and mutagenic effects are counteracted by a rapid recruitment of DNA repair proteins to perform transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) to remove the blocking DNA lesions and to restore transcription. Recent studies have highlighted the role of backtracking of RNA polymerase to facilitate TC-NER and identified novel factors that play key roles in TC-NER and in restoration of transcription. On the molecular level these factors facilitate stability of the repair complex by promotion and regulation of various post-translational modifications of NER factors and chromatin substrate. In addition, the continuous flow of new factors that emerge from screening assays hints to several regulatory levels to safeguard the integrity of transcription elongation after disturbance by DNA damage that have yet to be explored.

  16. The perception of children of elementary education about cardiorespiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariélli Terassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA is a serious situation that occurs frequently in public environments, which makes assistance training of the general population of great importance. The objective was to understand the perception of children on CRA. Qualitative research conducted with children 8-10 years old enrolled in a private elementary school with a constructive proposal. Data collection occurred between the months of October and November 2013 in a recorded collective interview. As a criterion for inclusion students should be enrolled in the institution and accept to participate in the research with the consent of a guardian. Thirty children participated in the study. The students were divided into four groups: 5th year, 4th year, 3rd year A and 3rd year B, with an average of 08 students per group. The interviews were analyzed using the Bardin content analysis methodology. From the speeches, two categories emerged: Child's prior knowledge on CRA and how to act on the event of a CRA. Children associate the event of sudden CRA to a condition in which the heart and/or lungs suddenly stop acting. Seeking emergency assistance was reported as one of the main actions to be taken if a person is unconscious. It was observed that the 5th graders had best prior knowledge about the topic CRA when compared to students in the 3rd year. The thematic approach of CRA in schools contributes to the exchange of experiences, awareness of children and building new knowledge-oriented health education.

  17. Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their typically developing peers. To shed light on possible differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech integration, we tested younger (ages 6-12) and older (ages 13-18) children with and without ASD on a task indexing such multisensory integration. To do this, we used the McGurk effect, in which the pairing of incongruent auditory and visual speech tokens typically results in the perception of a fused percept distinct from the auditory and visual signals, indicative of active integration of the two channels conveying speech information. Whereas little difference was seen in audiovisual speech processing (i.e., reports of McGurk fusion) between the younger ASD and TD groups, there was a significant difference at the older ages. While TD controls exhibited an increased rate of fusion (i.e., integration) with age, children with ASD failed to show this increase. These data suggest arrested development of audiovisual speech integration in ASD. The results are discussed in light of the extant literature and necessary next steps in research. PMID:24218241

  18. Sudden Cardiac Death and Post Cardiac Arrest Syndrome. An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Endre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A satisfactory neurologic outcome is the key factor for survival in patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD, however this is highly dependent on the haemodynamic status. Short term cardiopulmonary resuscitation and regained consciousness on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC is indicative of a better prognosis. The evaluation and treatment of SCD triggering factors and of underlying acute and chronic diseases will facilitate prevention and lower the risk of cardiac arrest. Long term CPR and a prolonged unconscious status after ROSC, in the Intensive Care Units or Coronary Care Units, indicates the need for specific treatment and supportive therapy including efforts to prevent hyperthermia. The prognosis of these patients is unpredictable within the first seventy two hours, due to unknown responses to therapeutic management and the lack of specific prognostic factors. Patients in these circumstances require the highest level of intensive care and aetiology driven treatment without any delay, independently of their coma state. Current guidelines sugest the use of multiple procedures in arriving at a diagnosis and prognosis of these critical cases.

  19. Analysis on Lighting Withstand Characteristics of Polymeric ZnO Surge Arrester for Transmission Line against Lightning Overvoltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.W.; Cho, H.G. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea); He, J.L. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (Switzerland)

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the lightning withstand levels (LWLs) of two 110 kV transmission lines before and after line arresters made with polymeric housing are installed on the towers, the lightning discharging currents through arresters and lightning energies absorbed by line arresters. The LWLs can be highly increased by installing line arresters on the transmission line towers in parallel with the insulator strings. It is not problem that the polymeric ZnO surge arresters are used in transmission lines to limit lightning overvoltages. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  1. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  2. South Africa slashes pebble-bed cash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    A novel modular technology that promised to make nuclear power cheaper and safer has suffered a serious blow following withdrawal of support from the South African government. It decided not to renew funding for the pebble-bed modular reactor beyond 31 March this year following a lack of interest from other investors and no customers for its product. The company developing the reactor concept - Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd (PBMR) - is to axe three-quarters of its roughly 800 staff and its chief executive has resigned.

  3. Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, A., E-mail: shams@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with

  4. Lake bed classification using acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Karen K.; Li, Xing; Bonde, John; Richards, Carl; Cholwek, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As part of our effort to identify the lake bed surficial substrates using remote sensing data, this work designs pattern classifiers by multivariate statistical methods. Probability distribution of the preprocessed acoustic signal is analyzed first. A confidence region approach is then adopted to improve the design of the existing classifier. A technique for further isolation is proposed which minimizes the expected loss from misclassification. The devices constructed are applicable for real-time lake bed categorization. A mimimax approach is suggested to treat more general cases where the a priori probability distribution of the substrate types is unknown. Comparison of the suggested methods with the traditional likelihood ratio tests is discussed.

  5. Critical conditions of bed sediment entrainment due to debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Papa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes entrainment characteristics of bed material into debris flow, based on flume tests, numerical and dimensional analyses. Flume tests are conducted to investigate influences of bed sediment size on erosion rate by supplying debris flows having unsaturated sediment concentration over erodible beds. Experimental results show that the erosion rate decreases monotonically with increase of sediment size, although erosion rate changes with sediment concentration of debris flow body. In order to evaluate critical condition of bed sediment entrainment, a length scale which measures an effective bed shear stress is introduced. The effective bed shear stress is defined as total shear stress minus yield stress on the bed surface. The results show that critical entrainment conditions can be evaluated well in terms of Shields curve using the effective bed shear stress instead of a usual bed shear stress.

  6. From Modern Push-Button Hospital-beds to 20th Century Mechatronic Beds: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present the different aspects of modern high complexity electric beds of the period 1940 until 2000 exclusively. The chronology of the product has been strictly divided into three big stages: electric and semi-electric beds (until the 90’s), mechatronic beds (90’s until 2000) and, mechatronic intelligent beds of the last 15 years. The latter are not considered in this work due to the extension for its analysis. The justification for classifying the product is presented under the concepts of medical, assistive and mobility devices. Relevant aspects of common immobility problems of the different types of patients for which the beds are mainly addressed are shown in detail. The basic functioning of the patient’s movement generator and the implementation of actuators, together with IT programs, specific accessories and connectivity means and network-communication shown in this work, were those that gave origin to current mechatronic beds. We present the historical evolution of high complexity electric beds by illustrating cases extracted from a meticulous time line, based on patents, inventions and publications in newspapers and magazines of the world. The criteria adopted to evaluate the innovation were: characteristics of controls; accessories (mattresses, lighting, siderails, etc.), aesthetic and morphologic properties and outstanding functionalities.

  7. Effect of bed particles to combustion of gases in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Wallen, V.; Etelaeaho, R.; Correia, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain experimental data on effects of sand particles to the combustion of gases. The effect of the surface area of the particles was tested using different sized particles. The fluidized bed reactor used in these experiments was a stainless-steel tube with an internal diameter of 42 mm surrounded by an electric heater. The test rig was built in the Laboratory of Energy and Process Engineering at Tampere University of Technology. In order to elucidate the possible changes of particle surface, microscopic and porosimetric studies were conducted with both fresh bed particles and used bed particles. These measurements indicate that carbon monoxide significantly reacts with oxygen in the particulate or emulsion phase of a fluidized bed, if the residence time is long enough. The reaction rate depends mainly on temperature, air coefficient, residence time and particle size of the solids. It seems that the combustion enhances if the average particle size increases. Whether this is caused by increased free path length or reduced specific surface area of the bed is yet unknown. The first might be more probable cause because the majority of reactions often took place in the freeboard right above the bed. It was clear that the bed hindered proper combustion in several cases. (orig.)

  8. Loading and Unloading Weaned Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of weaned pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps below 20° to load and unload pigs. Three ramp angles (0°, 10° or 20°, five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay, two moistures (dry or wet bedding; >50% moisture over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 6,000 pig observations. “Score” was calculated by the sum of slips, falls, and vocalizations. With the exception of using feed as a bedding, all beddings provided some protection against elevated slips, falls, and vocalizations (P < 0.01. Providing bedding reduced (P < 0.05 scores regardless of whether the bedding was dry or wet. Scores increased as the slope increased (P < 0.01. Provision of bedding, other than feed, at slopes greater than zero, decreased slips, falls and vocalizations. The total time it took to load and unload pigs was

  9. Perspectives for Fluidized Bed Nuclear Reactor Technology using Rotating Fluidized Beds in a Static Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broqueville, Axel De; Wilde, Juray De

    The new concept of a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry opens perspectives for fluidized bed nuclear reactor technology and is experimentally and numerically investigated. With conventional fluidized bed technology, the maximum attainable power is rather limited and maximum at a certain fluidization gas flow rate. Using a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry, the fluidization gas drives both the centrifugal force and the counteracting radial gas-solid drag force in a similar way. This allows operating the reactor at any chosen sufficiently high solids loading over a much wider fluidization gas flow rate range and in particular at much higher fluidization gas flow rates than with conventional fluidized bed reactor technology, offering increased flexibility with respect to cooling via the fluidization gas. Furthermore, the centrifugal force can be a multiple of earth gravity, allowing radial gas-solid slip velocities much higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The latter result in gas-solid heat transfer coefficients one or multiple orders of magnitude higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The combination of dense operation and high fluidization gas flow rates allows process intensification and a more compact reactor design.

  10. Effects of bed-load movement on flow resistance over bed forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Hossein Omid; Masoud Karbasi; Javad Farhoudi

    2010-12-01

    The effect of bed-load transport on flow resistance of alluvial channels with undulated bed was experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a tilting flume 250 mm wide and 12·5 m long with glass-sides of rectangular cross-section and artificial dune shaped floor that was made from Plexi-glass. Steady flow of clear as against sediment-laden water with different flow depths and velocities were studied in the experiments with a fine sand ($d_{50} =$ 0·5 mm). The results indicate that the transport of fine particles ($d_{50} =$ 0·5 mm) can decrease the friction factor by 22% and 24% respectively for smooth and rough beds. Increasing the bed-load size ($d_{50} =$ 2·84 mm) can decrease the friction factor by 32% and 39% respectively for smooth and rough beds. The decrease in flow resistance is due to filling up of the troughs of dunes. This separation zone is responsible for increasing the flow resistance. On the upstream side of dunes condition is similar to plane bed. Presence of bed-load causes to increase the shear velocity and hence increasing flow resistance. But decreasing in flow resistance is more and it causes to decrease the total flow resistance. Grains saturated the troughs in the bed topography, effectively helping in smoothening of bed irregularities.

  11. Impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among opiate users in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin M; Deck, Dennis; Krupski, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Administrative data from Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse drive this three-year prospective study of the impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among 12,962 opiate users receiving publicly funded substance abuse services. Using survival analysis, the risk of arrest among opiate users who receive substance abuse treatment is compared to those who do not receive treatment. Propensity scores control for client characteristics associated with admission to substance abuse treatment. Overall, a reduction in the risk of arrest was found among subjects in treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.59-0.78, p < .05) and subjects successfully completing treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.75, p < .05). Risk of arrest was elevated among those with a negative outcome to treatment (Hazard Ratio = 1.23, p < .05).

  12. Transfusion Associated Hyperkalemia and Cardiac Arrest in an Infant after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Wan Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest associated with hyperkalemia during red blood cell transfusion is a rare but fatal complication. Herein, we report a case of transfusion-associated cardiac arrest following the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in a 9-month old infant. Her serum potassium level was increased to 9.0 mEq/L, soon after the newly primed circuit with pre-stored red blood cell (RBC was started and followed by sudden cardiac arrest. Eventually, circulation was restored and the potassium level decreased to 5.1 mEq/L after 5 min. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO priming is a relatively massive transfusion into a pediatric patient. Thus, to prevent cardiac arrest during blood-primed ECMO in neonates and infants, freshly irradiated and washed RBCs should be used when priming the ECMO circuit, to minimize the potassium concentration. Also, physicians should be aware of all possible complications associated with transfusions during ECMO.

  13. Biofilm Community Dynamics in Bench-Scale Annular Reactors Simulating Arrestment of Chloraminated Drinking Water Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular reactors (ARs) were used to study biofilm community succession and provide an ecological insight during nitrification arrestment through simultaneously increasing monochloramine (NH2Cl) and chlorine to nitrogen mass ratios, resulting in four operational periods (I to IV)....

  14. The Association Between Arterial Oxygen Tension and Neurological Outcome After Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas J; Dodampahala, Kalani; Rosselot, Babette; Perman, Sarah M; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Goyal, Munish; Gaieski, David F; Grossestreuer, Anne V

    2017-03-01

    A number of observational studies have evaluated the association between arterial oxygen tensions and outcome after cardiac arrest with variable results. The objective of this study is to determine the association between arterial oxygen tension and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the Penn Alliance for Therapeutic Hypothermia registry. Adult patients who experienced return of spontaneous circulation after in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and had a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) recorded within 48 hours were included. Our primary exposure of interest was PaO2. Hyperoxemia was defined as PaO2 > 300 mmHg, hypoxemia as PaO2 arterial oxygen tension measured within the first 48 hours after cardiac arrest and neurological outcome.

  15. EU Citizenship and European Arrest Warrant: The Same Rights for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Marguery

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case Wolzenburg, the principle of non-discrimination of European Union citizens is applied to the European arrest warrant. The implementation of the European arrest warrant by the Member States cannot escape a control of proportional- ity made by the Court. Member States may impose a period of residence of five years to foreign Europeans citizens in order for them to rely on an optional ground for non-execution of a European arrest warrant (Article 4(6 of the Framework Deci- sion on the European arrest warrant. Home nationals are not obliged to comply with a residence requirement. It is possible for Member States to justify an exception to the principle of non-discrimination of European citizens with a legitimate inter- est. The chances of social reintegration of a person convicted constitute such an interest. The national measure resulting in a difference of treatment must be proportional to that interest.

  16. Too close for comfort? Registered sex offender spatial clustering and recidivistic sex crime arrest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether three measures of the spatial distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in September 2010 were associated with differences in county-level rates of recidivistic sex crime arrests over the following year in 52 upstate New York counties. Results indicate that RSO clustering was positively associated with modest increases of recidivistic sex crime arrest rates, but results were significant only for adult victim sex crimes and only for certain types of RSO clustering. Under no circumstances, however, was increased RSO clustering associated with decreased rates of recidivistic sex crime arrests. The results of this study, combined with the limited prior research, suggest that RSO clustering has only a limited association with recidivistic sex crime arrest rates. This implies that housing policies such as residence restrictions may be useful in mitigating risk from some types of recidivistic sex crimes only to the extent that they result in more equitable distributions of RSOs within a county.

  17. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2017-02-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  18. The Petrographic Distinction between Basalt and Andesite Based upon the Arrested Fractionation of Plagioclase Phenocrysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, G. Donald; Garlick, Benjamin J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need to take into account the effects of arrested fractional crystallization in the petrographic classification of volcanic rocks containing plagioclase phenocrysts. Describes the development and use of a computer program to accomplish this task graphically. (TW)

  19. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2016-08-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  20. Study of the Electric Filed Around a Metal Oxide Surge Arrester: Measurement and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christodoulou C A; Spanias C A; Kontargyri V T; Gonos I F; Stathopulos I A

    2013-01-01

    The study of the electric field around a surge arrester is useful for design procedures and diagnostic tests.The current work computes the electric field around a medium voltage gapless surge arrester using 2D and 3D representation of the arrester.The 2D simulation design,which is described in IEC 60099-4 Standard,cannot include the non symmetrical parts of the arrester geometry and the test arrangement.3D simulation procedures have the advantage that takes into account these asymmetries,giving more accurate results for each measurement position.In order to confirm the suitability of the created models,the simulation results of the electric field,using the 2D and 3D edition of PC Opera,are compared with recorded measurements,which are obtained in laboratory using appropriate calibrated field meters.

  1. Therapeutic Hypothermia and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in a Child with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Spurkeland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic outcomes following pediatric cardiac arrest are consistently poor. Early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown to have positive effects on both survival to hospital discharge, and improved neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest. Additionally, the use of therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival in pediatric cardiac arrest patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We report a child with congenital hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, in whom the early initiation of effective prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and subsequent administration of therapeutic hypothermia contributed to a positive outcome with no gross neurologic sequelae. Continuing efforts should be made to promote and employ high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which likely contributed to the positive outcome of this case. Further research will be necessary to develop and solidify national guidelines for the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia in selected subpopulations of children with OHCA.

  2. Parameter identification of ZnO surge arrester models based on genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayadi, Abdelhafid [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Setif, Departement d' Electrotechnique, Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite Ferhat ABBAS de Setif, Route de Bejaia Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    The correct and adequate modelling of ZnO surge arresters characteristics is very important for insulation coordination studies and systems reliability. In this context many researchers addressed considerable efforts to the development of surge arresters models to reproduce the dynamic characteristics observed in their behaviour when subjected to fast front impulse currents. The difficulties with these models reside essentially in the calculation and the adjustment of their parameters. This paper proposes a new technique based on genetic algorithm to obtain the best possible series of parameter values of ZnO surge arresters models. The validity of the predicted parameters is then checked by comparing the predicted results with the experimental results available in the literature. Using the ATP-EMTP package, an application of the arrester model on network system studies is presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Mineral resources of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas, Lake County, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, W.J.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Johnson, F.L. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1988-01-01

    The Devel's Garden lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas include approximately 70,940 acres and are underlain entirely by Pleistocene or Holocene lava flows and associated sediments. There is no evidence of hydrothermal alteration in the study areas. No resources were identified in the study areas, but there is low potential for perlite resources in the southern part of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed and the northern half of the Squaw Ridge Lava Bed areas. All three study areas have low potential for geothermal resources and for oil and gas resources.

  4. Antidepressant Use and Risk of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, P; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Folke, F;

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with some types of antidepressants has been associated with sudden cardiac death. It is unknown whether the increased risk is due to a class effect or related to specific antidepressants within drug classes. All patients in Denmark with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were.......17-12.2). An association between cardiac arrest and antidepressant use could be documented in both the SSRI and TCA classes of drugs....

  5. Ventricular fibrillation-induced cardiac arrest in the rat as a model of global cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Kunjan R.; DELLA-MORTE, DAVID; Saul, Isabel; Prado, Ricardo; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in Western countries. Although ventricular fibrillation (VF) models in rodents mimic the “square wave” type of insult (rapid loss of pulse and pressure) commonly observed in adult humans at the onset of cardiac arrest (CA), they are not popular because of the complicated animal procedure, poor animal survival and thermal injury. Here we present a modified, simple, reliable, ventricular fibrillation-induced rat mo...

  6. Crime and Young Men: The Role of Arrest, Criminal Experience, and Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Using National Youth Survey (NYS) data, we examine the relationship of current criminal activity and past arrests using an ordered probit model with unobserved heterogeneity. Past arrests raise current criminal activity only for the non-criminal type, while past criminal experience raises current criminal activity for both types. Also, the age crime profile peaks at age 18 for non-criminal type individuals, but for criminal type individuals, it continues to rise with age. Past research indica...

  7. Multimodal Imaging after Sudden Cardiac Arrest in an 18-Year-Old Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur; Atalay, Michael K.; Broderick, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 18-year-old male athlete who twice presented with sudden cardiac arrest. Our use of electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, coronary angiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and nuclear stress testing enabled the diagnoses of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. We discuss the patient's treatment and note the useful role of multiple cardiovascular imaging methods in cases of sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:26664308

  8. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  9. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthip, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of adults with in-hospital cardiac arrest using the Utstein style

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa; Silva, Bruna Adriene Gomes de Lima e; Silva, Fábio Junior Modesto e; Amaral, Carlos Faria Santos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical profile of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest using the Utstein style. Methods This study is an observational, prospective, longitudinal study of patients with cardiac arrest treated in intensive care units over a period of 1 year. Results The study included 89 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers. The cohort was 51.6% male with a mean age 59.0 years. The episodes occurred during the daytime in 64.6% of cases. Asystole/bradyarrhythmia was the most frequent initial rhythm (42.7%). Most patients who exhibited a spontaneous return of circulation experienced recurrent cardiac arrest, especially within the first 24 hours (61.4%). The mean time elapsed between hospital admission and the occurrence of cardiac arrest was 10.3 days, the mean time between cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 0.68 min, the mean time between cardiac arrest and defibrillation was 7.1 min, and the mean duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 16.3 min. Associations between gender and the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (19.2 min in women versus 13.5 min in men, p = 0.02), the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the return of spontaneous circulation (10.8 min versus 30.7 min, p < 0.001) and heart disease and age (60.6 years versus 53.6, p < 0.001) were identified. The immediate survival rates after cardiac arrest, until hospital discharge and 6 months after discharge were 71%, 9% and 6%, respectively. Conclusions The main initial rhythm detected was asystole/bradyarrhythmia; the interval between cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was short, but defibrillation was delayed. Women received cardiopulmonary resuscitation for longer periods than men. The in-hospital survival rate was low. PMID:28099640

  11. Local stresses, dyke arrest and surface deformation in volcanic edificesand rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Brenner

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies indicate that nearly all eruptions in volcanic edifices and rift zones are supplied with magma through fractures (dykes that are opened by magmatic overpressure. While (inferred dyke injections are frequent during unrest periods, volcanic eruptions are, in comparison, infrequent, suggesting that most dykes become arrested at certain depths in the crust, in agreement with field studies. The frequency of dyke arrest can be partly explained by the numerical models presented here which indicate that volcanic edifices and rift zones consisting of rocks of contrasting mechanical properties, such as soft pyroclastic layers and stiff lava flows, commonly develop local stress fields that encourage dyke arrest. During unrest, surface deformation studies are routinely used to infer the geometries of arrested dykes, and some models (using homogeneous, isotropic half-spaces infer large grabens to be induced by such dykes. Our results, however, show that the dyke-tip tensile stresses are normally much greater than the induced surface stresses, making it difficult to explain how a dyke can induce surface stresses in excess of the tensile (or shear strength while the same strength is not exceeded at the (arrested dyke tip. Also, arrested dyke tips in eroded or active rift zones are normally not associated with dyke-induced grabens or normal faults, and some dykes arrested within a few metres of the surface do not generate faults or grabens. The numerical models show that abrupt changes in Young's moduli(stiffnesses, layers with relatively high dyke-normal compressive stresses (stress barriers, and weak horizontal contacts may make the dyke-induced surface tensile stresses too small for significant fault or graben formation to occur in rift zones or volcanic edifices. Also, these small surface stresses may have no simple relation to the dyke geometry or the depth to its tip. Thus, for a layered crust with weak contacts, straightforward

  12. Parameters Calculation of ZnO Surge Arrester Models by Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayadi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to provide a new technique based on the genetic algorithm to obtain the best possible series of values of the parameters of the ZnO surge arresters models. The validity of the predicted parameters is then checked by comparing the results predicted with the experimental results available in the literature. Using the ATP-EMTP package an application of the arrester model on network system studies is presented and discussed.

  13. TGEV nucleocapsid protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of p53 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • TGEV N protein reduces cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. • TGEV N protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating p53 signaling. • TGEV N protein plays important roles in TGEV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. - Abstract: Our previous studies showed that TGEV infection could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. However, it is unclear which viral gene causes these effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein on PK-15 cells. We found that TGEV N protein suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis. Characterization of various cellular proteins that are involved in regulating cell cycle progression demonstrated that the expression of N gene resulted in an accumulation of p53 and p21, which suppressed cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdk2 expression. Moreover, the expression of TGEV N gene promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase-3, resulting in cell apoptosis in the transfected PK-15 cells following cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that p53 inhibitor attenuated TGEV N protein induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and apoptosis through reversing the expression changes of cdc2, cdk2 and cyclin B1 and the translocation changes of Bax and cytochrome c induced by TGEV N protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV N protein might play an important role in TGEV infection-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis occurrence.

  14. Modelling of Devolatilization in Fluidized Bed Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseng, Mette; Lin, Weigang; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the devolatilization process in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The model is a combination of two submodels: single particle devolatilization and fluid dynamics. The single particle model includes the influence of both chemical kinetics and hea...

  15. A curved flume bed-load experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; Marsman, E.R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this report the results of a bed-load experiment in a curved flume are presented. The experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics (L.F.M.) at the Delft University of Technology. The main object of the experiments is to develop and to test data-acquisition procedures for

  16. Multiscale modeling of gas-fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoef, van der M.A.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Andrews, A.T.; Sundaresan, S.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models of gas-fluidized beds have become an important tool in the design and scale up of gas-solid chemical reactors. However, a single numerical model which includes the solid-solid and solid-fluid interaction in full detail is not feasible for industrial-scale equipment, and for this rea

  17. Agglomeration in fluidized beds: detection and counteraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels. M.

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized beds comprise a quantity of solid particles that is suspended by an upward flowing gas. They are used for a variety of processes in the chemical industry, such as catalytic reactions, drying, coating and energy conversion. A major problem in industrial practice is the occurrence of unwante

  18. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  19. Wound bed preparation from a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The ′TIME′ acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, i nfection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and its clinical management components along with the principles of advanced wound care management at the present time. Management of tissue necrosis can be tailored according to the wound and local expertise. It ranges from simple to modern techniques like wet to dry dressing, enzymatic, biological and surgical debridement. Restoration of the bacterial balance is also an important element in managing chronic wounds that are critically colonized. Achieving a balance moist wound will hasten healing and correct biochemical imbalance by removing the excessive enzymes and growth factors. This can be achieved will multitude of dressing materials. The negative pressure wound therapy being one of the great breakthroughs. The progress and understanding on scientific basis of the wound bed preparation over the last two decades are discussed further in this article in the clinical perspectives.

  20. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...

  1. Cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Wikner, David A.; Martone, Anthony; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    Providing situational awareness to the warfighter requires radar, communications, and other electronic systems that operate in increasingly cluttered and dynamic electromagnetic environments. There is a growing need for cognitive RF systems that are capable of monitoring, adapting to, and learning from their environments in order to maintain their effectiveness and functionality. Additionally, radar systems are needed that are capable of adapting to an increased number of targets of interest. Cognitive nonlinear radar may offer critical solutions to these growing problems. This work focuses on ongoing efforts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to develop a cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed. ARL is working toward developing a test-bed that uses spectrum sensing to monitor the RF environment and dynamically change the transmit waveforms to achieve detection of nonlinear targets with high confidence. This work presents the architecture of the test-bed system along with a discussion of its current capabilities and limitations. A brief outlook is presented for the project along with a discussion of a future cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed.

  2. Cell cycle-arrested tumor cells exhibit increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, H; Wachter, F; Grunert, M; Jeremias, I

    2013-01-01

    Resting tumor cells represent a huge challenge during anticancer therapy due to their increased treatment resistance. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a putative future anticancer drug, currently in phases I and II clinical studies. We recently showed that TRAIL is able to target leukemia stem cell surrogates. Here, we tested the ability of TRAIL to target cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Cell cycle arrest was induced in tumor cell lines and xenografted tumor cells in G0, G1 or G2 using cytotoxic drugs, phase-specific inhibitors or RNA interference against cyclinB and E. Biochemical or molecular arrest at any point of the cell cycle increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, when cell cycle arrest was disabled by addition of caffeine, the antitumor activity of TRAIL was reduced. Most important for clinical translation, tumor cells from three children with B precursor or T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia showed increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis upon knockdown of either cyclinB or cyclinE, arresting the cell cycle in G2 or G1, respectively. Taken together and in contrast to most conventional cytotoxic drugs, TRAIL exerts enhanced antitumor activity against cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Therefore, TRAIL might represent an interesting drug to treat static-tumor disease, for example, during minimal residual disease. PMID:23744361

  3. Sudden cardiac arrest in a patient with epilepsy induced by chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Liu; Weicheng Hao; Xiaoming Yang; Yimin Wang; Yu Su

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed a patient with epilepsy due to chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface underwent sudden cardiac arrest. Paradoxical brain discharge, which occurred prior to epileptic seizures, induced a sudden cardiac arrest. However, when the focal brain pressure was relieved, cardiac arrest disappeared. A 27-year-old male patient underwent pre-surgical video-electroencephalogram monitoring for 160 hours. During monitoring, secondary tonic-clonic seizures occurred five times. A burst of paradoxical brain discharges occurred at 2-19 seconds (mean 8 seconds) prior to epileptic seizures. After 2-3 seconds, sudden cardiac arrest occurred and lasted for 12-22 seconds (average 16 seconds). The heart rate subsequently returned to a normal rate. Results revealed arachnoid pachymenia and adhesions, as well as mucus on the focal cerebral surface, combined with poor circulation and increased pressure. Intracranial electrodes were placed using surgical methods. Following removal of the arachnoid adhesions and mucus on the local cerebral surface, paradoxical brain discharge and epileptic seizures occurred three times, but sudden cardiac arrest was not recorded during 150-hour monitoring. Post-surgical histological examination indicated meningitis. Experimental findings suggested that paradoxical brain discharge led to cardiac arrest instead of epileptic seizures; the insult was associated with chronic inflammation on the cerebral surface, which subsequently led to hypertension and poor blood circulation in focal cerebral areas.

  4. A new on-line leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok-Hee [Research Center for Next-Generation High Voltage and Power Technology, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bhlee@inha.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Man [Research Center for Next-Generation High Voltage and Power Technology, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    This paper presents a new on-line leakage current monitoring system of zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters. To effectively diagnose the deterioration of ZnO surge arresters, a new algorithm and on-line leakage current detection device, which uses the time-delay addition method, for discriminating the resistive and capacitive currents was developed to use in the aging test and durability evaluation for ZnO arrester blocks. A computer-based measurement system of the resistive leakage current, the on-line monitoring device can detect accurately the leakage currents flowing through ZnO surge arresters for power frequency ac applied voltages. The proposed on-line leakage current monitoring device of ZnO surge arresters is more highly sensitive and gives more linear response than the existing devices using the detection method of the third harmonic leakage currents. Therefore, the proposed leakage current monitoring device can be useful for predicting the defects and performance deterioration of ZnO surge arresters in power system applications.

  5. Assessment of surge arrester failure rate and application studies in Hellenic high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Fotis, G.P.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The use of transmission line surge arresters to improve the lightning performance of transmission lines is becoming more common. Especially in areas with high soil resistivity and ground flash density, surge arresters constitute the most effective protection mean. In this paper a methodology for assessing the surge arrester failure rate based on the electrogeometrical model is presented. Critical currents that exceed arresters rated energy stress were estimated by the use of a simulation tool. The methodology is applied on operating Hellenic transmission lines of 150 kV. Several case studies are analyzed by installing surge arresters on different intervals, in relation to the region's tower footing resistance and the ground flash density. The obtained results are compared with real records of outage rate showing the effectiveness of the surge arresters in the reduction of the recorded failure rate. The presented methodology can be proved valuable to the studies of electric power systems designers intending in a more effective lightning protection, reducing the operational costs and providing continuity of service. (author)

  6. Co-ordination of spark-gap protection with zinc-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, A.; German, D.M.; Waters, R.T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Engineering, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Abdul-Malek, Z. [University of Technology (Malaysia)

    2001-01-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) surge arresters are now well established as a very efficient and reliable form of overvoltage protection against both fast surges, such as those generated by lightning and gas-insulated switchgear, and high-energy surges generated by switching operations and temporary faults on the network. The addition of ZnO surge arresters to existing protection schemes reinforces the system's reliability and the security of supply. The protection characteristics of the parallel configuration formed by arresters and existing spark gaps at distribution voltages are studied. Tests on various spark-gap geometries, with and without surge arresters in parallel, have been carried out to determine breakdown characteristics, probability curves and voltage-time characteristics for different impulse shapes. It is found that the introduction of the arrester in the circuit modifies the prospective impulse which results in the shift of the breakdown characteristics towards higher voltages. A proposed circuit model, based on laboratory test data, is used to simulate such parallel configurations. Good agreement between test and simulated results is obtained. As a result of these tests, it is recommended that gap-sparkover characteristics based on short-tail (about 5{mu}s) impulses are used for insulation co-ordination. The role of parallel airgaps in preserving the arrester energy-rating limits is also discussed. (Author)

  7. Contemporary approach to neurologic prognostication of coma after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamouda, Nawfel; Taccone, Fabio S; Rossetti, Andrea O; Oddo, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Coma after cardiac arrest (CA) is an important cause of admission to the ICU. Prognosis of post-CA coma has significantly improved over the past decade, particularly because of aggressive postresuscitation care and the use of therapeutic targeted temperature management (TTM). TTM and sedatives used to maintain controlled cooling might delay neurologic reflexes and reduce the accuracy of clinical examination. In the early ICU phase, patients' good recovery may often be indistinguishable (based on neurologic examination alone) from patients who eventually will have a poor prognosis. Prognostication of post-CA coma, therefore, has evolved toward a multimodal approach that combines neurologic examination with EEG and evoked potentials. Blood biomarkers (eg, neuron-specific enolase [NSE] and soluble 100-β protein) are useful complements for coma prognostication; however, results vary among commercial laboratory assays, and applying one single cutoff level (eg, > 33 μg/L for NSE) for poor prognostication is not recommended. Neuroimaging, mainly diffusion MRI, is emerging as a promising tool for prognostication, but its precise role needs further study before it can be widely used. This multimodal approach might reduce false-positive rates of poor prognosis, thereby providing optimal prognostication of comatose CA survivors. The aim of this review is to summarize studies and the principal tools presently available for outcome prediction and to describe a practical approach to the multimodal prognostication of coma after CA, with a particular focus on neuromonitoring tools. We also propose an algorithm for the optimal use of such multimodal tools during the early ICU phase of post-CA coma.

  8. Mechanisms involved in alternariol-induced cell cycle arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solhaug, A., E-mail: Anita.Solhaug@vetinst.no [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway); Vines, L.L. [Michigan State University, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, East Lansing, MI (United States); Ivanova, L.; Spilsberg, B. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway); Holme, J.A. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Environmental Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Pestka, J. [Michigan State University, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, East Lansing, MI (United States); Collins, A. [University of Oslo, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, G.S. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-15

    Alternariol (AOH), a mycotoxin produced by Alternaria sp, is often found as a contaminant in fruit and cereal products. Here we employed the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 to test the hypothesis that AOH causes toxicity as a response to DNA damage. AOH at concentrations of 15-30 {mu}M almost completely blocked cell proliferation. Within 30 min treatment, AOH (30 {mu}M) significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, DNA base oxidations as well as DNA strand breaks and/or alkaline labile sites were detected by the comet assay after 2 h exposure of AOH. Cell death (mostly necrosis) was observed after prolonged exposure to the highest concentration of AOH (60 {mu}M for 24 and 48 h) in our study. The DNA damage response involved phosphorylation (activation) of histone H2AX and check point kinase-1- and 2 (Chk-1/2). Moreover, AOH activated p53 and increased the expression of p21, Cyclin B, MDM2, and Sestrin 2; likewise the level of several miRNA was affected. AOH-induced Sestrin 2 expression was regulated by p53 and could at least partly be inhibited by antioxidants, suggesting a role of ROS in the response. Interestingly, the addition of antioxidants did not inhibit cell cycle arrest. Although the formation of ROS by itself was not directly linked cell proliferation, AOH-induced DNA damage and resulting transcriptional changes in p21, MDM2, and Cyclin B likely contribute to the reduced cell proliferation; while Sestrin 2 would contribute to the oxidant defense.

  9. Efficiency of thin magnetically arrested discs around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion discs around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disc theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height H to radius R of H/R ≈ 0.10) discs around moderately rotating BHs with a/M = 0.5. First, our simulations, each evolved for more than 70 000 rg/c (gravitational radius rg and speed of light c), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disc and builds-up to the magnetically arrested disc (MAD) state. Secondly, our simulations of thin MADs show the disc achieves a radiative efficiency of ηr ≈ 15 per cent (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of ηr ˜ 8 per cent for a/M = 0.5 and gives the same luminosity as an NT disc with a/M ≈ 0.9. Compared to prior simulations with ≲10 per cent deviations, our result of an ≈80 per cent deviation sets a new benchmark. Building on prior work, we are now able to complete an important scaling law which suggests that observed jet quenching in the high-soft state in BH X-ray binaries is consistent with an ever-present MAD state with a weak yet sustained jet.

  10. The Arrested Black Men in Europe: Criminal or Victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Africans detained in Austria have been targeted by police by their skin color, often are arrested with violence, are poorly defended by assigned defense lawyers, given longer sentences than Austrian citizens and have less access to alternatives or bail.A modified form of the United Nations Crime Victim questionnaire was administered to all the African prisoners at the Vienna’s Central Detention Facility. It revealed that the Africans were not only victims of violence (sometimes even torture and crimes (assault-58%, burglary-32%, fraud-27%, bribery-33% in their home countries, but also 24 percent had experienced assault, 16% theft, and 13% had been defrauded in Austria-much higher rates than the EU citizen. On the other hand, the Africans are rarely charged with burglary, robbery, or violent crimes. They are primarily arrested for the possession or sale of narcotic drugs (83% and an additional four percent for resisting arrest. This is primarily the result of insufficient financial support provided to asylum seekers and the prohibition to work pending their determination of immigrant status. Because of the long appeal processes and the practical impossibility of deporting certain nationalities, a type of underground community is taking root where simple survival is the determining factor whether to commit a non-violent offence. Les Africains détenus en Autriche sont visés par la police à cause de la couleur de leur peau; ils sont souvent arrêtés avec violence, sont mal défendus par leurs avocats de défense, doivent passer de plus longues périodes en prison que des citoyens autrichiens ayant commis un crime pareil, et ils ont moins d'accès aux mesures extrajudiciaires et au système de liberté sous caution. Une forme modifiée du questionnaire de victimes de crime des Nations Unies fut administrée à tous les prisonniers africains au Service Central de la Détention de Vienne. Les résultats indiquèrent que les Africains furent

  11. Multi-bed patient room architectural evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Sklavou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leveraging the physical environment’s merits is crucial in healthcare settings towards fostering sustainable healing conditions. In the future, the need to retrofit hospitals already appears more probable than to build new facilities. In Greece, holistic healthcare architecture has significant potential and room to develop. Aim: The architectural research of multi-bed patient room environment. Method: A sample of multi-bed patient rooms of a Greek hospital was studied per architectural documentation and user evaluation survey. Beyond recording the existing situation and user experience, user group differences and the influence of window proximity were studied. The survey sample was based on convenience and comprised 160 patients and 136 visitors. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 20, using chi-square exact tests of independence. The chosen level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: Architectural documentation showed that the building morphology had a positive impact in patient rooms, with regard to sunlight penetration and view. Further solar daylight control was deemed necessary, to facilitate overall environmental comfort conditions. High spatial density and considerable disadvantages of the middle patient bed, compared to the one bedside the window and the one further in the back of the room, were also ascertained. User groups did not evaluate their surroundings significantly different, with the exception of ease of access to the view. Window proximity influenced both patients and visitors in evaluating ease of access to the view and visual discomfort. Patients were further affected on window size evaluation and visitors on view related aspects. Conclusions: Synergy between building form and function contributes in creating holistic sustainable healing environments. User evaluation can deviate from objective documentation. Patients and visitors experienced the patient room in a similar manner. The middle bed was

  12. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  13. Temporal Trends in Coverage of Historical Cardiac Arrests Using a Volunteer-Based Network of Automated External Defibrillators Accessible to Laypersons and Emergency Dispatch Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    public cardiac arrest coverage in high- and low-risk areas. METHODS AND RESULTS: All public cardiac arrests (1994-2011) and all registered AEDs (2007-2011) in Copenhagen, Denmark, were identified and geocoded. AED coverage of cardiac arrests was defined as historical arrests ≤100 m from an AED. High...

  14. Fluctuations and time scales for bed-load sediment motion over a smooth bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Ballio n; Alessio Radice

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented for experiments of bed-load sediment transport over a plane, smooth bed. The smooth-bed configuration, though not adequate for mimicking natural streams, enables the effects of bed roughness to be filtered out, thus, highlighting the role of flow turbulence for particle dynamics. Sediments were individually tracked along their paths, measuring position and velocity of the individual grains. A number of analyses were then applied to the data: probability density function, auto-correla-tion, and spectra of the grain velocity. Several Lagrangian time scales of particle motion were obtained and compared to available data for the turbulent flow field to determine a phenomenological inter-pretation of the process.

  15. Centerline Bed Elevation Profile of Sand Bed Channel due to Bar Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholibon, D. A.; Ariffin, J.; Abdullah, J.; Muhamad, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    Numerous data on bar formation have been accumulated yet the methods to predict bar geometry especially bar height are still insufficient. Objectives of this study to determine the trend in term of a significant difference of centreline bed elevation profile along the longitudinal distance. This can be investigate by carried out an experimental work in an erodible sand bed channel using a large-scale physical river model. The study included the various hydraulic characteristics with steady flow rates and sediment supply. An experimental work consists of four matrices of flow rate and channel width with other variables namely grains size and bed slope were kept constant. Analysis have included the discussion on a significant difference of centreline bed elevation profile along the longitudinal distance. As a conclusion the higher velocity in the smaller channel width have induced erosion of the banks that resulted in elevation increase while the larger flow rates have contributed to higher elevation.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF CYLINDER-TO-BED HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cylinder-to-bed heat transfer in agitated fluidized beds was studied experimentally.In the experiments, the aluminum particles were used as bed material, the diameter of which ranges from 0.5mm to 2mm.The effects of gas velocity, particles size, and agitator rotary speed on heat transfer were studied.From the experimental results, we have come to the following conclusions: (1) There are optimal ranges for airflow velocity and rotary speed to get optimal heat transfer coefficient; (2) The cylinder-to-bed heat transfer is greatly affected by gas velocity, rotary speed and particles sizes and the effect of rotary speed on heat transfer is similar to that of gas velocity; (3) Higher heat transfer coefficient is obtained with smaller particles.

  17. Measuring bed shear stress along vegetated river beds using FST-hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann-Evans, B N; Davies, R; Falconer, R A

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of the bed shear stress along vegetated river beds is essential for accurately predicting the water level, velocity and solute and sediment transport fluxes in computational hydroenvironmental models. Details are given herein of an experimental and theoretical study to determine the bed boundary shear stress along vegetated river beds introducing a novel field measuring method, namely the FliessWasserStammtisch (FST)-hemispheres. Although investigations have been conducted previously for sedimentary channels using the FST-hemispheres, this preliminary study is thought to be the first time that such hemispheres have been used to investigate the bed shear stresses in vegetated channels. FST-hemispheres were first developed by Statzner and Müller [1989. Standard hemispheres as indicators of flow characteristics in lotic benthos research. Freshwater Biology 21, 445-459] to act as an integrated indicator of the gross hydrodynamic stresses present near the bed. Test and validation data were found to be at least of the same order of magnitude for the stresses predicted from literature for sedimentary channels, with this study establishing the commencement of a database of calibrated FST-hemisphere laboratory data for vegetated channel beds. In a series of experiments, depths ranging from 0.1 to 0.28 m were considered, equating directly to comparable conditions in small rivers or streams. The results of this study provide a basis for enabling the FST-hemispheres to be used to evaluate the boundary shear stress for a wider range of applications in the future, including vegetated river beds.

  18. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  19. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease.

  20. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Publication ... Line For Your Information The Impact of Bed Rest and Inactivity Some people can’t perform weight- ...

  1. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  2. Deleterious Thermal Effects Due To Randomized Flow Paths in Pebble Bed, and Particle Bed Style Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    A review of literature associated with Pebble Bed and Particle Bed reactor core research has revealed a systemic problem inherent to reactor core concepts which utilize randomized rather than structured coolant channel flow paths. For both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor designs; case studies reveal that for indeterminate reasons, regions within the core would suffer from excessive heating leading to thermal runaway and localized fuel melting. A thermal Computational Fluid Dynamics model was utilized to verify that In both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor concepts randomized coolant channel pathways combined with localized high temperature regions would work together to resist the flow of coolant diverting it away from where it is needed the most to cooler less resistive pathways where it is needed the least. In other words given the choice via randomized coolant pathways the reactor coolant will take the path of least resistance, and hot zones offer the highest resistance. Having identified the relationship between randomized coolant channel pathways and localized fuel melting it is now safe to assume that other reactor concepts that utilize randomized coolant pathways such as the foam core reactor are also susceptible to this phenomenon.

  3. Flow Pattern Identification of Fluidized Beds Using ECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Liu; W.Q. Yang; H. Wang; G. Yan; Z. Pan

    2001-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) was applied in measuring solids distribution in square circulating fluidized beds. The fluidization conditions varied from bubbling fluidized bed to circulating fluidized bed. In the whole range of fluidization conditions, ECT was able to instantaneously provide the solids concentration and voids distributions in the fluidized beds. According to the acquired data from ECT and reconstructed image,different fluidization regimes can also be identified.

  4. Collecting aerosol in airflow with a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSB) is a highly efficient filter that takes the advantage of both fluidized beds and fixed beds. This paper presents the research to collect aerosol in airflow with a MSB. The filtering model of MSB is established with its parameters including magnetic field intensity,gas superficial velocity, average grain-size, and bed height on thecollection efficiency of MSB. The model is verified by experiments.

  5. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  6. Fluidization of potato starch in a stirred vibrating fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Stamhuis, Eize; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    A novel gas-solid reactor for cohesive C-powders such as potato starch is introduced, designed and characterized, the so-called stirred vibrating fluidized bed. The effects of a sinusoidal vibration of the gas distributor and/or stirring of the bed are investigated. The fluidization index, bed expan

  7. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a) Identification. An air-fluidized bed is a device employing the circulation of filtered air through...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5225 - Powered patient rotation bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered patient rotation bed. 890.5225 Section 890.5225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... rotation bed. (a) Identification. A powered patient rotation bed is a device that turns a patient who...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5140 - Pediatric hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pediatric hospital bed. 880.5140 Section 880.5140...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5140 Pediatric hospital bed. (a) Identification. A pediatric hospital bed is a...

  10. Model for the Evolving Bed Surface around an Offshore Monopile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Peres Akrawi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the bed surface around an offshore monopile. The model has been designed from measured laboratory bed surfaces and is shown to reproduce these satisfactorily for both scouring and backfilling. The local rate of the bed elevation is assumed to satisfy a certain gene...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual patient rotation bed. (a) Identification. A manual patient rotation bed is a device that turns a patient who...

  12. Core Physics of Pebble Bed High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auwerda, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    To more accurately predict the temperature distribution inside the reactor core of pebble bed type high temperature reactors, in this thesis we investigated the stochastic properties of randomly stacked beds and the effects of the non-homogeneity of these beds on the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic

  13. Udder health in a Danish compost bedded pack barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennesen, Line; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt;

    Besides welfare advantages of the compost bedded pack system (CBP) there could be a negative effect of the organic bedding on udder health. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of a CBP on udder health compared to a free stall system (FS) with sand bedded cubicles. Within the same Danish...

  14. The Principle of Proportionality and the European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Haggenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Arrest Warrant (EAW is a grossly coercive instrument that was designed for the persecution of serious cross-border crimes. In recent years, however, Member States have increasingly reported cases in which EAWs have not been issued for serious, but rather for harmless and minor offences. This article analyses the reasons behind the disproportionate use of the EAW and outlines measures to alleviate the problem. Thereby, it claims that in current debates different categories of disproportionate use of EAWs are often lumped together, and only concentrate on the introduction of a (binding proportionality test, failing to consider other alternative legislative solutions regarding minor crimes, such as the introduction of new comparable and effective alternative measures. These, however, are considered to be crucial for an alleviation of disproportionate warrants. La orden de detención europea (ODE es un instrumento extremadamente coercitivo que fue diseñado para la persecución de delitos transfronterizos graves. En años recientes, sin embargo, los Estados miembro han notificado cada vez más casos en los que la ODE no se debía a delitos serios, sino a casos menores e inofensivos.. En este artículo se analizan las razones que hay detrás del uso desproporcionado de la orden de detención europea y propone medidas para paliar el problema. De esta manera, se defiende que el debate actual, frecuentemente agrupan diferentes categorías de uso desproporcionado de la ODE, y sólo se concentran en la introducción de un test de proporcionalidad (vinculante, sin tener en cuenta otras soluciones legislativas alternativas, en lo que respecta a delitos menores, como la introducción de nuevas medidas alternativas, comparables y eficaces. Sin embargo, se considera que estas medidas son cruciales para reducir las órdenes de arresto desproporcionadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200874

  15. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  16. The Effects of Local Police Surges on Crime and Arrests in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City's low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops.

  17. Sophisticated framework between cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction based on p53 dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hiroyuki; Tashima, Yoshihiko; Kisaka, Yu; Iwamoto, Kazunari; Hanai, Taizo; Eguchi, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The tumor suppressor, p53, regulates several gene expressions that are related to the DNA repair protein, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, which activates the implementation of both cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. However, it is not clear how p53 specifically regulates the implementation of these functions. By applying several well-known kinetic mathematical models, we constructed a novel model that described the influence that DNA damage has on the implementation of both the G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and the intrinsic apoptosis induction via its activation of the p53 synthesis process. The model, which consisted of 32 dependent variables and 115 kinetic parameters, was used to examine interference by DNA damage in the implementation of both G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and intrinsic apoptosis induction. A low DNA damage promoted slightly the synthesis of p53, which showed a sigmoidal behavior with time. In contrast, in the case of a high DNA damage, the p53 showed an oscillation behavior with time. Regardless of the DNA damage level, there were delays in the G2/M progression. The intrinsic apoptosis was only induced in situations where grave DNA damage produced an oscillation of p53. In addition, to wreck the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax the induction of apoptosis required an extreme activation of p53 produced by the oscillation dynamics, and was only implemented after the release of the G2/M phase arrest. When the p53 oscillation is observed, there is possibility that the cell implements the apoptosis induction. Moreover, in contrast to the cell cycle arrest system, the apoptosis induction system is responsible for safeguarding the system that suppresses malignant transformations. The results of these experiments will be useful in the future for elucidating of the dominant factors that determine the cell fate such as normal cell cycles, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  18. The Effects of Local Police Surges on Crime and Arrests in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City’s low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops. PMID:27310252

  19. Cell cycle arrest and cell survival induce reverse trends of cardiolipin remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chao

    Full Text Available Cell survival from the arrested state can be a cause of the cancer recurrence. Transition from the arrest state to the growth state is highly regulated by mitochondrial activity, which is related to the lipid compositions of the mitochondrial membrane. Cardiolipin is a critical phospholipid for the mitochondrial integrity and functions. We examined the changes of cardiolipin species by LC-MS in the transition between cell cycle arrest and cell reviving in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We have identified 41 cardiolipin species by MS/MS and semi-quantitated them to analyze the detailed changes of cardiolipin species. The mass spectra of cardiolipin with the same carbon number form an envelope, and the C64, C66, C68, C70 C72 and C74 envelopes in HT1080 cells show a normal distribution in the full scan mass spectrum. The cardiolipin quantity in a cell decreases while entering the cell cycle arrest, but maintains at a similar level through cell survival. While cells awakening from the arrested state and preparing itself for replication, the groups with short acyl chains, such as C64, C66 and C68 show a decrease of cardiolipin percentage, but the groups with long acyl chains, such as C70 and C72 display an increase of cardiolipin percentage. Interestingly, the trends of the cardiolipin species changes during the arresting state are completely opposite to cell growing state. Our results indicate that the cardiolipin species shift from the short chain to long chain cardiolipin during the transition from cell cycle arrest to cell progression.

  20. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  1. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 李修伦

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39 mm ID and 2.0 m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum.The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39mm ID and 2.0m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum. The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Griggs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2011. Around 344 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with the majority of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated/ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice shelf thickness was determined where a floating tongue exists, in particular in the north. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings near the ice sheet margin and 2.5 km in the interior. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±6 m to about ±200 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new data sets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes most marked. We use the new bed and surface DEMs to calculate the hydraulic potential for subglacial flow and present the large scale pattern of water routing. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land/ice mask would raise eustatic sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  4. A Primer on Wound Bed Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gokoo, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Successful wound closure and healing are a major concern for today's clinician. Determining if the wound will progress or not relies on a comprehensive assessment, recognition of wound characteristics that will promote or impede the healing process and preparing the wound bed such that pathological features are removed allowing the healing cascade to occur. When complications are no longer a roadblock the wound will achieve a stable microenvironment and progress through the normal repairative...

  5. Transcriptomics of the Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna P Rajarapu; Jones, Susan C.; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pestici...

  6. Biological denitrification in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjari, N K; Khilar, K C; Mahajan, S P

    1984-12-01

    A fluidized bed biofilm reactor using sand as the carrier particle was employed to study the effects of superficial velocity on the removal of nitrates as well as on the growth of the biofilm. Velocity was found to affect significantly both nitrate removal and biofilm growth. An analysis based on heterogenous catalysis was used to describe the denitrification process. There is good agreement between analysis and experimental measurements for startup and steady-state operating conditions.

  7. Particle Dynamics and Gravel-Bed Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    detecteur des movement des sediments fins. Societe hydrotechnique de France. Transport Hydraulique et Decantation des Materiaux Solides. pp3 9 p. 38...Kirkby, MJ. (Eds.) Channel Ndork Hydrology. Wiley. Chichester. pp 129-173. 67. Lapointe, M.F. (1992) Burst-like sediment suspension events in a sand bed...alluvial sand suspension by eddy correlation. Earth Surface Processes & Landforms, 11, (in press). 69. Soulsby, R.L. (1983) The bottom boundary layer of

  8. Cluster Dynamics in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C.P.; Breault, R.W.

    2006-11-01

    A common hydrodynamic feature in industrial scale circulating fluidized beds is the presence of clusters. The continuous formation and destruction of clusters strongly influences particle hold-up, pressure drop, heat transfer at the wall, and mixing. In this paper fiber optic data is analyzed using discrete wavelet analysis to characterize the dynamic behavior of clusters. Five radial positions at three different axial locations under five different operating were analyzed using discrete wavelets. Results are summarized with respect to cluster size and frequency.

  9. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  10. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Piculell, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  11. Advanced Low-Temperature Fluid Bed Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the results obtained in an ongoing study geared towards developing advanced mixed-metal oxide sorbents for desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550{degrees}C. The paper focuses on the study related to the development of durable sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed application and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics, regenerability, and the physical and chemical characteristics of a number of novel sorbents.

  12. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  13. LIVE-BED SCOUR IN LONG CONTRACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY; Rajkumar V.RAIKAR

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analytical model, developed using the energy and continuity equations,for the computation of the live-bed scour depth in long contractions. The model agrees satisfactorily with experimental data. Equations previously proposed in the literature for estimation of the equilibrium scour depth in long contractions are compared with experimental data. The comparison indicates that the equation given by Lim is the best predictor among those examined.

  14. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  15. Effect of Multiple Lightning Strikes on .the Performance of ZnOLightning Arrester Block%Effect of Multiple Lightning Strikes on .the Performance of ZnOLightning Arrester Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haryono T; Sirait K T; Tumiran; Hamzah Berahim

    2011-01-01

    A lightning arrester is used for electrical equipment protection against damage due to lightning strikes. One example of protected electrical equipment is electrical power transformer. If there is no lightning arrester installed to the transformer, when a lightning strike happens, it may receive a very high lightning overvoltage, which is certainly resulted in the transformer damage at its insulation. Usually, a lightning arrester specification data attached to a light- ning arrester contains the rating data of the lightning arrester current and voltage. In the use of lightning arrester, the possibility of receiving multiple lightning strikes is not taken into account sometimes. In fact, in some places, the number of multiple strikes in short duration is quiet high in number. This condition makes the lightning arrester being stroked by multiple lightning strikes. Therefore, it may change the lightning arrester's properties, and then the arrester may not be able to provide good electrical equipment protection against lightning strike anymore. This condition will result in great loss to electrical companies and electrical consumers. Therefore, this research studied the effect of applying multiple lightning strikes to ZnO lightning arrester block. Every time a group of lightning impulse current is applied to the ZnO lightning arrester block, it is followed by the measuring of its 50 Hz voltage and current characteristic. The changing in the ZnO lightning arrester block 50 Hz characteristic then can be analyzed. It was found that by applying more numbers of lightning strikes which made the arrester becoming worse, even though, actually, the lightning impulse peak current was still under the rating of the lightning arrester current. In this ease for a 5 kA, 24 kV lightning arrester, even though the lightning impulse peak current flowing through the ZnO lightning arrester block was still 2500 A, the lightning arrester ZnO block had already been damaged. Having been

  16. Trykfald over en bed af fliskoks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    En (atmosfærisk) luftstrøm ledtes gennem en fast bed af delvist forgasset fliskoks med en binær partikelstørrelsesfordeling (8 og 16 mm). Under variation af størrelsesfordeling og strømningshastighed registreredes det resulterende trykfald gennem bedden. Eksisterende estimationsformler for trykfa......En (atmosfærisk) luftstrøm ledtes gennem en fast bed af delvist forgasset fliskoks med en binær partikelstørrelsesfordeling (8 og 16 mm). Under variation af størrelsesfordeling og strømningshastighed registreredes det resulterende trykfald gennem bedden. Eksisterende estimationsformler...... for trykfaldet blev valideret for de givne kokspartikler. Note: Dette er en bearbejdning af rapporten “Trykfald over en Bed af Fliskoks” ved Donovan og Hindsgaul 1997 [1]. I nogle tilfælde er brugen af symboler ændret i forhold til rapporten for at opnå bedre konsistens ligesom fundne fejl er rettet. Både den...

  17. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  18. Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

    1982-04-01

    The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

  19. Thermal degradation of PMMA in fluidised beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, K; Baeyens, J

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the production and consumption of plastics have increased significantly and wastes are commonly incinerated or dumped in a landfill. Plastics pyrolysis, on the other hand, may provide an alternative means for disposal of plastic wastes with recovery of valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons or the monomer. Pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) may result in very high recycling rates (90-98%) of the monomer methylmethacrylate (MMA) since the cracking of MMA to lighter molecules (CO2, CO and light hydrocarbons) is limited. The MMA-yield is mainly dependent on the residence time of the gas in the reactor and to a lesser extent on the operating temperature. The paper presents experimental work performed in a lead bath and in a fluidised bed. At low temperatures, the reaction is kinetically controlled, whereas at high temperatures, heat transfer restricts the overall reaction rate. It was demonstrated that the heat transfer in the fluid bed could be estimated by the equation of Kothari. A design procedure for a fluid bed PMMA-depolymerisation reactor is outlined and illustrated for a process of 1 tpd PMMA.

  20. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  1. Shock Interaction with Random Spherical Particle Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we present results on fully resolved simulations of shock interaction with randomly distributed bed of particles. Multiple simulations were carried out by varying the number of particles to isolate the effect of volume fraction. Major focus of these simulations was to understand 1) the effect of the shockwave and volume fraction on the forces experienced by the particles, 2) the effect of particles on the shock wave, and 3) fluid mediated particle-particle interactions. Peak drag force for particles at different volume fractions show a downward trend as the depth of the bed increased. This can be attributed to dissipation of energy as the shockwave travels through the bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations was the fluctuations in different quantities due to presence of multiple particles and their random distribution. These are large simulations with hundreds of particles resulting in large amount of data. We present statistical analysis of the data and make relevant observations. Average pressure in the computational domain is computed to characterize the strengths of the reflected and transmitted waves. We also present flow field contour plots to support our observations. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  2. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  3. Hydrodynamic characterization of fluid bed cokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapper, B. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Berruti, F. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada); Grace, J.R.; Bi, H.T.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd. uses fluid bed cokers for thermal conversion of bitumen from Northern Alberta tar sands into distillates. This paper presents the results of a study that examined the hydrodynamic characteristics of a geometrically and dynamically scaled-down cold flow model of an industrial fluid bed coker. The cold flow model was constructed with Plexiglass with a semi-circular geometry to enable flow visualization of the solid particles. Several operating conditions were examined and measured for key characteristic parameters. Local void fractions were measured with an optical fibre probe, and a suction probe was used to determine the local solids mass fluxes at varying radial and axial locations of the fluidized bed. It was determined that there are large axial and radial variations in both the local voidage and solids mass flux in terms of gas-solids flow. The core-annulus model for dilute riser flow gives unsatisfactory predictions because the model is not able to forecast radial variations in the annular region. A modified core-annulus flow model was developed to address this problem. The modified model has continuous profiles for the gas velocity and solids flux to significantly improve predictions.16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  5. FBR and RBR particle bed space reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compact, high-performance nuclear reactor designs based on High-Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) particulate fuel are investigated. The large surface area available with the small-diameter (approx. 500 microns) particulate fuel allows very high power densities (MW's/liter), small temperature differences between fuel and coolant (approx. 10/sup 0/K), high coolant-outlet temperatures (1500 to 3000/sup 0/K, depending on design), and fast reactor startup (approx. 2 to 3 seconds). Two reactor concepts are developed - the Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR), where the fuel particles are packed into a thin annular bed between two porous cylindrical drums, and the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR), where the fuel particles are held inside a cold rotating (typically approx. 500 rpm) porous cylindrical drum. The FBR can operate steady-state in the closed-cycle He-cooled mode or in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode. The RBR will operate only in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode.

  6. Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wright

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.85 for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03-1.57 for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 microg/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88-2.03 for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1

  7. A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ABILITY OF THE ARRESTER TO ABSORB ENERGY WITHOUT BREAKING THE HEAT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Shevchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The aim of this study is to obtain a method for determining the capacity surge arrester nonlinear absorb energy without breaking the heat balance in modes of long-term application of operating voltage, which allows for analysis of their work in terms of violations as electricity. Methodology. For values of the energy passing through the arrester must be able to determine the current value for the voltage value in the area of leakage current-voltage characteristics. We have carried out calculations of the energy passing everywhere arrester for certain periods of time based on the current-voltage characteristics obtained experimentally. Analysis of the experimental current-voltage characteristics of resistors and literature led to the important conclusion that the dielectric properties of the ceramic varistor affect the value of active power losses in the arrester only when the active component of the leakage current is very small. This is confirmed by the characteristics of different classes of varistor voltage. This property of varistors and surge arresters shows the need to consider how the dielectric and conductive properties of the varistor ceramics in the analysis of work in the area of the arrester leakage current-voltage characteristic. These results demonstrate the need to clarify the mathematical model and the method for determining the energy dissipates in the area of the arrester leakage current CVC with their account. Results. The study, an improved mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester during its working life. The study obtained the method, of evaluation capacity surge arrester, maintains heat balance throughout working life. Based on experimentally obtained current-voltage characteristic of the varistors is defined voltage at which surge arrester starts conducting active current. This allowed to receive specified mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester and develop a method

  8. Fluidized-bed reactors processes and operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluidized-bed reactor is the centerpiece of industrial fluidization processes. This book focuses on the design and operation of fluidized beds in many different industrial processes, emphasizing the rationale for choosing fluidized beds for each particular process. The book starts with a brief history of fluidization from its inception in the 1940’s. The authors present both the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the extensive experimental studies of operating systems and they set them in the context of operating processes that use fluid-bed reactors. Chemical engineering students and postdocs as well as practicing engineers will find great interest in this book.

  9. Modification of the Engelund bed-load formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Meng; Danxun Li; Xingkui Wang

    2016-01-01

    The classic Engelund bed-load formula involves four oversimplified assumptions concerning the quantity of particles per unit bed area that can be potentially entrained into motion, the probability of sediment being entrained into motion at a given instant, the mean velocity of bed-load motion, and the dimen-sionless incipient shear stress. These four aspects are reexamined in the light of new findings in hydrodynamics, and a modified bed-load formula is then proposed. The modified formula shows promise as being reliable in predicting bed-load transport rates in a wide range of flow intensities.

  10. Some hydrodynamic aspects of 3-phase inverse fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of 3-phase inverse fluidized bed is studied experimentally using low density particles for different liquid and gas velocities.The hydrodynamic characteristics studied include pressure drop, minimum liquid and gas fluidization velocities and phase holdups. The minimum liquid fluidization velocity determined using the bed pressure gradient, decreases with increase in gas velocity. The axial profiles of phase holdups shows that the liquid holdup increases along the bed height, whereas the solid holdup decreases down the bed. However, the gas holdup is almost uniform in the bed.

  11. Main Complications of Mild Induced Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimanpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the complications of mild induced hypothermia (MIH in patients with cardiac arrest. Presently, based on the guidelines of the American heart Association, MIH following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in unconscious adult patients due to ventricular fibrillation (VF with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA is essential and required. However, MIH could be associated with complications in Patients with cardiac arrest. Studies conducted on the precautions and care following cardiac arrest and MIH were included. Valid scientific data bases were used for data collection. The obtained results from different studies revealed that mild MIH could be associated with numerous complications and the knowledge and awareness of the medical staff from the complications is required to guarantee successful therapeutic approaches in MIH following cardiac arrest which is a novel medical facility with different styles and complications. Overall, further future studies are required to improve the quality of MIH, to increase survival and to decrease complications rates.

  12. A novel program focused on women survivors who were enrolled in a cardiac arrest pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Eyal; Tamis, Jacqueline; Aziz, Emad F; Shapiro, Janet M

    2013-03-01

    The number of cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is estimated to be 300,000/year in the United States. Two landmark studies published in 2002 demonstrated that therapeutic hypothermia decreased mortality and improved neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our institutional pathway for the management of survivors of cardiac arrest stresses teamwork involving multiple disciplines, including cardiology, critical care, nursing, neurology, infectious diseases, physical therapy, social work, and pastoral care. Involvement of the patients' families is critical in the understanding of the process and in the decision making and goals of care when neurological prognosis is poor. In a unique approach, we have included the survivors in the process. Our approach to quality improvement includes a yearly conference incorporating the voices of survivors and families. This conference serves as a means to review our experience, educate clinicians, involve all healthcare providers in the outcome, and provide a model of communication and professionalism to trainees. During review of our experience, we noted the small number of women undergoing therapeutic hypothermia, accounting for only 21% of all patients undergoing this therapy after cardiac arrest. This led to a conference that focused on cardiac disease and cardiac arrest in women.

  13. Arrester installations for improving the lightning performance of double circuits distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanasaksiri, T. [ChiangMai Univ., ChianMai (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) of Thailand serves 99 per cent of the the country's power customers. The main power distribution lines used by PEA consist of 22 and 33 kV high voltage distribution systems and a 400/230 V low voltage system. In order to supply more energy and for economic reasons, distribution lines for industrial and commercial loads consist of double circuits. Lightning strikes on either circuit can affect the other. There are different methods that can be used to reduce the number of flashovers on lines and improve the lightning performance of lines. This paper presented a method for improving the lightning performance of 22 kV double circuit overhead distribution lines by means of arrester installations. The study focused both on partial and full arrester installations and considered arrester energy discharge. The paper discussed the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) model of systems studied, including a pole and footing impedance model; a line model; an arrester model; an insulator model; a flashover model; and a lightning source model. The studied configurations included pole structure types; phase and ground wire conductors; lightning arresters; insulators; and ground rods. It was concluded that full installation provides better lightning performance compared to partial installation. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  15. Anthelmintic efficacy against tissue-arrested larvae of Ancylostoma caninum in murine hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, P

    1998-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of the major human and canine Ancylostoma hookworm species have the capacity to undergo developmental arrest in the somatic tissues of an infected host. Arrested larvae reactivate at opportune periods such as pregnancy, which results in the transmammary transmission of infection to the nursing neonates. Using murine paratenic hosts to focus specifically on tissue-arrested stages of Ancylostoma caninum, the present study found that neither recommended nor elevated doses of commonly used anthelmintics were effective in eliminating latent infections at the accepted standard of greater than 90% reduction in parasite burden. Of the drugs tested, i.e., pyrantel, fenbendazole, ivermectin, and milbemycin, ivermectin was the most effective and engendered an 80% reduction in the burden of tissue-arrested A. caninum larvae but only if administered repeatedly or at elevated doses. Studies in 2 inbred mouse strains, BALB/c (H-2b) and C57BL/6 (H-2d), that typically display divergent immune responses to various infections showed no significant differences in the efficacies of the drugs tested. The results of this study indicate that there is still a need for effective strategies of eradicating latent infections with tissue-arrested hookworm larvae.

  16. Clinical experience and skills of physicians in hospital cardiac arrest teams in Denmark: a nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Kasper G; Schmidt, Anders S; Caap, Philip; Aagaard, Rasmus; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background The quality of in-hospital resuscitation is poor and may be affected by the clinical experience and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. This study aimed to investigate the clinical experience, self-perceived skills, CPR training and knowledge of the guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation among physicians of cardiac arrest teams. Methods We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study in Denmark. Telephone interviews were conducted with physicians in the cardiac arrest teams in public somatic hospitals using a structured questionnaire. Results In total, 93 physicians (53% male) from 45 hospitals participated in the study. Median age was 34 (interquartile range: 30–39) years. Respondents were medical students working as locum physicians (5%), physicians in training (79%) and consultants (16%), and the median postgraduate clinical experience was 48 (19–87) months. Most respondents (92%) felt confident in treating a cardiac arrest, while fewer respondents felt confident in performing intubation (41%) and focused cardiac ultrasound (39%) during cardiac arrest. Median time since last CPR training was 4 (2–10) months, and 48% had attended a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Advanced Life Support course. The majority (84%) felt confident in terminating resuscitation; however, only 9% were able to state the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation. Conclusion Physicians of Danish cardiac arrest teams are often inexperienced and do not feel competent performing important clinical skills during resuscitation. Less than half have attended an ERC Advanced Life Support course, and only very few physicians know the ERC guidelines on when to abandon resuscitation.

  17. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehdi Nafar; Gevork B Gharehpetian; Taher Niknam

    2011-12-01

    Accurate modelling and exact determination of Metal Oxide (MO) surge arrester parameters are very important for arrester allocation, insulation coordination studies and systems reliability calculations. In this paper, a new technique, which is the combination of Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms and linking the MATLAB and EMTP, is proposed to estimate the parameters of MO surge arrester models. The proposed algorithm is named Modified Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (MAPSO). In the proposed algorithm, to overcome the drawback of the PSO algorithm (convergence to local optima), the inertia weight is tuned by using fuzzy rules and the cognitive and the social parameters are self-adaptively adjusted. Also, to improve the global search capability and prevent the convergence to local minima, ACO algorithm is combined to the proposed APSO algorithm. The transient models of MO surge arrester have been simulated by using ATP-EMTP. The results of simulations have been applied to the program, which is based on MAPSO algorithm and can determine the fitness and parameters of different models. The validity and the accuracy of estimated parameters of surge arrester models are assessed by comparing the predicted residual voltage with experimental results.

  18. STUDY ON SURGE ARRESTER PERFORMANCE DUE TO LIGHTNING STROKE IN 20 KV DISTRIBUTION LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Warsito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy has been transmiting from power station to end user with transmission and distribution lines.Lightning strokes are problems that occure in transmission and distribution lines and make them fault when theelectric energy were transmited. Surge Diverter or Lightning Arrester has been installing to reduce these faults.In this paper the simulation of lightning stroke and lightning arrester performance on distribution lines 20 kVwere done using EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Program. Some parameters such us impuls voltage andincreasing voltage on distribution line was inverstigated. As case study in this simulation, Mojosongo 1 mainfeeder 20 kV three phase lines were used.The simulation results show that the lightning stroke 20 kA in By1-61-61E-84-9I on S phase at 0,1 ms, makevoltage on S phase was increased about 1,3054 MV. For R phase and T phase will increase of induced voltagewere 0.79539 MV and 0.80484 MV. We also show the performance of MOV Arrester (Metal Oxide Varistor inovercoming lightning stroke trouble, where arrester can decrease voltage up to 15.198 kV on S phase, while atR phase and T phase arrester can decrease voltage up to 11.375 kV and 13.616 kV.

  19. Effective Installations Technique of Grounding Conductors for Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H.; Kang, S.M. [Inha University, Inchon (Korea); Ryu, I.S. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    This paper deals with the effects of grounding conductors for metal oxide surge arresters. When surge arresters are improperly installed, the results can cause costly damage of electrical equipments. In particular, the route of surge arrester connection is very important because bends and links of leads increase the impedances to lightning surges and tend to nullify the effectiveness of a grounding conductor. Therefore, there is a need to know how effective installation of lightning surge arresters is made in order to control voltage and to absorb energy at high lightning currents. The effectiveness of a grounding conductor and 18 [kV] metal oxide distribution line arresters was experimentally investigated under the lightning and oscillatory impulse voltages. Thus, the results are as follows; (1) The induced voltage of a grounding conductor is drastically not affected by length of a connecting line, but it is very sensitive to types of grounding conductor. (2) The coaxial cable having a low characteristic impedance is suitable as a grounding conductor. (3) It is also clear from these results that bonding the metal raceway enclosing the grounding conductor to the grounding electrode is very effective because of skin effect. (4) The induced voltages of grounding conductors for the oscillatory impulse voltages are approximately twice as large as those for the lightning impulse voltages. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Nitrogen removal in a combined system: vertical vegetated bed over horizontal flow sand bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, S; Neamkam, P; Shutes, R B

    2001-01-01

    Pig farm wastewater creates various problems in many areas throughout Thailand. Constructed wetland systems are an appropriate, low cost treatment option for tropical countries such as Thailand. In this study, a combined system (a vertical flow bed planted with Cyperus flabelliformis over a horizontal flow sand bed without plants) was used to treat settled pig farm wastewater. This system is suitable for using in farms where land is limited. The average COD and nitrogen loading rate of the vegetated vertical flow bed were 105 g/m2 x d and 11 g/m2 x d respectively. The wastewater was fed intermittently at intervals of 4 hours with a hydraulic loading rate of 3.7 cm/d. The recirculation of the effluent increased total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency from 71% to 85%. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies were 95% and 98%. Nitrification was significant in vertical flow Cyperus bed, and the concentration of nitrate increased by a factor of 140. The horizontal flow sand bed enhanced COD removal and nitrate reduction was 60%. Plant uptake of nitrogen was 1.1 g N/m2 x d or dry biomass production was 2.8 kg/m2 over 100 days.

  1. Bed-To-Wall Heat Transfer in a Supercritical Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.

  2. In-bed sulphur capture during pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-11-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology is developing a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for the production of oil from Eastern oil shales. The sulphur present in the Eastern oil shales is converted to H{sub 2}S during hydroretorting. A solid sorbent (limestone or siderite) may be added to the PFH reactor with the oil shale to achieve in-bed desulphurization. The effects of operating conditions on the effectiveness of in-bed sulphur capture with limestone and siderite have been investigated. Reactivities of a limestone and a siderite towards H{sub 2}S were determined in experiments conducted in an ambient pressure thermogravimetric analyser. These tests were conducted in the temperature range of 480-565{degree}C using solid sorbents with an average particle diameter of 0.018 cm ({minus}60{plus}100 mesh). The results of thermogravimetric analysis tests indicate that both limestone and siderite should be capable of capturing a significant fraction of H{sub 2}S removal with in-bed sorbents. The results of these tests confirm that a significant fraction of H{sub 2}S produced in the PFH reactor can be removed with in-bed sorbents. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Joseph S.; Halow, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  4. Acute right ventricular myocardial injury and sudden cardiac arrest in a patient with persistent spontaneous coronary vasospasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung Ming-Yow; Li Ju-Chi; Hao Wen-Rui; Wu Cheng-Hsueh; Hung Ming-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Coronary vasospasm is a rare diagnosis resulting in sudden arrhythmic cardiac arrest. We report a case of a healthy,non-smoking elderly woman resuscitated from arrhythmic cardiac arrest. She had persistent spontaneous coronaxy vasospasm, leading to right ventricular myocardial injury and failure, and shock. She responded quickly to intravenous normal saline bolus infusion, but had irreversible neurological sequelae. Additionally, she had atrial fibrillation preceding ischemic ventricular fibrillation, a rare finding in coronary vasospasm-related cardiac arrest. We suggest immediate coronary angiography of patients in sudden arrhythmic cardiac arrest with acute right ventricular failure for a prompt,accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of the coronary vasospasm.

  5. Zinc Oxide Surge Arresters and HVDC 125kV-upgrade 500kV Converter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Shingo; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Matsushita, Yoshinao; Sakai, Takehisa; Suzuki, Hironori; Ozaki, Yuzo

    Gapless Metal (Zinc) Oxide Surge Arresters for a.c. systems contribute to the insulation co-ordination based on the suppression of lightning surges and switching surges. These gapless metal oxide surge arresters using ZnO elements are effective to HVDC systems. This paper describes basic characteristics of ZnO (zinc oxide) elements for d.c. systems and applications of gapless surge arresters to HVDC 125kV frequency converters, HVDC 250kV, upgrade HVDC 500kV converter stations, and HVDC 500kV cables of Japan through the experience of developments and applications of gapless metal oxide surge arresters.

  6. Protection against lightning surges provided by line arresters - Furnas' experience on 138 kV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Alessandra S.B.; Esmeraldo, Paulo C.V.; Nigri, Armando [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Furnas is about to make use of the line surge arrester technology in its network, based on studies that have been developed regarding with line performance improvement. In association to such studies, Furnas has installed six line arresters units on a 138 kV line with an arrester manufacturer cooperation, in order to get some experience on installation and maintenance, besides lightning incidence monitoring and line arrester behavior analysis. This paper presents first results and conclusions related to this 138 kV experimental installation on Furnas system. (author)

  7. Disturbances of sensation occasioned by experimental arrest of blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Auersperg

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of sensation in the hand were studied during and after experimental arrest of circulation to the arm. Blockage of circulation was performed as outlined by Lewis and Pochin, by putting the cuff of a sphygmomanometer on the upper arm and bringing the pressure rapidly up to 200 mm/Hg. The experiments listed below were intended to demonstrate the variability of a central reaction brought about by fairly definite disturbances of the ischaemic periphery. All experiments were made on the present writers and repeated on nine other subjects, none of whom had systolic pressure reaching 150 mm/Hg. I - Blockage of circulation in both arms led to symmetrical phenomena in both hands (thermal paresthesias, tingling and hyposthesia, both under symmetrical experimental circumstances, and under the following variations: So long as the cuff pressure on both arms was above the systolic blood pressure, differences as great as 300 mm/Hg in one cuff and 150 mm in the other did not alter the symmetry of the effects. Neither was symmetry and synchronism of paresthesias affected when compression on one side preceded equal compression on the other up to 20 seconds. II - When a punctate pressure is applied to the paresthetic field the paresthesias disappear around that point and the latter is clearly brought out from the indifferent background produced in the area of depressed skin. On the basis of Kugelberg's findings, it seems that this occurs because the impulses caused by pressure have a higher frequency and substitute the spontaneous abnormal discharges of the ischaemic nerve fibers. III - Repeated mechanical stimulation of a fingertip during the experiment failed to show any influence on sensory (touch thresholds, in contrast, therefore, to what would be expected on the basis of the physiologic experiments which show rapid fatigue of ischaemic structures. IV - In contrast to what might be expected from the intense changes undergone by receptors in the

  8. ASSESSMENT OF BED-LOAD PREDICTORS BASED ON SAMPLING IN A GRAVEL BED RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HADDADCHI Arman; OMID Mohammad H.; DEHGHANI Amir A.

    2012-01-01

    Bedload transport in alluvial channels has been extensively studied and different equations based on field and/or experimental data have been proposed.Prediction of bed-load transport rate using different equations results in wide ranges which are not always reliable.In this study,some of the universal bedload predictors were evaluated with measured load by a Helley-Smith sampler in the Node River,a gravel bed fiver in the northeast part of Iran.From 19 sets of data,14 series of data were used to evaluate the bed-load transport equations.The results show that the equations presented by Van Rijn,Meyer-Peter and Mueller,and Ackers and White may adequately predict bedload transport in the range of field data.

  9. Infectious complications after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest - a comparison between two target temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankiewicz, Josef; Nielsen, Niklas; Linder, Adam;

    2017-01-01

    temperature groups (sub-distribution hazard ratio [SHR] 0.88; 95%CI 0.75-1.03; p=0.12). PCT and CRP were significantly higher for patients with infections at all times (pshock after OHCA might......BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that target temperature management (TTM) increases the probability of infectious complications after cardiac arrest. We aimed to compare the incidence of pneumonia, severe sepsis and septic shock after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in patients with two...... complications were recorded daily during the ICU-stay. Pneumonia, severe sepsis and septic shock were considered infectious complications. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive-protein (CRP) levels were measured at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after cardiac arrest. RESULTS: There were 939 patients in the modified intention...

  10. Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus mimicking intraosseous lesions of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Elnaz; Tadinada, Aditya [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus is a developmental variant that is not always well recognized and is often confused with other pathologies associated with the skull base. This report describes the case of a patient referred for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging for dental implant therapy. CBCT demonstrated a well-defined incidental lesion in the left sphenoid sinus with soft tissue-like density and sclerotic borders with internal curvilinear opacifications. The differential diagnoses included intraosseous lipoma, arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, chondrosarcoma, chondroid chordoma, and ossifying fibroma. The radiographic diagnosis of arrested pneumatization was based on the location of the lesion, its well-defined nature, the presence of internal opacifications, and lack of expansion. Gray-scale CBCT imaging of the area demonstrated values similar to fatty tissue. This case highlighted the fact that benign developmental variants associated with the skull base share similar radiographic features with more serious pathological entities.

  11. Mandatory Arrest Law in domestic violence cases and its implementation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the analysis of the Mandatory Arrest Law in domestic violence cases in New York State. Introduction includes the subject and main goals of the paper. Second chapter starts with historical development of the police response in domestic violence cases in New York before and after the Mandatory Arrest Law is passed, than analysis of the Law, and ends with one of the programs which Safe Horizon, Victim Service organization, developed in New York City. Third chapter gives the analysis of pro et contra arguments for mandatory arrest provision and results of surveys and studies, which were conducted in United States. In fourth chapter we present the analysis of the research conducted in two police precincts in New York City this year. Paper also contains the list of main problems in implementation of this Law in New York City.

  12. Developing the First Gapless ZnO Surge Arrester in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Misao

    Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) technology was first developed in Japan and improved. Original discovery was made by Matsushita Electric Industry Co., Ltd by a finding of some diode phenomenon. Meidensha Corporation applied it to high voltage grid system in Japan in 1975 as a reliable lightning protection device. Japanese MOSA manufactures played a leading role in world MOSA innovations and developments. The BIL has been standardized based on arrester protective characteristics. Due to MOSA, the product shift to MOSA occurred from the gapped type arresters (GTA) 35 years ago as GTA had many gap-related problems. The MOSA became a complete IEC standard (IEC60099-4-1991) taking 20 years from starting development. The MOSA now has a solid footprint in the world lightning protection space.

  13. Evidence of kinetic arrest in Se doped CoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj Kumar; Rawat, R.

    2016-10-01

    Our systematic path dependent resistivity study in H-T space shows that paramagnetic (PM)-ferromagnetic (FM) transition in CoS1.76Se0.24 is kinetically arrested. The resistivity at low temperature depends on the path followed in H-T space and the critical field required for PM to FM transition varies non-monotonically with temperature. Measurements under CHUF (cooling and heating in unequal magnetic field) protocol show reentrant transition on warming under higher magnetic field (than that applied during cooling), which indicate that PM state is the non-equilibrium state. Among the growing list of diverse system showing glass like arrested magnetic states, the present system is the first example where, kinetic arrest is observed for a disordered (here PM) to ordered (here FM) magnetic transition.

  14. Sudden Cardiac Arrest due to Brugada Syndrome: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soleimanirad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brugada Syndrome is a rare cause of sudden cardiac arrest and has a unique ECG pattern. In fact, with ST-segment elevation down sloping in the right precordial leads (v1-v3, RBBB pattern in lateral leads and J-point elevation is revealed. We must notice and avoid trigger factors of this syndrome during general anesthesia. Patient is a 39 old man who attended to emergency department with sudden cardiac arrest and resuscitate. He was transferred to ICU for management of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Complementary studies concluded the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome. We must consider Brugada syndrome within patients with family history of sudden cardiac arrest. Moreover, we must avoid trigger factors of this syndrome such as fever, bradicardia and electrolyte abnormality (specialy Na, Ca abnormalities during general anesthesia and if they appear, we should treat them.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  16. Continuous thorium biosorption--dynamic study for critical bed depth determination in a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Marta Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the biosorption of thorium by the seaweed Sargassum filipendula in a dynamic system. Different bed depths were tested with the purpose of evaluating the critical bed depth for total uptake of the radioactive element. Several bed depths were tested, ranging from 5.0 to 40.0 cm. Bed depths tested presented distinct capacities to accumulate thorium. An increase in biosorption efficiency was observed with an increase in bed depth. The 30.0 cm bed produced an effluent still containing detectable levels of thorium. The critical bed depth suitable for a complete removal of thorium by S.filipendula biomass was equal to 40.0 cm.

  17. Temporal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in an equatorial climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus EH Ong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcus EH Ong1, Faith SP Ng2, Susan Yap1, Kok Leong Yong1, Mary A Peberdy3, Joseph P Ornato41Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; 2Clinical Trials and Epidemiology Research Unit (now known as Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Division of Cardiology, Virginia Commonwealth University – Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University – Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: We aimed to determine whether there is a seasonal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA in an equatorial climate, which does not experience seasonal environmental change.Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study looking at the occurrence of OHCA in Singapore. Included were all patients with OHCA presented to Emergency Departments across the country. We examined the monthly, daily, and hourly number of cases over a threeyear period. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA.Results: From October, 1st 2001 to October, 14th 2004, 2428 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age for cardiac arrests was 60.6 years with 68.0% male. Ethnic distribution was 69.5% Chinese, 15.0% Malay, 11.0% Indian, and 4.4% Others. There was no significant seasonal variation (spring/summer/fall/winter of events (ANOVA P = 0.71, monthly variation (P = 0.88 or yearly variation (P = 0.26. We did find weekly peaks on Mondays and a circadian pattern with daily peaks from 9–10 am.Conclusions: We did not find any discernable seasonal pattern of cardiac arrests. This contrasts with findings from temperate countries and suggests a climatic influence on cardiac arrest occurrence. We also found that sudden cardiac arrests follow a circadian pattern.Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, seasonal pattern, circadian pattern

  18. Surviving Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Pilot Qualitative Survey Study of Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Kelly N; Brown, Frances; Christensen, Roxanne; Damino, Colleen; Newman, Mary M; Kurz, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Research describing survivors of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) has centered on quantifying functional ability, perceived quality of life, and neurocognitive assessment. Many gaps remain, however, regarding survivors' psychosocial perceptions of life in the aftermath of cardiac arrest. An important influence upon those perceptions is the presence of support and its role in a survivor's life. An Internet-based pilot survey study was conducted to gather data from SCA survivors and friends and/or family members (FFMs) representing their support system. The survey was distributed to members of the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation (SCAF) via the Internet by SCAF leadership. Questions included both discrete multiple-choice and open-ended formats. Inductive thematic analyses were completed by three independent researchers trained in qualitative research methodology to identify primary themes consistent among study participants until thematic saturation was achieved. No statistical inferences were made. A total of 205 surveys were returned over the 5-month study period (July to November 2013); nine were received blank, leaving 196 surveys available for review. Major themes identified for survivors (N = 157) include the significance of and desire to share experiences with others; subculture identification (unique experience from those suffering a heart attack); and the need to seek a new normal, both personally and inter-personally. Major themes identified for FFMs (N = 39) include recognition of loved one's memory loss; a lack of information at discharge, including expectations after discharge; and concern for the patient experiencing another cardiac arrest. This pilot, qualitative survey study suggests several common themes important to survivors, and FFMs, of cardiac arrest. These themes may serve as a basis for future patient-centered focus groups and the development of patient-centered guidelines for patients and support persons of those surviving cardiac arrest.

  19. Temporal and spatial profile of brain diffusion-weighted MRI after cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynash, M.; Campbell, D.M.; Leproust, E.M.; Fischbein, N.J.; Bammer, R.; Eyngorn, I.; Hsia, A.W.; Moseley, M.; Wijman, C.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) of the brain is a promising technique to help predict functional outcome in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. We aimed to evaluate prospectively the temporal-spatial profile of brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in comatose survivors during the first 8 days after cardiac arrest. Methods ADC values were measured by two independent and blinded investigators in predefined brain regions in 18 good and 15 poor outcome patients with 38 brain MRIs, and compared with 14 normal controls. The same brain regions were also assessed qualitatively by two other independent and blinded investigators. Results In poor outcome patients, cortical structures, in particular the occipital and temporal lobes, and the putamen exhibited the most profound ADC reductions, which were noted as early as 1.5 days and reached nadir between 3 to 5 days after the arrest. Conversely, when compared to normal controls, good outcome patients exhibited increased diffusivity, in particular in the hippocampus, temporal and occipital lobes, and corona radiata. By the qualitative MRI readings, one or more cortical gray matter structures were read as moderately-to-severely abnormal in all poor outcome patients imaged beyond 54 hours after the arrest, but not in the three patients imaged earlier. Conclusions Brain DWI changes in comatose post-cardiac arrest survivors in the first week after the arrest are region- and time-dependent and differ between good and poor outcome patients. With the increasing use of MRI in this context, it is important to be aware of these relationships. PMID:20595666

  20. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  1. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  2. Endothelial activation/injury and associations with severity of post-cardiac arrest syndrome and mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Johansson, Pär I; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) is characterized by whole-body ischemia triggering systemic inflammation and damage of the endothelium. This study investigated the relationship between systemic inflammation, endothelial damage and severity of PCAS and the association between endot...... compared to 33°C after OHCA was associated with lower endothelial activation, but not endothelial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01020916. Unique identifier: NCT01020916....

  3. Postoperative Cardiac Arrest after Heart Surgery: Does Extracorporeal Perfusion Support a Paradigm Change in Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gologorsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early institution of extracorporeal perfusion support (ECPS may improve survival after cardiac arrest. Two patients sustained unexpected cardiac arrest in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU following cardiac interventions. ECPS was initiated due to failure to restore hemodynamics after prolonged (over 60 minutes advanced cardiac life support (ACLS protocol-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Despite relatively late institution of ECPS, both patients survived with preserved neurological function. This communication focuses on the utility of ECPS in the ICU as a part of resuscitative efforts.

  4. The ATM signaling cascade promotes recombination-dependent pachytene arrest in mouse spermatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most mutations that compromise meiotic recombination or synapsis in mouse spermatocytes result in arrest and apoptosis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. Two main mechanisms are thought to trigger arrest: one independent of the double-strand breaks (DSBs that initiate meiotic recombination, and another activated by persistent recombination intermediates. Mechanisms underlying the recombination-dependent arrest response are not well understood, so we sought to identify factors involved by examining mutants deficient for TRIP13, a conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the completion of meiotic DSB repair. We find that spermatocytes with a hypomorphic Trip13 mutation (Trip13mod/mod arrest with features characteristic of early pachynema in wild type, namely, fully synapsed chromosomes without incorporation of the histone variant H1t into chromatin. These cells then undergo apoptosis, possibly in response to the arrest or in response to a defect in sex body formation. However, TRIP13-deficient cells that additionally lack the DSB-responsive kinase ATM progress further, reaching an H1t-positive stage (i.e., similar to mid/late pachynema in wild type despite the presence of unrepaired DSBs. TRIP13-deficient spermatocytes also progress to an H1t-positive stage if ATM activity is attenuated by hypomorphic mutations in Mre11 or Nbs1 or by elimination of the ATM-effector kinase CHK2. These mutant backgrounds nonetheless experience an apoptotic block to further spermatogenic progression, most likely caused by failure to form a sex body. DSB numbers are elevated in Mre11 and Nbs1 hypomorphs but not Chk2 mutants, thus delineating genetic requirements for the ATM-dependent negative feedback loop that regulates DSB numbers. The findings demonstrate for the first time that ATM-dependent signaling enforces the normal pachytene response to persistent recombination intermediates. Our work supports the conclusion that recombination defects trigger

  5. Technology-facilitated Organized Abuse: An Examination of Law Enforcement Arrest Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wolak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at cases of organized abuse (that is, two or more offenders working in concert and having two or more victims, not solely familial reported by law enforcement respondents during the three waves of the National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV Study (n=29. The NJOV Study collected data from a national US sample of law enforcement agencies about technology-facilitated crimes ending in arrest at three time points: mid-2000 to mid-2001, 2005 and 2009. The paper reports on the prevalence of technology-facilitated organized abuse ending in arrest, contexts of cases and characteristics of offenders and victims. 

  6. Unanticipated cardiac arrest under spinal anesthesia: An unavoidable mystery with review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Gupta, Ruchi; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Singh, Amrinder

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest during anesthesia and perioperative period is a matter of grave concern for any anesthesiologist. But such mishaps have been reported for one reason or the other in the literary sciences. We are reporting the occurrence of unanticipated delayed cardiac arrest following spinal anesthesia in two young and healthy patients. Fortunately, these patients were successfully resuscitated with timely and appropriate cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures. Occurrence of such cases needs timely reporting and exploring all the possible causes of these unusual and possibly avoidable events. The present case reports are an important addition to a series of recently published mishaps that occurred during spinal anesthesia in young and healthy patients.

  7. Cell cycle-arrested tumor cells exhibit increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrhardt, H.; Wachter, F; Grunert, M.; Jeremias, I

    2013-01-01

    Resting tumor cells represent a huge challenge during anticancer therapy due to their increased treatment resistance. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a putative future anticancer drug, currently in phases I and II clinical studies. We recently showed that TRAIL is able to target leukemia stem cell surrogates. Here, we tested the ability of TRAIL to target cell cycle-arrested tumor cells. Cell cycle arrest was induced in tumor cell lines and xenografted tumor cells in G0, G1 o...

  8. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in relation to sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Folke, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Crude survival has increased following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to study sex-related differences in patient characteristics and survival during a 10-year study period. METHODS: Patients≥12 years old with OHCA of a presumed cardiac cause, and in whom resuscitation...... was attempted, were identified through the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry 2001-2010. A total of 19,372 patients were included. RESULTS: One-third were female, with a median age of 75 years (IQR 65-83). Compared to females, males were five years younger; and less likely to have severe comorbidities, e...

  9. Cardiac arrest in intensive care unit: Case report and future recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of hemofiltration in a patient in septic shock can cause hemodynamic compromise potentially leading to cardiac arrest. We propose that the standard ′4Hs and 4Ts′ approach to the differential diagnosis of a cardiac arrest should be supplemented in critically ill patients with anaphylaxis and human and technical errors involving drug administration (the 5 th H and T. To illustrate the point, we report a case where norepinephrine infused through a central venous catheter (CVC was being removed by the central venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH catheter causing the hemodynamic instability. CVVH has this potential of interfering with the systemic availability of drugs infused via a closely located CVC.

  10. Recovery of brain function after cardiac arrest, case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoui, A; Tresierra, del Carmen Escalante; Abdolmohammadi, S; Charbonneau, S; Blaise, G

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia during cardiac arrest is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in survival victims. To reduce cerebral damage, studies focus on finding effective treatments during the resuscitation period. Our report focuses on a 36-year-old police officer who had had two cardiac arrests (one at home and one at the hospital). After acute treatment, his cardiac and brain functions recovered impressively. Neuropsychological results were normal except for mild anomia. He also reported some retrograde memory loss. Surprisingly, he also reported an improvement in a very specific capacity, his episodic memory. We here review the possible causes and mechanisms that may have affected his memory abilities.

  11. Interrupted Magnetic First Order Transitions and Kinetic Arrest probed with In-field Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siruguri, V.; Kaushik, S. D.; Rayaprol, S.; Babu, P. D.; Chaddah, P.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Hoser, A.; Ritter, C.

    2016-09-01

    In-field neutron diffraction studies were carried out on two compounds that exhibit magnetic first order phase transitions (FOPT). It is shown that the FOPT can be interrupted by an external magnetic field, resulting in a coexistence of kinetically arrested metastable states and equilibrium phases. Use of a novel protocol CHUF (Cooling and Heating under Unequal Fields) helps to determine the coexisting phase fractions and also to observe the devitrification of the kinetically arrested phase into the equilibrium phase, in a manner similar to that found in structural glassy systems.

  12. Women's perspectives on the context of violence and role of police in their intimate partner violence arrest experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simiao; Levick, Ani; Eichman, Adelaide; Chang, Judy C

    2015-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) accounts for up to 50% of all calls to police. In an effort to standardize arrest criteria, mandatory arrest laws were established. It is unclear whether subsequent increased rates of female arrest are due to greater recognition of female IPV perpetrators or of women acting in self-defense. This study aims to understand the context and consequences of IPV-related arrest from perspectives of women arrested in a single metropolitan area. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with women arrested and court-ordered to attend IPV education groups at a women's shelter in the Northeast United States. Interviews addressed circumstances surrounding arrest, experience with past violence, and reasoning regarding use of partner violence. Two researchers independently coded transcripts and met to iteratively refine the code and review transcripts for themes. Eighteen women were interviewed. Major themes that emerged were as follows: (a) Women's use of violence occurred within the context of their own victimization; (b) the arrest included a complex interplay between subject, partner, and police; (c) women perceived police arrest decisions to be based on a limited understanding of context; and (d) women experienced both positive and negative consequences of arrest. Many relationships did not fall under the traditional victim/perpetrator construct. Rather, women's use of violence evolved, influenced by prior experiences with violence. More appropriate methods must be developed for making arrest decisions, guiding justice system responses, and developing interventions for couples experiencing IPV. Recognition that women's use of partner violence often represented either a retaliatory or self-defensive gesture within the context of prior victimization suggests that victims' interventions should not only focus on empowerment but also provide skills and strategies to avoid temptation to adopt aggression as a primary method of self-protection.

  13. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gogineni, S. P.; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) over the entire island including across the glaciated-ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  14. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  15. Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

    1991-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

  16. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  17. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  18. Fixed bed pyrolysis of the rapeseed cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Yorgun, S.; Angin, D.; Culcuoglu, E.; Ozcimen, D.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    2001-12-15

    The fixed bed atmospheric pressure pyrolysis and nitrogen swept pyrolysis of the rapeseed cake obtained from cold extraction press have been investigated. Experiments were performed in the Heinze retort at a 7{sup o}C min{sup -1} heating rate, with a 500{sup o}C final temperature varying sweep gas velocity (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}) under nitrogen atmosphere. Liquid, gas, and char yields were determined, pyrolysis conversion was calculated, and liquid, char, and gas products were presented as an environmentally friendly fuel candidate. (author)

  19. Mechanism test bed. Flexible body model report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Jimmy

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed is a six degree-of-freedom motion simulation facility used to evaluate docking and berthing hardware mechanisms. A generalized rigid body math model was developed which allowed the computation of vehicle relative motion in six DOF due to forces and moments from mechanism contact, attitude control systems, and gravity. No vehicle size limitations were imposed in the model. The equations of motion were based on Hill's equations for translational motion with respect to a nominal circular earth orbit and Newton-Euler equations for rotational motion. This rigid body model and supporting software were being refined.

  20. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  1. CFD study of a fluidized bed

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the momentum exchange between the phases in a bubbling fluidized bed. The momentum exchange can be described by a drag model. Several drag models with different assumptions are developed. The drag models investigated in this work is the Syamlal O’Brien model, the Gidaspow model, Hill Koch Ladd model, the RUC model and an iterative version of the Syamlal O’Brien called the Richardson Zaki model. The models have been derived and studied in de...

  2. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  3. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  4. Velocity Fluctuations in Gas-Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, G. D.

    1998-03-01

    Increasing gas flow through a bed of particles produces, above a sharp threshold, a fluidized state which exhibits many of the properties of a liquid. Fluidized beds play a major role in refining, chemicals, and power generation, but the physics of the fluidized state is still uncertain, due to the complexity of the particle/gas interactions, the broad distribution of particle size, and the measurement challenge. One consequence can be the failure of sophisticated computer models to predict performance. Another is the failure to resolve fundamental questions, for example the source of the initial stability/instability of the uniform fluidized state, first addressed by Jackson in 1963(R. Jackson, in Fluidization, edited by J. F. Davidson et al. (Academic Press, New York, 1985), p. 47-72; G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 193, 75-110 (1988); M. Nicolas. J. Chomaz, and E. Guazelli, Phys. Fluids 6, 3936-3944 (1994).). To meet the measurement challenge, we have obtained the first comprehensive data on the mean squared fluctuation velocity, or granular temperature, T*, of monodispersed glass spheres of diameter, D, in a fluidized bed, by a novel acoustic shot noise probe of random particle impact on the wall(G. D. Cody, D. J. Goldfarb, G. V. Storch, Jr., A. N. Norris, Powder Technology 87, 211-232 (1996); G. D. Cody and D. J. Goldfarb, in Dynamics in Small Confining Systems-III, eds. M. Drake et al, (MRS, Pittsburgh, Pa, 1997), 464, p. 325-338.). Applying a dense gas kinetic model(D. Gidaspow, Multiphase Flow and Fluidization (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994).) to this data predicts values of particulate pressure, and viscosity, which are in excellent agreement with recent experiments, and encouraged us to revisit the stability question. We find that the unanticipated seven-fold bifurcation observed in T* for D less than 150 microns is sufficient, using Jackson's model, to account for the accepted empirical boundary of stable initial uniform fluidization for the spheres

  5. The impact of bed temperature on heat transfer characteristic between fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczuk, Artur; Nowak, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the heat transfer study focuses on assessment of the impact of bed temperature on the local heat transfer characteristic between a fluidized bed and vertical rifled tubes (38mm-O.D.) in a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Heat transfer behavior in a 1296t/h supercritical CFB furnace has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameter of 0.219 and 0.246mm. The heat transfer experiments were conducted for the active heat transfer surface in the form of membrane tube with a longitudinal fin at the tube crest under the normal operating conditions of CFB boiler. A heat transfer analysis of CFB boiler with detailed consideration of the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient and the contribution of heat transfer mechanisms inside furnace chamber were investigated using mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted values of heat transfer coefficient are compared with empirical correlation for CFB units in large-scale.

  6. Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

  7. Soft-bed experiments beneath Engabreen, Norway: regelation infiltration, basal slip and bed deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Moore, P. L.; Jackson, M.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    To avoid some of the limitations of studying soft-bed processes through boreholes, a prism of simulated till (1.8 m × 1.6 m × 0.45 m) with extensive instrumentation was constructed in a trough blasted in the rock bed of Engabreen, a temperate glacier in Norway. Tunnels there provide access to the bed beneath 213 m of ice. Pore-water pressure was regulated in the prism by pumping water to it. During experiments lasting 7-12 days, the glacier regelated downward into the prism to depths of 50- 80 mm, accreting ice-infiltrated till at rates predicted by theory. During periods of sustained high pore water pressure (70-100% of overburden), ice commonly slipped over the prism, due to a water layer at the prism surface. Deformation of the prism was activated when this layer thinned to a sub-millimeter thickness. Shear strain in the till was pervasive and decreased with depth. A model of slip by ploughing of ice-infiltrated till across the prism surface accounts for the slip that occurred when effective pressure was sufficiently low or high. Slip at low effective pressures resulted from water-layer thickening that increased non-linearly with decreasing effective pressure. If sufficiently widespread, such slip over soft glacier beds, which involves no viscous deformation resistance, may instigate abrupt increases in glacier velocity.

  8. Automated external defibrillators inaccessible to more than half of nearby cardiac arrests in public locations during evening, nighttime, and weekends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Wissenberg, Mads; Weeke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Of 552 registered AEDs, 9.1% (n=50) were accessible at all hours, and 96.4% (n=532) were accessible during the daytime on all weekdays. Regardless of AED accessibility, 28.8% (537 of 1864) of all cardiac arrests were covered by an AED. Limited AED accessibility decreased coverage of cardiac arrests by 4...

  9. POST-OPERATIVE VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA LEADING TO CARDIAC ARREST IN AN ASAG- I PATIENT OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We here present our experience with ventricular tachycardia (VT leading to cardiac arrest in a patient with American Society of Anesthesiologists grade-I (ASA-I 11 hours after cholecystectomy. Excessive fluid overload and hypoxemia due to lung congestion may lead to cardiac arrest in this case. Immediate diagnosis and appropriate intervention saved the life of the patient.

  10. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway induces a senescence-like arrest mediated by p27Kip1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collado, M.; Medema, R.H.; Garcia-Cao, I.; Dubuisson, M.L.N.; Barradas, M.; Glassford, J.; Rivas, C.; Burgering, B.M.T.; Serrano, M.; Lam, E.W.-F.

    2000-01-01

    A senescence-like growth arrest is induced in mouse primary embryo fibroblasts by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). We observed that senescence-like growth arrest is correlated with an increase in p27Kip1 but that down-regulation of other cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, inclu

  11. Efficacy analysis of intravenous thrombolysis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of intravenous thrombolysis in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI)and cardiac arrest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Methods 120 patients with AMI and cardiac arrest admitted in our hospital from Mar2009 to Mar 2013 were divided into thrombolytic group(n=50)and control group(n=70)according to the

  12. DAF-16/FOXO regulates transcription of cki-1/Cip/Kip and repression of lin-4 during C. elegans L1 arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, L Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-04-18

    Development is typically studied as a continuous process under laboratory conditions, but wild animals often develop in variable and stressful environments. C. elegans larvae hatch in a developmentally arrested state (L1 arrest) and initiate post-embryonic development only in the presence of food (E. coli in lab). In contrast to the well-studied dauer arrest, L1 arrest occurs without morphological modification, although larvae in L1 arrest are more resistant to environmental stress than developing larvae . Consistent with its role in dauer formation and aging, we show that insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling regulates L1 arrest. daf-2 insulin/IGF receptor mutants have a constitutive-L1-arrest phenotype when fed and extended survival of L1 arrest when starved. Conversely, daf-16/FOXO mutants have a defective-arrest phenotype, failing to arrest development and dying rapidly when starved. We show that DAF-16 is required for transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor cki-1 in stem cells in response to starvation, accounting for the failure of daf-16/FOXO mutants to arrest cell division during L1 arrest. Other developmental events such as cell migration, cell fusion, and expression of the microRNA lin-4, a temporal regulator of post-embryonic development, are also observed in starved daf-16/FOXO mutants. These results suggest that DAF-16/FOXO promotes developmental arrest via transcriptional regulation of numerous target genes that control various aspects of development.

  13. Fluidized bed combustion: mixing and pollutant limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1997-10-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has been applied commercially during a few decades, and sufficient knowledge is gained to design boilers with sizes of up to several hundreds of megawatt thermal power (MW{sub th}). The knowledge of what goes on inside a large combustion chamber is still limited, however, and this impedes further optimization and efficient solution of problems that might occur. Despite this lack of knowledge the present survey deals with combustion chamber processes and discusses mixing and distribution of fuel and air in the combustion chamber and its importance for sulphur capture and reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides. It is desirable to present the material in a general way and to cover the entire field of FBC. However, the scarce openly published information deals mostly with coal combustion in atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors, and therefore this application will receive most attention, but reference is also made to pressurized combustion and to other fuels than coal. In this context the important work made in the LIEKKI project on the analysis of different fuels and on the influence of pressure should be especially pointed out. (orig.)

  14. [Comparative pathology of the microcirculatory bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukov, A I; Vorob'eva, A A

    1976-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of publications, mostly by Soviet authores, on clinical studies and morphological examinations of the microcirculatory bed in different pathology. It is concluded that the microcirculatory bed should be regarded as an integral system responding to the pathological effects by a local and general reaction of its structural components and by changing the rheological properties of blood. Two types of changes develop in the microcirculatory system -- sterotyped ones, typical for extreme states (various kinds of shock, hypertensive crisis, stress situations), and those specific for certain diseases (diabetes melitus, essential hypertension, athersclerosis, collagenoses, etc.). In all the above diseases the pathological process affects the functional structures of microcirculation that undergo a rearrangement in accordance with the requirements of the body. In the initial period of the disease this re-arrangement is of a compensatory nature and passes ahead of the clinical manifestations. A comparison of the pictutrs obtained by biomicroscopy of the bulbconjunctiva of the eye and of other mucosae with film preparations of the serosae demonstrates their complete similarity. Therefore, the method of biomicroscopy of the eyeball and of the mucosae as a method reflecting the state of microcirculation in the body as a whole should become an integral part of the clinical examination of patients.

  15. Time constant of the cerebral arterial bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Diedler, Jennifer; Reinhard, Matthias; Carrera, Emmanuel; Smielewski, Peter; Budohoski, Karol P; Sorrentino, Enrico; Haubrich, Christina; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We have defined a novel cerebral hemodynamic index, a time constant of the cerebral arterial bed (τ), the product of arterial compliance (C(a)) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). C(a) and CVR were calculated based on the relationship between pulsatile arterial blood pressure (ABP) and transcranial Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity. This new parameter theoretically estimates how fast the cerebral arterial bed is filled by blood volume after a sudden change in ABP during one cardiac cycle. We have explored this concept in 11 volunteers and in 25 patients with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA). An additional group of 15 subjects with non-vascular dementia was studied to assess potential age dependency of τ. The τ was shorter (p = 0.011) in ICA stenosis, both unilateral (τ = 0.18 ± 0.04 s) and bilateral (τ = 0.16 ± 0.03 s), than in controls (τ = 0.22 ± 0.0 s). The τ correlated with the degree of stenosis (R = -0.62, p = 0.001). In controls, τ was independent of age. Further study during cerebrovascular reactivity tests is needed to establish the usefulness of τ for quantitative estimation of haemodynamics in cerebrovascular disease.

  16. Lifting a large object from an anisotropic porous bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    An analytical study of two dimensional problem of lifting an object from the top of a fully saturated rigid porous bed is discussed. It is assumed that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature. The flow within the gap region between the object and the porous bed is assumed to be governed by Stokes equation while the flow within the porous bed is governed by Brinkman equation. The breakout phenomenon for different kinds of soil is reported. The effect of mechanical properties like anisotropic permeability, grain diameter size, and porosity on streamlines, velocity, and force is analyzed. Relevant comparison with C. C. Mei, R. W. Yeung, and K. F. Liu ["Lifting a large object from a porous bed," J. Fluid. Mech. 152, 203-215 (1985)] and Y. Chang, L. H. Huang and F. P. Y. Yang ["Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed," Phys. Fluids, 27, 053101 (2015)] is done.

  17. RESEARCH ON DENSITY STABILITY OF AIR DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆振福; 陈清如

    1994-01-01

    In this papcr on thc basis of studying the distribution of fine coal in the dense medium fluidized bed, the optimal size range of fine coal, which constitutes a fluidized bed together with the dense medium, has been found. In the separating process the fine coal will continuously accumulate in fluidized bed, thus inevitably reducing the density of the bed. In order to keep bed density stable, the authors adopted such measures as split-flow of used medium and complement of fresh dense medium. The experiment results in both lab and pilot systems of the air-dense medium fluidized bed show that these measures are effective and satisfactory. Then authors also have established some relative dynamic mathematical models for it.

  18. Method of hydrodynamic studies of wells in beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedin, L.M.; Bondarenko, Ye.S.; Fedin, K.L.; Lisin, N.I.; Reytenbakh, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for hydrodynamic studies of wells in beds including the termination of the coefficient of piezoconductance by spasmodic change in pressure in the well. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the time for idling of the well, above the studied bed an output meter is installed and the output of the bed fluid is measured during the time from spasmodic change in pressure to establishment of the stationary output.

  19. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Liu; Nannan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptor...

  20. Fluidized Bed Sputtering for Particle and Powder Metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Fluidized Bed Sputtering for Particle and Powder Metallization by Daniel M. Baechle, J. Derek Demaree, James K. Hirvonen, and Eric D...5069 ARL-TR-6435 April 2013 Fluidized Bed Sputtering for Particle and Powder Metallization Daniel M. Baechle, J. Derek Demaree, James K...YYYY) April 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2008–June 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fluidized Bed Sputtering for

  1. Fluidized-bed calciner with combustion nozzle and shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielang, Joseph A.; Palmer, William B.; Kerr, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A nozzle employed as a burner within a fluidized bed is coaxially enclosed within a tubular shroud that extends beyond the nozzle length into the fluidized bed. The open-ended shroud portion beyond the nozzle end provides an antechamber for mixture and combustion of atomized fuel with an oxygen-containing gas. The arrangement provides improved combustion efficiency and excludes bed particles from the high-velocity, high-temperature portions of the flame to reduce particle attrition.

  2. Out-of-Hospital Perimortem Cesarean Section as Resuscitative Hysterotomy in Maternal Posttraumatic Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gatti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal treatment of a severe hemodynamic instability from shock to cardiac arrest in late term pregnant women is subject to ongoing studies. However, there is an increasing evidence that early “separation” between the mother and the foetus may increase the restoration of the hemodynamic status and, in the cardiac arrest setting, it may raise the likelihood of a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in the mother. This treatment, called Perimortem Cesarean Section (PMCS, is now termed as Resuscitative Hysterotomy (RH to better address the issue of an early Cesarean section (C-section. This strategy is in contrast with the traditional treatment of cardiac arrest characterized by the maintenance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR maneuvers without any emergent surgical intervention. We report the case of a prehospital perimortem delivery by Caesarean (C section of a foetus at 36 weeks of gestation after the mother’s traumatic cardiac arrest. Despite the negative outcome of the mother, the choice of performing a RH seems to represent up to date the most appropriate intervention to improve the outcome in both mother and foetus.

  3. Return to Work in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Wissenberg, Mads; Mortensen, Rikke Normark

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term function of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors are sparse. We examined return to work as a proxy of preserved function without major neurologic deficits in survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Denmark, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests have been systematically...... reported to the Danish Cardiac Arrest Register since 2001. During 2001-2011, we identified 4354 patients employed before arrest among 12 332 working-age patients (18-65 years), of whom 796 survived to day 30. Among 796 survivors (median age, 53 years [quartile 1-3, 46-59 years]; 81.5% men), 610 (76.......6%) returned to work in a median time of 4 months [quartile 1-3, 1-19 months], with a median time of 3 years spent back at work. A total of 74.6% (N=455) remained employed without using sick leave during the first 6 months after returning to work. This latter proportion of survivors returning to work increased...

  4. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA...

  5. Teenagers' High Arrest Rates: Features of Young Age or Youth Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The association of more crime with youthful age is widely accepted in social science. However, a literature search revealed no studies of the age-crime relationship that controlled for young ages' economic disadvantage. This research gap is addressed using the California Criminal Justice Statistics Center's arrest detail and Census poverty…

  6. A synthetic circuit for selectively arresting daughter cells to create aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Bruno; Silver, Pamela A; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M

    2010-05-01

    The ability to engineer genetic programs governing cell fate will permit new safeguards for engineered organisms and will further the biological understanding of differentiation and aging. Here, we have designed, built and implemented a genetic device in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that controls cell-cycle progression selectively in daughter cells. The synthetic device was built in a modular fashion by combining timing elements that are coupled to the cell cycle, i.e. cell-cycle specific promoters and protein degradation domains, and an enzymatic domain which conditionally confers cell arrest. Thus, in the presence of a drug, the device is designed to arrest growth of only newly-divided daughter cells in the population. Indeed, while the engineered cells grow normally in the absence of drug, with the drug the engineered cells display reduced, linear growth on the population level. Fluorescence microscopy of single cells shows that the device induces cell arrest exclusively in daughter cells and radically shifts the age distribution of the resulting population towards older cells. This device, termed the 'daughter arrester', provides a blueprint for more advanced devices that mimic developmental processes by having control over cell growth and death.

  7. Response interval is important for survival until admission after prehospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Nielsen, Søren Loumann; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2010-01-01

    An increasing distance to the nearest hospital must be expected as a result of centralization of acute care at a small number of hospitals. This may have important consequences in emergency situations, such as prehospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) where the aim is to obtain return...

  8. Preserved metabolic coupling and cerebrovascular reactivity during mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.A.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Simons, K.S.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although mild hypothermia improves outcome in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the cardiodepressive effects of hypothermia may lead to secondary brain damage. This study was performed to assess the cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen extraction, and cerebrovascular reactivi

  9. The transcriptional network that controls growth arrest and differentiation in a human myeloid leukemia cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Harukazu; Forrest, Alistair R R; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites...

  10. Study regarding the survival of patients suffering a traumatic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, V; Tudorache, O; Nicolau, M; Strambu, V

    2015-01-01

    Severe trauma is the most frequent cause of death in young people, in civilized countries with major social and vital costs. The speed of diagnostic decision making and the precocity of treatment approaches are both essential and depend on the specialists' colaboration. The present study aims to emphasize the actual situation of medical interventions in case of cardiorespiratory arrest due to trauma. 1387 patients who suffered a cardio respiratory arrest both traumatic and non-traumatic were included in order to point out the place of traumatic arrest. Resuscitation of such patients is considered useless and resource consumer by many trauma practitioners who are reporting survival rates of 0%-3.5%. As the determinant of lesions, trauma etiology was as it follows car accidents - 43%, high falls - 30%, suicidal attempts - 3%, domestic violence - 3%, other causes - 21%. Hypovolemia remains the major cause of cardiac arrest and death and that is why the efforts of emergency providers (trauma team) must be oriented towards "hidden death" in order to avoid it. This condition could be revealed and solved easier with minimal diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers in the emergency department.

  11. Horizons of context: understanding the police decision to arrest people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Melissa Schaefer

    2007-12-01

    The criminalization hypothesis assumes that deinstitutionalization coupled with inadequate police training has led to the increased arrest of people with mental illness. Arrest is viewed as a means to manage the troublesome behavior that often results from mental illness. Supporting research has emphasized the contributing role that illness plays in the arrest decision. This assumption largely ignores an extant criminal justice literature on the factors that influence arrest. On the basis of a review of this criminal justice literature, beginning with Bittner's 1967 seminal work, a framework is proposed that incorporates three contexts -- manipulative, temporal, and scenic -- surrounding the police encounter and the relationship of these contexts to mental illness. These three "horizons" incorporate the characteristics of the community, the offender, and the incident, all of which are recognized as influential in shaping police discretion. The scenic horizon is indicative of the features of the community. The temporal horizon includes police knowledge that stretches beyond the specific incident and officer characteristics. The manipulative horizon involves the current incident from the standpoint of the officer and includes considerations of safety for the community as well as the immediate concerns of the officer. Implications of this framework are then explored with respect to both police and mental health service mandates.

  12. Requirement of ultra-high voltage GIS arrester to voltage gradient of metal-oxide varistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The surge arrester with excellent protection characteristics would decrease the overvoltage level ap- plied on the power apparatus to reduce their insulation levels and manufacturing bottleneck. The arrester for the 1000-kV ultra-high voltage ac power transmission system is designed as tank-type structure. The field-circuit combination numerical method combining the three-dimensional finite element method with circuit is proposed to analyze the potential distribution of GIS arrester. By comparing several design schemes, the most effective method to improve the potential distribution along the varistor column is to increase the voltage gradient of the ZnO varistor. Synthesizing several influential factors, the suitable voltage gradient of ZnO varistor should be controlled to 435 V/mm, and the resulted nonuniform degree of the potential distribution along the varistor column inside the GIS arrester would be controlled smaller than 10%. The result in this paper provides the fundamental technical index for the study of the high voltage gradient ZnO varistors.

  13. Identifying non-technical skills and barriers for improvement of teamwork in cardiac arrest teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.

    2010-01-01

    2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...

  14. Role of micronised progesterone in maintenance therapy following arrested preterm labor: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitika Shankar Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that, maintenance tocolytic therapy with micronised progesterone (400 mg up-to 37 weeks of gestation in patients with arrested preterm labor significantly prolongs the latency period and results in better perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1050-1055

  15. Mechanism of T-oligo-induced cell cycle arrest in Mia-Paca pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Andrew M.; Sarkar, Sibaji; Faller, Douglas V.

    2011-01-01

    DNA oligonucleotides with sequence homology to human telomeric DNA (T-oligo) induce cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis, senescence, or autophagy in a human cancer cell type-specific manner. T-oligo has potential as a new therapeutic strategy in oncology because of its ability to target certain types of tumor cells while sparing normal ones. In the present study, we demonstrate the T-oligo-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in four pancreatic cancer cell lines. To further contribute to the mechanistic understanding of T-oligo, we also identify cyclin dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) as a functional mediator in the T-oligo-induced cell cycle arrest of pancreatic cancer cells. Ectopic expression of a constitutively-active cdk2 mutant abrogates T-oligo-induced cell cycle arrest in these tumor cells while knockdown of cdk2 expression alone recapitulates the T-oligo effect. Finally, we demonstrate the dispensability of T-oligo-induced ATM/ATR-mediated DNA damage response-signaling pathways, which have long been considered functional in the T-oligo signaling mechanism. PMID:21898405

  16. Willingness to Perform Chest Compression Only in Witnessed Cardiac Arrest Victims versus Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen Yaghmour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Performing immediate bystander Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR is the most important factor that determines survival from cardiac arrest. Recommended mouth to mouth ventilation maneuver during CPR has led to lower rate of CPR performance in the population. Objectives: The present survey aimed to evaluate the willingness of nurses at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for performing CPR versus chest-compression-only CPR. Patients and Methods: During a CPR course, we performed a survey on 25 nurses from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This survey included age and gender of the participants. In the first question, they were asked about their willingness to perform CPR with mouth to mouth breathing for witnessed cardiac arrest victims. In the second question, they were asked about their willingness to perform chest compression only for cardiac arrest victims. Results: Among the participating nurses, 96% were female with a mean age of 31 years. Only 40% were willing to perform CPR that requires mouth to mouth ventilation. On the other hand, 92% were willing to perform chest compression only without mouth to mouth ventilation. The mean age of the nurses who would do CPR was lower compared to those who would not. Conclusions: In this survey, we demonstrated that eliminating mouth to mouth ventilation maneuver could lead to markedly higher willingness to perform CPR for witnessed cardiac arrest victims in CPR trained nursing personnel. Our study is in agreement with other studies advocating that chest-compression-only CPR could lead to higher bystander resuscitation efforts.

  17. Childhood Victimization and Risk for Alcohol and Drug Arrests. Research Preview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Timothy; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    Using data from a large project on child abuse and neglect as predictors of violent criminal behavior, researchers investigated the connection between childhood maltreatment and later arrest for alcohol and drug-related offenses. After controlling for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment was found to be a significant predictor of delinquency.…

  18. The impact of therapeutic hypothermia on neurological function and quality of life after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Horsted, Tina I;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on cognitive function and quality of life in comatose survivors of out of Hospital Cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We prospectively studied comatose survivors of OHCA consecutively admitted in a 4-year period. Therapeutic hypothermia was imple...

  19. Pharmacotherapy and hospital admissions before out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H;

    2010-01-01

    For out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to be predicted and prevented, it is imperative the healthcare system has access to those vulnerable before the event occurs. We aimed to determine the extent of contact to the healthcare system before OHCA....

  20. Successful emergency splenectomy during cardiac arrest due to cytomegalovirus-induced atraumatic splenic rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glesner, Matilde Kanstrup; Madsen, Kristian Rørbæk; Nielsen, Jesper Meng Rahn;

    2015-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with fever and a petechial rash on suspicion of meningitis. Shortly after arriving she developed cardiac arrest. Blood work up showed severe lactate acidosis, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. A focused assessment with sonography in trauma...