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Sample records for array-based genomic profiles

  1. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

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    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  2. Prognostic Impact of Array-based Genomic Profiles in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer

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    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Jönsson, Göran; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Falkenback, Dan; Halvarsson, Britta; Nilbert, Mef

    2008-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and a major cause of cancer related mortality. Although distinct genetic alterations have been linked to ESCC development and prognosis, the genetic alterations have not gained clinical applicability. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to obtain a whole genome copy number profile relevant for identifying deranged pathways and clinically applicable markers. A 32 k aCGH platform was used for high resolution mapping of copy number changes in 30 stage I-IV ESCC. Potential interdependent alterations and deranged pathways were identified and copy number changes were correlated to stage, differentiation and survival. Copy number alterations affected median 19% of the genome and included recurrent gains of chromosome regions 5p, 7p, 7q, 8q, 10q, 11q, 12p, 14q, 16p, 17p, 19p, 19q, and 20q and losses of 3p, 5q, 8p, 9p and 11q. High-level amplifications were observed in 30 regions and recurrently involved 7p11 (EGFR), 11q13 (MYEOV, CCND1, FGF4, FGF3, PPFIA, FAD, TMEM16A, CTTS and SHANK2) and 11q22 (PDFG). Gain of 7p22.3 predicted nodal metastases and gains of 1p36.32 and 19p13.3 independently predicted poor survival in multivariate analysis. aCGH profiling verified genetic complexity in ESCC and herein identified imbalances of multiple central tumorigenic pathways. Distinct gains correlate with clinicopathological variables and independently predict survival, suggesting clinical applicability of genomic profiling in ESCC

  3. CGI: Java software for mapping and visualizing data from array-based comparative genomic hybridization and expression profiling.

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    Gu, Joyce Xiuweu-Xu; Wei, Michael Yang; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Lau, Ching C; Behl, Sanjiv; Man, Tsz-Kwong

    2007-10-06

    With the increasing application of various genomic technologies in biomedical research, there is a need to integrate these data to correlate candidate genes/regions that are identified by different genomic platforms. Although there are tools that can analyze data from individual platforms, essential software for integration of genomic data is still lacking. Here, we present a novel Java-based program called CGI (Cytogenetics-Genomics Integrator) that matches the BAC clones from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to genes from RNA expression profiling datasets. The matching is computed via a fast, backend MySQL database containing UCSC Genome Browser annotations. This program also provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for visualizing and summarizing the correlation of DNA copy number changes and RNA expression patterns from a set of experiments. In addition, CGI uses a Java applet to display the copy number values of a specific BAC clone in aCGH experiments side by side with the expression levels of genes that are mapped back to that BAC clone from the microarray experiments. The CGI program is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for biologists. It is cross-platform compatible and the source code is freely available under the General Public License.

  4. CGI: Java Software for Mapping and Visualizing Data from Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Expression Profiling

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    Joyce Xiuweu-Xu Gu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing application of various genomic technologies in biomedical research, there is a need to integrate these data to correlate candidate genes/regions that are identified by different genomic platforms. Although there are tools that can analyze data from individual platforms, essential software for integration of genomic data is still lacking. Here, we present a novel Java-based program called CGI (Cytogenetics-Genomics Integrator that matches the BAC clones from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to genes from RNA expression profiling datasets. The matching is computed via a fast, backend MySQL database containing UCSC Genome Browser annotations. This program also provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for visualizing and summarizing the correlation of DNA copy number changes and RNA expression patterns from a set of experiments. In addition, CGI uses a Java applet to display the copy number values of a specifi c BAC clone in aCGH experiments side by side with the expression levels of genes that are mapped back to that BAC clone from the microarray experiments. The CGI program is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for biologists. It is cross-platform compatible and the source code is freely available under the General Public License.

  5. Prognostic impact of array-based genomic profiles in esophageal squamous cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and a major cause of cancer related mortality. Although distinct genetic alterations have been linked to ESCC development and prognosis, the genetic alterations have not gained clinical applicability. We...... interdependent alterations and deranged pathways were identified and copy number changes were correlated to stage, differentiation and survival. RESULTS: Copy number alterations affected median 19% of the genome and included recurrent gains of chromosome regions 5p, 7p, 7q, 8q, 10q, 11q, 12p, 14q, 16p, 17p, 19p......p13.3 independently predicted poor survival in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: aCGH profiling verified genetic complexity in ESCC and herein identified imbalances of multiple central tumorigenic pathways. Distinct gains correlate with clinicopathological variables and independently predict...

  6. DNA Array-Based Gene Profiling

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    Mocellin, Simone; Provenzano, Maurizio; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Pilati, Pierluigi; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease in most respects, including its cellularity, different genetic alterations, and diverse clinical behaviors. Traditional molecular analyses are reductionist, assessing only 1 or a few genes at a time, thus working with a biologic model too specific and limited to confront a process whose clinical outcome is likely to be governed by the combined influence of many genes. The potential of functional genomics is enormous, because for each experiment, thousands of relevant observations can be made simultaneously. Accordingly, DNA array, like other high-throughput technologies, might catalyze and ultimately accelerate the development of knowledge in tumor cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of DNA array technology in cancer research has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to carcinogenesis, tumor aggressiveness, and sensitivity to antiblastic agents. Given the revolutionary implications that the use of this technology might have in the clinical management of patients with cancer, principles of DNA array-based tumor gene profiling need to be clearly understood for the data to be correctly interpreted and appreciated. In the present work, we discuss the technical features characterizing this powerful laboratory tool and review the applications so far described in the field of oncology. PMID:15621987

  7. Array-based genomic screening at diagnosis and during follow-up in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    Gunnarsson, Rebeqa; Mansouri, Larry; Isaksson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genomic microarrays enable simultaneous detection of copy-number aberrations such as the known recurrent aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [del(11q), del(13q), del(17p) and trisomy 12], and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Moreover, comparison of genomic...... profiles from sequential patients' samples allows detection of clonal evolution....

  8. Array-based genomic screening at diagnosis and during follow-up in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Rebeqa; Mansouri, Larry; Isaksson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genomic microarrays enable simultaneous detection of copy-number aberrations such as the known recurrent aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [del(11q), del(13q), del(17p) and trisomy 12], and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Moreover, comparison of genomic...

  9. Global mass spectrometry and transcriptomics array based drug profiling provides novel insight into glucosamine induced endoplasmic reticulum stress

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    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ribeiro, Helena; Voabil, Paula

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the molecular effects of glucosamine supplements, a popular and safe alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for decreasing pain, inflammation, and maintaining healthy joints. Numerous studies have reported an array of molecular effects after glucosamine treatment. We...... questioned whether the differences in the effects observed in previous studies were associated with the focus on a specific subproteome or with the use of specific cell lines or tissues. To address this question, global mass spectrometry- and transcription array-based glucosamine drug profiling was performed....... Further, we hypothesize that O-HexNAcylation induced by glucosamine treatment enhances protein trafficking....

  10. Practical Calling Approach for Exome Array-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies in Korean Population

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    Tae-Joon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exome-based genotyping arrays are cost-effective and have recently been used as alternative platforms to whole-exome sequencing. However, the automated clustering algorithm in an exome array has a genotype calling problem in accuracy for identifying rare and low-frequency variants. To address these shortcomings, we present a practical approach for accurate genotype calling using the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We present comparison results and a statistical summary of our genotype data sets. Our data set comprises 14,647 Korean samples. To solve the limitation of automated clustering, we performed manual genotype clustering for the targeted identification of 46,076 variants that were identified using GenomeStudio software. To evaluate the effects of applying custom cluster files, we tested cluster files using 804 independent Korean samples and the same platform. Our study firstly suggests practical guidelines for exome chip quality control in Asian populations and provides valuable insight into an association study using exome chip.

  11. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA.

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    Gibbons, Brian; Datta, Parikkhit; Wu, Ying; Chan, Alan; Al Armour, John

    2006-06-30

    Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH) we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  12. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA

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    Chan Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. Results In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. Conclusion Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  13. Prognostic impact of array-based genomic profiles in esophageal squamous cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a genetically complex tumor type and a major cause of cancer related mortality. Although distinct genetic alterations have been linked to ESCC development and prognosis, the genetic alterations have not gained clinical applicability. We...

  14. High resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridisation of medulloblastomas and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours

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    McCabe, Martin Gerard; Ichimura, Koichi; Liu, Lu; Plant, Karen; Bäcklund, L Magnus; Pearson, Danita M; Collins, Vincent Peter

    2010-01-01

    Medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours are aggressive childhood tumours. We report our findings using array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a whole-genome BAC/PAC/cosmid array with a median clone separation of 0.97Mb to study 34 medulloblastomas and 7 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Array CGH allowed identification and mapping of numerous novel small regions of copy number change to genomic sequence, in addition to the large regions already known from previous studies. Novel amplifications were identified, some encompassing oncogenes, MYCL1, PDGFRA, KIT and MYB, not previously reported to show amplification in these tumours. In addition, one supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour had lost both copies of the tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A & CDKN2B. Ten medulloblastomas had findings suggestive of isochromosome 17q. In contrast to previous reports using conventional CGH, array CGH identified three distinct breakpoints in these cases: Ch 17: 17940393-19251679 (17p11.2, n=6), Ch 17: 20111990-23308272 (17p11.2-17q11.2, n=4) and Ch 17: 38425359-39091575 (17q21.31, n=1). Significant differences were found in the patterns of copy number change between medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours, providing further evidence that these tumours are genetically distinct despite their morphological and behavioural similarities. PMID:16783165

  15. Array-based assay detects genome-wide 5-mC and 5-hmC in the brains of humans, non-human primates, and mice.

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    Chopra, Pankaj; Papale, Ligia A; White, Andrew T J; Hatch, Andrea; Brown, Ryan M; Garthwaite, Mark A; Roseboom, Patrick H; Golos, Thaddeus G; Warren, Stephen T; Alisch, Reid S

    2014-02-13

    Methylation on the fifth position of cytosine (5-mC) is an essential epigenetic mark that is linked to both normal neurodevelopment and neurological diseases. The recent identification of another modified form of cytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), in both stem cells and post-mitotic neurons, raises new questions as to the role of this base in mediating epigenetic effects. Genomic studies of these marks using model systems are limited, particularly with array-based tools, because the standard method of detecting DNA methylation cannot distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC and most methods have been developed to only survey the human genome. We show that non-human data generated using the optimization of a widely used human DNA methylation array, designed only to detect 5-mC, reproducibly distinguishes tissue types within and between chimpanzee, rhesus, and mouse, with correlations near the human DNA level (R(2) > 0.99). Genome-wide methylation analysis, using this approach, reveals 6,102 differentially methylated loci between rhesus placental and fetal tissues with pathways analysis significantly overrepresented for developmental processes. Restricting the analysis to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes finds 76 differentially methylated loci, suggesting that rhesus placental tissue carries a cancer epigenetic signature. Similarly, adapting the assay to detect 5-hmC finds highly reproducible 5-hmC levels within human, rhesus, and mouse brain tissue that is species-specific with a hierarchical abundance among the three species (human > rhesus > mouse). Annotation of 5-hmC with respect to gene structure reveals a significant prevalence in the 3'UTR and an association with chromatin-related ontological terms, suggesting an epigenetic feedback loop mechanism for 5-hmC. Together, these data show that this array-based methylation assay is generalizable to all mammals for the detection of both 5-mC and 5-hmC, greatly improving the utility of mammalian model systems

  16. Concurrent array-based queue

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    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  17. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

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    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains......We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high......-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p...

  18. A comparison between genotyping-by-sequencing and array-based scoring of SNPs for genomic prediction accuracy in winter wheat.

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    Elbasyoni, Ibrahim S; Lorenz, A J; Guttieri, M; Frels, K; Baenziger, P S; Poland, J; Akhunov, E

    2018-05-01

    The utilization of DNA molecular markers in plant breeding to maximize selection response via marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) has revolutionized plant breeding. A key factor affecting GS applicability is the choice of molecular marker platform. Genotyping-by-sequencing scored SNPs (GBS-scored SNPs) provides a large number of markers, albeit with high rates of missing data. Array scored SNPs are of high quality, but the cost per sample is substantially higher. The objectives of this study were 1) compare GBS-scored SNPs, and array scored SNPs for genomic selection applications, and 2) compare estimates of genomic kinship and population structure calculated using the two marker platforms. SNPs were compared in a diversity panel consisting of 299 hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions that were part of a multi-year, multi-environments association mapping study. The panel was phenotyped in Ithaca, Nebraska for heading date, plant height, days to physiological maturity and grain yield in 2012 and 2013. The panel was genotyped using GBS-scored SNPs, and array scored SNPs. Results indicate that GBS-scored SNPs is comparable to or better than Array-scored SNPs for genomic prediction application. Both platforms identified the same genetic patterns in the panel where 90% of the lines were classified to common genetic groups. Overall, we concluded that GBS-scored SNPs have the potential to be the marker platform of choice for genetic diversity and genomic selection in winter wheat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus Genome and a Genotyping Array Based on Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes.

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    DeWoody, J Andrew; Fernandez, Nadia B; Brüniche-Olsen, Anna; Antonides, Jennifer D; Doyle, Jacqueline M; San Miguel, Phillip; Westerman, Rick; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Godard-Codding, Céline A J; Bickham, John W

    2017-06-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches have much to offer in terms of ecology, evolution, and conservation. To better understand the biology of the gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861), we sequenced the genome and produced an assembly that contains ∼95% of the genes known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. From this assembly, we annotated 22,711 genes and identified 2,057,254 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using this assembly, we generated a curated list of candidate genes potentially subject to strong natural selection, including genes associated with osmoregulation, oxygen binding and delivery, and other aspects of marine life. From these candidate genes, we queried 92 autosomal protein-coding markers with a panel of 96 SNPs that also included 2 sexing and 2 mitochondrial markers. Genotyping error rates, calculated across loci and across 69 intentional replicate samples, were low (0.021%), and observed heterozygosity was 0.33 averaged over all autosomal markers. This level of variability provides substantial discriminatory power across loci (mean probability of identity of 1.6 × 10 -25 and mean probability of exclusion >0.999 with neither parent known), indicating that these markers provide a powerful means to assess parentage and relatedness in gray whales. We found 29 unique multilocus genotypes represented among our 36 biopsies (indicating that we inadvertently sampled 7 whales twice). In total, we compiled an individual data set of 28 western gray whales (WGSs) and 1 presumptive eastern gray whale (EGW). The lone EGW we sampled was no more or less related to the WGWs than expected by chance alone. The gray whale genomes reported here will enable comparative studies of natural selection in cetaceans, and the SNP markers should be highly informative for future studies of gray whale evolution, population structure, demography, and relatedness.

  20. Genomic analysis of CD8+ NK/T cell line, ‘SRIK-NKL’, with array-based CGH (aCGH), SKY/FISH and molecular mapping

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    Rossi, Michael; LaDuca, Jeff; Cowell, John; Srivastava, Bejai I.S.; Matsui, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We performed aCGH, SKY /FISH, molecular mapping and expression analyses on a permanent CD8+ NK/T cell line, ‘SRIK-NKL’ established from a lymphoma (ALL) patient, in attempt to define the fundamental genetic profile of its unique NK phenotypes. aCGH revealed hemizygous deletion of 6p containing genes responsible for hematopoietic functions. The SKY demonstrated that a constitutive reciprocal translocation, rcpt(5;14)(p13.2;q11) is a stable marker. Using somatic hybrids containing der(5) derived from SRIK-NKL, we found that the breakpoint in one homologue of no. 5 is located upstream of IL7R and also that the breakpoint in no. 14 is located within TRA@. The FISH analysis using BAC which contains TRA@ and its flanking region further revealed a ~231 kb deletion within 14q11 in the der(5) but not in the normal homologue of no. 14. The RT-PCR analysis detected mRNA for TRA@ transcripts which were extending across, but not including, the deleted region. IL7R was detected at least at mRNA levels. These findings were consistent with the immunological findings that TRA@ and IL7R are both expressed at mRNA levels and TRA@ at cytoplasmic protein levels in SRIK-NKL cells. In addition to rept(5;14), aCGH identified novel copy number abnormalities suggesting that the unique phenotype of the SRIK-NKL cell line is not solely due to the TRA@ rearrangement. These findings provide supportive evidence for the notion that SRIK-NKL cells may be useful for studying not only the function of NK cells but also genetic deregulations associated with leukemiogenesis. PMID:17640729

  1. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

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    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  2. Genomic profiling identifies GATA6 as a candidate oncogene amplified in pancreatobiliary cancer.

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    Kevin A Kwei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatobiliary cancers have among the highest mortality rates of any cancer type. Discovering the full spectrum of molecular genetic alterations may suggest new avenues for therapy. To catalogue genomic alterations, we carried out array-based genomic profiling of 31 exocrine pancreatic cancers and 6 distal bile duct cancers, expanded as xenografts to enrich the tumor cell fraction. We identified numerous focal DNA amplifications and deletions, including in 19% of pancreatobiliary cases gain at cytoband 18q11.2, a locus uncommonly amplified in other tumor types. The smallest shared amplification at 18q11.2 included GATA6, a transcriptional regulator previously linked to normal pancreas development. When amplified, GATA6 was overexpressed at both the mRNA and protein levels, and strong immunostaining was observed in 25 of 54 (46% primary pancreatic cancers compared to 0 of 33 normal pancreas specimens surveyed. GATA6 expression in xenografts was associated with specific microarray gene-expression patterns, enriched for GATA binding sites and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity. siRNA mediated knockdown of GATA6 in pancreatic cancer cell lines with amplification led to reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and colony formation. Our findings indicate that GATA6 amplification and overexpression contribute to the oncogenic phenotypes of pancreatic cancer cells, and identify GATA6 as a candidate lineage-specific oncogene in pancreatobiliary cancer, with implications for novel treatment strategies.

  3. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Esthesioneuroblastoma Reveals Additional Treatment Options.

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    Gay, Laurie M; Kim, Sungeun; Fedorchak, Kyle; Kundranda, Madappa; Odia, Yazmin; Nangia, Chaitali; Battiste, James; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Powell, Steven; Russell, Jeffery; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Suh, James; Ali, Siraj M; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the olfactory mucosa. Despite surgical resection combined with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, ENB often relapses with rapid progression. Current multimodality, nontargeted therapy for relapsed ENB is of limited clinical benefit. We queried whether comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of relapsed or refractory ENB can uncover genomic alterations (GA) that could identify potential targeted therapies for these patients. CGP was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 41 consecutive clinical cases of ENBs using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 593X. The results were analyzed for base substitutions, insertions and deletions, select rearrangements, and copy number changes (amplifications and homozygous deletions). Clinically relevant GA (CRGA) were defined as GA linked to drugs on the market or under evaluation in clinical trials. A total of 28 ENBs harbored GA, with a mean of 1.5 GA per sample. Approximately half of the ENBs (21, 51%) featured at least one CRGA, with an average of 1 CRGA per sample. The most commonly altered gene was TP53 (17%), with GA in PIK3CA , NF1 , CDKN2A , and CDKN2C occurring in 7% of samples. We report comprehensive genomic profiles for 41 ENB tumors. CGP revealed potential new therapeutic targets, including targetable GA in the mTOR, CDK and growth factor signaling pathways, highlighting the clinical value of genomic profiling in ENB. Comprehensive genomic profiling of 41 relapsed or refractory ENBs reveals recurrent alterations or classes of mutation, including amplification of tyrosine kinases encoded on chromosome 5q and mutations affecting genes in the mTOR/PI3K pathway. Approximately half of the ENBs (21, 51%) featured at least one clinically relevant genomic alteration (CRGA), with an average of 1 CRGA per sample. The most commonly altered

  4. Methyl-Analyzer--whole genome DNA methylation profiling.

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    Xin, Yurong; Ge, Yongchao; Haghighi, Fatemeh G

    2011-08-15

    Methyl-Analyzer is a python package that analyzes genome-wide DNA methylation data produced by the Methyl-MAPS (methylation mapping analysis by paired-end sequencing) method. Methyl-MAPS is an enzymatic-based method that uses both methylation-sensitive and -dependent enzymes covering >80% of CpG dinucleotides within mammalian genomes. It combines enzymatic-based approaches with high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology to provide whole genome DNA methylation profiles. Methyl-Analyzer processes and integrates sequencing reads from methylated and unmethylated compartments and estimates CpG methylation probabilities at single base resolution. Methyl-Analyzer is available at http://github.com/epigenomics/methylmaps. Sample dataset is available for download at http://epigenomicspub.columbia.edu/methylanalyzer_data.html. fgh3@columbia.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    Jin, Eun-Heui; Zhang, Enji; Ko, Youngkwon; Sim, Woo Seog; Moon, Dong Eon; Yoon, Keon Jung; Hong, Jang Hee; Lee, Won Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II) and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and pCRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10−4). The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression. PMID:24244504

  6. Integrated genomic and gene expression profiling identifies two major genomic circuits in urothelial carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lindgren

    Full Text Available Similar to other malignancies, urothelial carcinoma (UC is characterized by specific recurrent chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, the interconnection between specific genomic alterations, and how patterns of chromosomal alterations adhere to different molecular subgroups of UC, is less clear. We applied tiling resolution array CGH to 146 cases of UC and identified a number of regions harboring recurrent focal genomic amplifications and deletions. Several potential oncogenes were included in the amplified regions, including known oncogenes like E2F3, CCND1, and CCNE1, as well as new candidate genes, such as SETDB1 (1q21, and BCL2L1 (20q11. We next combined genome profiling with global gene expression, gene mutation, and protein expression data and identified two major genomic circuits operating in urothelial carcinoma. The first circuit was characterized by FGFR3 alterations, overexpression of CCND1, and 9q and CDKN2A deletions. The second circuit was defined by E3F3 amplifications and RB1 deletions, as well as gains of 5p, deletions at PTEN and 2q36, 16q, 20q, and elevated CDKN2A levels. TP53/MDM2 alterations were common for advanced tumors within the two circuits. Our data also suggest a possible RAS/RAF circuit. The tumors with worst prognosis showed a gene expression profile that indicated a keratinized phenotype. Taken together, our integrative approach revealed at least two separate networks of genomic alterations linked to the molecular diversity seen in UC, and that these circuits may reflect distinct pathways of tumor development.

  7. Genome-wide expression profiling of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Heui Jin

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05. Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP, l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10(-4. The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression.

  8. Genomic profiles of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji An; Kim, Deokhoon; Chun, Sung-Min; Bae, SooHyun; Song, Joon Seon; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Song, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Choi, Chang-Min; Jang, Se Jin

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the pathogenesis or molecular profiles of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-associated lung cancer (IPF-LC). This study was performed to investigate the genomic profiles of IPF-LC and to explore the possibility of defining potential therapeutic targets in IPF-LC. We assessed genomic profiles of IPF-LC by using targeted exome sequencing (OncoPanel version 2) in 35 matched tumour/normal pairs surgically resected between 2004 and 2014. Germline and somatic variant calling was performed with GATK HaplotypeCaller and MuTect with GATK SomaticIndelocator, respectively. Copy number analysis was conducted with CNVkit, with focal events determined by Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer 2.0, and pathway analysis (KEGG) with DAVID. Germline mutations in TERT (rs2736100, n = 33) and CDKN1A (rs2395655, n = 27) associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis risk were detected in most samples. A total of 410 somatic mutations were identified, with an average of 11.7 per tumour, including 69 synonymous, 177 missense, 17 nonsense, 1 nonstop and 11 splice-site mutations, and 135 small coding indels. Spectra of the somatic mutations revealed predominant C > T transitions despite an extensive smoking history in most patients, suggesting a potential association between APOBEC-related mutagenesis and the development of IPF-LC. TP53 (22/35, 62.9%) and BRAF (6/35, 17.1%) were found to be significantly mutated in IPF-LC. Recurrent focal amplifications in three chromosomal loci (3q26.33, 7q31.2, and 12q14.3) and 9p21.3 deletion were identified, and genes associated with the JAK-STAT signalling pathway were significantly amplified in IPF-LC (P = 0.012). This study demonstrates that IPF-LC is genetically characterized by the presence of somatic mutations reflecting a variety of environmental exposures on the background of specific germline mutations, and is associated with potentially targetable alterations such as BRAF mutations. Copyright © 2017

  9. BarleyBase—an expression profiling database for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Gong, Jian; Caldo, Rico A.; Nettleton, Dan; Cook, Dianne; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    BarleyBase (BB) (www.barleybase.org) is an online database for plant microarrays with integrated tools for data visualization and statistical analysis. BB houses raw and normalized expression data from the two publicly available Affymetrix genome arrays, Barley1 and Arabidopsis ATH1 with plans to include the new Affymetrix 61K wheat, maize, soybean and rice arrays, as they become available. BB contains a broad set of query and display options at all data levels, ranging from experiments to individual hybridizations to probe sets down to individual probes. Users can perform cross-experiment queries on probe sets based on observed expression profiles and/or based on known biological information. Probe set queries are integrated with visualization and analysis tools such as the R statistical toolbox, data filters and a large variety of plot types. Controlled vocabularies for gene and plant ontologies, as well as interconnecting links to physical or genetic map and other genomic data in PlantGDB, Gramene and GrainGenes, allow users to perform EST alignments and gene function prediction using Barley1 exemplar sequences, thus, enhancing cross-species comparison. PMID:15608273

  10. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Matt van de Rijn, M.D., Ph.D. Torsten...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 May 2006 –30 Apr 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve...Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0297 Title: Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis

  11. Babelomics: advanced functional profiling of transcriptomics, proteomics and genomics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Carbonell, José; Minguez, Pablo; Goetz, Stefan; Conesa, Ana; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Alloza, Eva; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    We present a new version of Babelomics, a complete suite of web tools for the functional profiling of genome scale experiments, with new and improved methods as well as more types of functional definitions. Babelomics includes different flavours of conventional functional enrichment methods as well as more advanced gene set analysis methods that makes it a unique tool among the similar resources available. In addition to the well-known functional definitions (GO, KEGG), Babelomics includes new ones such as Biocarta pathways or text mining-derived functional terms. Regulatory modules implemented include transcriptional control (Transfac, CisRed) and other levels of regulation such as miRNA-mediated interference. Moreover, Babelomics allows for sub-selection of terms in order to test more focused hypothesis. Also gene annotation correspondence tables can be imported, which allows testing with user-defined functional modules. Finally, a tool for the ‘de novo’ functional annotation of sequences has been included in the system. This allows using yet unannotated organisms in the program. Babelomics has been extensively re-engineered and now it includes the use of web services and Web 2.0 technology features, a new user interface with persistent sessions and a new extended database of gene identifiers. Babelomics is available at http://www.babelomics.org PMID:18515841

  12. Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.

    The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....

  13. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  14. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on genomic expression profiling of porcine parthenogenetic activated and cloned embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Yonglun; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    derived by PA or HMC. Hierarchical clustering depicted stage-specific genomic expression profiling. At the 4-cell and blastocyst stages, 103 and 163 transcripts were differentially expressed between the HMC and PA embryos, respectively (P

  15. Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular profiling identify new driver mutations in gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai; Yuen, Siu Tsan; Xu, Jiangchun; Lee, Siu Po; Yan, Helen H N; Shi, Stephanie T; Siu, Hoi Cheong; Deng, Shibing; Chu, Kent Man; Law, Simon; Chan, Kok Hoe; Chan, Annie S Y; Tsui, Wai Yin; Ho, Siu Lun; Chan, Anthony K W; Man, Jonathan L K; Foglizzo, Valentina; Ng, Man Kin; Chan, April S; Ching, Yick Pang; Cheng, Grace H W; Xie, Tao; Fernandez, Julio; Li, Vivian S W; Clevers, Hans; Rejto, Paul A; Mao, Mao; Leung, Suet Yi

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse molecular and histological subtypes. We performed whole-genome sequencing in 100 tumor-normal pairs, along with DNA copy number, gene expression and methylation profiling, for integrative genomic analysis. We found subtype-specific genetic and

  16. PanCoreGen - Profiling, detecting, annotating protein-coding genes in microbial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sandip; Bhardwaj, Archana; Bag, Sumit K; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Chattopadhyay, Sujay

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of genomic data, especially from multiple isolates of a single species, has opened new vistas for microbial genomics analysis. Analyzing the pan-genome (i.e. the sum of genetic repertoire) of microbial species is crucial in understanding the dynamics of molecular evolution, where virulence evolution is of major interest. Here we present PanCoreGen - a standalone application for pan- and core-genomic profiling of microbial protein-coding genes. PanCoreGen overcomes key limitations of the existing pan-genomic analysis tools, and develops an integrated annotation-structure for a species-specific pan-genomic profile. It provides important new features for annotating draft genomes/contigs and detecting unidentified genes in annotated genomes. It also generates user-defined group-specific datasets within the pan-genome. Interestingly, analyzing an example-set of Salmonella genomes, we detect potential footprints of adaptive convergence of horizontally transferred genes in two human-restricted pathogenic serovars - Typhi and Paratyphi A. Overall, PanCoreGen represents a state-of-the-art tool for microbial phylogenomics and pathogenomics study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PanCoreGen – profiling, detecting, annotating protein-coding genes in microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bag, Sumit K; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of genomic data, especially from multiple isolates of a single species, has opened new vistas for microbial genomics analysis. Analyzing pan-genome (i.e. the sum of genetic repertoire) of microbial species is crucial in understanding the dynamics of molecular evolution, where virulence evolution is of major interest. Here we present PanCoreGen – a standalone application for pan- and core-genomic profiling of microbial protein-coding genes. PanCoreGen overcomes key limitations of the existing pan-genomic analysis tools, and develops an integrated annotation-structure for species-specific pan-genomic profile. It provides important new features for annotating draft genomes/contigs and detecting unidentified genes in annotated genomes. It also generates user-defined group-specific datasets within the pan-genome. Interestingly, analyzing an example-set of Salmonella genomes, we detect potential footprints of adaptive convergence of horizontally transferred genes in two human-restricted pathogenic serovars – Typhi and Paratyphi A. Overall, PanCoreGen represents a state-of-the-art tool for microbial phylogenomics and pathogenomics study. PMID:26456591

  18. Soybean (Glycine max) SWEET gene family: insights through comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Prince, Silvas; Nicander, Bjorn; Zhao, Mingzhe; Sonah, Humira; Song, Li; Lin, Li; Chaudhary, Juhi; Liu, Yang; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-07-11

    SWEET (MtN3_saliva) domain proteins, a recently identified group of efflux transporters, play an indispensable role in sugar efflux, phloem loading, plant-pathogen interaction and reproductive tissue development. The SWEET gene family is predominantly studied in Arabidopsis and members of the family are being investigated in rice. To date, no transcriptome or genomics analysis of soybean SWEET genes has been reported. In the present investigation, we explored the evolutionary aspect of the SWEET gene family in diverse plant species including primitive single cell algae to angiosperms with a major emphasis on Glycine max. Evolutionary features showed expansion and duplication of the SWEET gene family in land plants. Homology searches with BLAST tools and Hidden Markov Model-directed sequence alignments identified 52 SWEET genes that were mapped to 15 chromosomes in the soybean genome as tandem duplication events. Soybean SWEET (GmSWEET) genes showed a wide range of expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of public transcriptome data and expression profiling using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that a majority of the GmSWEET genes were confined to reproductive tissue development. Several natural genetic variants (non-synonymous SNPs, premature stop codons and haplotype) were identified in the GmSWEET genes using whole genome re-sequencing data analysis of 106 soybean genotypes. A significant association was observed between SNP-haplogroup and seed sucrose content in three gene clusters on chromosome 6. Present investigation utilized comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequencing approaches and provided a systematic description of soybean SWEET genes and identified putative candidates with probable roles in the reproductive tissue development. Gene expression profiling at different developmental stages and genomic variation data will aid as an important resource for the soybean research

  19. Fiber-array based optogenetic prosthetic system for stimulation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Cote, Chris; Tejeda, Hector; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2012-02-01

    Recent advent of optogenetics has enabled activation of genetically-targeted neuronal cells using low intensity blue light with high temporal precision. Since blue light is attenuated rapidly due to scattering and absorption in neural tissue, optogenetic treatment of neurological disorders may require stimulation of specific cell types in multiple regions of the brain. Further, restoration of certain neural functions (vision, and auditory etc) requires accurate spatio-temporal stimulation patterns rather than just precise temporal stimulation. In order to activate multiple regions of the central nervous system in 3D, here, we report development of an optogenetic prosthetic comprising of array of fibers coupled to independently-controllable LEDs. This design avoids direct contact of LEDs with the brain tissue and thus does not require electrical and heat isolation, which can non-specifically stimulate and damage the local brain regions. The intensity, frequency, and duty cycle of light pulses from each fiber in the array was controlled independently using an inhouse developed LabView based program interfaced with a microcontroller driving the individual LEDs. While the temporal profile of the light pulses was controlled by varying the current driving the LED, the beam profile emanating from each fiber tip could be sculpted by microfabrication of the fiber tip. The fiber array was used to stimulate neurons, expressing channelrhodopsin-2, in different locations within the brain or retina. Control of neural activity in the mice cortex, using the fiber-array based prosthetic, is evaluated from recordings made with multi-electrode array (MEA). We also report construction of a μLED array based prosthetic for spatio-temporal stimulation of cortex.

  20. Integrated genomic classification of melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system using mutation analysis, copy number alterations and DNA methylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewank, Klaus; Koelsche, Christian; van de Nes, Johannes A P; Schrimpf, Daniel; Gessi, Marco; Möller, Inga; Sucker, Antje; Scolyer, Richard A; Buckland, Michael E; Murali, Rajmohan; Pietsch, Torsten; von Deimling, Andreas; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2018-06-11

    In the central nervous system, distinguishing primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors from melanoma metastases and predicting their biological behavior solely using histopathologic criteria can be challenging. We aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of integrated molecular analysis. Targeted next-generation-sequencing, array-based genome-wide methylation analysis and BAP1 immunohistochemistry was performed on the largest cohort of central nervous system melanocytic tumors analyzed to date, incl. 47 primary tumors of the central nervous system, 16 uveal melanomas. 13 cutaneous melanoma metastasis and 2 blue nevus-like melanomas. Gene mutation, DNA-methylation and copy-number profiles were correlated with clinicopathological features. Combining mutation, copy-number and DNA-methylation profiles clearly distinguished cutaneous melanoma metastases from other melanocytic tumors. Primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors, uveal melanomas and blue nevus-like melanoma showed common DNA-methylation, copy-number alteration and gene mutation signatures. Notably, tumors demonstrating chromosome 3 monosomy and BAP1 alterations formed a homogeneous subset within this group. Integrated molecular profiling aids in distinguishing primary from metastatic melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system. Primary leptomeningeal melanocytic tumors, uveal melanoma and blue nevus-like melanoma share molecular similarity with chromosome 3 and BAP1 alterations markers of poor prognosis. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. UFO: a web server for ultra-fast functional profiling of whole genome protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinicke, Peter

    2009-09-02

    Functional profiling is a key technique to characterize and compare the functional potential of entire genomes. The estimation of profiles according to an assignment of sequences to functional categories is a computationally expensive task because it requires the comparison of all protein sequences from a genome with a usually large database of annotated sequences or sequence families. Based on machine learning techniques for Pfam domain detection, the UFO web server for ultra-fast functional profiling allows researchers to process large protein sequence collections instantaneously. Besides the frequencies of Pfam and GO categories, the user also obtains the sequence specific assignments to Pfam domain families. In addition, a comparison with existing genomes provides dissimilarity scores with respect to 821 reference proteomes. Considering the underlying UFO domain detection, the results on 206 test genomes indicate a high sensitivity of the approach. In comparison with current state-of-the-art HMMs, the runtime measurements show a considerable speed up in the range of four orders of magnitude. For an average size prokaryotic genome, the computation of a functional profile together with its comparison typically requires about 10 seconds of processing time. For the first time the UFO web server makes it possible to get a quick overview on the functional inventory of newly sequenced organisms. The genome scale comparison with a large number of precomputed profiles allows a first guess about functionally related organisms. The service is freely available and does not require user registration or specification of a valid email address.

  2. Functional profiling of cyanobacterial genomes and its role in ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of complete genome sequences of many cyanobacterial species, it is becoming feasible to study the broad prospective of the environmental adaptation and the overall changes at transcriptional and translational level in these organisms. In the evolutionary phase, niche-specific competitive forces have resulted in specific features of the cyanobacterial genomes. In this study, functional composition of the 84 different cyanobacterial genomes and their adaptations to different environments was examined by identifying the genomic composition for specific cellular processes, which reflect their genomic functional profile and ecological adaptation. It was identified that among cyanobacterial genomes, metabolic genes have major share over other categories and differentiation of genomic functional profile was observed for the species inhabiting different habitats. The cyanobacteria of freshwater and other habitats accumulate large number of poorly characterized genes. Strain specific functions were also reported in many cyanobacterial members, of which an important feature was the occurrence of phage-related sequences. From this study, it can be speculated that habitat is one of the major factors in giving the shape of functional composition of cyanobacterial genomes towards their ecological adaptations.

  3. Integrative Analysis of Complex Cancer Genomics and Clinical Profiles Using the cBioPortal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjiong; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Dresdner, Gideon; Gross, Benjamin; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Jacobsen, Anders; Sinha, Rileen; Larsson, Erik; Cerami, Ethan; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics (http://cbioportal.org) provides a Web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing multidimensional cancer genomics data. The portal reduces molecular profiling data from cancer tissues and cell lines into readily understandable genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and proteomic events. The query interface combined with customized data storage enables researchers to interactively explore genetic alterations across samples, genes, and pathways and, when available in the underlying data, to link these to clinical outcomes. The portal provides graphical summaries of gene-level data from multiple platforms, network visualization and analysis, survival analysis, patient-centric queries, and software programmatic access. The intuitive Web interface of the portal makes complex cancer genomics profiles accessible to researchers and clinicians without requiring bioinformatics expertise, thus facilitating biological discoveries. Here, we provide a practical guide to the analysis and visualization features of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics. PMID:23550210

  4. UFO: a web server for ultra-fast functional profiling of whole genome protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinicke Peter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional profiling is a key technique to characterize and compare the functional potential of entire genomes. The estimation of profiles according to an assignment of sequences to functional categories is a computationally expensive task because it requires the comparison of all protein sequences from a genome with a usually large database of annotated sequences or sequence families. Description Based on machine learning techniques for Pfam domain detection, the UFO web server for ultra-fast functional profiling allows researchers to process large protein sequence collections instantaneously. Besides the frequencies of Pfam and GO categories, the user also obtains the sequence specific assignments to Pfam domain families. In addition, a comparison with existing genomes provides dissimilarity scores with respect to 821 reference proteomes. Considering the underlying UFO domain detection, the results on 206 test genomes indicate a high sensitivity of the approach. In comparison with current state-of-the-art HMMs, the runtime measurements show a considerable speed up in the range of four orders of magnitude. For an average size prokaryotic genome, the computation of a functional profile together with its comparison typically requires about 10 seconds of processing time. Conclusion For the first time the UFO web server makes it possible to get a quick overview on the functional inventory of newly sequenced organisms. The genome scale comparison with a large number of precomputed profiles allows a first guess about functionally related organisms. The service is freely available and does not require user registration or specification of a valid email address.

  5. Brain perihematoma genomic profile following spontaneous human intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH represents about 15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality rates. Our aim was to identify the gene expression changes and biological pathways altered in the brain following ICH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve brain samples were obtained from four deceased patients who suffered an ICH including perihematomal tissue (PH and the corresponding contralateral white (CW and grey (CG matter. Affymetrix GeneChip platform for analysis of over 47,000 transcripts was conducted. Microarray Analysis Suite 5.0 was used to process array images and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis System was used to analyze biological mechanisms and functions of the genes. We identified 468 genes in the PH areas displaying a different expression pattern with a fold change between -3.74 and +5.16 when compared to the contralateral areas (291 overexpressed and 177 underexpressed. The top genes which appeared most significantly overexpressed in the PH areas codify for cytokines, chemokines, coagulation factors, cell growth and proliferation factors while the underexpressed codify for proteins involved in cell cycle or neurotrophins. Validation and replication studies at gene and protein level in brain samples confirmed microarray results. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic responses identified in this study provide valuable information about potential biomarkers and target molecules altered in the perihematomal regions.

  6. Cognitive endophenotypes inform genome-wide expression profiling in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheutlin, Amanda B; Viehman, Rachael W; Fortgang, Rebecca; Borg, Jacqueline; Smith, Desmond J; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian; Hultman, Christina M; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2016-01-01

    We performed a whole-genome expression study to clarify the nature of the biological processes mediating between inherited genetic variations and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Gene expression was assayed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using Illumina Human WG6 v3.0 chips in twins discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and control twins. After quality control, expression levels of 18,559 genes were screened for association with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) performance, and any memory-related probes were then evaluated for variation by diagnostic status in the discovery sample (N = 190), and in an independent replication sample (N = 73). Heritability of gene expression using the twin design was also assessed. After Bonferroni correction (p schizophrenia patients, with comparable effect sizes in the same direction in the replication sample. For 41 of these 43 transcripts, expression levels were heritable. Nearly all identified genes contain common or de novo mutations associated with schizophrenia in prior studies. Genes increasing risk for schizophrenia appear to do so in part via effects on signaling cascades influencing memory. The genes implicated in these processes are enriched for those related to RNA processing and DNA replication and include genes influencing G-protein coupled signal transduction, cytokine signaling, and oligodendrocyte function. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Psoriasis prediction from genome-wide SNP profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiangzhong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the availability of large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS data, choosing an optimal set of SNPs for disease susceptibility prediction is a challenging task. This study aimed to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to predict psoriasis from searching GWAS data. Methods Totally we had 2,798 samples and 451,724 SNPs. Process for searching a set of SNPs to predict susceptibility for psoriasis consisted of two steps. The first one was to search top 1,000 SNPs with high accuracy for prediction of psoriasis from GWAS dataset. The second one was to search for an optimal SNP subset for predicting psoriasis. The sequential information bottleneck (sIB method was compared with classical linear discriminant analysis(LDA for classification performance. Results The best test harmonic mean of sensitivity and specificity for predicting psoriasis by sIB was 0.674(95% CI: 0.650-0.698, while only 0.520(95% CI: 0.472-0.524 was reported for predicting disease by LDA. Our results indicate that the new classifier sIB performs better than LDA in the study. Conclusions The fact that a small set of SNPs can predict disease status with average accuracy of 68% makes it possible to use SNP data for psoriasis prediction.

  8. Emerging applications of read profiles towards the functional annotation of the genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Poirazi, Panayiota; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    is typically a result of the protocol designed to address specific research questions. The sequencing results in reads, which when mapped to a reference genome often leads to the formation of distinct patterns (read profiles). Interpretation of these read profiles is essential for their analysis in relation...... to the research question addressed. Several strategies have been employed at varying levels of abstraction ranging from a somewhat ad hoc to a more systematic analysis of read profiles. These include methods which can compare read profiles, e.g., from direct (non-sequence based) alignments to classification...... of patterns into functional groups. In this review, we highlight the emerging applications of read profiles for the annotation of non-coding RNA and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) such as enhancers and promoters. We also discuss the biological rationale behind their formation....

  9. Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancers from African American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available African American (AA men have a higher incidence and significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than white men, but the biological basis for these differences are poorly understood. Few studies have been carried out to determine whether there are areas of allelic loss or gain in prostate cancers from AA men that are over-represented in or specific to this group. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer in AA men, we have analyzed 20 prostate cancers from AA men with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to detect genomic copy number alterations. We identified 17 regions showing significant loss and 4 regions with significant gains. Most of these regions had been linked to prostate cancer by previous studies of copy number alterations of predominantly white patients. We identified a novel region of loss at 4p16.3, which has been shown to be lost in breast, colon, and bladder cancers. Comparison of our primary tumors with tumors from white patients from a previously published cohort with similar pathological characteristics showed higher frequency of loss of at numerous loci including 6q13-22, 8p21, 13q13-14, and 16q11-24 and gains of 7p21 and 8q24, all of which had higher frequencies in metastatic lesions in this previously published cohort. Thus, the clinically localized cancers from AA men more closely resembled metastatic cancers from white men. This difference may in part explain the more aggressive clinical behavior of prostate cancer in AA men.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Song, Da-Feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate.

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-yu; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Song, Da-feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. Methods: The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Results: We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Conclusions: Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate. PMID:27487802

  12. Rapid Identification of Potential Drugs for Diabetic Nephropathy Using Whole-Genome Expression Profiles of Glomeruli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsong Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate potential drugs for diabetic nephropathy (DN using whole-genome expression profiles and the Connectivity Map (CMAP. Methodology. Eighteen Chinese Han DN patients and six normal controls were included in this study. Whole-genome expression profiles of microdissected glomeruli were measured using the Affymetrix human U133 plus 2.0 chip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between late stage and early stage DN samples and the CMAP database were used to identify potential drugs for DN using bioinformatics methods. Results. (1 A total of 1065 DEGs (FDR 1.5 were found in late stage DN patients compared with early stage DN patients. (2 Piperlongumine, 15d-PGJ2 (15-delta prostaglandin J2, vorinostat, and trichostatin A were predicted to be the most promising potential drugs for DN, acting as NF-κB inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, PI3K pathway inhibitors, or PPARγ agonists, respectively. Conclusion. Using whole-genome expression profiles and the CMAP database, we rapidly predicted potential DN drugs, and therapeutic potential was confirmed by previously published studies. Animal experiments and clinical trials are needed to confirm both the safety and efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of DN.

  13. Salmonella enterica Prophage Sequence Profiles Reflect Genome Diversity and Can Be Used for High Discrimination Subtyping

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    Walid Mottawea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Prompt and accurate identification of the sources of Salmonella responsible for disease outbreaks is crucial to minimize infections and eliminate ongoing sources of contamination. Current subtyping tools including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing may be inadequate, in some instances, to provide the required discrimination among epidemiologically unrelated Salmonella strains. Prophage genes represent the majority of the accessory genes in bacteria genomes and have potential to be used as high discrimination markers in Salmonella. In this study, the prophage sequence diversity in different Salmonella serovars and genetically related strains was investigated. Using whole genome sequences of 1,760 isolates of S. enterica representing 151 Salmonella serovars and 66 closely related bacteria, prophage sequences were identified from assembled contigs using PHASTER. We detected 154 different prophages in S. enterica genomes. Prophage sequences were highly variable among S. enterica serovars with a median ± interquartile range (IQR of 5 ± 3 prophage regions per genome. While some prophage sequences were highly conserved among the strains of specific serovars, few regions were lineage specific. Therefore, strains belonging to each serovar could be clustered separately based on their prophage content. Analysis of S. Enteritidis isolates from seven outbreaks generated distinct prophage profiles for each outbreak. Taken altogether, the diversity of the prophage sequences correlates with genome diversity. Prophage repertoires provide an additional marker for differentiating S. enterica subtypes during foodborne outbreaks.

  14. Genomic portfolio of Merkel cell carcinoma as determined by comprehensive genomic profiling: implications for targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R; Tomson, Brett N; Elkin, Sheryl K; Marchlik, Erica; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-04-26

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an ultra-rare cutaneous neuroendocrine cancer for which approved treatment options are lacking. To better understand potential actionability, the genomic landscape of Merkel cell cancers was assessed. The molecular aberrations in 17 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes) and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 30 genes harboring aberrations and 60 distinct molecular alterations identified in this patient population. The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (12/17 [71% of patients]) and the cell cycle pathway (CDKN2A/B, CDKN2C or RB1) (12/17 [71%]). Abnormalities also were observed in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (AKT2, FBXW7, NF1, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or RICTOR) (9/17 [53%]) and DNA repair genes (ATM, BAP1, BRCA1/2, CHEK2, FANCA or MLH1) (5/17 [29%]). Possible cognate targeted therapies, including FDA-approved drugs, could be identified in most of the patients (16/17 [94%]). In summary, Merkel cell carcinomas were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that were unique in the majority of analyzed cases. Most patients had theoretically actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for investigating tailored combinations of matched therapies in Merkel cell carcinoma patients.

  15. Transcriptional profiling in response to terminal drought stress reveals differential responses along the wheat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Francesco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water stress during grain filling has a marked effect on grain yield, leading to a reduced endosperm cell number and thus sink capacity to accumulate dry matter. The bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS, a Chinese Spring terminal deletion line (CS_5AL-10 and the durum wheat cultivar Creso were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to mild and severe drought stress at the grain filling stage to find evidences of differential stress responses associated to different wheat genome regions. Results The transcriptome analysis of Creso, CS and its deletion line revealed 8,552 non redundant probe sets with different expression levels, mainly due to the comparisons between the two species. The drought treatments modified the expression of 3,056 probe sets. Besides a set of genes showing a similar drought response in Creso and CS, cluster analysis revealed several drought response features that can be associated to the different genomic structure of Creso, CS and CS_5AL-10. Some drought-related genes were expressed at lower level (or not expressed in Creso (which lacks the D genome or in the CS_5AL-10 deletion line compared to CS. The chromosome location of a set of these genes was confirmed by PCR-based mapping on the D genome (or the 5AL-10 region. Many clusters were characterized by different level of expression in Creso, CS and CS_AL-10, suggesting that the different genome organization of the three genotypes may affect plant adaptation to stress. Clusters with similar expression trend were grouped and functional classified to mine the biological mean of their activation or repression. Genes involved in ABA, proline, glycine-betaine and sorbitol pathways were found up-regulated by drought stress. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of a set of transposons and retrotransposons was detected in CS_5AL-10. Conclusion Bread and durum wheat genotypes were characterized by a different physiological reaction to water

  16. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A

    2011-06-13

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  17. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifola, Ingrid; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  18. Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Gregory E.; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2011-01-01

    A whole-genome phylogeny of the Escherichia coli/Shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (FFP) method. This alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. We present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of E. coli/Shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping and relationship among the organisms and (ii) the other based on the compositions of core features with low frequency and low variability (∼0.56 million features), which account for ∼69% of all commonly shared features among 38 taxa examined and are likely to have genome-wide lineal evolutionary signal. Shigella appears as a single clade when all possible features are used without filtering of noncore features. However, results using core features show that Shigella consists of at least two distantly related subclades, implying that the subclades evolved into a single clade because of a high degree of convergence influenced by mobile genetic elements and niche adaptation. In both FFP trees, the basal group of the E. coli/Shigella phylogeny is the B2 phylogroup, which contains primarily uropathogenic strains, suggesting that the E. coli/Shigella ancestor was likely a facultative or opportunistic pathogen. The extant commensal strains diverged relatively late and appear to be the result of reductive evolution of genomes. We also identify clade distinguishing features and their associated genomic regions within each phylogroup. Such features may provide useful information for understanding evolution of the groups and for quick diagnostic identification of each phylogroup. PMID:21536867

  19. TEGS-CN: A Statistical Method for Pathway Analysis of Genome-wide Copy Number Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Hsu, Thomas; Christiani, David C

    2014-01-01

    The effects of copy number alterations make up a significant part of the tumor genome profile, but pathway analyses of these alterations are still not well established. We proposed a novel method to analyze multiple copy numbers of genes within a pathway, termed Test for the Effect of a Gene Set with Copy Number data (TEGS-CN). TEGS-CN was adapted from TEGS, a method that we previously developed for gene expression data using a variance component score test. With additional development, we extend the method to analyze DNA copy number data, accounting for different sizes and thus various numbers of copy number probes in genes. The test statistic follows a mixture of X (2) distributions that can be obtained using permutation with scaled X (2) approximation. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the size and the power of TEGS-CN and to compare its performance with TEGS. We analyzed a genome-wide copy number data from 264 patients of non-small-cell lung cancer. With the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) pathway database, the genome-wide copy number data can be classified into 1814 biological pathways or gene sets. We investigated associations of the copy number profile of the 1814 gene sets with pack-years of cigarette smoking. Our analysis revealed five pathways with significant P values after Bonferroni adjustment (number data, and causal mechanisms of the five pathways require further study.

  20. Genome profiling of sterol synthesis shows convergent evolution in parasites and guides chemotherapeutic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fügi, Matthias A; Gunasekera, Kapila; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Guan, Xueli; Wenk, Markus R; Mäser, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Sterols are an essential class of lipids in eukaryotes, where they serve as structural components of membranes and play important roles as signaling molecules. Sterols are also of high pharmacological significance: cholesterol-lowering drugs are blockbusters in human health, and inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis are widely used as antifungals. Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis are also being developed for Chagas's disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we develop an in silico pipeline to globally evaluate sterol metabolism and perform comparative genomics. We generate a library of hidden Markov model-based profiles for 42 sterol biosynthetic enzymes, which allows expressing the genomic makeup of a given species as a numerical vector. Hierarchical clustering of these vectors functionally groups eukaryote proteomes and reveals convergent evolution, in particular metabolic reduction in obligate endoparasites. We experimentally explore sterol metabolism by testing a set of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors against trypanosomatids, Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia, and mammalian cells, and by quantifying the expression levels of sterol biosynthetic genes during the different life stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The phenotypic data correlate with genomic makeup for simvastatin, which showed activity against trypanosomatids. Other findings, such as the activity of terbinafine against Giardia, are not in agreement with the genotypic profile.

  1. Versatile Gene-Specific Sequence Tags for Arabidopsis Functional Genomics: Transcript Profiling and Reverse Genetics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Pierre; Allemeersch, Joke; Altmann, Thomas; Aubourg, Sébastien; Avon, Alexandra; Beynon, Jim; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Bitton, Frédérique; Caboche, Michel; Cannoot, Bernard; Chardakov, Vasil; Cognet-Holliger, Cécile; Colot, Vincent; Crowe, Mark; Darimont, Caroline; Durinck, Steffen; Eickhoff, Holger; de Longevialle, Andéol Falcon; Farmer, Edward E.; Grant, Murray; Kuiper, Martin T.R.; Lehrach, Hans; Léon, Céline; Leyva, Antonio; Lundeberg, Joakim; Lurin, Claire; Moreau, Yves; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Paz-Ares, Javier; Reymond, Philippe; Rouzé, Pierre; Sandberg, Goran; Segura, Maria Dolores; Serizet, Carine; Tabrett, Alexandra; Taconnat, Ludivine; Thareau, Vincent; Van Hummelen, Paul; Vercruysse, Steven; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Weingartner, Magdalena; Weisbeek, Peter J.; Wirta, Valtteri; Wittink, Floyd R.A.; Zabeau, Marc; Small, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Microarray transcript profiling and RNA interference are two new technologies crucial for large-scale gene function studies in multicellular eukaryotes. Both rely on sequence-specific hybridization between complementary nucleic acid strands, inciting us to create a collection of gene-specific sequence tags (GSTs) representing at least 21,500 Arabidopsis genes and which are compatible with both approaches. The GSTs were carefully selected to ensure that each of them shared no significant similarity with any other region in the Arabidopsis genome. They were synthesized by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. Spotted microarrays fabricated from the GSTs show good dynamic range, specificity, and sensitivity in transcript profiling experiments. The GSTs have also been transferred to bacterial plasmid vectors via recombinational cloning protocols. These cloned GSTs constitute the ideal starting point for a variety of functional approaches, including reverse genetics. We have subcloned GSTs on a large scale into vectors designed for gene silencing in plant cells. We show that in planta expression of GST hairpin RNA results in the expected phenotypes in silenced Arabidopsis lines. These versatile GST resources provide novel and powerful tools for functional genomics. PMID:15489341

  2. Genomic outlier profile analysis: mixture models, null hypotheses, and nonparametric estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-01-01

    In most analyses of large-scale genomic data sets, differential expression analysis is typically assessed by testing for differences in the mean of the distributions between 2 groups. A recent finding by Tomlins and others (2005) is of a different type of pattern of differential expression in which a fraction of samples in one group have overexpression relative to samples in the other group. In this work, we describe a general mixture model framework for the assessment of this type of expression, called outlier profile analysis. We start by considering the single-gene situation and establishing results on identifiability. We propose 2 nonparametric estimation procedures that have natural links to familiar multiple testing procedures. We then develop multivariate extensions of this methodology to handle genome-wide measurements. The proposed methodologies are compared using simulation studies as well as data from a prostate cancer gene expression study.

  3. Genomic profiling in Down syndrome acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies histone gene deletions associated with altered methylation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael G.; Wang, Jinhua; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood; Gurusiddappa, Sivashankarappa; Meyer, Julia; Condos, Gregory; Morrison, Debra; Tsimelzon, Anna; Devidas, Meenakshi; Heerema, Nyla A.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Plon, Sharon E.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Basso, Giuseppe; Pession, Andrea; Bhojwani, Deepa; Carroll, William L.; Rabin, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have distinct clinical and biological features. Whereas most DS-ALL cases lack the sentinel cytogenetic lesions that guide risk assignment in childhood ALL, JAK2 mutations and CRLF2 overexpression are highly enriched. To further characterize the unique biology of DS-ALL, we performed genome-wide profiling of 58 DS-ALL and 68 non-Down syndrome (NDS) ALL cases by DNA copy number, loss of heterozygosity, gene expression, and methylation analyses. We report a novel deletion within the 6p22 histone gene cluster as significantly more frequent in DS-ALL, occurring in 11 DS (22%) and only two NDS cases (3.1%) (Fisher’s exact p = 0.002). Homozygous deletions yielded significantly lower histone expression levels, and were associated with higher methylation levels, distinct spatial localization of methylated promoters, and enrichment of highly methylated genes for specific pathways and transcription factor binding motifs. Gene expression profiling demonstrated heterogeneity of DS-ALL cases overall, with supervised analysis defining a 45-transcript signature associated with CRLF2 overexpression. Further characterization of pathways associated with histone deletions may identify opportunities for novel targeted interventions. PMID:21647151

  4. CHESS (CgHExpreSS): a comprehensive analysis tool for the analysis of genomic alterations and their effects on the expression profile of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mikyung; Kim, Yangseok

    2009-12-16

    Genomic alterations frequently occur in many cancer patients and play important mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of cancer. Furthermore, they can modify the expression level of genes due to altered copy number in the corresponding region of the chromosome. An accumulating body of evidence supports the possibility that strong genome-wide correlation exists between DNA content and gene expression. Therefore, more comprehensive analysis is needed to quantify the relationship between genomic alteration and gene expression. A well-designed bioinformatics tool is essential to perform this kind of integrative analysis. A few programs have already been introduced for integrative analysis. However, there are many limitations in their performance of comprehensive integrated analysis using published software because of limitations in implemented algorithms and visualization modules. To address this issue, we have implemented the Java-based program CHESS to allow integrative analysis of two experimental data sets: genomic alteration and genome-wide expression profile. CHESS is composed of a genomic alteration analysis module and an integrative analysis module. The genomic alteration analysis module detects genomic alteration by applying a threshold based method or SW-ARRAY algorithm and investigates whether the detected alteration is phenotype specific or not. On the other hand, the integrative analysis module measures the genomic alteration's influence on gene expression. It is divided into two separate parts. The first part calculates overall correlation between comparative genomic hybridization ratio and gene expression level by applying following three statistical methods: simple linear regression, Spearman rank correlation and Pearson's correlation. In the second part, CHESS detects the genes that are differentially expressed according to the genomic alteration pattern with three alternative statistical approaches: Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and Chi square

  5. CGDM: collaborative genomic data model for molecular profiling data using NoSQL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shicai; Mares, Mihaela A; Guo, Yi-Ke

    2016-12-01

    High-throughput molecular profiling has greatly improved patient stratification and mechanistic understanding of diseases. With the increasing amount of data used in translational medicine studies in recent years, there is a need to improve the performance of data warehouses in terms of data retrieval and statistical processing. Both relational and Key Value models have been used for managing molecular profiling data. Key Value models such as SeqWare have been shown to be particularly advantageous in terms of query processing speed for large datasets. However, more improvement can be achieved, particularly through better indexing techniques of the Key Value models, taking advantage of the types of queries which are specific for the high-throughput molecular profiling data. In this article, we introduce a Collaborative Genomic Data Model (CGDM), aimed at significantly increasing the query processing speed for the main classes of queries on genomic databases. CGDM creates three Collaborative Global Clustering Index Tables (CGCITs) to solve the velocity and variety issues at the cost of limited extra volume. Several benchmarking experiments were carried out, comparing CGDM implemented on HBase to the traditional SQL data model (TDM) implemented on both HBase and MySQL Cluster, using large publicly available molecular profiling datasets taken from NCBI and HapMap. In the microarray case, CGDM on HBase performed up to 246 times faster than TDM on HBase and 7 times faster than TDM on MySQL Cluster. In single nucleotide polymorphism case, CGDM on HBase outperformed TDM on HBase by up to 351 times and TDM on MySQL Cluster by up to 9 times. The CGDM source code is available at https://github.com/evanswang/CGDM. y.guo@imperial.ac.uk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiling of Cell-Free Serum DNA in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihong Zhai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm is a feature of most types of cancers. Genome-wide DNAm profiling has been performed successfully on tumor tissue DNA samples. However, the invasive procedure limits the utility of tumor tissue for epidemiological studies. While recent data indicate that cell-free circulating DNAm (cfDNAm profiles reflect DNAm status in corresponding tumor tissues, no studies have examined the association of cfDNAm with cancer or precursors on a genome-wide scale. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the putative significance of genome-wide cfDNAm profiles in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA and Barrett esophagus (BE, EA precursor. We performed genome-wide DNAm profiling in EA tissue DNA (n = 8 and matched serum DNA (n = 8, in serum DNA of BE (n = 10, and in healthy controls (n = 10 using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip that covers 27,578 CpG loci in 14,495 genes. We found that cfDNAm profiles were highly correlated to DNAm profiles in matched tumor tissue DNA (r = 0.92 in patients with EA. We selected the most differentially methylated loci to perform hierarchical clustering analysis. We found that 911 loci can discriminate perfectly between EA and control samples, 554 loci can separate EA from BE samples, and 46 loci can distinguish BE from control samples. These results suggest that genome-wide cfDNAm profiles are highly consistent with DNAm profiles detected in corresponding tumor tissues. Differential cfDNAm profiling may be a useful approach for the noninvasive screening of EA and EA premalignant lesions.

  7. Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using barcode-based multiplex Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Deplancke, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a commonly used technique to detect the in vivo binding of proteins to DNA. ChIP is now routinely paired to microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) or next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to profile the DNA occupancy of proteins of interest on a genome-wide level. Because ChIP-chip introduces several biases, most notably due to the use of a fixed number of probes, ChIP-Seq has quickly become the method of choice as, depending on the sequencing depth, it is more sensitive, quantitative, and provides a greater binding site location resolution. With the ever increasing number of reads that can be generated per sequencing run, it has now become possible to analyze several samples simultaneously while maintaining sufficient sequence coverage, thus significantly reducing the cost per ChIP-Seq experiment. In this chapter, we provide a step-by-step guide on how to perform multiplexed ChIP-Seq analyses. As a proof-of-concept, we focus on the genome-wide profiling of RNA Polymerase II as measuring its DNA occupancy at different stages of any biological process can provide insights into the gene regulatory mechanisms involved. However, the protocol can also be used to perform multiplexed ChIP-Seq analyses of other DNA-binding proteins such as chromatin modifiers and transcription factors.

  8. Genomic profiling of CHEK2*1100delC-mutated breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massink, Maarten P. G.; Kooi, Irsan E.; Martens, John W. M.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    CHEK2*1100delC is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility allele with a high prevalence in the Netherlands. We performed copy number and gene expression profiling to investigate whether CHEK2*1100delC breast cancers harbor characteristic genomic aberrations, as seen for BRCA1 mutated breast cancers. We performed high-resolution SNP array and gene expression profiling of 120 familial breast carcinomas selected from a larger cohort of 155 familial breast tumors, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2 mutant tumors. Gene expression analyses based on a mRNA immune signature was used to identify samples with relative low amounts of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which were previously found to disturb tumor copy number and LOH (loss of heterozygosity) profiling. We specifically compared the genomic and gene expression profiles of CHEK2*1100delC breast cancers (n = 14) with BRCAX (familial non-BRCA1/BRCA2/CHEK2*1100delC mutated) breast cancers (n = 34) of the luminal intrinsic subtypes for which both SNP-array and gene expression data is available. High amounts of TILs were found in a relatively small number of luminal breast cancers as compared to breast cancers of the basal-like subtype. As expected, these samples mostly have very few copy number aberrations and no detectable regions of LOH. By unsupervised hierarchical clustering of copy number data we observed a great degree of heterogeneity amongst the CHEK2*1100delC breast cancers, comparable to the BRCAX breast cancers. Furthermore, copy number aberrations were mostly seen at low frequencies in both the CHEK2*1100delC and BRCAX group of breast cancers. However, supervised class comparison identified copy number loss of chromosomal arm 1p to be associated with CHEK2*1100delC status. In conclusion, in contrast to basal-like BRCA1 mutated breast cancers, no apparent specific somatic copy number aberration (CNA) profile for CHEK2*1100delC breast cancers was found. With the possible exception of copy number loss

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosine profiling approaches in human DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, Ksenia; Zotenko, Elena; Luu, Phuc-Loi; Gould, Cathryn M; Nair, Shalima S; Clark, Susan J; Stirzaker, Clare

    2017-01-01

    The discovery that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) can be oxidized to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins has prompted wide interest in the potential role of 5hmC in reshaping the mammalian DNA methylation landscape. The gold-standard bisulphite conversion technologies to study DNA methylation do not distinguish between 5mC and 5hmC. However, new approaches to mapping 5hmC genome-wide have advanced rapidly, although it is unclear how the different methods compare in accurately calling 5hmC. In this study, we provide a comparative analysis on brain DNA using three 5hmC genome-wide approaches, namely whole-genome bisulphite/oxidative bisulphite sequencing (WG Bis/OxBis-seq), Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays coupled with oxidative bisulphite (HM450K Bis/OxBis) and antibody-based immunoprecipitation and sequencing of hydroxymethylated DNA (hMeDIP-seq). We also perform loci-specific TET-assisted bisulphite sequencing (TAB-seq) for validation of candidate regions. We show that whole-genome single-base resolution approaches are advantaged in providing precise 5hmC values but require high sequencing depth to accurately measure 5hmC, as this modification is commonly in low abundance in mammalian cells. HM450K arrays coupled with oxidative bisulphite provide a cost-effective representation of 5hmC distribution, at CpG sites with 5hmC levels >~10%. However, 5hmC analysis is restricted to the genomic location of the probes, which is an important consideration as 5hmC modification is commonly enriched at enhancer elements. Finally, we show that the widely used hMeDIP-seq method provides an efficient genome-wide profile of 5hmC and shows high correlation with WG Bis/OxBis-seq 5hmC distribution in brain DNA. However, in cell line DNA with low levels of 5hmC, hMeDIP-seq-enriched regions are not detected by WG Bis/OxBis or HM450K, either suggesting misinterpretation of 5hmC calls by hMeDIP or lack of sensitivity of the latter methods. We

  10. Prediction of Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles From Whole Genome Sequences of Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Saskia; Nair, Satheesh; Day, Martin R; Doumith, Michel; Ashton, Philip M; Mellor, Kate C; Jenkins, Claire; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Godbole, Gauri; Dallman, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS), is essential for monitoring transmission of resistance from the food chain to humans, and for establishing effective treatment protocols. We evaluated the prediction of phenotypic resistance in NTS from genotypic profiles derived from whole genome sequencing (WGS). Genes and chromosomal mutations responsible for phenotypic resistance were sought in WGS data from 3,491 NTS isolates received by Public Health England's Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit between April 2014 and March 2015. Inferred genotypic AMR profiles were compared with phenotypic susceptibilities determined for fifteen antimicrobials using EUCAST guidelines. Discrepancies between phenotypic and genotypic profiles for one or more antimicrobials were detected for 76 isolates (2.18%) although only 88/52,365 (0.17%) isolate/antimicrobial combinations were discordant. Of the discrepant results, the largest number were associated with streptomycin (67.05%, n = 59). Pan-susceptibility was observed in 2,190 isolates (62.73%). Overall, resistance to tetracyclines was most common (26.27% of isolates, n = 917) followed by sulphonamides (23.72%, n = 828) and ampicillin (21.43%, n = 748). Multidrug resistance (MDR), i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes, was detected in 848 isolates (24.29%) with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines being the most common MDR profile ( n = 231; 27.24%). For isolates with this profile, all but one were S . Typhimurium and 94.81% ( n = 219) had the resistance determinants bla TEM-1, strA-strB, sul2 and tet (A). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes were identified in 41 isolates (1.17%) and multiple mutations in chromosomal genes associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in 82 isolates (2.35%). This study showed that WGS is suitable as a rapid means of determining AMR patterns of NTS for public health surveillance.

  11. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emil K.; Bostr?m, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schi?th, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applyin...

  12. Genetic variability in MCF-7 sublines: evidence of rapid genomic and RNA expression profile modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugoli, Mélanie; Theillet, Charles; Chuchana, Paul; Vendrell, Julie; Orsetti, Béatrice; Ursule, Lisa; Nguyen, Catherine; Birnbaum, Daniel; Douzery, Emmanuel JP; Cohen, Pascale

    2003-01-01

    Both phenotypic and cytogenetic variability have been reported for clones of breast carcinoma cell lines but have not been comprehensively studied. Despite this, cell lines such as MCF-7 cells are extensively used as model systems. In this work we documented, using CGH and RNA expression profiles, the genetic variability at the genomic and RNA expression levels of MCF-7 cells of different origins. Eight MCF-7 sublines collected from different sources were studied as well as 3 subclones isolated from one of the sublines by limit dilution. MCF-7 sublines showed important differences in copy number alteration (CNA) profiles. Overall numbers of events ranged from 28 to 41. Involved chromosomal regions varied greatly from a subline to another. A total of 62 chromosomal regions were affected by either gains or losses in the 11 sublines studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of CGH profiles using maximum parsimony in order to reconstruct the putative filiation of the 11 MCF-7 sublines. The phylogenetic tree obtained showed that the MCF-7 clade was characterized by a restricted set of 8 CNAs and that the most divergent subline occupied the position closest to the common ancestor. Expression profiles of 8 MCF-7 sublines were analyzed along with those of 19 unrelated breast cancer cell lines using home made cDNA arrays comprising 720 genes. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression data showed that 7/8 MCF-7 sublines were grouped forming a cluster while the remaining subline clustered with unrelated breast cancer cell lines. These data thus showed that MCF-7 sublines differed at both the genomic and phenotypic levels. The analysis of CGH profiles of the parent subline and its three subclones supported the heteroclonal nature of MCF-7 cells. This strongly suggested that the genetic plasticity of MCF-7 cells was related to their intrinsic capacity to generate clonal heterogeneity. We propose that MCF-7, and possibly the breast tumor it was derived from, evolved

  13. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Five Mouse Models Identifies Similarities and Differences with Human Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R.; Johnston, Andrew; Carbajal, Steve; Han, Gangwen; Wohn, Christian; Lu, Jun; Xing, Xianying; Nair, Rajan P.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Sano, Shigetoshi; Prens, Errol P.; DiGiovanni, John; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Ward, Nicole L.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a suitable mouse model would facilitate the investigation of pathomechanisms underlying human psoriasis and would also assist in development of therapeutic treatments. However, while many psoriasis mouse models have been proposed, no single model recapitulates all features of the human disease, and standardized validation criteria for psoriasis mouse models have not been widely applied. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling is used to compare gene expression patterns manifested by human psoriatic skin lesions with those that occur in five psoriasis mouse models (K5-Tie2, imiquimod, K14-AREG, K5-Stat3C and K5-TGFbeta1). While the cutaneous gene expression profiles associated with each mouse phenotype exhibited statistically significant similarity to the expression profile of psoriasis in humans, each model displayed distinctive sets of similarities and differences in comparison to human psoriasis. For all five models, correspondence to the human disease was strong with respect to genes involved in epidermal development and keratinization. Immune and inflammation-associated gene expression, in contrast, was more variable between models as compared to the human disease. These findings support the value of all five models as research tools, each with identifiable areas of convergence to and divergence from the human disease. Additionally, the approach used in this paper provides an objective and quantitative method for evaluation of proposed mouse models of psoriasis, which can be strategically applied in future studies to score strengths of mouse phenotypes relative to specific aspects of human psoriasis. PMID:21483750

  14. Whole-genome gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig April

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a gene expression assay (Whole-Genome DASL, capable of generating whole-genome gene expression profiles from degraded samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens.We demonstrated a similar level of sensitivity in gene detection between matched fresh-frozen (FF and FFPE samples, with the number and overlap of probes detected in the FFPE samples being approximately 88% and 95% of that in the corresponding FF samples, respectively; 74% of the differentially expressed probes overlapped between the FF and FFPE pairs. The WG-DASL assay is also able to detect 1.3-1.5 and 1.5-2 -fold changes in intact and FFPE samples, respectively. The dynamic range for the assay is approximately 3 logs. Comparing the WG-DASL assay with an in vitro transcription-based labeling method yielded fold-change correlations of R(2 approximately 0.83, while fold-change comparisons with quantitative RT-PCR assays yielded R(2 approximately 0.86 and R(2 approximately 0.55 for intact and FFPE samples, respectively. Additionally, the WG-DASL assay yielded high self-correlations (R(2>0.98 with low intact RNA inputs ranging from 1 ng to 100 ng; reproducible expression profiles were also obtained with 250 pg total RNA (R(2 approximately 0.92, with approximately 71% of the probes detected in 100 ng total RNA also detected at the 250 pg level. When FFPE samples were assayed, 1 ng total RNA yielded self-correlations of R(2 approximately 0.80, while still maintaining a correlation of R(2 approximately 0.75 with standard FFPE inputs (200 ng.Taken together, these results show that WG-DASL assay provides a reliable platform for genome-wide expression profiling in archived materials. It also possesses utility within clinical settings where only limited quantities of samples may be available (e.g. microdissected material or when minimally invasive procedures are performed (e.g. biopsied specimens.

  15. In vitro analysis of integrated global high-resolution DNA methylation profiling with genomic imbalance and gene expression in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekim Sadikovic

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic changes contribute to deregulation of gene expression and development of human cancer. Changes in DNA methylation are key epigenetic factors regulating gene expression and genomic stability. Recent progress in microarray technologies resulted in developments of high resolution platforms for profiling of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression changes. OS is a pediatric bone tumor with characteristically high level of numerical and structural chromosomal changes. Furthermore, little is known about DNA methylation changes in OS. Our objective was to develop an integrative approach for analysis of high-resolution epigenomic, genomic, and gene expression profiles in order to identify functional epi/genomic differences between OS cell lines and normal human osteoblasts. A combination of Affymetrix Promoter Tilling Arrays for DNA methylation, Agilent array-CGH platform for genomic imbalance and Affymetrix Gene 1.0 platform for gene expression analysis was used. As a result, an integrative high-resolution approach for interrogation of genome-wide tumour-specific changes in DNA methylation was developed. This approach was used to provide the first genomic DNA methylation maps, and to identify and validate genes with aberrant DNA methylation in OS cell lines. This first integrative analysis of global cancer-related changes in DNA methylation, genomic imbalance, and gene expression has provided comprehensive evidence of the cumulative roles of epigenetic and genetic mechanisms in deregulation of gene expression networks.

  16. Comparative Genomics of Methanopyrus sp. SNP6 and KOL6 Revealing Genomic Regions of Plasticity Implicated in Extremely Thermophilic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanopyrus spp. are usually isolated from harsh niches, such as high osmotic pressure and extreme temperature. However, the molecular mechanisms for their environmental adaption are poorly understood. Archaeal species is commonly considered as primitive organism. The evolutional placement of archaea is a fundamental and intriguing scientific question. We sequenced the genomes of Methanopyrus strains SNP6 and KOL6 isolated from the Atlantic and Iceland, respectively. Comparative genomic analysis revealed genetic diversity and instability implicated in niche adaption, including a number of transporter- and integrase/transposase-related genes. Pan-genome analysis also defined the gene pool of Methanopyrus spp., in addition of ~120-Kb genomic region of plasticity impacting cognate genomic architecture. We believe that Methanopyrus genomics could facilitate efficient investigation/recognition of archaeal phylogenetic diverse patterns, as well as improve understanding of biological roles and significance of these versatile microbes.

  17. Genomic and Metabolomic Profile Associated to Clustering of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrachelli, Vannina G; Rentero, Pilar; Mansego, María L; Morales, Jose Manuel; Galan, Inma; Pardo-Tendero, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Briongos, Laisa; Chaves, Felipe Javier; Redon, Josep; Monleon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To identify metabolomic and genomic markers associated with the presence of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) from a general population. One thousand five hundred and two subjects, Caucasian, > 18 years, representative of the general population, were included. Blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters and metabolic markers were measured. Subjects were grouped according the number of CMRFs (Group 1: profile was assessed by 1H NMR spectra using a Brucker Advance DRX 600 spectrometer. From the total population, 1217 (mean age 54±19, 50.6% men) with high genotyping call rate were analysed. A differential metabolomic profile, which included products from mitochondrial metabolism, extra mitochondrial metabolism, branched amino acids and fatty acid signals were observed among the three groups. The comparison of metabolomic patterns between subjects of Groups 1 to 3 for each of the genotypes associated to those subjects with three or more CMRFs revealed two SNPs, the rs174577_AA of FADS2 gene and the rs3803_TT of GATA2 transcription factor gene, with minimal or no statistically significant differences. Subjects with and without three or more CMRFs who shared the same genotype and metabolomic profile differed in the pattern of CMRFS cluster. Subjects of Group 3 and the AA genotype of the rs174577 had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared to the CC and CT genotype. In contrast, subjects of Group 3 and the TT genotype of the rs3803 polymorphism had a lower prevalence of T2DM, although they were predominantly males and had higher values of plasma creatinine. The results of the present study add information to the metabolomics profile and to the potential impact of genetic factors on the variants of clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  18. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of human glioblastoma cells in response to ITE treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo; Zhou, Yanwen; Zheng, Min; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2015-09-01

    A ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is recently revealed to play a key role in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis (Feng et al. [1], Safe et al. [2]) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) (Song et al. [3]) is an endogenous AhR ligand that possesses anti-tumor activity. In order to gain insights into how ITE acts via the AhR in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis, we analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the following three groups of cells: the human glioblastoma U87 parental cells, U87 tumor sphere cells treated with vehicle (DMSO) and U87 tumor sphere cells treated with ITE. Here, we provide the details of the sample gathering strategy and show the quality controls and the analyses associated with our gene array data deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession code of GSE67986.

  19. Genomic binding profiles of functionally distinct RNA polymerase III transcription complexes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Wang, Jie; Raha, Debasish; White, Robert J; Snyder, Michael; Weng, Zhiping; Struhl, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide occupancy profiles of five components of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) machinery in human cells identified the expected tRNA and noncoding RNA targets and revealed many additional Pol III-associated loci, mostly near short interspersed elements (SINEs). Several genes are targets of an alternative transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) containing Brf2 instead of Brf1 and have extremely low levels of TFIIIC. Strikingly, expressed Pol III genes, unlike nonexpressed Pol III genes, are situated in regions with a pattern of histone modifications associated with functional Pol II promoters. TFIIIC alone associates with numerous ETC loci, via the B box or a novel motif. ETCs are often near CTCF binding sites, suggesting a potential role in chromosome organization. Our results suggest that human Pol III complexes associate preferentially with regions near functional Pol II promoters and that TFIIIC-mediated recruitment of TFIIIB is regulated in a locus-specific manner.

  20. Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and DNA methylation profiling of four human cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Statham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning are two key mechanisms that contribute to the epigenetic control of gene expression. During carcinogenesis, the expression of many genes is altered alongside extensive changes in the epigenome, with repressed genes often being associated with local DNA hypermethylation and gain of nucleosomes at their promoters. However the spectrum of alterations that occur at distal regulatory regions has not been extensively studied. To address this we used Nucleosome Occupancy and Methylation sequencing (NOMe-seq to compare the genome-wide DNA methylation and nucleosome occupancy profiles between normal and cancer cell line models of the breast and prostate. Here we describe the bioinformatic pipeline and methods that we developed for the processing and analysis of the NOMe-seq data published by (Taberlay et al., 2014 [1] and deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession GSE57498.

  1. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in cultured eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells.

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    Yoshiaki Yamagata

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of isolated endometrial stromal cells obtained from eutopic endometria with (euESCa and without endometriosis (euESCb and ovarian endometrial cysts (choESC. Three samples were analyzed in each group. The infinium methylation array identified more hypermethylated and hypomethylated CpGs in choESC than in euESCa, and only a few genes were methylated differently in euESCa and euESCb. A functional analysis revealed that signal transduction, developmental processes, immunity, etc. were different in choESC and euESCa. A clustering analysis and a principal component analysis performed based on the methylation levels segregated choESC from euESC, while euESCa and euESCb were identical. A transcriptome analysis was then conducted and the results were compared with those of the DNA methylation analysis. Interestingly, the hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed that choESC were segregated from euESCa and euESCb in the DNA methylation analysis, while no segregation was recognized in the transcriptome analysis. The mRNA expression levels of the epigenetic modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, obtained from the specimens were not significantly different between the groups. Some of the differentially methylated and/or expressed genes (NR5A1, STAR, STRA6 and HSD17B2, which are related with steroidogenesis, were validated by independent methods in a larger number of samples. Our findings indicate that different DNA methylation profiles exist in ectopic ESC, highlighting the benefits of genome wide DNA methylation analyses over transcriptome analyses in clarifying the development and characterization of endometriosis.

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Probiotics and their Genome-Wide Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruby; Singh, Puneet K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2018-01-01

    Probiotic supplements in food industry have attracted a lot of attention and shown a remarkable growth in this field. Metabolic engineering (ME) approaches enable understanding their mechanism of action and increases possibility of designing probiotic strains with desired functions. Probiotic microorganisms generally referred as industrially important lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are involved in fermenting dairy products, food, beverages and produces lactic acid as final product. A number of illustrations of metabolic engineering approaches in industrial probiotic bacteria have been described in this review including transcriptomic studies of Lactobacillus reuteri and improvement in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis yield in Lactobacillus casei LC2W. This review summaries various metabolic engineering approaches for exploring metabolic pathways. These approaches enable evaluation of cellular metabolic state and effective editing of microbial genome or introduction of novel enzymes to redirect the carbon fluxes. In addition, various system biology tools such as in silico design commonly used for improving strain performance is also discussed. Finally, we discuss the integration of metabolic engineering and genome profiling which offers a new way to explore metabolic interactions, fluxomics and probiogenomics using probiotic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus spp. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Streptococcus iniae SF1: complete genome sequence, proteomic profile, and immunoprotective antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-cun Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS, 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control.

  5. Systematic evaluation of bias in microbial community profiles induced by whole genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Susana O L; Zaura, Egija; Little, Miranda; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2014-03-01

    Whole genome amplification methods facilitate the detection and characterization of microbial communities in low biomass environments. We examined the extent to which the actual community structure is reliably revealed and factors contributing to bias. One widely used [multiple displacement amplification (MDA)] and one new primer-free method [primase-based whole genome amplification (pWGA)] were compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method as control. Pyrosequencing of an environmental sample and principal component analysis revealed that MDA impacted community profiles more strongly than pWGA and indicated that this related to species GC content, although an influence of DNA integrity could not be excluded. Subsequently, biases by species GC content, DNA integrity and fragment size were separately analysed using defined mixtures of DNA from various species. We found significantly less amplification of species with the highest GC content for MDA-based templates and, to a lesser extent, for pWGA. DNA fragmentation also interfered severely: species with more fragmented DNA were less amplified with MDA and pWGA. pWGA was unable to amplify low molecular weight DNA (microbial communities in low-biomass environments and for currently planned astrobiological missions to Mars. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. HuH-7 reference genome profile: complex karyotype composed of massive loss of heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Fumio; Hirayama, Noriko; Ozawa, Midori; Satoh, Motonobu; Kohara, Arihiro

    2018-05-17

    Human cell lines represent a valuable resource as in vitro experimental models. A hepatoma cell line, HuH-7 (JCRB0403), has been used extensively in various research fields and a number of studies using this line have been published continuously since it was established in 1982. However, an accurate genome profile, which can be served as a reliable reference, has not been available. In this study, we performed M-FISH, SNP microarray and amplicon sequencing to characterize the cell line. Single cell analysis of metaphases revealed a high level of heterogeneity with a mode of 60 chromosomes. Cytogenetic results demonstrated chromosome abnormalities involving every chromosome in addition to a massive loss of heterozygosity, which accounts for 55.3% of the genome, consistent with the homozygous variants seen in the sequence analysis. We provide empirical data that the HuH-7 cell line is composed of highly heterogeneous cell populations, suggesting that besides cell line authentication, the quality of cell lines needs to be taken into consideration in the future use of tumor cell lines.

  7. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, 'Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli' (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Streptococcus iniae SF1: Complete Genome Sequence, Proteomic Profile, and Immunoprotective Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control. PMID:24621602

  9. Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV): high-performance genomics data visualization and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Robinson, James T; Mesirov, Jill P

    2013-03-01

    Data visualization is an essential component of genomic data analysis. However, the size and diversity of the data sets produced by today's sequencing and array-based profiling methods present major challenges to visualization tools. The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) is a high-performance viewer that efficiently handles large heterogeneous data sets, while providing a smooth and intuitive user experience at all levels of genome resolution. A key characteristic of IGV is its focus on the integrative nature of genomic studies, with support for both array-based and next-generation sequencing data, and the integration of clinical and phenotypic data. Although IGV is often used to view genomic data from public sources, its primary emphasis is to support researchers who wish to visualize and explore their own data sets or those from colleagues. To that end, IGV supports flexible loading of local and remote data sets, and is optimized to provide high-performance data visualization and exploration on standard desktop systems. IGV is freely available for download from http://www.broadinstitute.org/igv, under a GNU LGPL open-source license.

  10. Quantitative image analysis of cellular heterogeneity in breast tumors complements genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinyin; Failmezger, Henrik; Rueda, Oscar M; Ali, H Raza; Gräf, Stefan; Chin, Suet-Feung; Schwarz, Roland F; Curtis, Christina; Dunning, Mark J; Bardwell, Helen; Johnson, Nicola; Doyle, Sarah; Turashvili, Gulisa; Provenzano, Elena; Aparicio, Sam; Caldas, Carlos; Markowetz, Florian

    2012-10-24

    Solid tumors are heterogeneous tissues composed of a mixture of cancer and normal cells, which complicates the interpretation of their molecular profiles. Furthermore, tissue architecture is generally not reflected in molecular assays, rendering this rich information underused. To address these challenges, we developed a computational approach based on standard hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections and demonstrated its power in a discovery and validation cohort of 323 and 241 breast tumors, respectively. To deconvolute cellular heterogeneity and detect subtle genomic aberrations, we introduced an algorithm based on tumor cellularity to increase the comparability of copy number profiles between samples. We next devised a predictor for survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer that integrated both image-based and gene expression analyses and significantly outperformed classifiers that use single data types, such as microarray expression signatures. Image processing also allowed us to describe and validate an independent prognostic factor based on quantitative analysis of spatial patterns between stromal cells, which are not detectable by molecular assays. Our quantitative, image-based method could benefit any large-scale cancer study by refining and complementing molecular assays of tumor samples.

  11. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures.

  12. A combined analysis of genome-wide expression profiling of bipolar disorder in human prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglu; Qu, Susu; Wang, Weixiao; Guo, Liyuan; Zhang, Kunlin; Chang, Suhua; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Numbers of gene expression profiling studies of bipolar disorder have been published. Besides different array chips and tissues, variety of the data processes in different cohorts aggravated the inconsistency of results of these genome-wide gene expression profiling studies. By searching the gene expression databases, we obtained six data sets for prefrontal cortex (PFC) of bipolar disorder with raw data and combinable platforms. We used standardized pre-processing and quality control procedures to analyze each data set separately and then combined them into a large gene expression matrix with 101 bipolar disorder subjects and 106 controls. A standard linear mixed-effects model was used to calculate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Multiple levels of sensitivity analyses and cross validation with genetic data were conducted. Functional and network analyses were carried out on basis of the DEGs. In the result, we identified 198 unique differentially expressed genes in the PFC of bipolar disorder and control. Among them, 115 DEGs were robust to at least three leave-one-out tests or different pre-processing methods; 51 DEGs were validated with genetic association signals. Pathway enrichment analysis showed these DEGs were related with regulation of neurological system, cell death and apoptosis, and several basic binding processes. Protein-protein interaction network further identified one key hub gene. We have contributed the most comprehensive integrated analysis of bipolar disorder expression profiling studies in PFC to date. The DEGs, especially those with multiple validations, may denote a common signature of bipolar disorder and contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous genomic identification and profiling of a single cell using semiconductor-based next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Watanabe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining single-cell methods and next-generation sequencing should provide a powerful means to understand single-cell biology and obviate the effects of sample heterogeneity. Here we report a single-cell identification method and seamless cancer gene profiling using semiconductor-based massively parallel sequencing. A549 cells (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line were used as a model. Single-cell capture was performed using laser capture microdissection (LCM with an Arcturus® XT system, and a captured single cell and a bulk population of A549 cells (≈106 cells were subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA. For cell identification, a multiplex PCR method (AmpliSeq™ SNP HID panel was used to enrich 136 highly discriminatory SNPs with a genotype concordance probability of 1031–35. For cancer gene profiling, we used mutation profiling that was performed in parallel using a hotspot panel for 50 cancer-related genes. Sequencing was performed using a semiconductor-based bench top sequencer. The distribution of sequence reads for both HID and Cancer panel amplicons was consistent across these samples. For the bulk population of cells, the percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100× were 99.04% for the HID panel and 98.83% for the Cancer panel, while for the single cell percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100× were 55.93% for the HID panel and 65.96% for the Cancer panel. Partial amplification failure or randomly distributed non-amplified regions across samples from single cells during the WGA procedures or random allele drop out probably caused these differences. However, comparative analyses showed that this method successfully discriminated a single A549 cancer cell from a bulk population of A549 cells. Thus, our approach provides a powerful means to overcome tumor sample heterogeneity when searching for somatic mutations.

  14. cisMEP: an integrated repository of genomic epigenetic profiles and cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Chung-Ching; Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), or the DNA sequences required for regulating gene expression, play the central role in biological researches on transcriptional regulation in metazoan species. Nowadays, the systematic understanding of CRMs still mainly resorts to computational methods due to the time-consuming and small-scale nature of experimental methods. But the accuracy and reliability of different CRM prediction tools are still unclear. Without comparative cross-analysis of the results and combinatorial consideration with extra experimental information, there is no easy way to assess the confidence of the predicted CRMs. This limits the genome-wide understanding of CRMs. It is known that transcription factor binding and epigenetic profiles tend to determine functions of CRMs in gene transcriptional regulation. Thus integration of the genome-wide epigenetic profiles with systematically predicted CRMs can greatly help researchers evaluate and decipher the prediction confidence and possible transcriptional regulatory functions of these potential CRMs. However, these data are still fragmentary in the literatures. Here we performed the computational genome-wide screening for potential CRMs using different prediction tools and constructed the pioneer database, cisMEP (cis-regulatory module epigenetic profile database), to integrate these computationally identified CRMs with genomic epigenetic profile data. cisMEP collects the literature-curated TFBS location data and nine genres of epigenetic data for assessing the confidence of these potential CRMs and deciphering the possible CRM functionality. cisMEP aims to provide a user-friendly interface for researchers to assess the confidence of different potential CRMs and to understand the functions of CRMs through experimentally-identified epigenetic profiles. The deposited potential CRMs and experimental epigenetic profiles for confidence assessment provide experimentally testable hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms

  15. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the genomic profiles of adenocarcinomas in the gastroesophageal junction in relation to cancers in the esophagus and the stomach. Profiles of gains/losses as well as gene expression profiles were obtained from 27 gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas by means of 32k high......15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains....../losses and gene expression profiles show strong similarity between cancers in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction with frequent upregulation of CDK6 and EGFR, whereas gastric cancer displays distinct genetic changes. These data suggest that molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies can...

  16. Low power consumption 4-channel variable optical attenuator array based on planar lightwave circuit technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Mei-Zhen; Zhang Jia-Shun; An Jun-Ming; Wang Yue; Wang Liang-Liang; Li Jian-Guang; Wu Yuan-Da; Yin XiaoJie; Hu Xiong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The power consumption of a variable optical attenuator (VOA) array based on a silica planar lightwave circuit was investigated. The thermal field profile of the device was optimized using the finite-element analysis. The simulation results showed that the power consumption reduces as the depth of the heat-insulating grooves is deeper, the up-cladding is thinner, the down-cladding is thicker, and the width of the cladding ridge is narrower. The materials component and thickness of the electrodes were also optimized to guarantee the driving voltage under 5 V. The power consumption was successfully reduced to as low as 155 mW at an attenuation of 30 dB in the experiment. (paper)

  17. Analysis of genomic aberrations and gene expression profiling identifies novel lesions and pathways in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, K L; Lin, X; Wolniak, K; Ebert, B L; Berkofsky-Fessler, W; Buzzai, M; Sun, Y; Xi, C; Elkin, P; Levine, R; Golub, T; Gilliland, D G; Crispino, J D; Licht, J D; Zhang, W

    2011-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with distinct clinical features and are associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. To identify genomic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, we profiled 87 MPN patients using Affymetrix 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Aberrations affecting chr9 were the most frequently observed and included 9pLOH (n=16), trisomy 9 (n=6) and amplifications of 9p13.3–23.3 (n=1), 9q33.1–34.13 (n=1) and 9q34.13 (n=6). Patients with trisomy 9 were associated with elevated JAK2V617F mutant allele burden, suggesting that gain of chr9 represents an alternative mechanism for increasing JAK2V617F dosage. Gene expression profiling of patients with and without chr9 abnormalities (+9, 9pLOH), identified genes potentially involved in disease pathogenesis including JAK2, STAT5B and MAPK14. We also observed recurrent gains of 1p36.31–36.33 (n=6), 17q21.2–q21.31 (n=5) and 17q25.1–25.3 (n=5) and deletions affecting 18p11.31–11.32 (n=8). Combined SNP and gene expression analysis identified aberrations affecting components of a non-canonical PRC2 complex (EZH1, SUZ12 and JARID2) and genes comprising a ‘HSC signature' (MLLT3, SMARCA2 and PBX1). We show that NFIB, which is amplified in 7/87 MPN patients and upregulated in PV CD34+ cells, protects cells from apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal

  18. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data.

  19. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  20. Genomic ancestry as a predictor of haemodynamic profile in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardez-Pereira, Sabrina; Gioli-Pereira, Luciana; Marcondes-Braga, Fabiana G; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Spina, Joceli Mabel Rocha; Horimoto, Andréa Roseli Vançan Russo; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Bacal, Fernando; Fernandes, Fábio; Mansur, Alfredo Jose; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Krieger, José Eduardo; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the association between genetic ancestry, self-declared race and haemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Observational, cross-sectional study. Eligible participants were aged between 18 and 80 years; ejection fraction was ≤50%. Patients underwent genetic analysis of ancestry informative markers, echocardiography and impedance cardiography (ICG). Race was determined by self-classification into two groups: white and non-white. Genomic ancestry was estimated using a panel of 101 348 polymorphic markers and three continental reference populations (European, African and Native American). Our study included 362 patients with HF between August 2012 and August 2014. 123 patients with HF declared themselves as white and 234 patients declared themselves as non-white. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the ICG parameters according to self-declared race. The Amerindian ancestry was positively correlated with systolic time ratio (r=0.109, pancestry. In multiple linear regression, African ancestry remained associated with the E/e' ratio, even after adjustment to risk factors. The African genetic ancestry was associated with worse parameters of diastolic function; the Amerindian ancestry correlated with a worse pattern of ventricular contractility, while self-declared colour was not helpful to infer haemodynamic profiles in HF. NTC02043431.

  1. Characterization of Kerfless Linear Arrays Based on PZT Thick Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, Tomasz; Bierregaard, Louise Moller; Ringgaard, Erling; Xu, Ruichao; Guizzetti, Michele; Levassort, Franck; Certon, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Multielement transducers enabling novel cost-effective fabrication of imaging arrays for medical applications have been presented earlier. Due to the favorable low lateral coupling of the screen-printed PZT, the elements can be defined by the top electrode pattern only, leading to a kerfless design with low crosstalk between the elements. The thick-film-based linear arrays have proved to be compatible with a commercial ultrasonic scanner and to support linear array beamforming as well as phased array beamforming. The main objective of the presented work is to investigate the performance of the devices at the transducer level by extensive measurements of the test structures. The arrays have been characterized by several different measurement techniques. First, electrical impedance measurements on several elements in air and liquid have been conducted in order to support material parameter identification using the Krimholtz-Leedom-Matthaei model. It has been found that electromechanical coupling is at the level of 35%. The arrays have also been characterized by a pulse-echo system. The measured sensitivity is around -60 dB, and the fractional bandwidth is close to 60%, while the center frequency is about 12 MHz over the whole array. Finally, laser interferometry measurements have been conducted indicating very good displacement level as well as pressure. The in-depth characterization of the array structure has given insight into the performance parameters for the array based on PZT thick film, and the obtained information will be used to optimize the key parameters for the next generation of cost-effective arrays based on piezoelectric thick film.

  2. Pharmacotherapy for Pain in a Family With Inherited Erythromelalgia Guided by Genomic Analysis and Functional Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Paul; Yang, Yang; Estacion, Mark; Schulman, Betsy R; Tokuno, Hajime; Apkarian, A Vania; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for more effective pharmacotherapy for chronic pain, including pain in inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) in which gain-of-function mutations of sodium channel NaV1.7 make dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons hyperexcitable. To determine whether pain in IEM can be attenuated via pharmacotherapy guided by genomic analysis and functional profiling. Pain in 2 patients with IEM due to the NaV1.7 S241T mutation, predicted by structural modeling and functional analysis to be responsive to carbamazepine, was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from September 2014 to April 21, 2015. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed patterns of brain activity associated with pain during treatment with placebo or carbamazepine. Multielectrode array technology was used to assess the effect of carbamazepine on firing of DRG neurons carrying S241T mutant channels. Behavioral assessment of pain; functional magnetic resonance imaging; and assessment of firing in DRG neurons carrying S241T mutant channels. This study included 2 patients from the same family with IEM and the S241T NaV1.7 mutation. We showed that, as predicted by molecular modeling, thermodynamic analysis, and functional profiling, carbamazepine attenuated pain in patients with IEM due to the S241T NaV1.7 mutation. Patient 1 reported a reduction in mean time in pain (TIP) per day during the 15-day maintenance period, from 424 minutes while taking placebo to 231.9 minutes while taking carbamazepine (400 mg/day), and a reduction in total TIP over the 15-day maintenance period, from 6360 minutes while taking placebo to 3015 minutes while taking carbamazepine. Patient 2 reported a reduction in mean TIP per day during the maintenance period, from 61 minutes while taking placebo to 9.1 minutes while taking carbamazepine (400 mg then 200 mg/day), and a reduction in total TIP, from 915 minutes while taking placebo over the 15-day maintenance period to 136 minutes while taking carbamazepine

  3. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute

    2004-01-01

    in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported......Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly...

  4. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  5. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Human Genome Following Exposure to Sarin and Soman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Pachiappan, A.; Srinivasan, K. N.; Loke, W. K.; Lee, F. K.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicogenomics merges genomics with toxicology is a rapidly expanding field on the assumption that the transcriptional responses of cells to different toxic exposure are sufficiently distinct robust and reproducible to discriminate toxin from different families/classes which can be called as 'fingerprints' or 'Atlases'. In this study chemical weapons sarin was studied in a time and dose dependent manner after exposure to human neuroblastoma cell line. (Sarin or GB) exerts its effect through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and induction of delayed neurotoxicity in a dose [EC 50 50 ppm, (around 372.4 μM)] and time-dependent manner. The effect and/or the mechanism of single or repeated exposures to GB, however, are less clear and yet to be explored at cellular level. The present study aims to scrutinize, the global gene expression profile following sarin toxicity in neuronal cells using Affymetrix-GeneChips. A tim-course study on the effect of a single (3 or 24h) or repeated (24 or 48h) doses of sarin (5ppm) on SHSY5Y cells was carried out. Using GeneSpring (PCA) analysis, 550 genes whose expression was significantly (p less than 0.01) altered by at least 2.5-fold, were selected. The results indicate that the low-level single dose exposure do not always parallel acute toxicity, but can cause a reversible down-regulation of genes and a range of anti-cholinesterase effects. In contrast, repeated doses produced persistent irreversible down-regulation of genes related to neurodegenerative mechanism at 48h. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed the reduced expression of presenilin 1 (TMP21), 2 and dopa.decarboxylase (DDC) mRNA and proteins. Besides providing an in vitro experimental model for studies on the neuropathophysiology and brain cells this investigation indicate possible mechanisms by which sarin could mediate neuro-degeneration. A comparison will be made with similar study with soman. (author)

  6. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf metabolic profiles for dissecting complex traits in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Lisec, Jan; Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Sulpice, Ronan; Flis, Anna; Grieder, Christoph; Altmann, Thomas; Stitt, Mark; Willmitzer, Lothar; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2012-06-05

    The diversity of metabolites found in plants is by far greater than in most other organisms. Metabolic profiling techniques, which measure many of these compounds simultaneously, enabled investigating the regulation of metabolic networks and proved to be useful for predicting important agronomic traits. However, little is known about the genetic basis of metabolites in crops such as maize. Here, a set of 289 diverse maize inbred lines was genotyped with 56,110 SNPs and assayed for 118 biochemical compounds in the leaves of young plants, as well as for agronomic traits of mature plants in field trials. Metabolite concentrations had on average a repeatability of 0.73 and showed a correlation pattern that largely reflected their functional grouping. Genome-wide association mapping with correction for population structure and cryptic relatedness identified for 26 distinct metabolites strong associations with SNPs, explaining up to 32.0% of the observed genetic variance. On nine chromosomes, we detected 15 distinct SNP-metabolite associations, each of which explained more then 15% of the genetic variance. For lignin precursors, including p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, we found strong associations (P values to ) with a region on chromosome 9 harboring cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in monolignol synthesis and a target for improving the quality of lignocellulosic biomass by genetic engineering approaches. Moreover, lignin precursors correlated significantly with lignin content, plant height, and dry matter yield, suggesting that metabolites represent promising connecting links for narrowing the genotype-phenotype gap of complex agronomic traits.

  7. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated seedlings were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 98,180 unique transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequencing to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. Furthermore, we performed gene expression profiling analysis upon dehydration treatment in chrysanthemum and identified 8,558 dehydration-responsive unique transcripts, including 307 transcription factors and 229 protein kinases and many well-known stress responsive genes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses showed that dehydration stress caused changes in hormone response, secondary and amino acid metabolism, and light and photoperiod response. These findings suggest that drought tolerance of chrysanthemum plants may be related to the regulation of hormone biosynthesis and signaling, reduction of oxidative damage, stabilization of cell proteins and structures, and maintenance of energy and carbon supply. Conclusions Our transcriptome sequences can provide a valuable resource for chrysanthemum breeding and research and novel insights into chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress and offer candidate genes or markers that can be used to guide future studies attempting to breed drought tolerant chrysanthemum cultivars. PMID:24074255

  8. A 7T spine array based on electric dipole transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Nair, Govind; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Reich, Daniel S; Duyn, Jeff H; Merkle, Hellmut

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an array of electric dipole antennas for RF transmission in spine MRI at high fields. A two-channel transmit array based on an electric dipole design was quantitatively optimized for 7T spine imaging and integrated with a receive array combining eight loop coils. Using B1+ mapping, the transmit efficiency of the dipole array was compared with a design using quadrature loop pairs. The radiofrequency energy deposition for each array was measured using a home-built dielectric phantom and MR thermometry. The performance of the proposed array was qualitatively demonstrated in human studies. The results indicate dramatically improved transmit efficiency for the dipole design compared with the loop excitation. A gain of up to 76% was achieved within the spinal region. For imaging of the spine, electric dipole-based transmitters provide an attractive alternative to the traditional loop-based design. Easy integration with existing receive array technology facilitates practical use at high fields. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. RNA profiles of porcine embryos during genome activation reveal complex metabolic switch sensitive to in vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Olbricht, Gayla; Østrup, Esben

    2013-01-01

    produced in vitro. Overall, our data are in good accordance with previously published, genome-wide profiling data in other species. Moreover, comparison with mouse and human embryos showed striking overlap in functional annotation of transcripts during the EGA, suggesting conserved basic mechanisms...... a handful of reports characterize changing transcriptome profiles and resulting metabolic changes in cleavage stage embryos. The aims of the current study were to investigate RNA profiles of in vivo developed (ivv) and in vitro produced (ivt) porcine embryos before (2-cell stage) and after (late 4-cell...... from oocyte and are imposed either before oocyte aspiration or during in vitro maturation. IVT embryos have altered content of apoptotic factors, cell cycle regulation factors and spindle components, and transcription factors, which all may contribute to reduced developmental competence of embryos...

  10. Comprehensive genome-wide survey, genomic constitution and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Puranik

    Full Text Available The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI, with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants.

  11. Comprehensive genome-wide survey, genomic constitution and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Swati; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Mandal, Sambhu Nath; B, Venkata Suresh; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet) that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI), with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants.

  12. High-Resolution Replication Profiles Define the Stochastic Nature of Genome Replication Initiation and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hawkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome replication is stochastic, and each cell uses a different cohort of replication origins. We demonstrate that interpreting high-resolution Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome replication data with a mathematical model allows quantification of the stochastic nature of genome replication, including the efficiency of each origin and the distribution of termination events. Single-cell measurements support the inferred values for stochastic origin activation time. A strain, in which three origins were inactivated, confirmed that the distribution of termination events is primarily dictated by the stochastic activation time of origins. Cell-to-cell variability in origin activity ensures that termination events are widely distributed across virtually the whole genome. We propose that the heterogeneity in origin usage contributes to genome stability by limiting potentially deleterious events from accumulating at particular loci.

  13. Prospective Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Across Disease States Reveals Germline and Somatic Alterations That May Affect Clinical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Wassim; Armenia, Joshua; Gopalan, Anuradha; Brennan, Ryan; Walsh, Michael; Barron, David; Danila, Daniel; Rathkopf, Dana; Morris, Michael; Slovin, Susan; McLaughlin, Brigit; Curtis, Kristen; Hyman, David M; Durack, Jeremy C; Solomon, Stephen B; Arcila, Maria E; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, Jianjiong; Chakravarty, Debyani; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Robson, Mark E; Joseph, Vijai; Offit, Kenneth; Donoghue, Mark T A; Abeshouse, Adam A; Kundra, Ritika; Heins, Zachary J; Penson, Alexander V; Harris, Christopher; Taylor, Barry S; Ladanyi, Marc; Mandelker, Diana; Zhang, Liying; Reuter, Victor E; Kantoff, Philip W; Solit, David B; Berger, Michael F; Sawyers, Charles L; Schultz, Nikolaus; Scher, Howard I

    2017-07-01

    A long natural history and a predominant osseous pattern of metastatic spread are impediments to the adoption of precision medicine in patients with prostate cancer. To establish the feasibility of clinical genomic profiling in the disease, we performed targeted deep sequencing of tumor and normal DNA from patients with locoregional, metastatic non-castrate, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Patients consented to genomic analysis of their tumor and germline DNA. A hybridization capture-based clinical assay was employed to identify single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number alterations and structural rearrangements in over 300 cancer-related genes in tumors and matched normal blood. We successfully sequenced 504 tumors from 451 patients with prostate cancer. Potentially actionable alterations were identified in DNA damage repair (DDR), PI3K, and MAP kinase pathways. 27% of patients harbored a germline or a somatic alteration in a DDR gene that may predict for response to PARP inhibition. Profiling of matched tumors from individual patients revealed that somatic TP53 and BRCA2 alterations arose early in tumors from patients who eventually developed metastatic disease. In contrast, comparative analysis across disease states revealed that APC alterations were enriched in metastatic tumors, while ATM alterations were specifically enriched in CRPC. Through genomic profiling of prostate tumors representing the disease clinical spectrum, we identified a high frequency of potentially actionable alterations and possible drivers of disease initiation, metastasis and castration-resistance. Our findings support the routine use of tumor and germline DNA profiling for patients with advanced prostate cancer, for the purpose of guiding enrollment in targeted clinical trials and counseling families at increased risk of malignancy.

  14. Whole genome expression array profiling highlights differences in mucosal defense genes in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Nancarrow

    Full Text Available Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has become a major concern in Western countries due to rapid rises in incidence coupled with very poor survival rates. One of the key risk factors for the development of this cancer is the presence of Barrett's esophagus (BE, which is believed to form in response to repeated gastro-esophageal reflux. In this study we performed comparative, genome-wide expression profiling (using Illumina whole-genome Beadarrays on total RNA extracted from esophageal biopsy tissues from individuals with EAC, BE (in the absence of EAC and those with normal squamous epithelium. We combined these data with publically accessible raw data from three similar studies to investigate key gene and ontology differences between these three tissue states. The results support the deduction that BE is a tissue with enhanced glycoprotein synthesis machinery (DPP4, ATP2A3, AGR2 designed to provide strong mucosal defenses aimed at resisting gastro-esophageal reflux. EAC exhibits the enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling (collagens, IGFBP7, PLAU effects expected in an aggressive form of cancer, as well as evidence of reduced expression of genes associated with mucosal (MUC6, CA2, TFF1 and xenobiotic (AKR1C2, AKR1B10 defenses. When our results are compared to previous whole-genome expression profiling studies keratin, mucin, annexin and trefoil factor gene groups are the most frequently represented differentially expressed gene families. Eleven genes identified here are also represented in at least 3 other profiling studies. We used these genes to discriminate between squamous epithelium, BE and EAC within the two largest cohorts using a support vector machine leave one out cross validation (LOOCV analysis. While this method was satisfactory for discriminating squamous epithelium and BE, it demonstrates the need for more detailed investigations into profiling changes between BE and EAC.

  15. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism-based genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation profiles in Nicotiana tabacum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Wu, J; Lv, Z; Sun, C; Gao, L; Yan, X; Cui, L; Tang, Z; Yan, B; Jia, Y

    2015-11-26

    This study aimed to investigate cytosine methylation profiles in different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivars grown in China. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism was used to analyze genome-wide global methylation profiles in four tobacco cultivars (Yunyan 85, NC89, K326, and Yunyan 87). Amplicons with methylated C motifs were cloned by reamplified polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed. The results show that geographical location had a greater effect on methylation patterns in the tobacco genome than did sampling time. Analysis of the CG dinucleotide distribution in methylation-sensitive polymorphic restriction fragments suggested that a CpG dinucleotide cluster-enriched area is a possible site of cytosine methylation in the tobacco genome. The sequence alignments of the Nia1 gene (that encodes nitrate reductase) in Yunyan 87 in different regions indicate that a C-T transition might be responsible for the tobacco phenotype. T-C nucleotide replacement might also be responsible for the tobacco phenotype and may be influenced by geographical location.

  16. Genomic profiling using array comparative genomic hybridization define distinct subtypes of diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: a review of the literature

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    Tirado Carlos A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma comprising of greater than 30% of adult non-Hodgkin Lymphomas. DLBCL represents a diverse set of lymphomas, defined as diffuse proliferation of large B lymphoid cells. Numerous cytogenetic studies including karyotypes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as morphological, biological, clinical, microarray and sequencing technologies have attempted to categorize DLBCL into morphological variants, molecular and immunophenotypic subgroups, as well as distinct disease entities. Despite such efforts, most lymphoma remains undistinguishable and falls into DLBCL, not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS. The advent of microarray-based studies (chromosome, RNA, gene expression, etc has provided a plethora of high-resolution data that could potentially facilitate the finer classification of DLBCL. This review covers the microarray data currently published for DLBCL. We will focus on these types of data; 1 array based CGH; 2 classical CGH; and 3 gene expression profiling studies. The aims of this review were three-fold: (1 to catalog chromosome loci that are present in at least 20% or more of distinct DLBCL subtypes; a detailed list of gains and losses for different subtypes was generated in a table form to illustrate specific chromosome loci affected in selected subtypes; (2 to determine common and distinct copy number alterations among the different subtypes and based on this information, characteristic and similar chromosome loci for the different subtypes were depicted in two separate chromosome ideograms; and, (3 to list re-classified subtypes and those that remained indistinguishable after review of the microarray data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to compile and review available literatures on microarray analysis data and their practical utility in classifying DLBCL subtypes. Although conventional cytogenetic methods such

  17. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

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    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  18. Rice sHsp genes: genomic organization and expression profiling under stress and development

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    Grover Anil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps constitute an important component in the heat shock response of all living systems. Among the various plant Hsps (i.e. Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20, Hsp20 or small Hsps (sHsps are expressed in maximal amounts under high temperature stress. The characteristic feature of the sHsps is the presence of α-crystallin domain (ACD at the C-terminus. sHsps cooperate with Hsp100/Hsp70 and co-chaperones in ATP-dependent manner in preventing aggregation of cellular proteins and in their subsequent refolding. Database search was performed to investigate the sHsp gene family across rice genome sequence followed by comprehensive expression analysis of these genes. Results We identified 40 α-crystallin domain containing genes in rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 out of these 40 genes constitute sHsps. The additional 17 genes containing ACD clustered with Acd proteins of Arabidopsis. Detailed scrutiny of 23 sHsp sequences enabled us to categorize these proteins in a revised scheme of classification constituting of 16 cytoplasmic/nuclear, 2 ER, 3 mitochondrial, 1 plastid and 1 peroxisomal genes. In the new classification proposed herein nucleo-cytoplasmic class of sHsps with 9 subfamilies is more complex in rice than in Arabidopsis. Strikingly, 17 of 23 rice sHsp genes were noted to be intronless. Expression analysis based on microarray and RT-PCR showed that 19 sHsp genes were upregulated by high temperature stress. Besides heat stress, expression of sHsp genes was up or downregulated by other abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition to stress regulation, various sHsp genes were differentially upregulated at different developmental stages of the rice plant. Majority of sHsp genes were expressed in seed. Conclusion We identified twenty three sHsp genes and seventeen Acd genes in rice. Three nucleocytoplasmic sHsp genes were found only in monocots. Analysis of expression profiling of sHsp genes revealed

  19. Integrated genomics identifies five medulloblastoma subtypes with distinct genetic profiles, pathway signatures and clinicopathological features.

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    Marcel Kool

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Despite recent improvements in cure rates, prediction of disease outcome remains a major challenge and survivors suffer from serious therapy-related side-effects. Recent data showed that patients with WNT-activated tumors have a favorable prognosis, suggesting that these patients could be treated less intensively, thereby reducing the side-effects. This illustrates the potential benefits of a robust classification of medulloblastoma patients and a detailed knowledge of associated biological mechanisms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To get a better insight into the molecular biology of medulloblastoma we established mRNA expression profiles of 62 medulloblastomas and analyzed 52 of them also by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays. Five molecular subtypes were identified, characterized by WNT signaling (A; 9 cases, SHH signaling (B; 15 cases, expression of neuronal differentiation genes (C and D; 16 and 11 cases, respectively or photoreceptor genes (D and E; both 11 cases. Mutations in beta-catenin were identified in all 9 type A tumors, but not in any other tumor. PTCH1 mutations were exclusively identified in type B tumors. CGH analysis identified several fully or partly subtype-specific chromosomal aberrations. Monosomy of chromosome 6 occurred only in type A tumors, loss of 9q mostly occurred in type B tumors, whereas chromosome 17 aberrations, most common in medulloblastoma, were strongly associated with type C or D tumors. Loss of the inactivated X-chromosome was highly specific for female cases of type C, D and E tumors. Gene expression levels faithfully reflected the chromosomal copy number changes. Clinicopathological features significantly different between the 5 subtypes included metastatic disease and age at diagnosis and histology. Metastatic disease at diagnosis was significantly associated with subtypes C and D and most strongly with subtype E

  20. Potential Impact on Clinical Decision Making via a Genome-Wide Expression Profiling: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of men with prostate cancer is fraught with uncertainty as physicians and patients balance efficacy with potential toxicity and diminished quality of life. Utilization of genomics as a prognostic biomarker has improved the informed decision-making process by enabling more rationale treatment choices. Recently investigations have begun to determine whether genomic information from tumor transcriptome data can be used to impact clinical decision-making beyond prognosis. Here we discuss the potential of genomics to alter management of a patient who presented with high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. We suggest that this information help selecting patients for advanced imaging, chemotherapies, or clinical trial.

  1. 75 FR 32484 - Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...] Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and Interpretation... public meeting: Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and... cytogenetic tests. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on June 30, 2010, from 1:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Location...

  2. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.

  3. Systematic evaluation of bias in microbial community profiles induced by whole genome amplification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Direito, S.; Zaura, E.; Little, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome amplification methods facilitate the detection and characterization of microbial communities in low biomass environments. We examined the extent to which the actual community structure is reliably revealed and factors contributing to bias. One widely used [multiple displacement

  4. Systematic evaluation of bias in microbial community profiles induced by whole genome amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Direito, S.O.L.; Zaura, E.; Little, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome amplification methods facilitate the detection and characterization of microbial communities in low biomass environments. We examined the extent to which the actual community structure is reliably revealed and factors contributing to bias. One widely used [multiple displacement

  5. MethLAB: a graphical user interface package for the analysis of array-based DNA methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaru, Varun; Barfield, Richard T; Schroeder, James W; Smith, Alicia K; Conneely, Karen N

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation changes may underlie numerous complex traits and diseases. The advent of commercial, array-based methods to interrogate DNA methylation has led to a profusion of epigenetic studies in the literature. Array-based methods, such as the popular Illumina GoldenGate and Infinium platforms, estimate the proportion of DNA methylated at single-base resolution for thousands of CpG sites across the genome. These arrays generate enormous amounts of data, but few software resources exist for efficient and flexible analysis of these data. We developed a software package called MethLAB (http://genetics.emory.edu/conneely/MethLAB) using R, an open source statistical language that can be edited to suit the needs of the user. MethLAB features a graphical user interface (GUI) with a menu-driven format designed to efficiently read in and manipulate array-based methylation data in a user-friendly manner. MethLAB tests for association between methylation and relevant phenotypes by fitting a separate linear model for each CpG site. These models can incorporate both continuous and categorical phenotypes and covariates, as well as fixed or random batch or chip effects. MethLAB accounts for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at a user-specified level. Standard output includes a spreadsheet-ready text file and an array of publication-quality figures. Considering the growing interest in and availability of DNA methylation data, there is a great need for user-friendly open source analytical tools. With MethLAB, we present a timely resource that will allow users with no programming experience to implement flexible and powerful analyses of DNA methylation data.

  6. Early experience with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) based commercial clinical genomic profiling of gliomas-robust and informative with caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, Masoud; Shabihkhani, Maryam; Hojat, Seyed A; Williams, Ryan R; Chung, Lawrance K; Im, Kyuseok; Lucey, Gregory M; Wei, Bowen; Mareninov, Sergey; Wang, Michael W; Ng, Denise W; Tashjian, Randy S; Magaki, Shino; Perez-Rosendahl, Mari; Yang, Isaac; Khanlou, Negar; Vinters, Harry V; Liau, Linda M; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Lai, Albert; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Yong, William H

    2017-08-01

    Commercial targeted genomic profiling with next generation sequencing using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue has recently entered into clinical use for diagnosis and for the guiding of therapy. However, there is limited independent data regarding the accuracy or robustness of commercial genomic profiling in gliomas. As part of patient care, FFPE samples of gliomas from 71 patients were submitted for targeted genomic profiling to one commonly used commercial vendor, Foundation Medicine. Genomic alterations were determined for the following grades or groups of gliomas; Grade I/II, Grade III, primary glioblastomas (GBMs), recurrent primary GBMs, and secondary GBMs. In addition, FFPE samples from the same patients were independently assessed with conventional methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC), Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), or Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for three genetic alterations: IDH1 mutations, EGFR amplification, and EGFRvIII expression. A total of 100 altered genes were detected by the aforementioned targeted genomic profiling assay. The number of different genomic alterations was significantly different between the five groups of gliomas and consistent with the literature. CDKN2A/B, TP53, and TERT were the most common genomic alterations seen in primary GBMs, whereas IDH1, TP53, and PIK3CA were the most common in secondary GBMs. Targeted genomic profiling demonstrated 92.3%-100% concordance with conventional methods. The targeted genomic profiling report provided an average of 5.5 drugs, and listed an average of 8.4 clinical trials for the 71 glioma patients studied but only a third of the trials were appropriate for glioma patients. In this limited comparison study, this commercial next generation sequencing based-targeted genomic profiling showed a high concordance rate with conventional methods for the 3 genetic alterations and identified mutations expected for the type of glioma. While it may not be feasible to

  7. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of 282 Pediatric Low- and High-Grade Gliomas Reveals Genomic Drivers, Tumor Mutational Burden, and Hypermutation Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne; Severson, Eric; Gay, Laurie; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Elvin, Julia; Suh, James; Daniel, Sugganth; Covert, Mandy; Frampton, Garrett M; Hsu, Sigmund; Lesser, Glenn J; Stogner-Underwood, Kimberly; Mott, Ryan T; Rush, Sarah Z; Stanke, Jennifer J; Dahiya, Sonika; Sun, James; Reddy, Prasanth; Chalmers, Zachary R; Erlich, Rachel; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Fabrizio, David; Schrock, Alexa B; Ali, Siraj; Miller, Vincent; Stephens, Philip J; Ross, Jeffrey; Crawford, John R; Ramkissoon, Shakti H

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making. We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb]). In pLGGs, we detected genomic alterations (GA) in 95.2% (119/125) of tumors. BRAF was most frequently altered (48%; 60/125), and FGFR1 missense (17.6%; 22/125), NF1 loss of function (8.8%; 11/125), and TP53 (5.6%; 7/125) mutations were also detected. Rearrangements were identified in 35% of pLGGs, including KIAA1549-BRAF , QKI-RAF1 , FGFR3-TACC3 , CEP85L-ROS1 , and GOPC-ROS1 fusions. Among pHGGs, GA were identified in 96.8% (152/157). The genes most frequently mutated were TP53 (49%; 77/157), H3F3A (37.6%; 59/157), ATRX (24.2%; 38/157), NF1 (22.2%; 35/157), and PDGFRA (21.7%; 34/157). Interestingly, most H3F3A mutations (81.4%; 35/43) were the variant K28M. Midline tumor analysis revealed H3F3A mutations (40%; 40/100) consisted solely of the K28M variant. Pediatric high-grade gliomas harbored oncogenic EML4-ALK , DGKB-ETV1 , ATG7-RAF1 , and EWSR1-PATZ1 fusions. Six percent (9/157) of pHGGs were hypermutated (TMB >20 mutations per Mb; range 43-581 mutations per Mb), harboring mutations deleterious for DNA repair in MSH6, MSH2, MLH1, PMS2, POLE , and POLD1 genes (78% of cases). Comprehensive genomic profiling of pediatric gliomas provides objective data that promote diagnostic accuracy and enhance clinical decision-making. Additionally, TMB could be a biomarker to identify pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. By providing objective data to support diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making, comprehensive genomic profiling is necessary for

  8. A novel genome signature based on inter-nucleotide distances profiles for visualization of metagenomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xian-Hua; Yu, Zu-Guo; Ma, Yuan-Lin; Han, Guo-Sheng; Anh, Vo

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in visualization of metagenomic data. The present study focuses on the visualization of metagenomic data using inter-nucleotide distances profile. We first convert the fragment sequences into inter-nucleotide distances profiles. Then we analyze these profiles by principal component analysis. Finally the principal components are used to obtain the 2-D scattered plot according to their source of species. We name our method as inter-nucleotide distances profiles (INP) method. Our method is evaluated on three benchmark data sets used in previous published papers. Our results demonstrate that the INP method is good, alternative and efficient for visualization of metagenomic data.

  9. Single-Cell-Based Platform for Copy Number Variation Profiling through Digital Counting of Amplified Genomic DNA Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Yu, Zhilong; Fu, Yusi; Pang, Yuhong; Huang, Yanyi

    2017-04-26

    We develop a novel single-cell-based platform through digital counting of amplified genomic DNA fragments, named multifraction amplification (mfA), to detect the copy number variations (CNVs) in a single cell. Amplification is required to acquire genomic information from a single cell, while introducing unavoidable bias. Unlike prevalent methods that directly infer CNV profiles from the pattern of sequencing depth, our mfA platform denatures and separates the DNA molecules from a single cell into multiple fractions of a reaction mix before amplification. By examining the sequencing result of each fraction for a specific fragment and applying a segment-merge maximum likelihood algorithm to the calculation of copy number, we digitize the sequencing-depth-based CNV identification and thus provide a method that is less sensitive to the amplification bias. In this paper, we demonstrate a mfA platform through multiple displacement amplification (MDA) chemistry. When performing the mfA platform, the noise of MDA is reduced; therefore, the resolution of single-cell CNV identification can be improved to 100 kb. We can also determine the genomic region free of allelic drop-out with mfA platform, which is impossible for conventional single-cell amplification methods.

  10. Genomic profiling of rice sperm cell transcripts reveals conserved and distinct elements in the flowering plant male germ lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott D; Gou, Xiaoping; Wong, Chui E; Wang, Xinkun; Yuan, Tong; Wei, Xiaoping; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2012-08-01

    Genomic assay of sperm cell RNA provides insight into functional control, modes of regulation, and contributions of male gametes to double fertilization. Sperm cells of rice (Oryza sativa) were isolated from field-grown, disease-free plants and RNA was processed for use with the full-genome Affymetrix microarray. Comparison with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) reference arrays confirmed expressionally distinct gene profiles. A total of 10,732 distinct gene sequences were detected in sperm cells, of which 1668 were not expressed in pollen or seedlings. Pathways enriched in male germ cells included ubiquitin-mediated pathways, pathways involved in chromatin modeling including histones, histone modification and nonhistone epigenetic modification, and pathways related to RNAi and gene silencing. Genome-wide expression patterns in angiosperm sperm cells indicate common and divergent themes in the male germline that appear to be largely self-regulating through highly up-regulated chromatin modification pathways. A core of highly conserved genes appear common to all sperm cells, but evidence is still emerging that another class of genes have diverged in expression between monocots and dicots since their divergence. Sperm cell transcripts present at fusion may be transmitted through plasmogamy during double fertilization to effect immediate post-fertilization expression of early embryo and (or) endosperm development. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Network analysis of genomic alteration profiles reveals co-altered functional modules and driver genes for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunyan; Wang, Hongwei; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yujing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Zhang, Yuannv; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The heterogeneity of genetic alterations in human cancer genomes presents a major challenge to advancing our understanding of cancer mechanisms and identifying cancer driver genes. To tackle this heterogeneity problem, many approaches have been proposed to investigate genetic alterations and predict driver genes at the individual pathway level. However, most of these approaches ignore the correlation of alteration events between pathways and miss many genes with rare alterations collectively contributing to carcinogenesis. Here, we devise a network-based approach to capture the cooperative functional modules hidden in genome-wide somatic mutation and copy number alteration profiles of glioblastoma (GBM) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), where a module is a set of altered genes with dense interactions in the protein interaction network. We identify 7 pairs of significantly co-altered modules that involve the main pathways known to be altered in GBM (TP53, RB and RTK signaling pathways) and highlight the striking co-occurring alterations among these GBM pathways. By taking into account the non-random correlation of gene alterations, the property of co-alteration could distinguish oncogenic modules that contain driver genes involved in the progression of GBM. The collaboration among cancer pathways suggests that the redundant models and aggravating models could shed new light on the potential mechanisms during carcinogenesis and provide new indications for the design of cancer therapeutic strategies.

  12. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of immune genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Xue, Minqian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; Baxter, Simon W; Lin, Hailan; Lin, Junhan; You, Minsheng

    2015-05-06

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive pest that attacks cruciferous crops worldwide. Immune responses are important for interactions between insects and pathogens and information on these underpins the development of strategies for biocontrol-based pest management. Little, however, is known about immune genes and their regulation patterns in P. xylostella. A total of 149 immune-related genes in 20 gene families were identified through comparison of P. xylostella genome with the genomes of other insects. Complete and conserved Toll, IMD and JAK-STAT signaling pathways were found in P. xylostella. Genes involved in pathogen recognition were expanded and more diversified than genes associated with intracellular signal transduction. Gene expression profiles showed that the IMD pathway may regulate expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in the midgut, and be related to an observed down-regulation of AMPs in experimental lines of insecticide-resistant P. xylostella. A bacterial feeding study demonstrated that P. xylostella could activate different AMPs in response to bacterial infection. This study has established a framework of comprehensive expression profiles that highlight cues for immune regulation in a major pest. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on the functions of P. xylostella immune genes and mechanisms of innate immunity.

  13. Genome constitution of Narcissus variety, 'Tete-a-Tete', analysed through GISH and NBS profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissus variety, ‘Tête-à-Tête’, has been the most popular variety since 1949, and a well known allotriploid (2n = 3x = 24 + B) of spontaneous origin. Because the identity of one of the parents of this variety was uncertain, the genome constitution of ‘Tête-à-Tête’ was investigated by using

  14. Genomic profiling toward precision medicine in non-small cell lung cancer: getting beyond EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richer AL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Richer,1 Jacqueline M Friel,1 Vashti M Carson,2 Landon J Inge,1 Timothy G Whitsett2 1Norton Thoracic Institute, St Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, 2Cancer and Cell Biology Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The application of next-generation genomic technologies has offered a more comprehensive look at the mutational landscape across the different subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. A number of recurrent mutations such as TP53, KRAS, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have been identified in NSCLC. While targeted therapeutic successes have been demonstrated in the therapeutic targeting of EGFR and ALK, the majority of NSCLC tumors do not harbor these genomic events. This review looks at the current treatment paradigms for lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, examining genomic aberrations that dictate therapy selection, as well as novel therapeutic strategies for tumors harboring mutations in KRAS, TP53, and LKB1 which, to date, have been considered “undruggable”. A more thorough understanding of the molecular alterations that govern NSCLC tumorigenesis, aided by next-generation sequencing, will lead to targeted therapeutic options expected to dramatically reduce the high mortality rate observed in lung cancer. Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, precision medicine, epidermal growth factor receptor, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, serine/threonine kinase 11, tumor protein p53

  15. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Cholangiocarcinoma Identifies Distinct IDH-Mutant Molecular Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farshidfar, Farshad; Zheng, Siyuan; Gingras, Marie-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive malignancy of the bile ducts, with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Here, we describe the integrated analysis of somatic mutations, RNA expression, copy number, and DNA methylation by The Cancer Genome Atlas of a set of predominantly intrahep...

  16. Profiles of Genomic Instability in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Predict Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhigang C.; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Culhane, Aedín C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: High-grade serous cancer (HGSC) is the most common cancer of the ovary and is characterized by chromosomal instability. Defects in homologous recombination repair (HRR) are associated with genomic instability in HGSC, and are exploited by therapy targeting DNA repair. Defective HRR cause...

  17. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Mousson, F.; de Graaf, P.; Mokry, M.; Guryev, V.; Timmers, H.T.; Cuppen, E.; Jansen, R.

    2010-01-01

    MOTIVATION: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genome-wide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of serine proteases and homologs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hailan; Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; Yao, Fengluan; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2015-12-10

    Serine proteases (SPs) are crucial proteolytic enzymes responsible for digestion and other processes including signal transduction and immune responses in insects. Serine protease homologs (SPHs) lack catalytic activity but are involved in innate immunity. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of SPs and SPHs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally-distributed destructive pest of cruciferous crops. A total of 120 putative SPs and 101 putative SPHs were identified in the P. xylostella genome by bioinformatics analysis. Based on the features of trypsin, 38 SPs were putatively designated as trypsin genes. The distribution, transcription orientation, exon-intron structure and sequence alignments suggested that the majority of trypsin genes evolved from tandem duplications. Among the 221 SP/SPH genes, ten SP and three SPH genes with one or more clip domains were predicted and designated as PxCLIPs. Phylogenetic analysis of CLIPs in P. xylostella, two other Lepidoptera species (Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta), and two more distantly related insects (Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera) showed that seven of the 13 PxCLIPs were clustered with homologs of the Lepidoptera rather than other species. Expression profiling of the P. xylostella SP and SPH genes in different developmental stages and tissues showed diverse expression patterns, suggesting high functional diversity with roles in digestion and development. This is the first genome-wide investigation on the SP and SPH genes in P. xylostella. The characterized features and profiled expression patterns of the P. xylostella SPs and SPHs suggest their involvement in digestion, development and immunity of this species. Our findings provide a foundation for further research on the functions of this gene family in P. xylostella, and a better understanding of its capacity to rapidly adapt to a wide range of environmental variables including host plants and insecticides.

  19. Whole genome transcription profiling of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in human and tick host cells by tiling array analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Adela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease. Ap alternately infects ticks and mammals and a variety of cell types within each. Understanding the biology behind such versatile cellular parasitism may be derived through the use of tiling microarrays to establish high resolution, genome-wide transcription profiles of the organism as it infects cell lines representative of its life cycle (tick; ISE6 and pathogenesis (human; HL-60 and HMEC-1. Results Detailed, host cell specific transcriptional behavior was revealed. There was extensive differential Ap gene transcription between the tick (ISE6 and the human (HL-60 and HMEC-1 cell lines, with far fewer differentially transcribed genes between the human cell lines, and all disproportionately represented by membrane or surface proteins. There were Ap genes exclusively transcribed in each cell line, apparent human- and tick-specific operons and paralogs, and anti-sense transcripts that suggest novel expression regulation processes. Seven virB2 paralogs (of the bacterial type IV secretion system showed human or tick cell dependent transcription. Previously unrecognized genes and coding sequences were identified, as were the expressed p44/msp2 (major surface proteins paralogs (of 114 total, through elevated signal produced to the unique hypervariable region of each – 2/114 in HL-60, 3/114 in HMEC-1, and none in ISE6. Conclusion Using these methods, whole genome transcription profiles can likely be generated for Ap, as well as other obligate intracellular organisms, in any host cells and for all stages of the cell infection process. Visual representation of comprehensive transcription data alongside an annotated map of the genome renders complex transcription into discernable patterns.

  20. Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes and Expression Profiles in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozan, Ivan; Zapatka, Marc; Frappier, Lori; Ferretti, Vincent

    2018-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of a variety of lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and ∼9% of gastric carcinomas (GCs). An important question is whether particular EBV variants are more oncogenic than others, but conclusions are currently hampered by the lack of sequenced EBV genomes. Here, we contribute to this question by mining whole-genome sequences of 201 GCs to identify 13 EBV-positive GCs and by assembling 13 new EBV genome sequences, almost doubling the number of available GC-derived EBV genome sequences and providing the first non-Asian EBV genome sequences from GC. Whole-genome sequence comparisons of all EBV isolates sequenced to date (85 from tumors and 57 from healthy individuals) showed that most GC and NPC EBV isolates were closely related although American Caucasian GC samples were more distant, suggesting a geographical component. However, EBV GC isolates were found to contain some consistent changes in protein sequences regardless of geographical origin. In addition, transcriptome data available for eight of the EBV-positive GCs were analyzed to determine which EBV genes are expressed in GC. In addition to the expected latency proteins (EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2A), specific subsets of lytic genes were consistently expressed that did not reflect a typical lytic or abortive lytic infection, suggesting a novel mechanism of EBV gene regulation in the context of GC. These results are consistent with a model in which a combination of specific latent and lytic EBV proteins promotes tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread virus that causes cancer, including gastric carcinoma (GC), in a small subset of individuals. An important question is whether particular EBV variants are more cancer associated than others, but more EBV sequences are required to address this question. Here, we have generated 13 new EBV genome sequences from GC, almost doubling the number of EBV sequences from GC isolates and providing the

  1. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by genome-wide transcription start site profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyuk Kim

    Full Text Available Genome-wide transcription start site (TSS profiles of the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were experimentally determined through modified 5' RACE followed by deep sequencing of intact primary mRNA. This identified 3,746 and 3,143 TSSs for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Experimentally determined TSSs were then used to define promoter regions and 5' UTRs upstream of coding genes. Comparative analysis of these regulatory elements revealed the use of multiple TSSs, identical sequence motifs of promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, reflecting conserved gene expression apparatuses between the two species. In both species, over 70% of primary transcripts were expressed from operons having orthologous genes during exponential growth. However, expressed orthologous genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a strikingly different organization of upstream regulatory regions with only 20% identical promoters with TSSs in both species. Over 40% of promoters had TSSs identified in only one species, despite conserved promoter sequences existing in the other species. 662 conserved promoters having TSSs in both species resulted in the same number of comparable 5' UTR pairs, and that regulatory element was found to be the most variant region in sequence among promoter, 5' UTR, and ORF. In K. pneumoniae, 48 sRNAs were predicted and 36 of them were expressed during exponential growth. Among them, 34 orthologous sRNAs between two species were analyzed in depth, and the analysis showed that many sRNAs of K. pneumoniae, including pleiotropic sRNAs such as rprA, arcZ, and sgrS, may work in the same way as in E. coli. These results reveal a new dimension of comparative genomics such that a comparison of two genomes needs to be comprehensive over all levels of genome organization.

  2. Clinical implication of genome-wide profiling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other subtypes of B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Javeed; Joshi, Shantaram; Patel, Kavita N

    2007-01-01

    of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) and World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. These classification methods were based on histological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic markers and widely accepted by pathologists and oncologists worldwide. During last several decades, great progress has been made...... technology. The genome-wide transcriptional measurement, also called gene expression profile (GEP) can accurately define the biological phenotype of the tumor. In this review, important discoveries made by genome-wide GEP in understanding the biology of lymphoma and additionally the diagnostic and prognostic...

  3. The PiGeOn project: protocol for a longitudinal study examining psychosocial, behavioural and ethical issues and outcomes in cancer tumour genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Newson, Ainsley J; Meiser, Bettina; Juraskova, Ilona; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Kathy; Ballinger, Mandy L; Hess, Dominique; Schlub, Timothy E; Biesecker, Barbara; Vines, Richard; Vines, Kate; Thomas, David; Young, Mary-Anne; Savard, Jacqueline; Jacobs, Chris; Butow, Phyllis

    2018-04-05

    Genomic sequencing in cancer (both tumour and germline), and development of therapies targeted to tumour genetic status, hold great promise for improvement of patient outcomes. However, the imminent introduction of genomics into clinical practice calls for better understanding of how patients value, experience, and cope with this novel technology and its often complex results. Here we describe a protocol for a novel mixed-methods, prospective study (PiGeOn) that aims to examine patients' psychosocial, cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to tumour genomic profiling and to integrate a parallel critical ethical analysis of returning results. This is a cohort sub-study of a parent tumour genomic profiling programme enrolling patients with advanced cancer. One thousand patients will be recruited for the parent study in Sydney, Australia from 2016 to 2019. They will be asked to complete surveys at baseline, three, and five months. Primary outcomes are: knowledge, preferences, attitudes and values. A purposively sampled subset of patients will be asked to participate in three semi-structured interviews (at each time point) to provide deeper data interpretation. Relevant ethical themes will be critically analysed to iteratively develop or refine normative ethical concepts or frameworks currently used in the return of genetic information. This will be the first Australian study to collect longitudinal data on cancer patients' experience of tumour genomic profiling. Findings will be used to inform ongoing ethical debates on issues such as how to effectively obtain informed consent for genomic profiling return results, distinguish between research and clinical practice and manage patient expectations. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods will provide comprehensive and critical data on how patients cope with 'actionable' and 'non-actionable' results. This information is needed to ensure that when tumour genomic profiling becomes part of routine

  4. Array-based sensing using nanoparticles: an alternative approach for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc D B; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Rotello, Vincent M

    2014-07-01

    Array-based sensing using nanoparticles (NPs) provides an attractive alternative to specific biomarker-focused strategies for cancer diagnosis. The physical and chemical properties of NPs provide both the recognition and transduction capabilities required for biosensing. Array-based sensors utilize a combined response from the interactions between sensors and analytes to generate a distinct pattern (fingerprint) for each analyte. These interactions can be the result of either the combination of multiple specific biomarker recognition (specific binding) or multiple selective binding responses, known as chemical nose sensing. The versatility of the latter array-based sensing using NPs can facilitate the development of new personalized diagnostic methodologies in cancer diagnostics, a necessary evolution in the current healthcare system to better provide personalized treatments. This review will describe the basic principle of array-based sensors, along with providing examples of both invasive and noninvasive samples used in cancer diagnosis.

  5. Genome-wide identification, classification and expression profiling of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) gene family in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Li, Suzhen; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Sun, Cheng; Fan, Yunliu; Zhang, Chunyi; Chen, Rumei

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotianamine (NA), a ubiquitous molecule in plants, is an important metal ion chelator and the main precursor for phytosiderophores biosynthesis. Considerable progress has been achieved in cloning and characterizing the functions of nicotianamine synthase (NAS) in plants including barley, Arabidopsis and rice. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for genetics and evolutionary study. The genome sequencing of maize was completed, and many gene families ...

  6. In vivo genome-wide profiling of RNA secondary structure reveals novel regulatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiliang; Tang, Yin; Kwok, Chun Kit; Zhang, Yu; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-01-30

    RNA structure has critical roles in processes ranging from ligand sensing to the regulation of translation, polyadenylation and splicing. However, a lack of genome-wide in vivo RNA structural data has limited our understanding of how RNA structure regulates gene expression in living cells. Here we present a high-throughput, genome-wide in vivo RNA structure probing method, structure-seq, in which dimethyl sulphate methylation of unprotected adenines and cytosines is identified by next-generation sequencing. Application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings yielded the first in vivo genome-wide RNA structure map at nucleotide resolution for any organism, with quantitative structural information across more than 10,000 transcripts. Our analysis reveals a three-nucleotide periodic repeat pattern in the structure of coding regions, as well as a less-structured region immediately upstream of the start codon, and shows that these features are strongly correlated with translation efficiency. We also find patterns of strong and weak secondary structure at sites of alternative polyadenylation, as well as strong secondary structure at 5' splice sites that correlates with unspliced events. Notably, in vivo structures of messenger RNAs annotated for stress responses are poorly predicted in silico, whereas mRNA structures of genes related to cell function maintenance are well predicted. Global comparison of several structural features between these two categories shows that the mRNAs associated with stress responses tend to have more single-strandedness, longer maximal loop length and higher free energy per nucleotide, features that may allow these RNAs to undergo conformational changes in response to environmental conditions. Structure-seq allows the RNA structurome and its biological roles to be interrogated on a genome-wide scale and should be applicable to any organism.

  7. Metabolic profiles to define the genome: can we hear the phenotypes?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Julian L

    2004-01-01

    There is an increased reliance on genetically modified organisms as a functional genomic tool to elucidate the role of genes and their protein products. Despite this, many models do not express the expected phenotype thought to be associated with the gene or protein. There is thus an increased need to further define the phenotype resultant from a genetic modification to understand how the transcriptional or proteomic network may conspire to alter the expected phenotype. This is best typified ...

  8. Tumor Genomic Profiling in Breast Cancer Patients Using Targeted Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2015 “Cancer Care as a Model for Precision Medicine” MIT Collaborative Series Massachusetts Institute of Technology Invited Talk 2016 “Cancer...Precision Medicine” MIT -CHIEF Series Massachusetts Institute of Technology Invited Talk National 2013 “CanSeq: The Use of Whole Exome Sequencing To...Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA Invited Talk 2014 “Clinical Genomics and Precision Cancer Medicine” Center for Molecular Oncology Memorial Sloan

  9. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0297 Title: Genomic and Expression Pr ofiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients...have determined the gene expression signature for benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and found that the major trend in transformation...However, EGFR data in soft tissue neoplasms is limited. Using a variety of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms, we assessed EGFR status by

  10. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Phlegm-Dampness Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqiang Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metabolic diseases are leading health concerns in today’s global society. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, one body type studied is the phlegm-dampness constitution (PC, which predisposes individuals to complex metabolic disorders. Genomic studies have revealed the potential metabolic disorders and the molecular features of PC. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of PC, however, is unknown. Methods: We analyzed a genome-wide DNA methylation in 12 volunteers using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Eight volunteers had PC and 4 had balanced constitutions. Results: Methylation data indicated a genome-scale hyper-methylation pattern in PC. We located 288 differentially methylated probes (DMPs. A total of 256 genes were mapped, and some of these were metabolic-related. SQSTM1, DLGAP2 and DAB1 indicated diabetes mellitus; HOXC4 and SMPD3, obesity; and GRWD1 and ATP10A, insulin resistance. According to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially methylated genes were abundant in multiple metabolic pathways. Conclusion: Our results suggest the potential risk for metabolic disorders in individuals with PC. We also explain the clinical characteristics of PC with DNA methylation features.

  11. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profile of aquaporin gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, S M; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Rai, Rhitu; Bélanger, Richard; Agrawal, Pawan K; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-04-27

    Membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form transmembrane channels and facilitate transport of myriad substrates across the cell membrane in many organisms. Majority of plant MIPs have water transporting ability and are commonly referred as aquaporins (AQPs). In the present study, we identified aquaporin coding genes in flax by genome-wide analysis, their structure, function and expression pattern by pan-genome exploration. Cross-genera phylogenetic analysis with known aquaporins from rice, arabidopsis, and poplar showed five subgroups of flax aquaporins representing 16 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 17 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 13 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 2 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and 3 uncharacterized intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Amongst aquaporins, PIPs contained hydrophilic aromatic arginine (ar/R) selective filter but TIP, NIP, SIP and XIP subfamilies mostly contained hydrophobic ar/R selective filter. Analysis of RNA-seq and microarray data revealed high expression of PIPs in multiple tissues, low expression of NIPs, and seed specific expression of TIP3 in flax. Exploration of aquaporin homologs in three closely related Linum species bienne, grandiflorum and leonii revealed presence of 49, 39 and 19 AQPs, respectively. The genome-wide identification of aquaporins, first in flax, provides insight to elucidate their physiological and developmental roles in flax.

  12. Comprehensive genomic profiling of 295 cases of clinically advanced urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder reveals a high frequency of clinically relevant genomic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey S; Wang, Kai; Khaira, Depinder; Ali, Siraj M; Fisher, Huge A G; Mian, Badar; Nazeer, Tipu; Elvin, Julia A; Palma, Norma; Yelensky, Roman; Lipson, Doron; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Philip J; Subbiah, Vivek; Pal, Sumanta K

    2016-03-01

    In the current study, the authors present a comprehensive genomic profile (CGP)-based study of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) designed to detect clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs). DNA was extracted from 40 µm of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 295 consecutive cases of recurrent/metastatic UC. CGP was performed on hybridization-captured, adaptor ligation-based libraries to a mean coverage depth of 688X for all coding exons of 236 cancer-related genes plus 47 introns from 19 genes frequently rearranged in cancer, using process-matched normal control samples as a reference. CRGAs were defined as GAs linked to drugs on the market or currently under evaluation in mechanism-driven clinical trials. All 295 patients assessed were classified with high-grade (International Society of Urological Pathology classification) and advanced stage (stage III/IV American Joint Committee on Cancer) disease, and 294 of 295 patients (99.7%) had at least 1 GA on CGP with a mean of 6.4 GAs per UC (61% substitutions/insertions/deletions, 37% copy number alterations, and 2% fusions). Furthermore, 275 patients (93%) had at least 1 CRGA involving 75 individual genes with a mean of 2.6 CRGAs per UC. The most common CRGAs involved cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) (34%), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) (21%), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (20%), and ERBB2 (17%). FGFR3 GAs were diverse types and included 10% fusions. ERBB2 GAs were equally divided between amplifications and substitutions. ERBB2 substitutions were predominantly within the extracellular domain and were highly enriched in patients with micropapillary UC (38% of 32 cases vs 5% of 263 nonmicropapillary UC cases; PCancer 2016;122:702-711. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Profiling Invasiveness in Head and Neck Cancer: Recent Contributions of Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, Lluís; Aebersold, Daniel Matthias; Giger, Roland; Caversaccio, Marco Domenico; Borner, Urs; Medová, Michaela; Zimmer, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput molecular profiling approaches have emerged as precious research tools in the field of head and neck translational oncology. Such approaches have identified and/or confirmed the role of several genes or pathways in the acquisition/maintenance of an invasive phenotype and the execution of cellular programs related to cell invasion. Recently published new-generation sequencing studies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have unveiled prominent roles in carcinogenesis and cell invasion of mutations involving NOTCH1 and PI3K-patwhay components. Gene-expression profiling studies combined with systems biology approaches have allowed identifying and gaining further mechanistic understanding into pathways commonly enriched in invasive HNSCC. These pathways include antigen-presenting and leucocyte adhesion molecules, as well as genes involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Here we review the major insights into invasiveness in head and neck cancer provided by high-throughput molecular profiling approaches

  14. Profiling Invasiveness in Head and Neck Cancer: Recent Contributions of Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Nisa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput molecular profiling approaches have emerged as precious research tools in the field of head and neck translational oncology. Such approaches have identified and/or confirmed the role of several genes or pathways in the acquisition/maintenance of an invasive phenotype and the execution of cellular programs related to cell invasion. Recently published new-generation sequencing studies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC have unveiled prominent roles in carcinogenesis and cell invasion of mutations involving NOTCH1 and PI3K-patwhay components. Gene-expression profiling studies combined with systems biology approaches have allowed identifying and gaining further mechanistic understanding into pathways commonly enriched in invasive HNSCC. These pathways include antigen-presenting and leucocyte adhesion molecules, as well as genes involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Here we review the major insights into invasiveness in head and neck cancer provided by high-throughput molecular profiling approaches.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…

  16. Whole genome expression profiling using DNA microarray for determining biocompatibility of polymeric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Wang, Zhenyu; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is an ever increasing need to find surfaces that are biocompatible for applications like medical implants and microfluidics-based cell culture systems. The biocompatibility of five different surfaces with different hydrophobicity was determined using gene expression profiling as well as more...

  17. Evaluating genome-wide DNA methylation changes in mice by Methylation Specific Digital Karyotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruoka Shuichiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of genome-wide DNA methylation changes has become more accessible with the development of various array-based technologies though when studying species other than human the choice of applications are limited and not always within reach. In this study, we adapted and tested the applicability of Methylation Specific Digital Karyotyping (MSDK, a non-array based method, for the prospective analysis of epigenetic changes after perinatal nutritional modifications in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. MSDK is a sequenced based method that allows a comprehensive and unbiased methylation profiling. The method generates 21 base pairs long sequence tags derived from specific locations in the genome. The resulting tag frequencies determine in a quantitative manner the methylation level of the corresponding loci. Results Genomic DNA from whole lung was isolated and subjected to MSDK analysis using the methylation-sensitive enzyme Not I as the mapping enzyme and Nla III as the fragmenting enzyme. In a pair wise comparison of the generated mouse MSDK libraries we identified 158 loci that are significantly differentially methylated (P-value = 0.05 after perinatal dietary changes in our mouse model. Quantitative methylation specific PCR and sequence analysis of bisulfate modified genomic DNA confirmed changes in methylation at specific loci. Differences in genomic MSDK tag counts for a selected set of genes, correlated well with changes in transcription levels as measured by real-time PCR. Furthermore serial analysis of gene expression profiling demonstrated a dramatic difference in expressed transcripts in mice exposed to perinatal nutritional changes. Conclusion The genome-wide methylation survey applied in this study allowed for an unbiased methylation profiling revealing subtle changes in DNA methylation in mice maternally exposed to dietary changes in methyl-donor content. The MSDK method is applicable for mouse models

  18. Genome-wide dynamic transcriptional profiling in clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 using single-nucleotide resolution RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium beijerinckii is a prominent solvent-producing microbe that has great potential for biofuel and chemical industries. Although transcriptional analysis is essential to understand gene functions and regulation and thus elucidate proper strategies for further strain improvement, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis for C. beijerinckii. Results The genome-wide transcriptional dynamics of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 over a batch fermentation process was investigated using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology. The gene expression profiles indicated that the glycolysis genes were highly expressed throughout the fermentation, with comparatively more active expression during acidogenesis phase. The expression of acid formation genes was down-regulated at the onset of solvent formation, in accordance with the metabolic pathway shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. The acetone formation gene (adc, as a part of the sol operon, exhibited highly-coordinated expression with the other sol genes. Out of the > 20 genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase in C. beijerinckii, Cbei_1722 and Cbei_2181 were highly up-regulated at the onset of solventogenesis, corresponding to their key roles in primary alcohol production. Most sporulation genes in C. beijerinckii 8052 demonstrated similar temporal expression patterns to those observed in B. subtilis and C. acetobutylicum, while sporulation sigma factor genes sigE and sigG exhibited accelerated and stronger expression in C. beijerinckii 8052, which is consistent with the more rapid forespore and endspore development in this strain. Global expression patterns for specific gene functional classes were examined using self-organizing map analysis. The genes associated with specific functional classes demonstrated global expression profiles corresponding to the cell physiological variation and metabolic pathway switch. Conclusions The results from this

  19. Transcription Profiling Demonstrates Epigenetic Control of Non-retroviral RNA Virus-Derived Elements in the Human Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Sofuku

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs are DNA sequences in vertebrate genomes formed by the retrotransposon-mediated integration of ancient bornavirus sequence. Thus, EBLNs evidence a mechanism of retrotransposon-mediated RNA-to-DNA information flow from environment to animals. Although EBLNs are non-transposable, they share some features with retrotransposons. Here, to test whether hosts control the expression of EBLNs similarly to retrotransposons, we profiled the transcription of all Homo sapiens EBLNs (hsEBLN-1 to hsEBLN-7. We could detect transcription of all hsEBLNs in at least one tissue. Among them, hsEBLN-1 is transcribed almost exclusively in the testis. In most tissues, expression from the hsEBLN-1 locus is silenced epigenetically. Finally, we showed the possibility that hsEBLN-1 integration at this locus affects the expression of a neighboring gene. Our results suggest that hosts regulate the expression of endogenous non-retroviral virus elements similarly to how they regulate the expression of retrotransposons, possibly contributing to new transcripts and regulatory complexity to the human genome.

  20. Genome-wide identification of VQ motif-containing proteins and their expression profiles under abiotic stresses in maize

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    Weibin eSong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VQ motif-containing proteins play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. Recent studies have shown that some VQ proteins physically interact with WRKY transcription factors to activate downstream genes. In the present study, we identified and characterized genes encoding VQ motif-containing proteins using the most recent version of the maize genome sequence. In total, 61VQ genes were identified. In a cluster analysis, these genes clustered into nine groups together with their homologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis. Most of the VQ genes (57 out of 61 numbers identified in maize were found to be single-copy genes. Analyses of RNA-seq data obtained using seedlings under long-term drought treatment showed that the expression levels of most ZmVQ genes (41 out of 61 members changed during the drought stress response. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that most of the ZmVQ genes were responsive to NaCl treatment. Also, approximately half of the ZmVQ genes were co-expressed with ZmWRKY genes. The identification of these VQ genes in the maize genome and knowledge of their expression profiles under drought and osmotic stresses will provide a solid foundation for exploring their specific functions in the abiotic stress responses of maize.

  1. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) Gene Family in Eucalyptus grandis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A. P.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation. PMID:25269088

  2. Genome profiling (GP method based classification of insects: congruence with that of classical phenotype-based one.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ahmed

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs have been widely used for identification and classification of species, and have produced data giving new insights into phylogenetic relationships. Recently, multilocus genotyping and even whole genome sequencing-based technologies have been adopted in ambitious comparative biology studies. However, such technologies are still far from routine-use in species classification studies due to their high costs in terms of labor, equipment and consumables.Here, we describe a simple and powerful approach for species classification called genome profiling (GP. The GP method composed of random PCR, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE and computer-aided gel image processing is highly informative and less laborious. For demonstration, we classified 26 species of insects using GP and 18S rDNA-sequencing approaches. The GP method was found to give a better correspondence to the classical phenotype-based approach than did 18S rDNA sequencing employing a congruence value. To our surprise, use of a single probe in GP was sufficient to identify the relationships between the insect species, making this approach more straightforward.The data gathered here, together with those of previous studies show that GP is a simple and powerful method that can be applied for actually universally identifying and classifying species. The current success supported our previous proposal that GP-based web database can be constructible and effective for the global identification/classification of species.

  3. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF gene family in Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    Full Text Available Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation.

  4. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  5. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Cholangiocarcinoma Identifies Distinct IDH-Mutant Molecular Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Farshidfar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is an aggressive malignancy of the bile ducts, with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Here, we describe the integrated analysis of somatic mutations, RNA expression, copy number, and DNA methylation by The Cancer Genome Atlas of a set of predominantly intrahepatic CCA cases and propose a molecular classification scheme. We identified an IDH mutant-enriched subtype with distinct molecular features including low expression of chromatin modifiers, elevated expression of mitochondrial genes, and increased mitochondrial DNA copy number. Leveraging the multi-platform data, we observed that ARID1A exhibited DNA hypermethylation and decreased expression in the IDH mutant subtype. More broadly, we found that IDH mutations are associated with an expanded histological spectrum of liver tumors with molecular features that stratify with CCA. Our studies reveal insights into the molecular pathogenesis and heterogeneity of cholangiocarcinoma and provide classification information of potential therapeutic significance.

  6. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling with MeDIP-seq using archived dried blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Starnawska, Anna; Nyegaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In utero and early-life experienced environmental exposures are suggested to play an important role in many multifactorial diseases potentially mediated through lasting effects on the epigenome. As the epigenome in addition remains modifiable throughout life, identifying specific...... biobanks. However, availability of this biological material is highly limited as each DBS is made only from a few droplets of blood and storage conditions may be suboptimal for epigenetic studies. Furthermore, as relevant markers may reside outside gene bodies, epigenome-wide interrogation is needed....... RESULTS: Here we demonstrate, as a proof of principle, that genome-wide interrogation of the methylome based on methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) is feasible using a single 3.2 mm DBS punch (60 ng DNA) from filter cards archived for up to 16 years...

  7. Genome-wide expression profiling during protection from colitis by regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Olsen, Jørgen; Gad, Monika

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the adoptive transfer model of colitis it has been shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) can hinder disease development and cure already existing mild colitis. The mechanisms underlying this regulatory effect of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are not well understood. METHODS: To identify......Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array), which enabled an analysis of a complete set of RNA transcript levels in each sample. Array results were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Data were analyzed using combined projections to latent structures and functional...... annotation analysis. The colitic samples were clearly distinguishable from samples from normal mice by a vast number of inflammation- and growth factor-related transcripts. In contrast, the Treg-protected animals could not be distinguished from either the normal BALB/c mice or the normal SCID mice. mRNA...

  8. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  9. Genomic Survey and Expression Profiling of the MYB Gene Family in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing XU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloblastosis (MYB proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor (TF families in plants. They are functionally diverse in regulating plant development, metabolism, and multiple stress responses. However, the function of watermelon MYB proteins remains elusive to date. Here, a genome-wide identification of watermelon MYB TFs was performed by bioinformatics analysis. A total of 162 MYB genes were identified from watermelon (ClaMYB. A comprehensive overview of the ClaMYB genes was undertaken, including the gene structures, chromosomal distribution, gene duplication, conserved protein motif, and phylogenetic relationship. According to the analyses, the watermelon MYB genes were categorized into three groups (R1R2R3-MYB, R2R3-MYB, and MYB-related. Amino acid alignments for all MYB motifs of ClaMYBs demonstrated high conservation. Investigation of their chromosomal localization revealed that these ClaMYB genes distributed across the 11 watermelon chromosomes. Gene duplication analyses showed that tandem duplication events contributed predominantly to the expansion of the MYB gene family in the watermelon genome. Phylogenetic comparison of the ClaMYB proteins with Arabidopsis MYB proteins revealed that watermelon MYB proteins underwent a more diverse evolution after divergence from Arabidopsis. Some watermelon MYBs were found to cluster into the functional clades of Arabidopsis MYB proteins. Expression analysis under different stress conditions identified a group of watermelon MYB proteins implicated in the plant stress responses. The comprehensive investigation of watermelon MYB genes in this study provides a useful reference for future cloning and functional analysis of watermelon MYB proteins. Keywords: watermelon, MYB transcription factor, abiotic stress, phylogenetic analysis

  10. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  11. Gene expression profiling to characterize sediment toxicity – a pilot study using Caenorhabditis elegans whole genome microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifferscheid Georg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, toxicity of river sediments is assessed using whole sediment tests with benthic organisms. The challenge, however, is the differentiation between multiple effects caused by complex contaminant mixtures and the unspecific toxicity endpoints such as survival, growth or reproduction. The use of gene expression profiling facilitates the identification of transcriptional changes at the molecular level that are specific to the bio-available fraction of pollutants. Results In this pilot study, we exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to three sediments of German rivers with varying (low, medium and high levels of heavy metal and organic contamination. Beside chemical analysis, three standard bioassays were performed: reproduction of C. elegans, genotoxicity (Comet assay and endocrine disruption (YES test. Gene expression was profiled using a whole genome DNA-microarray approach to identify overrepresented functional gene categories and derived cellular processes. Disaccharide and glycogen metabolism were found to be affected, whereas further functional pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, metabolism of xenobiotics, aging and several developmental processes were found to be differentially regulated only in response to the most contaminated sediment. Conclusion This study demonstrates how ecotoxicogenomics can identify transcriptional responses in complex mixture scenarios to distinguish different samples of river sediments.

  12. The discovery of putative urine markers for the specific detection of prostate tumor by integrative mining of public genomic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available Urine has emerged as an attractive biofluid for the noninvasive detection of prostate cancer (PCa. There is a strong imperative to discover candidate urinary markers for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of PCa. The rising flood of various omics profiles presents immense opportunities for the identification of prospective biomarkers. Here we present a simple and efficient strategy to derive candidate urine markers for prostate tumor by mining cancer genomic profiles from public databases. Prostate, bladder and kidney are three major tissues from which cellular matters could be released into urine. To identify urinary markers specific for PCa, upregulated entities that might be shed in exosomes of bladder cancer and kidney cancer are first excluded. Through the ontology-based filtering and further assessment, a reduced list of 19 entities encoding urinary proteins was derived as putative PCa markers. Among them, we have found 10 entities closely associated with the process of tumor cell growth and development by pathway enrichment analysis. Further, using the 10 entities as seeds, we have constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI subnetwork and suggested a few urine markers as preferred prognostic markers to monitor the invasion and progression of PCa. Our approach is amenable to discover and prioritize potential markers present in a variety of body fluids for a spectrum of human diseases.

  13. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute; Blake, Jonathon; Schwager, Christian; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Leffers, Henrik

    2004-07-15

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly expressed in testicular CIS, including many never reported in testicular neoplasms. Expression was further verified by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. Among the highest expressed genes were NANOG and POU5F1, and reverse transcription-PCR revealed possible changes in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported as unstable in cultured ESCs. The close similarity between CIS and ESCs explains the pluripotency of CIS. Moreover, the findings are consistent with an early prenatal origin of TGCTs and thus suggest that etiologic factors operating in utero are of primary importance for the incidence trends of TGCTs. Finally, some of the highly expressed genes identified in this study are promising candidates for new diagnostic markers for CIS and/or TGCTs.

  14. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poursarebani, N.; Nussbaumer, T.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Witsenboer, H.; van Oeveren, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F. X.; Stein, N.; Schnurbusch, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 334-347 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat chromosome 6A * whole-genome profiling * LINEAR TOPOLOGICAL CONTIGS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  15. Clinical array-based karyotyping of breast cancer with equivocal HER2 status resolves gene copy number and reveals chromosome 17 complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Shelly; Gorre, Mercedes; Mohammed, Mansoor; Yeh, I-Tien; Lytvak, Irina; Tirtorahardjo, Budi; Dzidic, Natasha; Zadeh, Soheila; Kim, Jaeweon; McCaskill, Chris; Lim, Lony

    2010-01-01

    HER2 gene copy status, and concomitant administration of trastuzumab (Herceptin), remains one of the best examples of targeted cancer therapy based on understanding the genomic etiology of disease. However, newly diagnosed breast cancer cases with equivocal HER2 results present a challenge for the oncologist who must make treatment decisions despite the patient's unresolved HER2 status. In some cases both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are reported as equivocal, whereas in other cases IHC results and FISH are discordant for positive versus negative results. The recent validation of array-based, molecular karyotyping for clinical oncology testing provides an alternative method for determination of HER2 gene copy number status in cases remaining unresolved by traditional methods. In the current study, DNA extracted from 20 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from newly diagnosed cases of invasive ductal carcinoma referred to our laboratory with unresolved HER2 status, were analyzed using a clinically validated genomic array containing 127 probes covering the HER2 amplicon, the pericentromeric regions, and both chromosome 17 arms. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) analysis of chromosome 17 resolved HER2 gene status in [20/20] (100%) of cases and revealed additional chromosome 17 copy number changes in [18/20] (90%) of cases. Array CGH analysis also revealed two false positives and one false negative by FISH due to 'ratio skewing' caused by chromosomal gains and losses in the centromeric region. All cases with complex rearrangements of chromosome 17 showed genome-wide chromosomal instability. These results illustrate the analytical power of array-based genomic analysis as a clinical laboratory technique for resolution of HER2 status in breast cancer cases with equivocal results. The frequency of complex chromosome 17 abnormalities in these cases suggests that the two

  16. Do online prognostication tools represent a valid alternative to genomic profiling in the context of adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage Chehade, Hiba; Wazir, Umar; Mokbel, Kinan; Kasem, Abdul; Mokbel, Kefah

    2018-01-01

    Decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy has been based on clinical and pathological features. However, such decisions are seldom consistent. Web-based predictive models have been developed using data from cancer registries to help determine the need for adjuvant therapy. More recently, with the recognition of the heterogenous nature of breast cancer, genomic assays have been developed to aid in the therapeutic decision-making. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review regarding online prognostication tools and genomic assays to assess whether online tools could be used as valid alternatives to genomic profiling in decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. Breast cancer has been recently recognized as a heterogenous disease based on variations in molecular characteristics. Online tools are valuable in guiding adjuvant treatment, especially in resource constrained countries. However, in the era of personalized therapy, molecular profiling appears to be superior in predicting clinical outcome and guiding therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of immune system genes by EST profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallourakis, Cosmas; Benita, Yair; Molinie, Benoit; Cao, Zhifang; Despo, Orion; Pratt, Henry E.; Zukerberg, Lawrence R.; Daly, Mark J.; Rioux, John D.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Profiling studies of mRNA and miRNA, particularly microarray-based studies, have been extensively used to create compendia of genes that are preferentially expressed in the immune system. In some instances, functional studies have been subsequently pursued. Recent efforts such as ENCODE have demonstrated the benefit of coupling RNA-Seq analysis with information from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for transcriptomic analysis. However, the full characterization and identification of transcripts that function as modulators of human immune responses remains incomplete. In this study, we demonstrate that an integrated analysis of human ESTs provides a robust platform to identify the immune transcriptome. Beyond recovering a reference set of immune-enriched genes and providing large-scale cross-validation of previous microarray studies, we discovered hundreds of novel genes preferentially expressed in the immune system, including non-coding RNAs. As a result, we have established the Immunogene database, representing an integrated EST “road map” of gene expression in human immune cells, which can be used to further investigate the function of coding and non-coding genes in the immune system. Using this approach, we have uncovered a unique metabolic gene signature of human macrophages and identified PRDM15 as a novel overexpressed gene in human lymphomas. Thus we demonstrate the utility of EST profiling as a basis for further deconstruction of physiologic and pathologic immune processes. PMID:23616578

  18. qpure: A tool to estimate tumor cellularity from genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Song

    Full Text Available Tumour cellularity, the relative proportion of tumour and normal cells in a sample, affects the sensitivity of mutation detection, copy number analysis, cancer gene expression and methylation profiling. Tumour cellularity is traditionally estimated by pathological review of sectioned specimens; however this method is both subjective and prone to error due to heterogeneity within lesions and cellularity differences between the sample viewed during pathological review and tissue used for research purposes. In this paper we describe a statistical model to estimate tumour cellularity from SNP array profiles of paired tumour and normal samples using shifts in SNP allele frequency at regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH in the tumour. We also provide qpure, a software implementation of the method. Our experiments showed that there is a medium correlation 0.42 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.0001 between tumor cellularity estimated by qpure and pathology review. Interestingly there is a high correlation 0.87 ([Formula: see text]-value [Formula: see text] 2.2e-16 between cellularity estimates by qpure and deep Ion Torrent sequencing of known somatic KRAS mutations; and a weaker correlation 0.32 ([Formula: see text]-value=0.004 between IonTorrent sequencing and pathology review. This suggests that qpure may be a more accurate predictor of tumour cellularity than pathology review. qpure can be downloaded from https://sourceforge.net/projects/qpure/.

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in infants born to gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaoling; Liu, Fatao; Zhang, Hong; Kan, Mengyuan; Wang, Ting; Dong, Mingyue; Liu, Yun

    2018-03-26

    Offspring exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a high risk for metabolic diseases. The mechanisms behind the association between offspring exposed to GDM in utero and an increased risk of health consequences later in life remain unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in methylation levels in the foetuses of women with GDM and to explore the possible mechanisms linking maternal GDM with a high risk of metabolic diseases in offspring later in life. A genome-wide comparative methylome analysis on the umbilical cord blood of infants born to 30 women with GDM and 33 women with normal pregnancy was performed using Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip assays. A quantitative methylation analysis of 18 CpG dinucleotides was verified in the validation umbilical cord blood samples from 102 newborns exposed to GDM and 103 newborns who experienced normal pregnancy by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. A total of 4485 differentially methylated sites (DMSs), including 2150 hypermethylated sites and 2335 hypomethylated sites, with a mean β-value difference of >0.05, were identified by the 450k array. Good agreement was observed between the massarray validation data and the 450k array data (R 2 > 0.99; P 0.15 between the GDM and healthy groups were identified and showed potential as clinical biomarkers for GDM. "hsa04940: Type I diabetes mellitus" was the most significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, with a P-value = 3.20E-07 and 1.36E-02 in the hypermethylated and hypomethylated genepathway enrichment analyses, respectively. In the Gene Ontology (GO) pathway analyses, immune MHC-related pathways and neuron development-related pathways were significantly enriched. Our results suggest that GDM has epigenetic effects on genes that are preferentially involved in the Type I diabetes mellitus pathway, immune MHC (major histocompatibility complex)-related pathways and neuron development-related pathways, with consequences on fetal growth

  20. Genomic Profiling of Adult and Pediatric B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic landscapes of 92 adult and 111 pediatric patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL were investigated using next-generation sequencing and copy number alteration analysis. Recurrent gene mutations and fusions were tested in an additional 87 adult and 93 pediatric patients. Among the 29 newly identified in-frame gene fusions, those involving MEF2D and ZNF384 were clinically relevant and were demonstrated to perturb B-cell differentiation, with EP300-ZNF384 inducing leukemia in mice. Eight gene expression subgroups associated with characteristic genetic abnormalities were identified, including leukemia with MEF2D and ZNF384 fusions in two distinct clusters. In subgroup G4 which was characterized by ERG deletion, DUX4-IGH fusion was detected in most cases. This comprehensive dataset allowed us to compare the features of molecular pathogenesis between adult and pediatric B-ALL and to identify signatures possibly related to the inferior outcome of adults to that of children. We found that, besides the known discrepancies in frequencies of prognostic markers, adult patients had more cooperative mutations and greater enrichment for alterations of epigenetic modifiers and genes linked to B-cell development, suggesting difference in the target cells of transformation between adult and pediatric patients and may explain in part the disparity in their responses to treatment.

  1. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Epigenetic Adaptation of Stickleback to Marine and Freshwater Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, Artem V; Mugue, Nikolai S; Rastorguev, Sergey M; Zhenilo, Svetlana; Mazur, Alexander M; Tsygankova, Svetlana V; Boulygina, Eugenia S; Kaplun, Daria; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2017-09-01

    The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) represents a convenient model to study microevolution-adaptation to a freshwater environment. Although genetic adaptations to freshwater environments are well-studied, epigenetic adaptations have attracted little attention. In this work, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in the adaptation of the marine stickleback population to freshwater conditions. DNA methylation profiling was performed in marine and freshwater populations of sticklebacks, as well as in marine sticklebacks placed into a freshwater environment and freshwater sticklebacks placed into seawater. We showed that the DNA methylation profile after placing a marine stickleback into fresh water partially converged to that of a freshwater stickleback. For six genes including ATP4A ion pump and NELL1, believed to be involved in skeletal ossification, we demonstrated similar changes in DNA methylation in both evolutionary and short-term adaptation. This suggested that an immediate epigenetic response to freshwater conditions can be maintained in freshwater population. Interestingly, we observed enhanced epigenetic plasticity in freshwater sticklebacks that may serve as a compensatory regulatory mechanism for the lack of genetic variation in the freshwater population. For the first time, we demonstrated that genes encoding ion channels KCND3, CACNA1FB, and ATP4A were differentially methylated between the marine and the freshwater populations. Other genes encoding ion channels were previously reported to be under selection in freshwater populations. Nevertheless, the genes that harbor genetic and epigenetic changes were not the same, suggesting that epigenetic adaptation is a complementary mechanism to selection of genetic variants favorable for freshwater environment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Whole blood genome-wide expression profiling and network analysis suggest MELAS master regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Susanne; Royer, Loic; Herr, Alexander; Schmiedel, Janet; Deschauer, Marcus; Klopstock, Thomas; Kostic, Vladimir S; Schroeder, Michael; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    The heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation A3243G causes the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome as one of the most frequent mitochondrial diseases. The process of reconfiguration of nuclear gene expression profile to accommodate cellular processes to the functional status of mitochondria might be a key to MELAS disease manifestation and could contribute to its diverse phenotypic presentation. To determine master regulatory protein networks and disease-modifying genes in MELAS syndrome. Analyses of whole blood transcriptomes from 10 MELAS patients using a novel strategy by combining classic Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray profiling with regulatory and protein interaction network analyses. Hierarchical cluster analysis elucidated that the relative abundance of mutant mtDNA molecules is decisive for the nuclear gene expression response. Further analyses confirmed not only transcription factors already known to be involved in mitochondrial diseases (such as TFAM), but also detected the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, nuclear factor Y and cAMP responsive element-binding protein-related transcription factors as novel master regulators for reconfiguration of nuclear gene expression in response to the MELAS mutation. Correlation analyses of gene alterations and clinico-genetic data detected significant correlations between A3243G-induced nuclear gene expression changes and mutant mtDNA load as well as disease characteristics. These potential disease-modifying genes influencing the expression of the MELAS phenotype are mainly related to clusters primarily unrelated to cellular energy metabolism, but important for nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and signal transduction. Our data thus provide a framework to search for new pathogenetic concepts and potential therapeutic approaches to treat the MELAS syndrome.

  3. Evidence-based annotation of the malaria parasite's genome using comparative expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyao Zhou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in systems biology and whole genome sequence analysis is how to infer functions for the many uncharacterized proteins that are identified, whether they are conserved across organisms of different phyla or are phylum-specific. This problem is especially acute in pathogens, such as malaria parasites, where genetic and biochemical investigations are likely to be more difficult. Here we perform comparative expression analysis on Plasmodium parasite life cycle data derived from P. falciparum blood, sporozoite, zygote and ookinete stages, and P. yoelii mosquito oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites, blood and liver stages and show that type II fatty acid biosynthesis genes are upregulated in liver and insect stages relative to asexual blood stages. We also show that some universally uncharacterized genes with orthologs in Plasmodium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans show coordinated transcription patterns in large collections of human and yeast expression data and that the function of the uncharacterized genes can sometimes be predicted based on the expression patterns across these diverse organisms. We also use a comprehensive and unbiased literature mining method to predict which uncharacterized parasite-specific genes are likely to have roles in processes such as gliding motility, host-cell interactions, sporozoite stage, or rhoptry function. These analyses, together with protein-protein interaction data, provide probabilistic models that predict the function of 926 uncharacterized malaria genes and also suggest that malaria parasites may provide a simple model system for the study of some human processes. These data also provide a foundation for further studies of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites.

  4. Next-generation Sequencing-based genomic profiling: Fostering innovation in cancer care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies, DNA sequencing has been increasingly utilized in clinical practice. Our goal was to investigate the impact of genomic evaluation on treatment decisions for heavily pretreated patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed metastatic cancer patients from a single institution whose cancers had progressed after all available standard-of-care therapies and whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing analysis. We determined the percentage of patients who received any therapy directed by the test, and its efficacy. RESULTS: From July 2013 to December 2015, 185 consecutive patients were tested using a commercially available next-generation sequencing-based test, and 157 patients were eligible. Sixty-six patients (42.0% were female, and 91 (58.0% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.2 years, and the mean number of pre-test lines of systemic treatment was 2.7. One hundred and seventy-seven patients (95.6% had at least one identified gene alteration. Twenty-four patients (15.2% underwent systemic treatment directed by the test result. Of these, one patient had a complete response, four (16.7% had partial responses, two (8.3% had stable disease, and 17 (70.8% had disease progression as the best result. The median progression-free survival time with matched therapy was 1.6 months, and the median overall survival was 10 months. CONCLUSION: We identified a high prevalence of gene alterations using an next-generation sequencing test. Although some benefit was associated with the matched therapy, most of the patients had disease progression as the best response, indicating the limited biological potential and unclear clinical relevance of this practice.

  5. Whole genome grey and white matter DNA methylation profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Sandoval, Juan; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel; Gräff, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood. Herein, we determined the DNA methylation patterns of grey and white matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), an important region for higher cognitive skills that is particularly affected in various neurological diseases. For avoiding interindividual differences, we analyzed white and grey matter from the same donor using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and for validating their biological significance, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and pyrosequencing in ten and twenty independent samples, respectively. The combination of these analysis indicated robust grey-white matter differences in DNA methylation. What is more, cell type-specific markers were enriched among the most differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, we also found an outstanding number of grey-white matter differentially methylated genes that have previously been associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, as well as Multiple and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented here thus constitute an important resource for future studies not only to gain insight into brain regional as well as grey and white matter differences, but also to unmask epigenetic alterations that might underlie neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Novel mouse model recapitulates genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Nicole E; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Buishand, Floryne O; Hue, Yue; Ried, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Human colorectal carcinomas are defined by a nonrandom distribution of genomic imbalances that are characteristic for this disease. Often, these imbalances affect entire chromosomes. Understanding the role of these aneuploidies for carcinogenesis is of utmost importance. Currently, established transgenic mice do not recapitulate the pathognonomic genome aberration profile of human colorectal carcinomas. We have developed a novel model based on the spontaneous transformation of murine colon epithelial cells. During this process, cells progress through stages of pre-immortalization, immortalization and, finally, transformation, and result in tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. We analyzed our model for genome and transcriptome alterations using ArrayCGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and array based gene expression profiling. ArrayCGH revealed a recurrent pattern of genomic imbalances. These results were confirmed by SKY. Comparing these imbalances with orthologous maps of human chromosomes revealed a remarkable overlap. We observed focal deletions of the tumor suppressor genes Trp53 and Cdkn2a/p16. High-level focal genomic amplification included the locus harboring the oncogene Mdm2, which was confirmed by FISH in the form of double minute chromosomes. Array-based global gene expression revealed distinct differences between the sequential steps of spontaneous transformation. Gene expression changes showed significant similarities with human colorectal carcinomas. Pathways most prominently affected included genes involved in chromosomal instability and in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our novel mouse model therefore recapitulates the most prominent genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal cancer, and might serve as a valuable tool for understanding the dynamic process of tumorigenesis, and for preclinical drug testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical application of genomic profiling to find druggable targets for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients with metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soojin; Lee, Jeongeun; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sim, Sung Hoon; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Although adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers are characterized by biological features and clinical outcomes distinct from those of other age groups, the molecular profile of AYA cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed cancer genomes from rare types of metastatic AYA cancers to identify driving and/or druggable genetic alterations. Prospectively collected AYA tumor samples from seven different patients were analyzed using three different genomics platforms (whole-exome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing or OncoScan™). Using well-known bioinformatics tools (bwa, Picard, GATK, MuTect, and Somatic Indel Detector) and our annotation approach with open access databases (DAVID and DGIdb), we processed sequencing data and identified driving genetic alterations and their druggability. The mutation frequencies of AYA cancers were lower than those of other adult cancers (median = 0.56), except for a germ cell tumor with hypermutation. We identified patient-specific genetic alterations in candidate driving genes: RASA2 and NF1 (prostate cancer), TP53 and CDKN2C (olfactory neuroblastoma), FAT1, NOTCH1, and SMAD4 (head and neck cancer), KRAS (urachal carcinoma), EML4-ALK (lung cancer), and MDM2 and PTEN (liposarcoma). We then suggested potential drugs for each patient according to his or her altered genes and related pathways. By comparing candidate driving genes between AYA cancers and those from all age groups for the same type of cancer, we identified different driving genes in prostate cancer and a germ cell tumor in AYAs compared with all age groups, whereas three common alterations (TP53, FAT1, and NOTCH1) in head and neck cancer were identified in both groups. We identified the patient-specific genetic alterations and druggability of seven rare types of AYA cancers using three genomics platforms. Additionally, genetic alterations in cancers from AYA and those from all age groups varied by cancer type. The online version of this article

  8. Genomic profiling of neutrophil transcripts in Asian Qigong practitioners: a pilot study in gene regulation by mind-body interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan-Zhen; Li, Ping; Garcia, Gabriela E; Johnson, Richard J; Feng, Lili

    2005-02-01

    The great similarity of the genomes of humans and other species stimulated us to search for genes regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as the mind-body interaction. DNA microarray technology offers the advantage of analyzing thousands of genes simultaneously, with the potential to determine healthy phenotypic changes in gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic profile and function of neutrophils in Falun Gong (FLG, an ancient Chinese Qigong) practitioners, with healthy subjects as controls. Six (6) Asian FLG practitioners and 6 Asian normal healthy controls were recruited for our study. The practitioners have practiced FLG for at least 1 year (range, 1-5 years). The practice includes daily reading of FLG books and daily practice of exercises lasting 1-2 hours. Selected normal healthy controls did not perform Qigong, yoga, t'ai chi, or any other type of mind-body practice, and had not followed any conventional physical exercise program for at least 1 year. Neutrophils were isolated from fresh blood and assayed for gene expression, using microarrays and RNase protection assay (RPA), as well as for function (phagocytosis) and survival (apoptosis). The changes in gene expression of FLG practitioners in contrast to normal healthy controls were characterized by enhanced immunity, downregulation of cellular metabolism, and alteration of apoptotic genes in favor of a rapid resolution of inflammation. The lifespan of normal neutrophils was prolonged, while the inflammatory neutrophils displayed accelerated cell death in FLG practitioners as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlating with enhanced immunity reflected by microarray data, neutrophil phagocytosis was significantly increased in Qigong practitioners. Some of the altered genes observed by microarray were confirmed by RPA. Qigong practice may regulate immunity, metabolic rate, and cell death, possibly at the transcriptional level. Our pilot study

  9. Genome-wide profiling of H3K56 acetylation and transcription factor binding sites in human adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyui Alice Lo

    Full Text Available The growing epidemic of obesity and metabolic diseases calls for a better understanding of adipocyte biology. The regulation of transcription in adipocytes is particularly important, as it is a target for several therapeutic approaches. Transcriptional outcomes are influenced by both histone modifications and transcription factor binding. Although the epigenetic states and binding sites of several important transcription factors have been profiled in the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line, such data are lacking in human adipocytes. In this study, we identified H3K56 acetylation sites in human adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells. H3K56 is acetylated by CBP and p300, and deacetylated by SIRT1, all are proteins with important roles in diabetes and insulin signaling. We found that while almost half of the genome shows signs of H3K56 acetylation, the highest level of H3K56 acetylation is associated with transcription factors and proteins in the adipokine signaling and Type II Diabetes pathways. In order to discover the transcription factors that recruit acetyltransferases and deacetylases to sites of H3K56 acetylation, we analyzed DNA sequences near H3K56 acetylated regions and found that the E2F recognition sequence was enriched. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing, we confirmed that genes bound by E2F4, as well as those by HSF-1 and C/EBPα, have higher than expected levels of H3K56 acetylation, and that the transcription factor binding sites and acetylation sites are often adjacent but rarely overlap. We also discovered a significant difference between bound targets of C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, highlighting the need to construct species-specific epigenetic and transcription factor binding site maps. This is the first genome-wide profile of H3K56 acetylation, E2F4, C/EBPα and HSF-1 binding in human adipocytes, and will serve as an important resource for better understanding adipocyte

  10. Analysis of tanshinone IIA induced cellular apoptosis in leukemia cells by genome-wide expression profiling

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    Liu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA is a diterpene quinone extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Chinese traditional herb. Although previous studies have reported the anti-tumor effects of Tan IIA on various human cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The current study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Tan IIA's apoptotic effects on leukemia cells in vitro. Methods The cytotoxicity of Tan IIA on different types of leukemia cell lines was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5]-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on cells treated without or with Tan IIA at different concentrations for different time periods. Cellular apoptosis progression with and without Tan IIA treatment was analyzed by Annexin V and Caspase 3 assays. Gene expression profiling was used to identify the genes regulated after Tan IIA treatment and those differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Confirmation of these expression regulations was carried out using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. The antagonizing effect of a PXR inhibitor L-SFN on Tan IIA treatment was tested using Colony Forming Unit Assay. Results Our results revealed that Tan IIA had different cytotoxic activities on five types of leukemia cells, with the highest toxicity on U-937 cells. Tan IIA inhibited the growth of U-937 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and Caspase-3 assays showed that Tan IIA induced apoptosis in U-937 cells. Using gene expression profiling, 366 genes were found to be significantly regulated after Tan IIA treatment and differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Among these genes, CCL2 was highly expressed in untreated U-937 cells and down-regulated significantly after Tan IIA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. RT-qPCR analyses validated the expression regulation of 80% of genes. Addition of L- sulforaphane (L-SFN, an inhibitor of Pregnane × receptor (PXR significantly

  11. Genomic expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiling discriminates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Min-Han; Furge, Kyle A; Kort, Eric; Giraud, Sophie; Ferlicot, Sophie; Vielh, Philippe; Amsellem-Ouazana, Delphine; Debré, Bernard; Flam, Thierry; Thiounn, Nicolas; Zerbib, Marc; Wong, Chin Fong; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Molinié, Vincent; Vieillefond, Annick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Richard, Stéphane; Teh, Bin Tean; Tan, Hwei Ling; Yang, Ximing J; Ditlev, Jonathon; Matsuda, Daisuke; Khoo, Sok Kean; Sugimura, Jun; Fujioka, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HGU133Plus2 platform was applied on chRCC (n = 15) and oncocytoma specimens (n = 15). Supervised analysis was applied to identify a discriminatory gene signature, as well as differentially expressed genes. High throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed on independent samples (n = 14) using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100 K arrays to assess correlation between expression and gene copy number. Immunohistochemical validation was performed in an independent set of tumors. A novel 14 probe-set signature was developed to classify the tumors internally with 93% accuracy, and this was successfully validated on an external data-set with 94% accuracy. Pathway analysis highlighted clinically relevant dysregulated pathways of c-erbB2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in chRCC, but no significant differences in p-AKT or extracellular HER2 expression was identified on immunohistochemistry. Loss of chromosome 1p, reflected in both cytogenetic and expression analysis, is common to both entities, implying this may be an early event in histogenesis. Multiple regional areas of cytogenetic alterations and corresponding expression biases differentiating the two entities were identified. Parafibromin, aquaporin 6, and synaptogyrin 3 were novel immunohistochemical markers effectively discriminating

  12. Genomic expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiling discriminates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiounn Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Methods Gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HGU133Plus2 platform was applied on chRCC (n = 15 and oncocytoma specimens (n = 15. Supervised analysis was applied to identify a discriminatory gene signature, as well as differentially expressed genes. High throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping was performed on independent samples (n = 14 using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100 K arrays to assess correlation between expression and gene copy number. Immunohistochemical validation was performed in an independent set of tumors. Results A novel 14 probe-set signature was developed to classify the tumors internally with 93% accuracy, and this was successfully validated on an external data-set with 94% accuracy. Pathway analysis highlighted clinically relevant dysregulated pathways of c-erbB2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling in chRCC, but no significant differences in p-AKT or extracellular HER2 expression was identified on immunohistochemistry. Loss of chromosome 1p, reflected in both cytogenetic and expression analysis, is common to both entities, implying this may be an early event in histogenesis. Multiple regional areas of cytogenetic alterations and corresponding expression biases differentiating the two entities were identified. Parafibromin, aquaporin 6, and synaptogyrin 3 were novel

  13. Profiling of gene duplication patterns of sequenced teleost genomes: evidence for rapid lineage-specific genome expansion mediated by recent tandem duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lewis, Joshua; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-06-15

    Gene duplication has had a major impact on genome evolution. Localized (or tandem) duplication resulting from unequal crossing over and whole genome duplication are believed to be the two dominant mechanisms contributing to vertebrate genome evolution. While much scrutiny has been directed toward discerning patterns indicative of whole-genome duplication events in teleost species, less attention has been paid to the continuous nature of gene duplications and their impact on the size, gene content, functional diversity, and overall architecture of teleost genomes. Here, using a Markov clustering algorithm directed approach we catalogue and analyze patterns of gene duplication in the four model teleost species with chromosomal coordinates: zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon. Our analyses based on set size, duplication type, synonymous substitution rate (Ks), and gene ontology emphasize shared and lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution via gene duplication. Most strikingly, our analyses highlight the extraordinary duplication and retention rate of recent duplicates in zebrafish and their likely role in the structural and functional expansion of the zebrafish genome. We find that the zebrafish genome is remarkable in its large number of duplicated genes, small duplicate set size, biased Ks distribution toward minimal mutational divergence, and proportion of tandem and intra-chromosomal duplicates when compared with the other teleost model genomes. The observed gene duplication patterns have played significant roles in shaping the architecture of teleost genomes and appear to have contributed to the recent functional diversification and divergence of important physiological processes in zebrafish. We have analyzed gene duplication patterns and duplication types among the available teleost genomes and found that a large number of genes were tandemly and intrachromosomally duplicated, suggesting their origin of independent and continuous duplication

  14. Microsatellite instability in pediatric high grade glioma is associated with genomic profile and differential target gene inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Viana-Pereira

    Full Text Available High grade gliomas (HGG are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, and there is increasing evidence that pediatric HGG may harbor distinct molecular characteristics compared to adult tumors. We have sought to clarify the role of microsatellite instability (MSI in pediatric versus adult HGG. MSI status was determined in 144 patients (71 pediatric and 73 adults using a well established panel of five quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeat markers. Expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, MLH1 was assessed for mutations by direct sequencing and promoter methylation using MS-PCR. DNA copy number profiles were derived using array CGH, and mutations in eighteen MSI target genes studied by multiplex PCR and genotyping. MSI was found in 14/71 (19.7% pediatric cases, significantly more than observed in adults (5/73, 6.8%; p = 0.02, Chi-square test. MLH1 expression was downregulated in 10/13 cases, however no mutations or promoter methylation were found. MSH6 was absent in one pediatric MSI-High tumor, consistent with an inherited mismatch repair deficiency associated with germline MSH6 mutation. MSI was classed as Type A, and associated with a remarkably stable genomic profile. Of the eighteen classic MSI target genes, we identified mutations only in MSH6 and DNAPKcs and described a polymorphism in MRE11 without apparent functional consequences in DNA double strand break detection and repair. This study thus provides evidence for a potential novel molecular pathway in a proportion of gliomas associated with the presence of MSI.

  15. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  16. Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) is a high-performance visualization tool for interactive exploration of large, integrated genomic datasets. It supports a wide variety of data types, including array-based and next-generation sequence data, and genomic annotations.

  17. Whole blood genome-wide gene expression profile in males after prolonged wakefulness and sleep recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, R; Sunaga, D Y; Guindalini, C; Martins, R C S; Mazzotti, D R; Wei, Z; Daye, Z J; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2012-11-01

    Although the specific functions of sleep have not been completely elucidated, the literature has suggested that sleep is essential for proper homeostasis. Sleep loss is associated with changes in behavioral, neurochemical, cellular, and metabolic function as well as impaired immune response. Using high-resolution microarrays we evaluated the gene expression profiles of healthy male volunteers who underwent 60 h of prolonged wakefulness (PW) followed by 12 h of sleep recovery (SR). Peripheral whole blood was collected at 8 am in the morning before the initiation of PW (Baseline), after the second night of PW, and one night after SR. We identified over 500 genes that were differentially expressed. Notably, these genes were related to DNA damage and repair and stress response, as well as diverse immune system responses, such as natural killer pathways including killer cell lectin-like receptors family, as well as granzymes and T-cell receptors, which play important roles in host defense. These results support the idea that sleep loss can lead to alterations in molecular processes that result in perturbation of cellular immunity, induction of inflammatory responses, and homeostatic imbalance. Moreover, expression of multiple genes was downregulated following PW and upregulated after SR compared with PW, suggesting an attempt of the body to re-establish internal homeostasis. In silico validation of alterations in the expression of CETN3, DNAJC, and CEACAM genes confirmed previous findings related to the molecular effects of sleep deprivation. Thus, the present findings confirm that the effects of sleep loss are not restricted to the brain and can occur intensely in peripheral tissues.

  18. Genomic Survey, Characterization, and Expression Profile Analysis of the SBP Genes in Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hina; Liu, Yanhui; Azam, Syed Muhammad; Rahman, Zia Ur; Priyadarshani, S V G N; Li, Weimin; Huang, Xinyu; Hu, Bingyan; Xiong, Junjie; Ali, Umair; Qin, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by transcription factors, which play many significant developmental processes. SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBP) perform a variety of regulatory functions in leaf, flower, and fruit development, plant architecture, and sporogenesis. 16 SBP genes were identified in pineapple and were divided into four groups on basis of phylogenetic analysis. Five paralogs in pineapple for SBP genes were identified with Ka/Ks ratio varied from 0.20 for AcSBP14 and AcSBP15 to 0.36 for AcSBP6 and AcSBP16 , respectively. 16 SBP genes were located on 12 chromosomes out of 25 pineapple chromosomes with highly conserved protein sequence structures. The isoionic points of SBP ranged from 6.05 to 9.57, while molecular weight varied from 22.7 to 121.9 kD. Expression profiles of SBP genes revealed that AcSBP7 and AcSBP15 (leaf), AcSBP13 , AcSBP12 , AcSBP8 , AcSBP16 , AcSBP9 , and AcSBP11 (sepal), AcSBP6 , AcSBP4 , and AcSBP10 (stamen), AcSBP14 , AcSBP1 , and AcSBP5 (fruit) while the rest of genes showed low expression in studied tissues. Four genes, that is, AcSBP11 , AcSBP6 , AcSBP4 , and AcSBP12 , were highly expressed at 4°C, while AcSBP16 were upregulated at 45°C. RNA-Seq was validated through qRT-PCR for some genes. Salt stress-induced expression of two genes, that is, AcSBP7 and AcSBP14 , while in drought stress, AcSBP12 and AcSBP15 were highly expressed. Our study lays a foundation for further gene function and expression studies of SBP genes in pineapple.

  19. Identifying the Impact of E-Selen on the Sterile Medfly Ceratitis capitata at the Genomic Level Using DNA Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant E-Selen is an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata in various concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.5 mg) prior to irradiation in order to obtain fully competent males. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at a dose rate of 90 Gy. Biological assessment of two E-Selen concentrations 0.3 and 0.5 mg were found to ameliorate the fitness of the sterile insects as well as to increase significantly most of their amino acids content. The study of the PCR patterns of normal and irradiated C. capitata undertaken or not different doses of E-Selen prior to irradiation and contained in the larval diets induced some modifications to the DNA profiles. The appearance of some new bands and disappearance of others were frequently encountered during this investigation. The appearance of bands was attributed to a repair mechanism that occurs in the irradiated DNA. However, the similarity in the DNA patterns of the homogenate pupal of C. capitata was due to the irradiation-induced damage may be in genome regions other than the regions of study

  20. Functional annotation of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis associated genes by integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Chun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA are two major types of joint diseases that share multiple common symptoms. However, their pathological mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of our study is to identify RA and OA related-genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of these diseases. METHODS: We collected 11 whole genome-wide expression profiling datasets from RA and OA cohorts and performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. This method can avoid some pitfalls of single dataset analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found that several biological pathways (i.e., the immunity, inflammation and apoptosis related pathways are commonly involved in the development of both RA and OA. Whereas several other pathways (i.e., vasopressin-related pathway, regulation of autophagy, endocytosis, calcium transport and endoplasmic reticulum stress related pathways present significant difference between RA and OA. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  1. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Qi; Jian, Hong-Ju; Yang, Bo; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Ao-Xiang; Liu, Pu; Li, Jia-Na

    2017-07-15

    Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters. We also analyzed the expression patterns of 15 randomly selected BnGRF genes in various tissues and in plant varieties with different harvest indices and gibberellic acid (GA) responses. The expression levels of BnGRFs under GA treatment suggested the presence of possible negative feedback regulation. The evolutionary patterns and expression profiles of BnGRFs uncovered in this study increase our understanding of the important roles played by these genes in oilseed rape. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-04-05

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken.

  3. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan H.; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  4. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  5. The genome-wide expression profile of Curcuma longa-treated cisplatin-stimulated HEK293 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-01-01

    AIM The rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa (CL), is a herbal medicine used in many traditional prescriptions. It has previously been shown that CL treatment showed greater than 47% recovery from cisplatin-induced cell damage in human kidney HEK 293 cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by examining the genome wide mRNA expression profiles of HEK 293 -cells. METHOD Recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were determined by microarray, real-time PCR, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results of microarray analysis and real-time PCR revealed that NFκB pathway-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were down-regulated in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. In addition, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis revealed that NFκB p65 nuclear translocation was inhibited in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for the effects of CL on HEK 293 cells is closely associated with regulation of the NFκB pathway. CONCLUSION CL possesses novel therapeutic agents that can be used for the prevention or treatment of cisplatin-induced renal disorders. PMID:20840446

  6. Identification of novel candidate genes involved in mineralization of dental enamel by genome-wide transcript profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Smith, Charles E; Bringas, Pablo; Chen, Yi-Bu; Smith, Susan M; Snead, Malcolm L; Kurtz, Ira; Hacia, Joseph G; Hubbard, Michael J; Paine, Michael L

    2012-05-01

    The gene repertoire regulating vertebrate biomineralization is poorly understood. Dental enamel, the most highly mineralized tissue in mammals, differs from other calcifying systems in that the formative cells (ameloblasts) lack remodeling activity and largely degrade and resorb the initial extracellular matrix. Enamel mineralization requires that ameloblasts undergo a profound functional switch from matrix-secreting to maturational (calcium transport, protein resorption) roles as mineralization progresses. During the maturation stage, extracellular pH decreases markedly, placing high demands on ameloblasts to regulate acidic environments present around the growing hydroxyapatite crystals. To identify the genetic events driving enamel mineralization, we conducted genome-wide transcript profiling of the developing enamel organ from rat incisors and highlight over 300 genes differentially expressed during maturation. Using multiple bioinformatics analyses, we identified groups of maturation-associated genes whose functions are linked to key mineralization processes including pH regulation, calcium handling, and matrix turnover. Subsequent qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed that a number of solute carrier (SLC) gene family members were up-regulated during maturation, including the novel protein Slc24a4 involved in calcium handling as well as other proteins of similar function (Stim1). By providing the first global overview of the cellular machinery required for enamel maturation, this study provide a strong foundation for improving basic understanding of biomineralization and its practical applications in healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of Sugar Transporter Family in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhong Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar transporters (STs play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution. B. tabaci sugar transporters (BTSTs were divided into three groups based on their expression profiles across developmental stages; however, no host-specific BTST was found in B. tabaci fed on different host plants. Feeding of B. tabaci adults with feeding diet containing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci and mortality was significantly improved in B. tabaci fed on dsRNA compared to the control, which indicates the sugar transporters may be used as potential RNAi targets for B. tabaci bio-control. These results provide a foundation for further studies of STs in B. tabaci.

  8. Candidate luminal B breast cancer genes identified by genome, gene expression and DNA methylation profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Cornen

    Full Text Available Breast cancers (BCs of the luminal B subtype are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+, highly proliferative, resistant to standard therapies and have a poor prognosis. To better understand this subtype we compared DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs, DNA promoter methylation, gene expression profiles, and somatic mutations in nine selected genes, in 32 luminal B tumors with those observed in 156 BCs of the other molecular subtypes. Frequent CNAs included 8p11-p12 and 11q13.1-q13.2 amplifications, 7q11.22-q34, 8q21.12-q24.23, 12p12.3-p13.1, 12q13.11-q24.11, 14q21.1-q23.1, 17q11.1-q25.1, 20q11.23-q13.33 gains and 6q14.1-q24.2, 9p21.3-p24,3, 9q21.2, 18p11.31-p11.32 losses. A total of 237 and 101 luminal B-specific candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs presented a deregulated expression in relation with their CNAs, including 11 genes previously reported associated with endocrine resistance. Interestingly, 88% of the potential TSGs are located within chromosome arm 6q, and seven candidate oncogenes are potential therapeutic targets. A total of 100 candidate oncogenes were validated in a public series of 5,765 BCs and the overexpression of 67 of these was associated with poor survival in luminal tumors. Twenty-four genes presented a deregulated expression in relation with a high DNA methylation level. FOXO3, PIK3CA and TP53 were the most frequent mutated genes among the nine tested. In a meta-analysis of next-generation sequencing data in 875 BCs, KCNB2 mutations were associated with luminal B cases while candidate TSGs MDN1 (6q15 and UTRN (6q24, were mutated in this subtype. In conclusion, we have reported luminal B candidate genes that may play a role in the development and/or hormone resistance of this aggressive subtype.

  9. Complete Unique Genome Sequence, Expression Profile, and Salivary Gland Tissue Tropism of the Herpesvirus 7 Homolog in Pigtailed Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staheli, Jeannette P; Dyen, Michael R; Deutsch, Gail H; Basom, Ryan S; Fitzgibbon, Matthew P; Lewis, Patrick; Barcy, Serge

    2016-08-01

    infected with viral homologs of HHV-6 and HHV-7, which we provisionally named MneHV6 and MneHV7, respectively. In this study, we confirm that MneHV7 is genetically and biologically similar to its human counterpart, HHV-7. We determined the complete unique MneHV7 genome sequence and provide a comprehensive annotation of all genes. We also characterized viral transcription profiles in salivary glands from naturally infected macaques. We show that broad transcriptional activity across most of the viral genome is associated with high viral loads in infected parotid glands and that late viral protein expression is detected in salivary duct cells and peripheral nerve ganglia. Our study provides new insights into the natural behavior of an extremely prevalent virus and establishes a basis for subsequent investigations of the mechanisms that cause HHV-7 reactivation and associated disease. Copyright © 2016 Staheli et al.

  10. Comprehensive genomic profiling reveals inactivating SMARCA4 mutations and low tumor mutational burden in small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas I; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Duggan, Bridget; Zajchowski, Deborah; Greenbowe, Joel; Ross, Jeffrey S; Gay, Laurie M; Ali, Siraj M; Elvin, Julia A

    2017-12-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic-type (SCCOHT) is a rare, extremely aggressive neoplasm that usually occurs in young women and is characterized by deleterious germline or somatic SMARCA4 mutations. We performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to potentially identify additional clinically and pathophysiologically relevant genomic alterations in SCCOHT. CGP assessment of all classes of coding alterations in up to 406 genes commonly altered in cancer and intronic regions for up to 31 genes commonly rearranged in cancer was performed on 18 SCCOHT cases (16 exhibiting classic morphology and 2 cases exhibiting exclusive a large cell variant morphology). In addition, a retrospective database search for clinically advanced ovarian tumors with genomic profiles similar to SCCOHT yielded 3 additional cases originally diagnosed as non-SCCOHT. CGP revealed inactivating SMARCA4 alterations and low tumor mutational burden (TMB) (<6mutations/Mb) in 94% (15/16) of SCCOHT with classic morphology. In contrast, both (2/2) cases exhibiting only large cell variant morphology were hypermutated (TMB scores of 90 and 360mut/Mb) and were wildtype for SMARCA4. In our retrospective search, an index ovarian cancer patient harboring inactivating SMARCA4 alterations, initially diagnosed as endometrioid carcinoma, was re-classified as SCCOHT and responded to an SCCOHT chemotherapy regimen. The vast majority of SCCOHT demonstrate genomic SMARCA4 loss with only rare co-occurring alterations. Our data support a role for CGP in the diagnosis and management of SCCOHT and of other lesions with overlapping histological and clinical features, since identifying the former by genomic profile suggests benefit from an appropriate regimen and treatment decisions, as illustrated by an index patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide investigation and expression profiling of AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic

  12. Genome-wide investigation and expression profiling of AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Lata

    Full Text Available The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding, ERF (ethylene responsive factors and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP. AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.. A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI. Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7% SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13% were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes, maize (14 genes, rice (9 genes and Brachypodium (6 genes showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and

  13. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles—improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  14. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    KAUST Repository

    Grötzinger, Stefan W.

    2014-04-07

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile\\'s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available

  15. Farewell to GBM-O: Genomic and transcriptomic profiling of glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component reveals distinct molecular subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Benjamin H; Newman, Scott; Appin, Christina L; Dunn, William; Cooper, Lee; Pauly, Rini; Kowalski, Jeanne; Rossi, Michael R; Brat, Daniel J

    2016-01-13

    Glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component (GBM-O) was recognized as a histologic pattern of glioblastoma (GBM) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 and is distinguished by the presence of oligodendroglioma-like differentiation. To better understand the genetic underpinnings of this morphologic entity, we performed a genome-wide, integrated copy number, mutational and transcriptomic analysis of eight (seven primary, primary secondary) cases. Three GBM-O samples had IDH1 (p.R132H) mutations; two of these also demonstrated 1p/19q co-deletion and had a proneural transcriptional profile, a molecular signature characteristic of oligodendroglioma. The additional IDH1 mutant tumor lacked 1p/19q co-deletion, harbored a TP53 mutation, and overall, demonstrated features most consistent with IDH mutant (secondary) GBM. Finally, five tumors were IDH wild-type (IDHwt) and had chromosome seven gains, chromosome 10 losses, and homozygous 9p deletions (CDKN2A), alterations typical of IDHwt (primary) GBM. IDHwt GBM-Os also demonstrated EGFR and PDGFRA amplifications, which correlated with classical and proneural expression subtypes, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that GBM-O is composed of three discrete molecular subgroups with characteristic mutations, copy number alterations and gene expression patterns. Despite displaying areas that morphologically resemble oligodendroglioma, the current results indicate that morphologically defined GBM-O does not correspond to a particular genetic signature, but rather represents a collection of genetically dissimilar entities. Ancillary testing, especially for IDH and 1p/19q, should be used for determining these molecular subtypes.

  16. Parallel targeted next generation sequencing of childhood and adult acute myeloid leukemia patients reveals uniform genomic profile of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Irena; Kostic, Jelena; Stanic, Bojana; Pejanovic, Nadja; Lucic, Bojana; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Janic, Dragana; Dokmanovic, Lidija; Jankovic, Srdja; Vukovic, Nada Suvajdzic; Tomin, Dragica; Perisic, Ognjen; Rakocevic, Goran; Popovic, Milos; Pavlovic, Sonja; Tosic, Natasa

    2016-10-01

    The age-specific differences in the genetic mechanisms of myeloid leukemogenesis have been observed and studied previously. However, NGS technology has provided a possibility to obtain a large amount of mutation data. We analyzed DNA samples from 20 childhood (cAML) and 20 adult AML (aAML) patients, using NGS targeted sequencing. The average coverage of high-quality sequences was 2981 × per amplicon. A total of 412 (207 cAML, 205 aAML) variants in the coding regions were detected; out of which, only 122 (62 cAML and 60 aAML) were potentially protein-changing. Our results confirmed that AML contains small number of genetic alterations (median 3 mutations/patient in both groups). The prevalence of the most frequent single gene AML associated mutations differed in cAML and aAML patient cohorts: IDH1 (0 % cAML, 5 % aAML), IDH2 (0 % cAML, 10 % aAML), NPM1 (10 % cAML, 35 % aAML). Additionally, potentially protein-changing variants were found in tyrosine kinase genes or genes encoding tyrosine kinase associated proteins (JAK3, ABL1, GNAQ, and EGFR) in cAML, while among aAML, the prevalence is directed towards variants in the methylation and histone modifying genes (IDH1, IDH2, and SMARCB1). Besides uniform genomic profile of AML, specific genetic characteristic was exclusively detected in cAML and aAML.

  17. Exploring Metabolic Pathway Reconstruction and Genome-Wide Expression Profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to Define Functional Probiotic Features

    OpenAIRE

    Saulnier, Delphine M.; Santos, Filipe; Roos, Stefan; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Spinler, Jennifer K.; Molenaar, Douwe; Teusink, Bas; Versalovic, James

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the host and probiosis, we completed a detailed genomic comparison...

  18. Genomic profiling of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia reveals a changing mutational landscape from disease diagnosis to relapse | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomic and clinical information used to develop and implement therapeutic approaches for AML originated primarily from adult patients and has been generalized to patients with pediatric AML. However, age-specific molecular alterations are becoming more evident and may signify the need to age-stratify treatment regimens. The NCI/COG TARGET-AML initiative employed whole exome capture sequencing (WXS) to interrogate the genomic landscape of matched trios representing specimens collected upon diagnosis, remission, and relapse from 20 cases of de novo childhood AML.

  19. Array based Discovery of Aptamer Pairs (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    Array-based Discovery of Aptamer Pairs Minseon Cho,†,‡ Seung Soo Oh,‡ Jeff Nie,§ Ron Stewart,§ Monte J. Radeke,⊥ Michael Eisenstein ,†,‡ Peter J...ac504076k | Anal. Chem. 2015, 87, 821−828827 (24) Cho, M.; Oh, S. S.; Nie, J.; Stewart, R.; Eisenstein , M.; Chambers, J.; Marth, J. D.; Walker, F

  20. Explorin metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saulnier, D.M.A.; Santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.-A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to

  1. Exploring metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saulnier, D.M.; Santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to

  2. Exploring Metabolic Pathway Reconstruction and Genome-Wide Expression Profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to Define Functional Probiotic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saulnier, D.M.; santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to

  3. Interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gail M; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2013-07-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the cueing of spatial attention by repeated spatial context. Previous studies have demonstrated distinctive properties of contextual cueing by background scenes and by an array of search items. Whereas scene-based contextual cueing reflects explicit learning of the scene-target association, array-based contextual cueing is supported primarily by implicit learning. In this study, we investigated the interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing. Participants searched for a target that was predicted by both the background scene and the locations of distractor items. We tested three possible patterns of interaction: (1) The scene and the array could be learned independently, in which case cueing should be expressed even when only one cue was preserved; (2) the scene and array could be learned jointly, in which case cueing should occur only when both cues were preserved; (3) overshadowing might occur, in which case learning of the stronger cue should preclude learning of the weaker cue. In several experiments, we manipulated the nature of the contextual cues present during training and testing. We also tested explicit awareness of scenes, scene-target associations, and arrays. The results supported the overshadowing account: Specifically, scene-based contextual cueing precluded array-based contextual cueing when both were predictive of the location of a search target. We suggest that explicit, endogenous cues dominate over implicit cues in guiding spatial attention.

  4. Genome-wide profiling of HPV integration in cervical cancer identifies clustered genomic hot spots and a potential microhomology-mediated integration mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Zheng; Zhu, Da; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) integration is a key genetic event in cervical carcinogenesis1. By conducting whole-genome sequencing and high-throughput viral integration detection, we identified 3,667 HPV integration breakpoints in 26 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, 104 cervical carcinomas and ...

  5. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles – Improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wolfgang Grötzinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs and poor homology of novel extremophile’s genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the INDIGO data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile & Pattern Matching (PPM strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern. The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2,577 E.C. numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from 6 different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter. Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available through the INDIGO website.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of skin and dorsal root ganglia after ultraviolet-B-induced inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Dawes

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UVB-induced inflammation produces a dose-dependent mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in both humans and rats, most likely via inflammatory mediators acting at the site of injury. Previous work has shown that the gene expression of cytokines and chemokines is positively correlated between species and that these factors can contribute to UVB-induced pain. In order to investigate other potential pain mediators in this model we used RNA-seq to perform genome-wide transcriptional profiling in both human and rat skin at the peak of hyperalgesia. In addition we have also measured transcriptional changes in the L4 and L5 DRG of the rat model. Our data show that UVB irradiation produces a large number of transcriptional changes in the skin: 2186 and 3888 genes are significantly dysregulated in human and rat skin, respectively. The most highly up-regulated genes in human skin feature those encoding cytokines (IL6 and IL24, chemokines (CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXCL5, the prostanoid synthesising enzyme COX-2 and members of the keratin gene family. Overall there was a strong positive and significant correlation in gene expression between the human and rat (R = 0.8022. In contrast to the skin, only 39 genes were significantly dysregulated in the rat L4 and L5 DRGs, the majority of which had small fold change values. Amongst the most up-regulated genes in DRG were REG3B, CCL2 and VGF. Overall, our data shows that numerous genes were up-regulated in UVB irradiated skin at the peak of hyperalgesia in both human and rats. Many of the top up-regulated genes were cytokines and chemokines, highlighting again their potential as pain mediators. However many other genes were also up-regulated and might play a role in UVB-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, the strong gene expression correlation between species re-emphasises the value of the UVB model as translational tool to study inflammatory pain.

  7. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of tomato Hsp20 gene family in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jiahong yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20 gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83% were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower, suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript

  8. Genome analysis of cytochrome P450s and their expression profiles in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report a study of the 204 P450 genes in the whole genome sequence of larvae and adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The expression profiles of the P450 genes were compared for susceptible (S-Lab and resistant mosquito populations, two different field populations of mosquitoes (HAmCq and MAmCq, and field parental mosquitoes (HAmCq(G0 and MAmCq(G0 and their permethrin selected offspring (HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6. While the majority of the P450 genes were expressed at a similar level between the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, an up- or down-regulation feature in the P450 gene expression was observed following permethrin selection. Compared to their parental strains and the susceptible S-Lab strain, HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 were found to up-regulate 11 and 6% of total P450 genes in larvae and 7 and 4% in adults, respectively, while 5 and 11% were down-regulated in larvae and 4 and 2% in adults. Although the majority of these up- and down-regulated P450 genes appeared to be developmentally controlled, a few were either up- or down-regulated in both the larvae and adult stages. Interestingly, a different gene set was found to be up- or down-regulated in the HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 mosquito populations in response to insecticide selection. Several genes were identified as being up- or down-regulated in either the larvae or adults for both HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6; of these, CYP6AA7 and CYP4C52v1 were up-regulated and CYP6BY3 was down-regulated across the life stages and populations of mosquitoes, suggesting a link with the permethrin selection in these mosquitoes. Taken together, the findings from this study indicate that not only are multiple P450 genes involved in insecticide resistance but up- or down-regulation of P450 genes may also be co-responsible for detoxification of insecticides, insecticide selection, and the homeostatic response of mosquitoes to changes in cellular environment.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  10. Recurrent reciprocal genomic rearrangements of 17q12 are associated with renal disease, diabetes, and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mefford, Heather C; Clauin, Severine; Sharp, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    predisposed to recurrent rearrangement, by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We found that 6% of fetal material showed evidence of microdeletion or microduplication, including three independent events that likely resulted from unequal crossing-over between segmental duplications. One...

  11. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse reprocessed for GRCh38 and GRCm38 genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Noguchi, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lizio, Marina; Severin, Jessica; Carninci, Piero; Kawaji, Hideya; Kasukawa, Takeya

    2017-08-29

    The FANTOM5 consortium described the promoter-level expression atlas of human and mouse by using CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) with single molecule sequencing. In the original publications, GRCh37/hg19 and NCBI37/mm9 assemblies were used as the reference genomes of human and mouse respectively; later, the Genome Reference Consortium released newer genome assemblies GRCh38/hg38 and GRCm38/mm10. To increase the utility of the atlas in forthcoming researches, we reprocessed the data to make them available on the recent genome assemblies. The data include observed frequencies of transcription starting sites (TSSs) based on the realignment of CAGE reads, and TSS peaks that are converted from those based on the previous reference. Annotations of the peak names were also updated based on the latest public databases. The reprocessed results enable us to examine frequencies of transcription initiations on the recent genome assemblies and to refer promoters with updated information across the genome assemblies consistently.

  12. Genomic GC-content affects the accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing bsed microbial profiling due to PCR bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin F.; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-01-01

    Profiling of microbial community composition is frequently performed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing on benchtop platforms following PCR amplification of specific hypervariable regions within this gene. Accuracy and reproducibility of this strategy are two key parameters to consider, which may...... be influenced during all processes from sample collection and storage, through DNA extraction and PCR based library preparation to the final sequencing. In order to evaluate both the reproducibility and accuracy of 16S rRNA gene based microbial profiling using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, we prepared libraries...... be explained partly by premature read truncation, but to larger degree their genomic GC-content, which correlated negatively with the observed relative abundances, suggesting a PCR bias against GC-rich species during library preparation. Increasing the initial denaturation time during the PCR amplification...

  13. Expression profiles of pivotal microRNAs and targets in thyroid papillary carcinoma: an analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dan Cong,1 Mengzi He,2 Silin Chen,2 Xiaoli Liu,1 Xiaodong Liu,2 Hui Sun11Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Surgical Translational Medicine, Department of Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery, People’s Republic of China–Japan Union Hospital, 2Key Laboratory of Radiobiology (Ministry of Health, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In the present study, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA and gene expression profiles using 499 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC samples and 58 normal thyroid tissues obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. A pivotal regulatory network of 18 miRNA and 16 targets was identified. Upregulated miRNAs (miR-222, miR-221, miR-146b, miR-181a/b/d, miR-34a, and miR-424 and downregulated miRNAs (miR-9-1, miR-138, miR-363, miR-20b, miR-195, and miR-152 were identified. Among them, the upregulation of miR-424 and downregulation of miR-363, miR-195, and miR-152 were not previously identified. The genes CCNE2 (also known as cyclin E2, E2F1, RARA, CCND1 (cyclin D1, RUNX1, ITGA2, MET, CDKN1A (p21, and COL4A1 were overexpressed, and AXIN2, TRAF6, BCL2, RARB, HSP90B1, FGF7, and PDGFRA were downregulated. Among them, CCNE2, COL4A1, TRAF6, and HSP90B1 were newly identified. Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, several miRNAs (miR-222, miR-221, and miR-34a and genes (CCND1 and MET were ideal diagnostic indicators, with sensitivities and specificities greater than 90%. The combination of inversely expressed miRNAs and targets improved diagnostic accuracy. In a clinical feature analysis, several miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-424, miR-20b, and miR-152 and genes (CCNE2, COL4A1, TRAF6, and HSP90B1 were associated with aggressive clinical features, which have not previously been reported. Our study not only identified a pivotal miRNA regulatory network associated with PTC but also provided evidence that miRNAs and target genes can be used as biomarkers in PTC diagnosis and clinical

  14. Distinct high resolution genome profiles of early onset and late onset colorectal cancer integrated with gene expression data identify candidate susceptibility loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merok Marianne A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates suggest that up to 30% of colorectal cancers (CRC may develop due to an increased genetic risk. The mean age at diagnosis for CRC is about 70 years. Time of disease onset 20 years younger than the mean age is assumed to be indicative of genetic susceptibility. We have compared high resolution tumor genome copy number variation (CNV (Roche NimbleGen, 385 000 oligo CGH array in microsatellite stable (MSS tumors from two age groups, including 23 young at onset patients without known hereditary syndromes and with a median age of 44 years (range: 28-53 and 17 elderly patients with median age 79 years (range: 69-87. Our aim was to identify differences in the tumor genomes between these groups and pinpoint potential susceptibility loci. Integration analysis of CNV and genome wide mRNA expression data, available for the same tumors, was performed to identify a restricted candidate gene list. Results The total fraction of the genome with aberrant copy number, the overall genomic profile and the TP53 mutation spectrum were similar between the two age groups. However, both the number of chromosomal aberrations and the number of breakpoints differed significantly between the groups. Gains of 2q35, 10q21.3-22.1, 10q22.3 and 19q13.2-13.31 and losses from 1p31.3, 1q21.1, 2q21.2, 4p16.1-q28.3, 10p11.1 and 19p12, positions that in total contain more than 500 genes, were found significantly more often in the early onset group as compared to the late onset group. Integration analysis revealed a covariation of DNA copy number at these sites and mRNA expression for 107 of the genes. Seven of these genes, CLC, EIF4E, LTBP4, PLA2G12A, PPAT, RG9MTD2, and ZNF574, had significantly different mRNA expression comparing median expression levels across the transcriptome between the two groups. Conclusions Ten genomic loci, containing more than 500 protein coding genes, are identified as more often altered in tumors from early onset versus late

  15. Embryo genome profiling by single-cell sequencing for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a β-thalassemia family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yanwen; Chen, Shengpei; Yin, Xuyang

    2015-01-01

    for a β-thalassemia-carrier couple to have a healthy second baby. We carried out sequencing for single blastomere cells and the family trio and further developed the analysis pipeline, including recovery of the missing alleles, removal of the majority of errors, and phasing of the embryonic genome...... leukocyte antigen matching tests. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study in a β-thalassemia family demonstrates a method for embryo genome recovery through single-cell sequencing, which permits detection of genetic variations in preimplantation genetic diagnosis. It shows the potential of single...

  16. Propagation of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Haotong; Dong, Li; Ren, Ge; Qi, Bo; Tan, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Limited by the size and weight of prism and optical assembling, Rotational Risley-prism-array system is a simple but effective way to realize high power and superior beam quality of deflecting laser output. In this paper, the propagation of the rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array in atmospheric turbulence is studied in detail. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is derived based on nonparaxial ray tracing method and extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Power in the diffraction-limited bucket is chosen to evaluate beam quality. The effect of deviation angle, propagation distance and intensity of turbulence on beam quality is studied in detail by quantitative simulation. It reveals that with the propagation distance increasing, the intensity distribution gradually evolves from multiple-petal-like shape into the pattern that contains one main-lobe in the center with multiple side-lobes in weak turbulence. The beam quality of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array with lower deviation angle is better than its counterpart with higher deviation angle when propagating in weak and medium turbulent (i.e. Cn2 beam quality of higher deviation angle arrays degrades faster as the intensity of turbulence gets stronger. In the case of propagating in strong turbulence, the long propagation distance (i.e. z > 10km ) and deviation angle have no influence on beam quality.

  17. On-line monitoring system of PV array based on internet of things technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Lin, P. J.; Zhou, H. F.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Su, F. P.

    2017-11-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) Technology is used to inspect photovoltaic (PV) array which can greatly improve the monitoring, performance and maintenance of the PV array. In order to efficiently realize the remote monitoring of PV operating environment, an on-line monitoring system of PV array based on IoT is designed in this paper. The system includes data acquisition, data gateway and PV monitoring centre (PVMC) website. Firstly, the DSP-TMS320F28335 is applied to collect indicators of PV array using sensors, then the data are transmitted to data gateway through ZigBee network. Secondly, the data gateway receives the data from data acquisition part, obtains geographic information via GPS module, and captures the scenes around PV array via USB camera, then uploads them to PVMC website. Finally, the PVMC website based on Laravel framework receives all data from data gateway and displays them with abundant charts. Moreover, a fault diagnosis approach for PV array based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is applied in PVMC. Once fault occurs, a user alert can be sent via E-mail. The designed system enables users to browse the operating conditions of PV array on PVMC website, including electrical, environmental parameters and video. Experimental results show that the presented monitoring system can efficiently real-time monitor the PV array, and the fault diagnosis approach reaches a high accuracy of 97.5%.

  18. The Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profile of Peripheral Blood Is Not Systematically Changed by Short-Time Storage at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic epidemiology has proven an important research discipline in the delineation of diseases of complex etiology. The approach, in such studies, is often to use bio-banked clinical material, however, many such samples were collected for purposes other than epigenetic studies and, thus, potentially not processed and stored appropriately. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC includes more than 100,000 peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples shipped from maternity wards by ordinary mail in EDTA tubes. While this and other similar cohorts hold great promises for DNA methylation studies the potential systematic changes prompted by storage at ambient temperatures have never been assessed on a genome-wide level. Methods and Results: In this study, matched EDTA whole blood samples were stored up to three days at room temperature prior to DNA extraction and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (MeDIP-seq. We established that the quality of the MeDIP-seq libraries was high and comparable across samples; and that the methylation profiles did not change systematically during the short-time storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation profile is stable in whole blood samples stored for up to three days at room temperature in EDTA tubes making genome-wide methylation studies on such material feasible.

  19. Integrative Genomics Reveals Mechanisms of Copy Number Alterations Responsible for Transcriptional Deregulation in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jordi; Nguyen, Quang Tri; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Knutsen, Turid; McNeil, Nicole E.; Wangsa, Danny; Hummon, Amanda B.; Grade, Marian; Ried, Thomas; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal aberrations in colorectal cancer (CRC), we used a combination of spectral karyotyping, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and array-based global gene expression profiling on 31 primary carcinomas and 15 established cell lines. Importantly, aCGH showed that the genomic profiles of primary tumors are recapitulated in the cell lines. We revealed a preponderance of chromosome breakpoints at sites of copy number variants (CNVs) in the CRC cell lines, a novel mechanism of DNA breakage in cancer. The integration of gene expression and aCGH led to the identification of 157 genes localized within high-level copy number changes whose transcriptional deregulation was significantly affected across all of the samples, thereby suggesting that these genes play a functional role in CRC. Genomic amplification at 8q24 was the most recurrent event and led to the overexpression of MYC and FAM84B. Copy number dependent gene expression resulted in deregulation of known cancer genes such as APC, FGFR2, and ERBB2. The identification of only 36 genes whose localization near a breakpoint could account for their observed deregulated expression demonstrates that the major mechanism for transcriptional deregulation in CRC is genomic copy number changes resulting from chromosomal aberrations. PMID:19691111

  20. Genome-wide profiling of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks in adipocytes by ChIP-seq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    of the most widely used of these technologies. Using these methods, association of transcription factors, cofactors, and epigenetic marks can be mapped to DNA in a genome-wide manner. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for performing ChIP-seq analyses in preadipocytes and adipocytes. We have focused mainly...

  1. Draft genome sequence and chemical profiling of Fusarium langsethiae, an emerging producer of type A trichothecenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysøe, Erik; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Divon, Hege H.

    2016-01-01

    . The assembly was fragmented, but reveals a genome of approximately 37.5 Mb, with a GC content around 48%, and 12,232 predicted protein-coding genes. Focusing on secondary metabolism we identified candidate genes for 12 polyketide synthases, 13 non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and 22 genes for terpene/isoprenoid...

  2. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja ePrzysiecka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI, a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL, and fatty acid-binding (FAP proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1 main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis

  3. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yeong Lee

    Full Text Available After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  4. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Han, Geon Goo; Lee, Ho-Bin; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kang, Sang-Kee; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Chae, Byung Jo; Choi, Yo Han; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2017-01-01

    After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs) and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs) at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  5. A prospective pilot study of genome-wide exome and transcriptome profiling in patients with small cell lung cancer progressing after first-line therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen J Weiss

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC that has progressed after first-line therapy is an aggressive disease with few effective therapeutic strategies. In this prospective study, we employed next-generation sequencing (NGS to identify therapeutically actionable alterations to guide treatment for advanced SCLC patients.Twelve patients with SCLC were enrolled after failing platinum-based chemotherapy. Following informed consent, genome-wide exome and RNA-sequencing was performed in a CLIA-certified, CAP-accredited environment. Actionable targets were identified and therapeutic recommendations made from a pharmacopeia of FDA-approved drugs. Clinical response to genomically-guided treatment was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.The study completed its accrual goal of 12 evaluable patients. The minimum tumor content for successful NGS was 20%, with a median turnaround time from sample collection to genomics-based treatment recommendation of 27 days. At least two clinically actionable targets were identified in each patient, and six patients (50% received treatment identified by NGS. Two had partial responses by RECIST 1.1 on a clinical trial involving a PD-1 inhibitor + irinotecan (indicated by MLH1 alteration. The remaining patients had clinical deterioration before NGS recommended therapy could be initiated.Comprehensive genomic profiling using NGS identified clinically-actionable alterations in SCLC patients who progressed on initial therapy. Recommended PD-1 therapy generated partial responses in two patients. Earlier access to NGS guided therapy, along with improved understanding of those SCLC patients likely to respond to immune-based therapies, should help to extend survival in these cases with poor outcomes.

  6. A prospective pilot study of genome-wide exome and transcriptome profiling in patients with small cell lung cancer progressing after first-line therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Glen J; Byron, Sara A; Aldrich, Jessica; Sangal, Ashish; Barilla, Heather; Kiefer, Jeffrey A; Carpten, John D; Craig, David W; Whitsett, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that has progressed after first-line therapy is an aggressive disease with few effective therapeutic strategies. In this prospective study, we employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify therapeutically actionable alterations to guide treatment for advanced SCLC patients. Twelve patients with SCLC were enrolled after failing platinum-based chemotherapy. Following informed consent, genome-wide exome and RNA-sequencing was performed in a CLIA-certified, CAP-accredited environment. Actionable targets were identified and therapeutic recommendations made from a pharmacopeia of FDA-approved drugs. Clinical response to genomically-guided treatment was evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. The study completed its accrual goal of 12 evaluable patients. The minimum tumor content for successful NGS was 20%, with a median turnaround time from sample collection to genomics-based treatment recommendation of 27 days. At least two clinically actionable targets were identified in each patient, and six patients (50%) received treatment identified by NGS. Two had partial responses by RECIST 1.1 on a clinical trial involving a PD-1 inhibitor + irinotecan (indicated by MLH1 alteration). The remaining patients had clinical deterioration before NGS recommended therapy could be initiated. Comprehensive genomic profiling using NGS identified clinically-actionable alterations in SCLC patients who progressed on initial therapy. Recommended PD-1 therapy generated partial responses in two patients. Earlier access to NGS guided therapy, along with improved understanding of those SCLC patients likely to respond to immune-based therapies, should help to extend survival in these cases with poor outcomes.

  7. Genome-wide target profiling of piggyBac and Tol2 in HEK 293: pros and cons for gene discovery and gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA transposons have emerged as indispensible tools for manipulating vertebrate genomes with applications ranging from insertional mutagenesis and transgenesis to gene therapy. To fully explore the potential of two highly active DNA transposons, piggyBac and Tol2, as mammalian genetic tools, we have conducted a side-by-side comparison of the two transposon systems in the same setting to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages for use in gene therapy and gene discovery. Results We have observed that (1) the Tol2 transposase (but not piggyBac) is highly sensitive to molecular engineering; (2) the piggyBac donor with only the 40 bp 3'-and 67 bp 5'-terminal repeat domain is sufficient for effective transposition; and (3) a small amount of piggyBac transposases results in robust transposition suggesting the piggyBac transpospase is highly active. Performing genome-wide target profiling on data sets obtained by retrieving chromosomal targeting sequences from individual clones, we have identified several piggyBac and Tol2 hotspots and observed that (4) piggyBac and Tol2 display a clear difference in targeting preferences in the human genome. Finally, we have observed that (5) only sites with a particular sequence context can be targeted by either piggyBac or Tol2. Conclusions The non-overlapping targeting preference of piggyBac and Tol2 makes them complementary research tools for manipulating mammalian genomes. PiggyBac is the most promising transposon-based vector system for achieving site-specific targeting of therapeutic genes due to the flexibility of its transposase for being molecularly engineered. Insights from this study will provide a basis for engineering piggyBac transposases to achieve site-specific therapeutic gene targeting. PMID:21447194

  8. A comparison of the whole genome approach of MeDIP-seq to the targeted approach of the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip(® for methylome profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clark

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic marks in the human genome, with the result that the desire to map the human methylome has driven the development of several methods to map DNA methylation on a genomic scale. Our study presents the first comparison of two of these techniques - the targeted approach of the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip® with the immunoprecipitation and sequencing-based method, MeDIP-seq. Both methods were initially validated with respect to bisulfite sequencing as the gold standard and then assessed in terms of coverage, resolution and accuracy. The regions of the methylome that can be assayed by both methods and those that can only be assayed by one method were determined and the discovery of differentially methylated regions (DMRs by both techniques was examined. Our results show that the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip® and MeDIP-seq show a good positive correlation (Spearman correlation of 0.68 on a genome-wide scale and can both be used successfully to determine differentially methylated loci in RefSeq genes, CpG islands, shores and shelves. MeDIP-seq however, allows a wider interrogation of methylated regions of the human genome, including thousands of non-RefSeq genes and repetitive elements, all of which may be of importance in disease. In our study MeDIP-seq allowed the detection of 15,709 differentially methylated regions, nearly twice as many as the array-based method (8070, which may result in a more comprehensive study of the methylome.

  9. Profiling of secondary metabolite gene clusters regulated by LaeA in Aspergillus niger FGSC A1279 based on genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Lv, Yangyong; Li, Xuejie; Lin, Yiying; Deng, Hai; Pan, Li

    The global regulator LaeA controls the production of many fungal secondary metabolites, possibly via chromatin remodeling. Here we aimed to survey the secondary metabolite profile regulated by LaeA in Aspergillus niger FGSC A1279 by genome sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the laeA deletion (ΔlaeA) and overexpressing (OE-laeA) mutants. Genome sequencing revealed four putative polyketide synthase genes specific to FGSC A1279, suggesting that the corresponding polyketide compounds might be unique to FGSC A1279. RNA-seq data revealed 281 putative secondary metabolite genes upregulated in the OE-laeA mutants, including 22 secondary metabolite backbone genes. LC-MS chemical profiling illustrated that many secondary metabolites were produced in OE-laeA mutants compared to wild type and ΔlaeA mutants, providing potential resources for drug discovery. KEGG analysis annotated 16 secondary metabolite clusters putatively linked to metabolic pathways. Furthermore, 34 of 61 Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factors located in secondary metabolite clusters were differentially expressed between ΔlaeA and OE-laeA mutants. Three secondary metabolite clusters (cluster 18, 30 and 33) containing Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factors that were upregulated in OE-laeA mutants were putatively linked to KEGG pathways, suggesting that Zn 2 Cys 6 transcription factors might play an important role in synthesizing secondary metabolites regulated by LaeA. Taken together, LaeA dramatically influences the secondary metabolite profile in FGSC A1279. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  11. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Toti, Simona; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    Azoxymethane (AOM) or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with human sporadic colon cancer and is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Genetic mutations relevant to human colon cancer have been described in this model, but comprehensive gene expression and genomic analysis have not been reported so far. Therefore, we applied genome-wide technologies to study variations in gene expression and genomic alterations in DMH-induced colon cancer in F344 rats. For gene expression analysis, 9 tumours (TUM) and their paired normal mucosa (NM) were hybridized on 4 × 44K Whole rat arrays (Agilent) and selected genes were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functional analysis on microarray data was performed by GenMAPP/MappFinder analysis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed on 10 paired TUM-NM samples hybridized on Rat genome arrays 2 × 105K (Agilent) and the results were analyzed by CGH Analytics (Agilent). Microarray gene expression analysis showed that Defcr4, Igfbp5, Mmp7, Nos2, S100A8 and S100A9 were among the most up-regulated genes in tumours (Fold Change (FC) compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively), while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively). Functional analysis showed that pathways controlling cell cycle, protein synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases, TNFα/NFkB, and inflammatory responses were up-regulated in tumours, while Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation were down-regulated. a-CGH analysis showed that four TUM out of ten had one or two chromosomal aberrations. Importantly, one sample showed a deletion on chromosome 18 including Apc. The results showed complex gene expression alterations in adenocarcinomas encompassing many altered pathways. While a-CGH analysis showed a low degree of genomic imbalance, it is interesting to

  12. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Michael [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Becker, Katja [Justus Liebig University Giessen, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany); Frosch, Torsten, E-mail: torsten.frosch@uni-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 07745 Jena (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Abbe Centre of Photonics, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-24

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  13. Fiber array based hyperspectral Raman imaging for chemical selective analysis of malaria-infected red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brückner, Michael; Becker, Katja; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    A new setup for Raman spectroscopic wide-field imaging is presented. It combines the advantages of a fiber array based spectral translator with a tailor-made laser illumination system for high-quality Raman chemical imaging of sensitive biological samples. The Gaussian-like intensity distribution of the illuminating laser beam is shaped by a square-core optical multimode fiber to a top-hat profile with very homogeneous intensity distribution to fulfill the conditions of Koehler. The 30 m long optical fiber and an additional vibrator efficiently destroy the polarization and coherence of the illuminating light. This homogeneous, incoherent illumination is an essential prerequisite for stable quantitative imaging of complex biological samples. The fiber array translates the two-dimensional lateral information of the Raman stray light into separated spectral channels with very high contrast. The Raman image can be correlated with a corresponding white light microscopic image of the sample. The new setup enables simultaneous quantification of all Raman spectra across the whole spatial area with very good spectral resolution and thus outperforms other Raman imaging approaches based on scanning and tunable filters. The unique capabilities of the setup for fast, gentle, sensitive, and selective chemical imaging of biological samples were applied for automated hemozoin analysis. A special algorithm was developed to generate Raman images based on the hemozoin distribution in red blood cells without any influence from other Raman scattering. The new imaging setup in combination with the robust algorithm provides a novel, elegant way for chemical selective analysis of the malaria pigment hemozoin in early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. - Highlights: • Raman hyperspectral imaging allows for chemical selective analysis of biological samples with spatial heterogeneity. • A homogeneous, incoherent illumination is essential for reliable

  14. Integrative genome-wide expression profiling identifies three distinct molecular subgroups of renal cell carcinoma with different patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleut Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is characterized by a number of diverse molecular aberrations that differ among individuals. Recent approaches to molecularly classify RCC were based on clinical, pathological as well as on single molecular parameters. As a consequence, gene expression patterns reflecting the sum of genetic aberrations in individual tumors may not have been recognized. In an attempt to uncover such molecular features in RCC, we used a novel, unbiased and integrative approach. Methods We integrated gene expression data from 97 primary RCC of different pathologic parameters, 15 RCC metastases as well as 34 cancer cell lines for two-way nonsupervised hierarchical clustering using gene groups suggested by the PANTHER Classification System. We depicted the genomic landscape of the resulted tumor groups by means of Single Nuclear Polymorphism (SNP technology. Finally, the achieved results were immunohistochemically analyzed using a tissue microarray (TMA composed of 254 RCC. Results We found robust, genome wide expression signatures, which split RCC into three distinct molecular subgroups. These groups remained stable even if randomly selected gene sets were clustered. Notably, the pattern obtained from RCC cell lines was clearly distinguishable from that of primary tumors. SNP array analysis demonstrated differing frequencies of chromosomal copy number alterations among RCC subgroups. TMA analysis with group-specific markers showed a prognostic significance of the different groups. Conclusion We propose the existence of characteristic and histologically independent genome-wide expression outputs in RCC with potential biological and clinical relevance.

  15. An integration of genome-wide association study and gene expression profiling to prioritize the discovery of novel susceptibility Loci for osteoporosis-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a complex disorder and commonly leads to fractures in elderly persons. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have become an unbiased approach to identify variations in the genome that potentially affect health. However, the genetic variants identified so far only explain a small proportion of the heritability for complex traits. Due to the modest genetic effect size and inadequate power, true association signals may not be revealed based on a stringent genome-wide significance threshold. Here, we take advantage of SNP and transcript arrays and integrate GWAS and expression signature profiling relevant to the skeletal system in cellular and animal models to prioritize the discovery of novel candidate genes for osteoporosis-related traits, including bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN, as well as geometric indices of the hip (femoral neck-shaft angle, NSA; femoral neck length, NL; and narrow-neck width, NW. A two-stage meta-analysis of GWAS from 7,633 Caucasian women and 3,657 men, revealed three novel loci associated with osteoporosis-related traits, including chromosome 1p13.2 (RAP1A, p = 3.6x10(-8, 2q11.2 (TBC1D8, and 18q11.2 (OSBPL1A, and confirmed a previously reported region near TNFRSF11B/OPG gene. We also prioritized 16 suggestive genome-wide significant candidate genes based on their potential involvement in skeletal metabolism. Among them, 3 candidate genes were associated with BMD in women. Notably, 2 out of these 3 genes (GPR177, p = 2.6x10(-13; SOX6, p = 6.4x10(-10 associated with BMD in women have been successfully replicated in a large-scale meta-analysis of BMD, but none of the non-prioritized candidates (associated with BMD did. Our results support the concept of our prioritization strategy. In the absence of direct biological support for identified genes, we highlighted the efficiency of subsequent functional characterization using publicly available expression profiling relevant

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the grapevine stilbene synthase multigenic family: genomic organization and expression profiles upon biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannozzi Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant stilbenes are a small group of phenylpropanoids, which have been detected in at least 72 unrelated plant species and accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stresses such as infection, wounding, UV-C exposure and treatment with chemicals. Stilbenes are formed via the phenylalanine/polymalonate-route, the last step of which is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS, a type III polyketide synthase (PKS. Stilbene synthases are closely related to chalcone synthases (CHS, the key enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To date, STSs have been cloned from peanut, pine, sorghum and grapevine, the only stilbene-producing fruiting-plant for which the entire genome has been sequenced. Apart from sorghum, STS genes appear to exist as a family of closely related genes in these other plant species. Results In this study a complete characterization of the STS multigenic family in grapevine has been performed, commencing with the identification, annotation and phylogenetic analysis of all members and integration of this information with a comprehensive set of gene expression analyses including healthy tissues at differential developmental stages and in leaves exposed to both biotic (downy mildew infection and abiotic (wounding and UV-C exposure stresses. At least thirty-three full length sequences encoding VvSTS genes were identified, which, based on predicted amino acid sequences, cluster in 3 principal groups designated A, B and C. The majority of VvSTS genes cluster in groups B and C and are located on chr16 whereas the few gene family members in group A are found on chr10. Microarray and mRNA-seq expression analyses revealed different patterns of transcript accumulation between the different groups of VvSTS family members and between VvSTSs and VvCHSs. Indeed, under certain conditions the transcriptional response of VvSTS and VvCHS genes appears to be

  17. Array based characterization of a terminal deletion involving chromosome subband 15q26.2: an emerging syndrome associated with growth retardation, cardiac defects and developmental delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkhem Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. Methods In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. Results After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb region, ranging from 93.86–100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. Conclusion In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome.

  18. Indistinguishable genomic profiles and shared prognostic markers in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma: different sides of a single coin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Francis, Princy; Bendahl, Pär-Ola

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) diagnostics and prognostics are challenging, particularly in highly malignant and pleomorphic subtypes such as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). We applied 32K BAC arrays and gene expression profiling to 18 extremity soft tissue LMS and...

  19. Exploring metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine M Saulnier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the host and probiosis, we completed a detailed genomic comparison of two breast milk-derived isolates representative of each group: an established probiotic strain (L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and a strain with promising probiotic features (L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. Transcriptomes of L. reuteri strains in different growth phases were monitored using strain-specific microarrays, and compared using a pan-metabolic model representing all known metabolic reactions present in these strains. Both strains contained candidate genes involved in the survival and persistence in the gut such as mucus-binding proteins and enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species. A large operon predicted to encode the synthesis of an exopolysaccharide was identified in strain 55730. Both strains were predicted to produce health-promoting factors, including antimicrobial agents and vitamins (folate, vitamin B(12. Additionally, a complete pathway for thiamine biosynthesis was predicted in strain 55730 for the first time in this species. Candidate genes responsible for immunomodulatory properties of each strain were identified by transcriptomic comparisons. The production of bioactive metabolites by human-derived probiotics may be predicted using metabolic modeling and transcriptomics. Such strategies may facilitate selection and optimization of probiotics for health promotion, disease prevention and amelioration.

  20. Exploring metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Delphine M; Santos, Filipe; Roos, Stefan; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Spinler, Jennifer K; Molenaar, Douwe; Teusink, Bas; Versalovic, James

    2011-04-29

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the host and probiosis, we completed a detailed genomic comparison of two breast milk-derived isolates representative of each group: an established probiotic strain (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and a strain with promising probiotic features (L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475). Transcriptomes of L. reuteri strains in different growth phases were monitored using strain-specific microarrays, and compared using a pan-metabolic model representing all known metabolic reactions present in these strains. Both strains contained candidate genes involved in the survival and persistence in the gut such as mucus-binding proteins and enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species. A large operon predicted to encode the synthesis of an exopolysaccharide was identified in strain 55730. Both strains were predicted to produce health-promoting factors, including antimicrobial agents and vitamins (folate, vitamin B(12)). Additionally, a complete pathway for thiamine biosynthesis was predicted in strain 55730 for the first time in this species. Candidate genes responsible for immunomodulatory properties of each strain were identified by transcriptomic comparisons. The production of bioactive metabolites by human-derived probiotics may be predicted using metabolic modeling and transcriptomics. Such strategies may facilitate selection and optimization of probiotics for health promotion, disease prevention and amelioration.

  1. Genome-Guided Analysis and Whole Transcriptome Profiling of the Mesophilic Syntrophic Acetate Oxidising Bacterium Syntrophaceticus schinkii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Manzoor

    Full Text Available Syntrophaceticus schinkii is a mesophilic, anaerobic bacterium capable of oxidising acetate to CO2 and H2 in intimate association with a methanogenic partner, a syntrophic relationship which operates close to the energetic limits of microbial life. Syntrophaceticus schinkii has been identified as a key organism in engineered methane-producing processes relying on syntrophic acetate oxidation as the main methane-producing pathway. However, due to strict cultivation requirements and difficulties in reconstituting the thermodynamically unfavourable acetate oxidation, the physiology of this functional group is poorly understood. Genome-guided and whole transcriptome analyses performed in the present study provide new insights into habitat adaptation, syntrophic acetate oxidation and energy conservation. The working draft genome of Syntrophaceticus schinkii indicates limited metabolic capacities, with lack of organic nutrient uptake systems, chemotactic machineries, carbon catabolite repression and incomplete biosynthesis pathways. Ech hydrogenase, [FeFe] hydrogenases, [NiFe] hydrogenases, F1F0-ATP synthase and membrane-bound and cytoplasmic formate dehydrogenases were found clearly expressed, whereas Rnf and a predicted oxidoreductase/heterodisulphide reductase complex, both found encoded in the genome, were not expressed under syntrophic growth condition. A transporter sharing similarities to the high-affinity acetate transporters of aceticlastic methanogens was also found expressed, suggesting that Syntrophaceticus schinkii can potentially compete with methanogens for acetate. Acetate oxidation seems to proceed via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway as all genes involved in this pathway were highly expressed. This study shows that Syntrophaceticus schinkii is a highly specialised, habitat-adapted organism relying on syntrophic acetate oxidation rather than metabolic versatility. By expanding its complement of respiratory complexes, it might overcome

  2. Impact of delay to cryopreservation on RNA integrity and genome-wide expression profiles in resected tumor samples.

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    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The quality of tissue samples and extracted mRNA is a major source of variability in tumor transcriptome analysis using genome-wide expression microarrays. During and immediately after surgical tumor resection, tissues are exposed to metabolic, biochemical and physical stresses characterized as "warm ischemia". Current practice advocates cryopreservation of biosamples within 30 minutes of resection, but this recommendation has not been systematically validated by measurements of mRNA decay over time. Using Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 Expression BeadChips, providing a genome-wide coverage of over 24,000 genes, we have analyzed gene expression variation in samples of 3 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC and 3 lung carcinomas (LC cryopreserved at times up to 2 hours after resection. RNA Integrity Numbers (RIN revealed no significant deterioration of mRNA up to 2 hours after resection. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis detected non-significant gene expression variations of -3.5%/hr (95% CI: -7.0%/hr to 0.1%/hr; p = 0.054. In LC, no consistent gene expression pattern was detected in relation with warm ischemia. In HCC, a signature of 6 up-regulated genes (CYP2E1, IGLL1, CABYR, CLDN2, NQO1, SCL13A5 and 6 down-regulated genes (MT1G, MT1H, MT1E, MT1F, HABP2, SPINK1 was identified (FDR <0.05. Overall, our observations support current recommendation of time to cryopreservation of up to 30 minutes and emphasize the need for identifying tissue-specific genes deregulated following resection to avoid misinterpreting expression changes induced by warm ischemia as pathologically significant changes.

  3. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; Perrier, X; Doležel, J; Hřibová, E; Christelová, P; Van den Houwe, I; Kilian, A; Roux, N

    2016-12-01

    Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event. The number of those founding events at the basis of the diversity of bananas is a matter of debate. We analysed a large panel of 575 accessions, 94 wild relatives and 481 cultivated accessions belonging to the section Musa with a set of 498 DArT markers previously developed. DArT appeared successful and accurate to describe Musa diversity and help in the resolution of cultivated banana genome constitution and taxonomy, and highlighted discrepancies in the acknowledged classification of some accessions. This study also argues for at least two centres of domestication corresponding to South-East Asia and New Guinea, respectively. Banana domestication in New Guinea probably followed different schemes that those previously reported where hybridization underpins the emergence of edible banana. In addition, our results suggest that not all wild ancestors of bananas are known, especially in M. acuminata subspecies. We also estimate the extent of the two consecutive bottlenecks in edible bananas by evaluating the number of sexual founding events underlying our sets of edible diploids and triploids, respectively. The attribution of clone identity to each sample of the sets allowed the detection of subgroups represented by several sets of clones. Although morphological characterization of some of the accessions is needed to correct potentially erroneous classifications, some of the subgroups seem polyclonal. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  4. Genome-wide screening and transcriptional profile analysis of desaturase genes in the European corn borer moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingye Xue; Alejandro P. Rooney; Wendell L. Roelofs

    2012-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) desaturases play a key role in the biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromones.Desaturase genes are encoded by a large multigene family,and they have been divided into five subgroups on the basis of biochemical functionality and phylogenetic affinity.In this study both copy numbers and transcriptional levels of desaturase genes in the European corn borer (ECB),Ostrinia nubilalis,were investigated.The results from genome-wide screening of ECB bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)library indicated there are many copies of some desaturase genes in the genome.An open reading frame (ORF) has been isolated for the novel desaturase gene ECB ezi-△11β from ECB gland complementary DNA and its functionality has been analyzed by two yeast expression systems.No functional activities have been detected for it.The expression levels of the four desaturase genes both in the pheromone gland and fat body of ECB and Asian corn borer (ACB),O.furnacalis,were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.In the ECB gland,△ 11 is the most abundant,although the amount of △14 is also considerable.In the ACB gland,△14 is the most abundant and is 100 times more abundant than all the other three combined.The results from the analysis of evolution of desaturase gene transcription in the ECB,ACB and other moths indicate that the pattern of △ 11 gene transcription is significantly different from the transcriptional patterns of other desaturase genes and this difference is tied to the underlying nucleotide composition bias of the genome.

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the superior temporal gyrus reveals epigenetic signatures associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Corey T; Roussos, Panos; Garg, Paras; Ho, Daniel J; Azam, Nidha; Katsel, Pavel L; Haroutunian, Vahram; Sharp, Andrew J

    2016-01-19

    Alzheimer's disease affects ~13% of people in the United States 65 years and older, making it the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent work has identified roles for environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors in Alzheimer's disease risk. We performed a genome-wide screen of DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 platform on bulk tissue samples from the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and non-demented controls. We paired a sliding window approach with multivariate linear regression to characterize Alzheimer's disease-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We identified 479 DMRs exhibiting a strong bias for hypermethylated changes, a subset of which were independently associated with aging. DMR intervals overlapped 475 RefSeq genes enriched for gene ontology categories with relevant roles in neuron function and development, as well as cellular metabolism, and included genes reported in Alzheimer's disease genome-wide and epigenome-wide association studies. DMRs were enriched for brain-specific histone signatures and for binding motifs of transcription factors with roles in the brain and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Notably, hypermethylated DMRs preferentially overlapped poised promoter regions, marked by H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, previously shown to co-localize with aging-associated hypermethylation. Finally, the integration of DMR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study risk loci and brain expression quantitative trait loci highlights multiple potential DMRs of interest for further functional analysis. We have characterized changes in DNA methylation in the superior temporal gyrus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, highlighting novel loci that facilitate better characterization of pathways and mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and improve our understanding of epigenetic signatures that may contribute to the

  6. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  7. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng eCao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although some MYBs have been reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes. The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the twenty genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  8. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP) deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.296 ~ 35.817, P = 0.023). In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P = 0.007). Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P = 0.023). Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that preS2 deletions alone

  9. Functional genomic mRNA profiling of a large cancer data base demonstrates mesothelin overexpression in a broad range of tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Laetitia E; de Groot, Derk Jan A; Bense, Rico D; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N

    2015-09-29

    The membrane bound glycoprotein mesothelin (MSLN) is a highly specific tumor marker, which is currently exploited as target for drugs. There are only limited data available on MSLN expression by human tumors. Therefore we determined overexpression of MSLN across different tumor types with Functional Genomic mRNA (FGM) profiling of a large cancer database. Results were compared with data in articles reporting immunohistochemical (IHC) MSLN tumor expression. FGM profiling is a technique that allows prediction of biologically relevant overexpression of proteins from a robust data set of mRNA microarrays. This technique was used in a database comprising 19,746 tumors to identify for 41 tumor types the percentage of samples with an overexpression of MSLN compared to a normal background. A literature search was performed to compare the FGM profiling data with studies reporting IHC MSLN tumor expression. FGM profiling showed MSLN overexpression in gastrointestinal (12-36%) and gynecological tumors (20-66%), non-small cell lung cancer (21%) and synovial sarcomas (30%). The overexpression found in thyroid cancers (5%) and renal cell cancers (10%) was not yet reported with IHC analyses. We observed that MSLN amplification rate within esophageal cancer depends on the histotype (31% for adenocarcinomas versus 3% for squamous-cell carcinomas). Subset analysis in breast cancer showed MSLN amplification rates of 28% in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 33% in basal-like breast cancer. Further subtype analysis of TNBCs showed the highest amplification rate (42%) in the basal-like 1 subtype and the lowest amplification rate (9%) in the luminal androgen receptor subtype.

  10. Evaluation of genome damage and transcription profile of DNA damage/repair response genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soren, D.C.; Saini, Divyalakshmi; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to various physical and chemical mutagens in their life time. Physical mutagens, like ionizing radiation (IR), may induce adverse effect at high acute dose exposures in human cells. However, there are inconsistent results on the effect of low dose radiation exposure in human cells. There are a variety of DNA damage endpoints to evaluate the effect of low dose radiation in human cells. DNA damage response (DDR) may lead to changes in expression profile of many genes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate genome damage at low dose IR exposure in human blood lymphocytes. Cytochalasin blocked micronuclei (CBMN) assay has been used to determine the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated cells in PBMCs exposed to IR. Transcription profile of ATM, P53, GADD45A, CDKN1A, TRF1 and TRF2 genes was studied using real time quantitative PCR. Venous blood samples collected from 10 random healthy donors were irradiated with different doses of γ-radiation ( 137 Cs) along with sham irradiated control. Whole blood culture was set up using microculture technique. Blood samples were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, and CBMN assay was performed. An average of 2,500 binucleated cells was scored for each dose point. For gene expression analysis, total RNA was isolated, cDNA was prepared, and gene expression analysis for ATM, P53, CDKN1A, GADD45A, TRF1 and TRF2 was done using real time PCR. Our results revealed no significant increase in the frequency of MN up to 100 mGy as compared to control. However, no significant alteration in gene expression profile was observed. In conclusion, no significant dose response was observed at the frequency of MN as well as the expression profile of DDR/repair genes, suggesting low dose radiation did not induce significant DNA damage at these acute dose exposures. (author)

  11. Integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in Czech Republic and in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena B Wozniak

    Full Text Available Gene expression microarray and next generation sequencing efforts on conventional, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC have been mostly performed in North American and Western European populations, while the highest incidence rates are found in Central/Eastern Europe. We conducted whole-genome expression profiling on 101 pairs of ccRCC tumours and adjacent non-tumour renal tissue from Czech patients recruited within the "K2 Study", using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips to explore the molecular variations underlying the biological and clinical heterogeneity of this cancer. Differential expression analysis identified 1650 significant probes (fold change ≥2 and false discovery rate <0.05 mapping to 630 up- and 720 down-regulated unique genes. We performed similar statistical analysis on the RNA sequencing data of 65 ccRCC cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project and identified 60% (402 of the downregulated and 74% (469 of the upregulated genes found in the K2 series. The biological characterization of the significantly deregulated genes demonstrated involvement of downregulated genes in metabolic and catabolic processes, excretion, oxidation reduction, ion transport and response to chemical stimulus, while simultaneously upregulated genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, response to hypoxia, stress, wounding, vasculature development and cell activation. Furthermore, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 317 TCGA ccRCC/adjacent non-tumour renal tissue pairs indicated that deregulation of approximately 7% of genes could be explained by epigenetic changes. Finally, survival analysis conducted on 89 K2 and 464 TCGA cases identified 8 genes associated with differential prognostic outcomes. In conclusion, a large proportion of ccRCC molecular characteristics were common to the two populations and several may have clinical implications when validated further through large clinical cohorts.

  12. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyang; Xie, Tao; Chen, Chenjie; Luan, Aiping; Long, Jianmei; Li, Chuhao; Ding, Yaqi; He, Yehua

    2017-07-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of plant transcription factors, which are involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of three most important tropical fruits worldwide. The completion of pineapple genome sequencing provides a great opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary traits of pineapple MYB genes at the genome-wide level. In the present study, a total of 94 pineapple R2R3-MYB genes were identified and further phylogenetically classified into 26 subfamilies, as supported by the conserved gene structures and motif composition. Collinearity analysis indicated that the segmental duplication events played a crucial role in the expansion of pineapple MYB gene family. Further comparative phylogenetic analysis suggested that there have been functional divergences of MYB gene family during plant evolution. RNA-seq data from different tissues and developmental stages revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression profiles of the AcMYB genes. Further quantitative expression analysis showed the specific expression patterns of the selected putative stress-related AcMYB genes in response to distinct abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. The comprehensive expression analysis of the pineapple MYB genes, especially the tissue-preferential and stress-responsive genes, could provide valuable clues for further function characterization. In this work, we systematically identified AcMYB genes by analyzing the pineapple genome sequence using a set of bioinformatics approaches. Our findings provide a global insight into the organization, phylogeny and expression patterns of the pineapple R2R3-MYB genes, and hence contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in pineapple.

  13. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Fengli; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Fengwang; Li, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of "Gala" apple. Genes for sugar alcohol [including 17 sorbitol transporters (SOTs)], sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs). Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  14. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enroth, Stefan; Rada-Iglesisas, Alvaro; Andersson, Robin; Wallerman, Ola; Wanders, Alkwin; Påhlman, Lars; Komorowski, Jan; Wadelius, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) was used to identify promoters enriched for histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples from two CRC patients and for the CRC cell line HT29. By comparing histone modification patterns in normal mucosa and tumors, we found that alterations predicted to have major functional consequences were quite rare. Furthermore, when normal or tumor tissue samples were compared to HT29, high similarities were observed for H3K4me3. However, the differences found for H3K27me3, which is important in determining cellular identity, indicates that cell lines do not represent optimal tissue models. Finally, using public expression data, we uncovered previously unknown changes in CRC expression patterns. Genes positive for H3K4me3 in normal and/or tumor samples, which are typically already active in normal mucosa, became hyperactivated in tumors, while genes with H3K27me3 in normal and/or tumor samples and which are expressed at low levels in normal mucosa, became hypersilenced in tumors. Genome wide histone modification profiles can be used to find epigenetic aberrations in genes associated with cancer. This strategy gives further insights into the epigenetic contribution to the oncogenic process and may identify new biomarkers

  15. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eWei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of ‘Gala’ apple. Genes for sugar alcohol (including 17 sorbitol transporters, sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  16. Genomic, Epigenomic, and Transcriptomic Profiling towards Identifying Omics Features and Specific Biomarkers That Distinguish Uterine Leiomyosarcoma and Leiomyoma at Molecular Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Miyata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS is the worst malignancy among the gynecologic cancers. Uterine leiomyoma (LM, a benign tumor of myometrial origin, is the most common among women of childbearing age. Because of their similar symptoms, it is difficult to preoperatively distinguish the two conditions only by ultrasound and pelvic MRI. While histopathological diagnosis is currently the main approach used to distinguish them postoperatively, unusual histologic variants of LM tend to be misdiagnosed as LMS. Therefore, development of molecular diagnosis as an alternative or confirmatory means will help to diagnose LMS more accurately. We adopted omics-based technologies to identify genome-wide features to distinguish LMS from LM and revealed that copy number, gene expression, and DNA methylation profiles successfully distinguished these tumors. LMS was found to possess features typically observed in malignant solid tumors, such as extensive chromosomal abnormalities, overexpression of cell cycle-related genes, hypomethylation spreading through large genomic regions, and frequent hypermethylation at the polycomb group target genes and protocadherin genes. We also identified candidate expression and DNA methylation markers, which will facilitate establishing postoperative molecular diagnostic tests based on conventional quantitative assays. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing such tests and the possibility of developing preoperative and noninvasive methods.

  17. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of Glutathione S-transferase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and their expression profiling in various anatomical tissues and perturbation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shiful; Choudhury, Mouraj; Majlish, Al-Nahian Khan; Islam, Tahmina; Ghosh, Ajit

    2018-01-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous enzymes which play versatile functions including cellular detoxification and stress tolerance. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide identification of GST gene family was carried out in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The result demonstrated the presence of at least 90 GST genes in potato which is greater than any other reported species. According to the phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis, rice and potato GST members, GSTs could be subdivided into ten different classes and each class is found to be highly conserved. The largest class of potato GST family is tau with 66 members, followed by phi and lambda. The chromosomal localization analysis revealed the highly uneven distribution of StGST genes across the potato genome. Transcript profiling of 55 StGST genes showed the tissue-specific expression for most of the members. Moreover, expression of StGST genes were mainly repressed in response to abiotic stresses, while largely induced in response to biotic and hormonal elicitations. Further analysis of StGST gene's promoter identified the presence of various stress responsive cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, one of the highly stress responsive StGST members, StGSTU46, showed strong affinity towards flurazole with lowest binding energy of -7.6kcal/mol that could be used as antidote to protect crop against herbicides. These findings will facilitate the further functional and evolutionary characterization of GST genes in potato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genomic and transcriptome profiling identified both human and HBV genetic variations and their interactions in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between HBV and host genome integrations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development is a complex process and the mechanism is still unclear. Here we described in details the quality controls and data mining of aCGH and transcriptome sequencing data on 50 HCC samples from the Chinese patients, published by Dong et al. (2015 (GEO#: GSE65486. In additional to the HBV-MLL4 integration discovered, we also investigated the genetic aberrations of HBV and host genes as well as their genetic interactions. We reported human genome copy number changes and frequent transcriptome variations (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1 mutation, especially MLL family mutations in this cohort of the patients. For HBV genotype C, we identified a novel linkage disequilibrium region covering HBV replication regulatory elements, including basal core promoter, DR1, epsilon and poly-A regions, which is associated with HBV core antigen over-expression and almost exclusive to HBV-MLL4 integration.

  19. Babelomics: an integrative platform for the analysis of transcriptomics, proteomics and genomic data with advanced functional profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; Madeira, Sara C.; Goetz, Stefan; Conesa, Ana; Tárraga, Joaquín; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Santoyo, Javier; García, Francisco; Marbà, Martina; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Babelomics is a response to the growing necessity of integrating and analyzing different types of genomic data in an environment that allows an easy functional interpretation of the results. Babelomics includes a complete suite of methods for the analysis of gene expression data that include normalization (covering most commercial platforms), pre-processing, differential gene expression (case-controls, multiclass, survival or continuous values), predictors, clustering; large-scale genotyping assays (case controls and TDTs, and allows population stratification analysis and correction). All these genomic data analysis facilities are integrated and connected to multiple options for the functional interpretation of the experiments. Different methods of functional enrichment or gene set enrichment can be used to understand the functional basis of the experiment analyzed. Many sources of biological information, which include functional (GO, KEGG, Biocarta, Reactome, etc.), regulatory (Transfac, Jaspar, ORegAnno, miRNAs, etc.), text-mining or protein–protein interaction modules can be used for this purpose. Finally a tool for the de novo functional annotation of sequences has been included in the system. This provides support for the functional analysis of non-model species. Mirrors of Babelomics or command line execution of their individual components are now possible. Babelomics is available at http://www.babelomics.org. PMID:20478823

  20. Genome-wide profiling of the PIWI-interacting RNA-mRNA regulatory networks in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Roy, Jyoti; Rout, Pratiti; Mallick, Bibekanand

    2018-01-01

    PIWI-interacting (piRNAs), ~23-36 nucleotide-long small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), earlier believed to be germline-specific, have now been identified in somatic cells, including cancer cells. These sncRNAs impact critical biological processes by fine-tuning gene expression at post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. The expression of piRNAs in ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic cancer is largely uncharted. In this study, we investigated the expression of PIWILs by qRT-PCR and western blotting and then identified piRNA transcriptomes in tissues of normal ovary and two most prevalent epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes, serous and endometrioid by small RNA sequencing. We detected 219, 256 and 234 piRNAs in normal ovary, endometrioid and serous ovarian cancer samples respectively. We observed piRNAs are encoded from various genomic regions, among which introns harbor the majority of them. Surprisingly, piRNAs originated from different genomic contexts showed the varied level of conservations across vertebrates. The functional analysis of predicted targets of differentially expressed piRNAs revealed these could modulate key processes and pathways involved in ovarian oncogenesis. Our study provides the first comprehensive piRNA landscape in these samples and a useful resource for further functional studies to decipher new mechanistic views of piRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks affecting ovarian oncogenesis. The RNA-seq data is submitted to GEO database (GSE83794).

  1. VRprofile: gene-cluster-detection-based profiling of virulence and antibiotic resistance traits encoded within genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Tai, Cui; Deng, Zixin; Zhong, Weihong; He, Yongqun; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2017-01-10

    VRprofile is a Web server that facilitates rapid investigation of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, as well as extends these trait transfer-related genetic contexts, in newly sequenced pathogenic bacterial genomes. The used backend database MobilomeDB was firstly built on sets of known gene cluster loci of bacterial type III/IV/VI/VII secretion systems and mobile genetic elements, including integrative and conjugative elements, prophages, class I integrons, IS elements and pathogenicity/antibiotic resistance islands. VRprofile is thus able to co-localize the homologs of these conserved gene clusters using HMMer or BLASTp searches. With the integration of the homologous gene cluster search module with a sequence composition module, VRprofile has exhibited better performance for island-like region predictions than the other widely used methods. In addition, VRprofile also provides an integrated Web interface for aligning and visualizing identified gene clusters with MobilomeDB-archived gene clusters, or a variety set of bacterial genomes. VRprofile might contribute to meet the increasing demands of re-annotations of bacterial variable regions, and aid in the real-time definitions of disease-relevant gene clusters in pathogenic bacteria of interest. VRprofile is freely available at http://bioinfo-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/VRprofile. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of SSR and ILP markers in trees: diversity profiling, alternate distribution, and applications in duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinyao; Luan, Lin Lin; Qin, Guanghua; Yu, Li Fang; Wang, Zhi Wei; Dong, Wan Chen; Song, Yumin; Qiao, Yuling; Zhang, Xian Sheng; Sang, Ya Lin; Yang, Long

    2017-12-20

    Molecular markers are efficient tools for breeding and genetic studies. However, despite their ecological and economic importance, their development and application have long been hampered. In this study, we identified 524,170 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 267,636 intron length polymorphism (ILP), and 11,872 potential intron polymorphism (PIP) markers from 16 tree species based on recently available genome sequences. Larger motifs, including hexamers and heptamers, accounted for most of the seven different types of SSR loci. Within these loci, A/T bases comprised a significantly larger proportion of sequence than G/C. SSR and ILP markers exhibited an alternative distribution pattern. Most SSRs were monomorphic markers, and the proportions of polymorphic markers were positively correlated with genome size. By verifying with all 16 tree species, 54 SSR, 418 ILP, and four PIP universal markers were obtained, and their efficiency was examined by PCR. A combination of five SSR and six ILP markers were used for the phylogenetic analysis of 30 willow samples, revealing a positive correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance. We also found that SSRs can be used as tools for duplication analysis. Our findings provide important foundations for the development of breeding and genetic studies in tree species.

  3. Enriching Genomic Resources and Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Miscanthus sinensis under Drought Stress Based on RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus × giganteus is wildly cultivated as a potential biofuel feedstock around the world; however, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics have become a limitation for its utilization. As a progenitor of M. × giganteus, M. sinensis is widely distributed around East Asia providing well abiotic stress tolerance. To enrich the M. sinensis genomic databases and resources, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome of M. sinensis by using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Approximately 316 million high-quality trimmed reads were generated from 349 million raw reads, and a total of 114,747 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembly. Furthermore, 95,897 (83.57% unigenes were annotated to at least one database including NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, GO, and NT, supporting that the sequences obtained were annotated properly. Differentially expressed gene analysis indicates that drought stress 15 days could be a critical period for M. sinensis response to drought stress. The high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of M. sinensis under drought stress has greatly enriched the current genomic available resources. The comparison of DEGs under different periods of drought stress identified a wealth of candidate genes involved in drought tolerance regulatory networks, which will facilitate further genetic improvement and molecular studies of the M. sinensis.

  4. Mining a database of single amplified genomes from Red Sea brine pool extremophiles-improving reliability of gene function prediction using a profile and pattern matching algorithm (PPMA).

    KAUST Repository

    Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2014-01-01

    Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant

  5. Genomic profile of a patient with triple negative essential thrombocythemia, unresponsive to therapy: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Zaidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clonal analysis of patients with triple negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN has provided evidence of additional aberrations, including epigenetic alterations. To discover such novel genetic aberrations, patients were screened through next-generation sequencing using a myeloid sequencing panel of 54 genes using a genetic analyser. Genetic variants in 28 genes, including TET2, BCOR, BCR, and ABL1 were identified in a triple negative essential thrombocythemia (ET patient. The individual role of some of these variants in disease pathogenesis has yet to be studied. Somatic mutations in the same genes have been reported with variable frequencies in myeloid malignancies. However, no pathogenic impact of these variants could be found; therefore, long-term follow up of patients with genetic analysis of a large cohort and the use of whole genome sequencing is required to assess the effects of these variants.

  6. Genome-wide occupancy profile of mediator and the Srb8-11 module reveals interactions with coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Wirén, Marianna; Sinha, Indranil

    2006-01-01

    Mediator exists in a free form containing the Med12, Med13, CDK8, and CycC subunits (the Srb8-11 module) and a smaller form, which lacks these four subunits and associates with RNA polymerase II (Pol II), forming a holoenzyme. We use chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA microarrays...... to investigate genome-wide localization of Mediator and the Srb8-11 module in fission yeast. Mediator and the Srb8-11 module display similar binding patterns, and interactions with promoters and upstream activating sequences correlate with increased transcription activity. Unexpectedly, Mediator also interacts...... with the downstream coding region of many genes. These interactions display a negative bias for positions closer to the 5' ends of open reading frames (ORFs) and appear functionally important, because downregulation of transcription in a temperature-sensitive med17 mutant strain correlates with increased Mediator...

  7. A genome-wide expression profile of salt-responsive genes in the apple rootstock Malus zumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingtian; Liu, Jia; Tan, Dunxian; Allan, Andrew C; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai; Kong, Jin

    2013-10-18

    In some areas of cultivation, a lack of salt tolerance severely affects plant productivity. Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., is sensitive to salt, and, as a perennial woody plant the mechanism of salt stress adaption will be different from that of annual herbal model plants, such as Arabidopsis. Malus zumi is a salt tolerant apple rootstock, which survives high salinity (up to 0.6% NaCl). To examine the mechanism underlying this tolerance, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed, using a cDNA library constructed from salt-treated seedlings of Malus zumi. A total of 15,000 cDNA clones were selected for microarray analysis. In total a group of 576 cDNAs, of which expression changed more than four-fold, were sequenced and 18 genes were selected to verify their expression pattern under salt stress by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our genome-wide expression analysis resulted in the isolation of 50 novel Malus genes and the elucidation of a new apple-specific mechanism of salt tolerance, including the stabilization of photosynthesis under stress, involvement of phenolic compounds, and sorbitol in ROS scavenging and osmoprotection. The promoter regions of 111 genes were analyzed by PlantCARE, suggesting an intensive cross-talking of abiotic stress in Malus zumi. An interaction network of salt responsive genes was constructed and molecular regulatory pathways of apple were deduced. Our research will contribute to gene function analysis and further the understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms in fruit trees.

  8. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution. PMID:23140509

  9. Characterization and functional inferences of a genome-wide DNA methylation profile in the loin ( muscle of swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonsu Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of swine. Methods A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates. The reference pig genome was annotated with 78.5% of the raw reads. A total of 33,506 putative methylated regions (PMR were identified from methylated regions that overlapped at least two samples. Results Of these, only 3.1% were commonly observed in all eight samples. DNA methylation patterns between two littermates were as diverse as between unrelated individuals (p = 0.47, indicating that maternal genetic effects have little influence on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM. The highest density of PMR was observed on chromosome 10. A major proportion (47.7% of PMR was present in the repeat regions, followed by introns (21.5%. The highest conservation of PMR was found in CpG islands (12.1%. These results show an important role for DNA methylation in species- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. PMR were also significantly related to muscular cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism. Conclusion This study indicated the biased distribution and functional role of DNA methylation in gene expression of porcine LDM. DNA methylation was related to cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism (e.g., insulin signaling pathways. Nutritional and environmental management may have a significant impact on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM.

  10. A cysteine protease (cathepsin Z) from disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic characterization and transcriptional profiling during bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-05

    Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain superfamily. It participates in the host immune defense via phagocytosis, signal transduction, cell-cell communication, proliferation, and migration of immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Hence, CTSZ is also acknowledged as an acute-phase protein in host immunity. In this study, we sought to identify the CTSZ homolog from disk abalone (AbCTSZ) and characterize it at the molecular, genomic, and transcriptional levels. AbCTSZ encodes a protein with 318 amino acids and a molecular mass of 36kDa. The structure of AbCTSZ reveals amino acid sequences that are characteristic of the signal sequence, pro-peptide, peptidase-C1 papain family cysteine protease domain, mini-loop, HIP motif, N-linked glycosylation sites, active sites, and conserved Cys residues. A pairwise comparison revealed that AbCTSZ shared the highest amino acid homology with its molluscan counterpart from Crassostrea gigas. A multiple alignment analysis revealed the conservation of functionally crucial elements of AbCTSZ, and a phylogenetic study further confirmed a proximal evolutionary relationship with its invertebrate counterparts. Further, an analysis of AbCTSZ genomic structure revealed seven exons separated by six introns, which differs from that of its vertebrate counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) detected the transcripts of AbCTSZ in early developmental stages and in eight different tissues. Higher levels of AbCTSZ transcripts were found in trochophore, gill, and hemocytes, highlighting its importance in the early development and immunity of disk abalone. In addition, we found that viable bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides significantly modulated AbCTSZ transcription. Collectively, these lines of evidences suggest that AbCTSZ plays an indispensable role in the innate immunity of disk abalone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  11. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  12. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

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    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  13. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profiling of Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 Grown in the presence of naringenin

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    Michele Zibetti Tadra-Sfeir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a diazotrophic bacterium which associates endophytically with economically important gramineae. Flavonoids such as naringenin, have been shown to have an effect on the interaction between H. seropedicae and its host plants. We used a high-throughput sequencing based method (RNA-Seq to access the influence of naringenin on the whole transcriptome profile of H. seropedicae. Three hundred and four genes were downregulated and seventy seven were upregulated by naringenin. Data analysis revealed that genes related to bacterial flagella biosynthesis, chemotaxis and biosynthesis of peptidoglycan were repressed by naringenin. Moreover, genes involved in aromatic metabolism and multidrug transport efllux were actived.

  14. Genome wide transcriptional profiling of Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 grown in the presence of naringenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Faoro, Helisson; Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane; Balsanelli, Eduardo; Weiss, Vinicius; Baura, Valter A; Wassem, Roseli; Cruz, Leonardo M; De Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Souza, Emanuel M; Monteiro, Rose A

    2015-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a diazotrophic bacterium which associates endophytically with economically important gramineae. Flavonoids such as naringenin have been shown to have an effect on the interaction between H. seropedicae and its host plants. We used a high-throughput sequencing based method (RNA-Seq) to access the influence of naringenin on the whole transcriptome profile of H. seropedicae. Three hundred and four genes were downregulated and seventy seven were upregulated by naringenin. Data analysis revealed that genes related to bacterial flagella biosynthesis, chemotaxis and biosynthesis of peptidoglycan were repressed by naringenin. Moreover, genes involved in aromatic metabolism and multidrug transport efllux were actived.

  15. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of Clostridium perfringens SM101 during Sporulation Extends the Core of Putative Sporulation Genes and Genes Determining Spore Properties and Germination Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghua; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Abee, Tjakko; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of bacterial spores is a highly regulated process and the ultimate properties of the spores are determined during sporulation and subsequent maturation. A wide variety of genes that are expressed during sporulation determine spore properties such as resistance to heat and other adverse environmental conditions, dormancy and germination responses. In this study we characterized the sporulation phases of C. perfringens enterotoxic strain SM101 based on morphological characteristics, biomass accumulation (OD600), the total viable counts of cells plus spores, the viable count of heat resistant spores alone, the pH of the supernatant, enterotoxin production and dipicolinic acid accumulation. Subsequently, whole-genome expression profiling during key phases of the sporulation process was performed using DNA microarrays, and genes were clustered based on their time-course expression profiles during sporulation. The majority of previously characterized C. perfringens germination genes showed upregulated expression profiles in time during sporulation and belonged to two main clusters of genes. These clusters with up-regulated genes contained a large number of C. perfringens genes which are homologs of Bacillus genes with roles in sporulation and germination; this study therefore suggests that those homologs are functional in C. perfringens. A comprehensive homology search revealed that approximately half of the upregulated genes in the two clusters are conserved within a broad range of sporeforming Firmicutes. Another 30% of upregulated genes in the two clusters were found only in Clostridium species, while the remaining 20% appeared to be specific for C. perfringens. These newly identified genes may add to the repertoire of genes with roles in sporulation and determining spore properties including germination behavior. Their exact roles remain to be elucidated in future studies.

  16. Genome-wide RNA polymerase II profiles and RNA accumulation reveal kinetics of transcription and associated epigenetic changes during diurnal cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendal Le Martelot

    Full Text Available Interactions of cell-autonomous circadian oscillators with diurnal cycles govern the temporal compartmentalization of cell physiology in mammals. To understand the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of diurnal rhythms in mouse liver genome-wide, we generated temporal DNA occupancy profiles by RNA polymerase II (Pol II as well as profiles of the histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. We used these data to quantify the relationships of phases and amplitudes between different marks. We found that rhythmic Pol II recruitment at promoters rather than rhythmic transition from paused to productive elongation underlies diurnal gene transcription, a conclusion further supported by modeling. Moreover, Pol II occupancy preceded mRNA accumulation by 3 hours, consistent with mRNA half-lives. Both methylation marks showed that the epigenetic landscape is highly dynamic and globally remodeled during the 24-hour cycle. While promoters of transcribed genes had tri-methylated H3K4 even at their trough activity times, tri-methylation levels reached their peak, on average, 1 hour after Pol II. Meanwhile, rhythms in tri-methylation of H3K36 lagged transcription by 3 hours. Finally, modeling profiles of Pol II occupancy and mRNA accumulation identified three classes of genes: one showing rhythmicity both in transcriptional and mRNA accumulation, a second class with rhythmic transcription but flat mRNA levels, and a third with constant transcription but rhythmic mRNAs. The latter class emphasizes widespread temporally gated posttranscriptional regulation in the mouse liver.

  17. A method of incident angle estimation for high resolution spectral recovery in filter-array-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheolsun; Lee, Woong-Bi; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seongmin; Oh, Jinkyung; Lim, Dongsung; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in miniature spectrometers for research and development. Especially, filter-array-based spectrometers have advantages of low cost and portability, and can be applied in various fields such as biology, chemistry and food industry. Miniaturization in optical filters causes degradation of spectral resolution due to limitations on spectral responses and the number of filters. Nowadays, many studies have been reported that the filter-array-based spectrometers have achieved resolution improvements by using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. The performance of the DSP-based spectral recovery highly depends on the prior information of transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. The TFs vary with respect to an incident angle of light onto the filter-array. Conventionally, it is assumed that the incident angle of light on the filters is fixed and the TFs are known to the DSP. However, the incident angle is inconstant according to various environments and applications, and thus TFs also vary, which leads to performance degradation of spectral recovery. In this paper, we propose a method of incident angle estimation (IAE) for high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers. By exploiting sparse signal reconstruction of the L1- norm minimization, IAE estimates an incident angle among all possible incident angles which minimizes the error of the reconstructed signal. Based on IAE, DSP effectively provides a high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers.

  18. Performance of UWB Array-Based Radar Sensor in a Multi-Sensor Vehicle-Based Suit for Landmine Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.; Savelyev, T.; Zhuge, X.; Aubry, P.; Ligthart, L.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Tettelaar, P.; Breejen, E. de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, integration of an UWB array-based timedomain radar sensor in a vehicle-mounted multi-sensor system for landmine detection is described. Dedicated real-time signal processing algorithms are developed to compute the radar sensor confidence map which is used for sensor fusion.

  19. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguinetti Maurizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluconazole (FLC, a triazole antifungal drug, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. In this study, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of the C. neoformans reference strain H99 (serotype A following FLC treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results Simultaneous analysis of over 6823 transcripts revealed that 476 genes were responsive to FLC. As expected up-regulation of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis was observed, including the azole target gene ERG11 and ERG13, ERG1, ERG7, ERG25, ERG2, ERG3 and ERG5. In addition, SRE1 which is a gene encoding a well-known regulator of sterol homeostasis in C. neoformans was up-regulated. Several other genes such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e. lipid and fatty acid metabolism, cell wall maintenance, stress and virulence were found to be up-regulated in response to FLC treatment. Conversely, expression of AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans, was not regulated by FLC. Conclusions Short-term exposure of C. neoformans to FLC resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the observed changes could represent specific adaptive responses to the antifungal agent in this pathogenic yeast.

  20. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  1. Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Bo; Liu, Bao; Piao, Xiang-Hua; Yan, Yu-Lu; Hu, Xiao-Ge; Zhou, Kuan; Zhang, Yong-Tai; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA) was combined with platycodin (PD), a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos) were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs), and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. The OVA-PD-Lipos were incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. The chemical stability of OVA and the physical stability of OVA-PD-Lipos in microneedle arrays were investigated. The immune response of Institute of Cancer Research mice and potential skin irritation reaction of rabbits to OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs were evaluated. The uptake of OVA by mouse BMDCs was greatly enhanced when OVA was prepared as OVA-PD-Lipos, and in this form, the toxicity of PD was dramatically reduced. OVA was chemically stable as OVA-PD-Lipos, when OVA-PD-Lipos was incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. Institute of Cancer Research mice treated with OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs showed a significantly enhanced immune response. PD combined with OVA elicited a balanced Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response in mice, with minimal irritation in rabbit skin. The dissolving microneedle array-based system is a promising delivery vehicle for subunit vaccine and its adjuvant.

  2. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems.

  3. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  4. Genomic profiling of a Hepatocyte growth factor-dependent signature for MET-targeted therapy in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Mittal, Sandeep; Newsome, David; Kang, Liang; Briggs, Michael; Tanner, Kirk; Marincola, Francesco M; Berens, Michael E; Vande Woude, George F; Xie, Qian

    2015-09-17

    Constitutive MET signaling promotes invasiveness in most primary and recurrent GBM. However, deployment of available MET-targeting agents is confounded by lack of effective biomarkers for selecting suitable patients for treatment. Because endogenous HGF overexpression often causes autocrine MET activation, and also indicates sensitivity to MET inhibitors, we investigated whether it drives the expression of distinct genes which could serve as a signature indicating vulnerability to MET-targeted therapy in GBM. Interrogation of genomic data from TCGA GBM (Student's t test, GBM patients with high and low HGF expression, p ≤ 0.00001) referenced against patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models (Student's t test, sensitive vs. insensitive models, p ≤ 0.005) was used to identify the HGF-dependent signature. Genomic analysis of GBM xenograft models using both human and mouse gene expression microarrays (Student's t test, treated vs. vehicle tumors, p ≤ 0.01) were performed to elucidate the tumor and microenvironment cross talk. A PDX model with EGFR(amp) was tested for MET activation as a mechanism of erlotinib resistance. We identified a group of 20 genes highly associated with HGF overexpression in GBM and were up- or down-regulated only in tumors sensitive to MET inhibitor. The MET inhibitors regulate tumor (human) and host (mouse) cells within the tumor via distinct molecular processes, but overall impede tumor growth by inhibiting cell cycle progression. EGFR (amp) tumors undergo erlotinib resistance responded to a combination of MET and EGFR inhibitors. Combining TCGA primary tumor datasets (human) and xenograft tumor model datasets (human tumor grown in mice) using therapeutic efficacy as an endpoint may serve as a useful approach to discover and develop molecular signatures as therapeutic biomarkers for targeted therapy. The HGF dependent signature may serve as a candidate predictive signature for patient enrollment in clinical trials using MET inhibitors

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Profiling Analysis of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Genes in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes (PMEIs are a large multigene family and play crucial roles in cell wall modifications in plant growth and development. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the PMEI gene family in Brassica campestris, an important leaf vegetable, was performed. We identified 100 Brassica campestris PMEI genes (BcPMEIs, among which 96 BcPMEIs were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and nine tandem arrays containing 20 BcPMEIs were found. We also detected 80 pairs of syntenic PMEI orthologs. These findings indicated that whole-genome triplication (WGT and tandem duplication (TD were the main mechanisms accounting for the current number of BcPMEIs. In evolution, BcPMEIs were retained preferentially and biasedly, consistent with the gene balance hypothesis and two-step theory, respectively. The molecular evolution analysis of BcPMEIs manifested that they evolved through purifying selection and the divergence time is in accordance with the WGT data of B. campestris. To obtain the functional information of BcPMEIs, the expression patterns in five tissues and the cis-elements distributed in promoter regions were investigated. This work can provide a better understanding of the molecular evolution and biological function of PMEIs in B. campestris.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of Botrytis cinerea genes targeting plant cell walls during infections of different hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell walls are barriers that impair colonization of host tissues, but also are important reservoirs of energy-rich sugars. Growing hyphae of necrotrophic fungal pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea (Botrytis, henceforth, secrete enzymes that disassemble cell wall polysaccharides. In this work we describe the annotation of 275 putative secreted Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes identified in the Botrytis B05.10 genome. Using RNAseq we determined which Botrytis CAZymes were expressed during infections of lettuce leaves, ripe tomato fruit, and grape berries. On the three hosts, Botrytis expressed a common group of 229 potentially secreted CAZymes, including 28 pectin backbone-modifying enzymes, 21 hemicellulose-modifying proteins, 18 enzymes that might target pectin and hemicellulose side-branches, and 16 enzymes predicted to degrade cellulose. The diversity of the Botrytis CAZymes may be partly responsible for its wide host range. Thirty-six candidate CAZymes with secretion signals were found exclusively when Botrytis interacted with ripe tomato fruit and grape berries. Pectin polysaccharides are notably abundant in grape and tomato cell walls, but lettuce leaf walls have less pectin and are richer in hemicelluloses and cellulose. The results of this study not only suggest that Botrytis targets similar wall polysaccharide networks on fruit and leaves, but also that it may selectively attack host wall polysaccharide substrates depending on the host tissue.

  7. Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling of polyamine synthesis gene family members in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taibo; Huang, Binbin; Chen, Lin; Xian, Zhiqiang; Song, Shiwei; Chen, Riyuan; Hao, Yanwei

    2018-06-30

    Polyamines (PAs), including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and thermospermine (T-Spm), play key roles in plant development, including fruit setting and ripening, morphogenesis, and abiotic/biotic stress. Their functions appear to be intimately related to their synthesis, which occurs via arginine/ornithine decarboxylase (ADC/ODC), Spd synthase (SPDS), Spm synthase (SPMS), and Acaulis5 (ACL5), respectively. Unfortunately, the expression and function of these PA synthesis-relate genes during specific developmental process or under stress have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide analysis of the PA synthesis genes (ADC, ODC, SPDS, SPMS, ACL5) in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). In total, 14 PA synthesis-related genes were identified. Further analysis of their structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic trees, predicted subcellular localization, and promoter cis-regulatory elements were analyzed. Furthermore, we also performed experiments to evaluate their tissue expression patterns and under hormone and various stress treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the mechanisms underlying PA function in this variety of tomato. Taken together, these data provide valuable information for future functional characterization of specific genes in the PA synthesis pathway in this and other plant species. Although additional research is required, the insight gained by this and similar studies can be used to improve our understanding of PA metabolism ultimately leading to more effective and consistent plant cultivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome wide expression profiling reveals suppression of host defence responses during colonisation by Neisseria meningitides but not N. lactamica.

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    Hazel En En Wong

    Full Text Available Both Neisseria meningitidis and the closely related bacterium Neisseria lactamica colonise human nasopharyngeal mucosal surface, but only N. meningitidis invades the bloodstream to cause potentially life-threatening meningitis and septicaemia. We have hypothesised that the two neisserial species differentially modulate host respiratory epithelial cell gene expression reflecting their disease potential. Confluent monolayers of 16HBE14 human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to live and/or dead N. meningitidis (including capsule and pili mutants and N. lactamica, and their transcriptomes were compared using whole genome microarrays. Changes in expression of selected genes were subsequently validated using Q-RT-PCR and ELISAs. Live N. meningitidis and N. lactamica induced genes involved in host energy production processes suggesting that both bacterial species utilise host resources. N. meningitidis infection was associated with down-regulation of host defence genes. N. lactamica, relative to N. meningitidis, initiates up-regulation of proinflammatory genes. Bacterial secreted proteins alone induced some of the changes observed. The results suggest N. meningitidis and N. lactamica differentially regulate host respiratory epithelial cell gene expression through colonisation and/or protein secretion, and that this may contribute to subsequent clinical outcomes associated with these bacteria.

  9. Insights into the Pathogenesis of Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma through Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R. Hassler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation patterns in malignant cells allow insight into tumor evolution and development and can be used for disease classification. Here, we describe the genome-wide DNA methylation signatures of NPM-ALK-positive (ALK+ and NPM-ALK-negative (ALK− anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL. We find that ALK+ and ALK− ALCL share common DNA methylation changes for genes involved in T cell differentiation and immune response, including TCR and CTLA-4, without an ALK-specific impact on tumor DNA methylation in gene promoters. Furthermore, we uncover a close relationship between global ALCL DNA methylation patterns and those in distinct thymic developmental stages and observe tumor-specific DNA hypomethylation in regulatory regions that are enriched for conserved transcription factor binding motifs such as AP1. Our results indicate similarity between ALCL tumor cells and thymic T cell subsets and a direct relationship between ALCL oncogenic signaling and DNA methylation through transcription factor induction and occupancy.

  10. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the ERF transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Mariam; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Charfeddine, Safa; Hammami, Asma; Gargouri Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-04-01

    The ERF transcription factors belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. They play important roles in plant development processes, as well as in the response to biotic, abiotic, and hormone signaling. In the present study, 155 putative ERF transcription factor genes were identified from the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome database, and compared with those from Arabidopsis thaliana. The StERF proteins are divided into ten phylogenetic groups. Expression analyses of five StERFs were carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and compared with published RNA-seq data. These latter analyses were used to distinguish tissue-specific, biotic, and abiotic stress genes as well as hormone-responsive StERF genes. The results are of interest to better understand the role of the AP2/ERF genes in response to diverse types of stress in potatoes. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of the ERF family genes in S. tuberosum is required to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.

  11. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small.

  12. Integrating complex genomic datasets and tumour cell sensitivity profiles to address a 'simple' question: which patients should get this drug?

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    Settleman Jeff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is becoming increasingly apparent that cancer drug therapies can only reach their full potential through appropriate patient selection. Matching drugs and cancer patients has proven to be a complex challenge, due in large part to the substantial molecular heterogeneity inherent to human cancers. This is not only a major hurdle to the improvement of the use of current treatments but also for the development of novel therapies and the ability to steer them to the relevant clinical indications. In this commentary we discuss recent studies from Kuo et al., published this month in BMC Medicine, in which they used a panel of cancer cell lines as a model for capturing patient heterogeneity at the genomic and proteomic level in order to identify potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical activity of a novel candidate chemotherapeutic across a patient population. The findings highlight the ability of a 'systems approach' to develop a better understanding of the properties of novel candidate therapeutics and to guide clinical testing and application. See the associated research paper by Kuo et al: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/7/77

  13. Linkage of cDNA expression profiles of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons to a genome-wide in situ hybridization database

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    Simon Horst H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are involved in control of emotion, motivation and motor behavior. The loss of one of the subpopulations, substantia nigra pars compacta, is the pathological hallmark of one of the most prominent neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease. Several groups have looked at the molecular identity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and have suggested the gene expression profile of these neurons. Here, after determining the efficiency of each screen, we provide a linked database of the genes, expressed in this neuronal population, by combining and comparing the results of six previous studies and verification of expression of each gene in dopaminergic neurons, using the collection of in situ hybridization in the Allen Brain Atlas.

  14. Thiopurine treatment in patients with Crohn's disease leads to a selective reduction of an effector cytotoxic gene expression signature revealed by whole-genome expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, G; Baggen, J M; van Bodegraven, A A; Mulder, C J J; Kraal, G; Zwiers, A; Horrevoets, A J; van der Pouw Kraan, C T M

    2013-07-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, as a result of aberrant activation of the innate immune system through TLR stimulation by bacterial products. The conventional immunosuppressive thiopurine derivatives (azathioprine and mercaptopurine) are used to treat CD. The effects of thiopurines on circulating immune cells and TLR responsiveness are unknown. To obtain a global view of affected gene expression of the immune system in CD patients and the treatment effect of thiopurine derivatives, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis on whole blood samples from 20 CD patients in remission, of which 10 patients received thiopurine treatment, compared to 16 healthy controls, before and after TLR4 stimulation with LPS. Several immune abnormalities were observed, including increased baseline interferon activity, while baseline expression of ribosomal genes was reduced. After LPS stimulation, CD patients showed reduced cytokine and chemokine expression. None of these effects were related to treatment. Strikingly, only one highly correlated set of 69 genes was affected by treatment, not influenced by LPS stimulation and consisted of genes reminiscent of effector cytotoxic NK cells. The most reduced cytotoxicity-related gene in CD was the cell surface marker CD160. Concordantly, we could demonstrate an in vivo reduction of circulating CD160(+)CD3(-)CD8(-) cells in CD patients after treatment with thiopurine derivatives in an independent cohort. In conclusion, using genome-wide profiling, we identified a disturbed immune activation status in peripheral blood cells from CD patients and a clear treatment effect of thiopurine derivatives selectively affecting effector cytotoxic CD160-positive cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

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    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  16. Whole genome transcript profiling of drug induced steatosis in rats reveals a gene signature predictive of outcome.

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    Nishika Sahini

    Full Text Available Drug induced steatosis (DIS is characterised by excess triglyceride accumulation in the form of lipid droplets (LD in liver cells. To explore mechanisms underlying DIS we interrogated the publically available microarray data from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP to study comprehensively whole genome gene expression changes in the liver of treated rats. For this purpose a total of 17 and 12 drugs which are diverse in molecular structure and mode of action were considered based on their ability to cause either steatosis or phospholipidosis, respectively, while 7 drugs served as negative controls. In our efforts we focused on 200 genes which are considered to be mechanistically relevant in the process of lipid droplet biogenesis in hepatocytes as recently published (Sahini and Borlak, 2014. Based on mechanistic considerations we identified 19 genes which displayed dose dependent responses while 10 genes showed time dependency. Importantly, the present study defined 9 genes (ANGPTL4, FABP7, FADS1, FGF21, GOT1, LDLR, GK, STAT3, and PKLR as signature genes to predict DIS. Moreover, cross tabulation revealed 9 genes to be regulated ≥10 times amongst the various conditions and included genes linked to glucose metabolism, lipid transport and lipogenesis as well as signalling events. Additionally, a comparison between drugs causing phospholipidosis and/or steatosis revealed 26 genes to be regulated in common including 4 signature genes to predict DIS (PKLR, GK, FABP7 and FADS1. Furthermore, a comparison between in vivo single dose (3, 6, 9 and 24 h and findings from rat hepatocyte studies (2 h, 8 h, 24 h identified 10 genes which are regulated in common and contained 2 DIS signature genes (FABP7, FGF21. Altogether, our studies provide comprehensive information on mechanistically linked gene expression changes of a range of drugs causing steatosis and phospholipidosis and encourage the screening of DIS signature genes at the preclinical stage.

  17. Genome-Wide Characterization of Major Intrinsic Proteins in Four Grass Plants and Their Non-Aqua Transport Selectivity Profiles with Comparative Perspective.

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    Abul Kalam Azad

    Full Text Available Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, commonly known as aquaporins, transport not only water in plants but also other substrates of physiological significance and heavy metals. In most of the higher plants, MIPs are divided into five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs. Herein, we identified 68, 42, 38 and 28 full-length MIPs, respectively in the genomes of four monocot grass plants, specifically Panicum virgatum, Setaria italica, Sorghum bicolor and Brachypodium distachyon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the grass plants had only four MIP subfamilies including PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs without XIPs. Based on structural analysis of the homology models and comparing the primary selectivity-related motifs [two NPA regions, aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter and Froger's positions (FPs] of all plant MIPs that have been experimentally proven to transport non-aqua substrates, we predicted the transport profiles of all MIPs in the four grass plants and also in eight other plants. Groups of MIP subfamilies based on ar/R selectivity filter and FPs were linked to the non-aqua transport profiles. We further deciphered the substrate selectivity profiles of the MIPs in the four grass plants and compared them with their counterparts in rice, maize, soybean, poplar, cotton, Arabidopsis thaliana, Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii. In addition to two NPA regions, ar/R filter and FPs, certain residues, especially in loops B and C, contribute to the functional distinctiveness of MIP groups. Expression analysis of transcripts in different organs indicated that non-aqua transport was related to expression of MIPs since most of the unexpressed MIPs were not predicted to facilitate the transport of non-aqua molecules. Among all MIPs in every plant, TIP (BdTIP1;1, SiTIP1;2, SbTIP2;1 and PvTIP1;2 had the overall highest mean expression. Our study generates significant information for understanding the diversity, evolution, non

  18. Genome-wide analysis, expression profile of heat shock factor gene family (CaHsfs) and characterisation of CaHsfA2 in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Lu, Jin-Ping; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2015-06-19

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play crucial roles in plant developmental and defence processes. The production and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an economically important vegetable crop, are severely reduced by adverse environmental stress conditions, such as heat, salt and osmotic stress. Although the pepper genome has been fully sequenced, the characterization of the Hsf gene family under abiotic stress conditions remains incomplete. A total of 25 CaHsf members were identified in the pepper genome by bioinformatics analysis and PCR assays. They were grouped into three classes, CaHsfA, B and C, based on highly conserved Hsf domains, were distributed over 11 of 12 chromosomes, with none found on chromosome 11, and all of them, except CaHsfA5, formed a protein-protein interaction network. According to the RNA-seq data of pepper cultivar CM334, most CaHsf members were expressed in at least one tissue among root, stem, leaf, pericarp and placenta. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that all of the CaHsfs responded to heat stress (40 °C for 2 h), except CaHsfC1 in thermotolerant line R9 leaves, and that the expression patterns were different from those in thermosensitive line B6. Many CaHsfs were also regulated by salt and osmotic stresses, as well as exogenous Ca(2+), putrescine, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Additionally, CaHsfA2 was located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity, consistent with the typical features of Hsfs. Time-course expression profiling of CaHsfA2 in response to heat stress revealed differences in its expression level and pattern between the pepper thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9. Twenty-five Hsf genes were identified in the pepper genome and most of them responded to heat, salt, osmotic stress, and exogenous substances, which provided potential clues for further analyses of CaHsfs functions in various kinds of abiotic stresses and of corresponding signal transduction pathways in pepper.

  19. Cell array-based intracellular localization screening reveals novel functional features of human chromosome 21 proteins

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    Kahlem Pascal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Chr21 results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. Molecular analysis of Down's syndrome, however, poses a particular challenge, because the aneuploid region of Chr21 contains many genes of unknown function. Subcellular localization of human Chr21 proteins may contribute to further understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the genes that code for these proteins. Following this idea, we used a transfected-cell array technique to perform a rapid and cost-effective analysis of the intracellular distribution of Chr 21 proteins. Results We chose 89 genes that were distributed over the majority of 21q, ranging from RBM11 (14.5 Mb to MCM3AP (46.6 Mb, with part of them expressed aberrantly in the Down's syndrome mouse model. Open reading frames of these genes were cloned into a mammalian expression vector with an amino-terminal His6 tag. All of the constructs were arrayed on glass slides and reverse transfected into HEK293T cells for protein expression. Co-localization detection using a set of organelle markers was carried out for each Chr21 protein. Here, we report the subcellular localization properties of 52 proteins. For 34 of these proteins, their localization is described for the first time. Furthermore, the alteration in cell morphology and growth as a result of protein over-expression for claudin-8 and claudin-14 genes has been characterized. Conclusion The cell array-based protein expression and detection approach is a cost-effective platform for large-scale functional analyses, including protein subcellular localization and cell phenotype screening. The results from this study reveal novel functional features of human Chr21 proteins, which should contribute to further understanding of the molecular pathology of Down's syndrome.

  20. Periodic array-based substrates for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, the first reports of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS) surfaced. Probably due to signal-enhancement factors of only 101 to 103, which are modest compared to those of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), SEIRS did not reach the same significance up to date. However, taking the compared to Raman scattering much larger cross-sections of infrared absorptions and the enhancement factors together, SEIRS reaches about the same sensitivity for molecular species on a surface in terms of the cross-sections as SERS and, due to the complementary nature of both techniques, can valuably augment information gained by SERS. For the first 20 years since its discovery, SEIRS relied completely on metal island films, fabricated by either vapor or electrochemical deposition. The resulting films showed a strong variance concerning their structure, which was essentially random. Therefore, the increase in the corresponding signal-enhancement factors of these structures stagnated in the last years. In the very same years, however, the development of periodic array-based substrates helped SEIRS to gather momentum. This development was supported by technological progress concerning electromagnetic field solvers, which help to understand plasmonic properties and allow targeted design. In addition, the strong progress concerning modern fabrication methods allowed to implement these designs into practice. The aim of this contribution is to critically review the development of these engineered surfaces for SEIRS, to compare the different approaches with regard to their performance where possible, and report further gain of knowledge around and in relation to these structures.

  1. Genomic characterization and expression profiles upon bacterial infection of a novel cystatin B homologue from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, H K A; Wan, Qiang; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Choi, Cheol Young; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-12-01

    Cystatins are a large family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors which are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. In the present study, we identified a gene related to cystatin superfamily, AbCyt B, from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and BAC library screening. The complete cDNA sequence of AbCyt B is comprised of 1967 nucleotides with a 306 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for 101 amino acids. The amino acid sequence consists of a single cystatin-like domain, which has a cysteine proteinase inhibitor signature, a conserved Gly in N-terminal region, QVVAG motif and a variant of PW motif. No signal peptide, disulfide bonds or carbohydrate side chains were identified. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed that AbCyt B shares up to 44.7% identity and 65.7% similarity with the cystatin B genes from other organisms. The genomic sequence of AbCyt B is approximately 8.4 Kb, consisting of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that AbCyt B was closely related to the cystatin B from pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under the family 1.Functional analysis of recombinant AbCyt B protein exhibited inhibitory activity against the papain, with almost 84% inhibition at a concentration of 3.5 μmol/L. In tissue expression analysis, AbCyt B transcripts were expressed abundantly in the hemocyte, gill, mantle, and digestive tract, while weakly in muscle, testis, and hepatopancreas. After the immune challenge with Vibrio parahemolyticus, the AbCyt B showed significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of relative mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes at 24 and 6 h of post infection, respectively. These results collectively suggest that AbCyst B is a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and is also potentially involved in immune responses against invading bacterial pathogens in abalone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole genome expression profiling associates activation of unfolded protein response with impaired production and release of epinephrine after recurrent hypoglycemia.

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    Juhye Lena Kim

    Full Text Available Recurrent hypoglycemia can occur as a major complication of insulin replacement therapy, limiting the long-term health benefits of intense glycemic control in type 1 and advanced type 2 diabetic patients. It impairs the normal counter-regulatory hormonal and behavioral responses to glucose deprivation, a phenomenon known as hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure (HAAF. The molecular mechanisms leading to defective counter-regulation are not completely understood. We hypothesized that both neuronal (excessive cholinergic signaling between the splanchnic nerve fibers and the adrenal medulla and humoral factors contribute to the impaired epinephrine production and release in HAAF. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism(s mediating the blunted epinephrine responses following recurrent hypoglycemia, we utilized a global gene expression profiling approach. We characterized the transcriptomes during recurrent (defective counter-regulation model and acute hypoglycemia (normal counter-regulation group in the adrenal medulla of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on comparison analysis of differentially expressed genes, a set of unique genes that are activated only at specific time points after recurrent hypoglycemia were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network indicated activation of the unfolded protein response. Furthermore, at least three additional pathways/interaction networks altered in the adrenal medulla following recurrent hypoglycemia were identified, which may contribute to the impaired epinephrine secretion in HAAF: greatly increased neuropeptide signaling (proenkephalin, neuropeptide Y, galanin; altered ion homeostasis (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and downregulation of genes involved in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of secretory vesicles. Given the pleiotropic effects of the unfolded protein response in different organs, involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis, these

  3. Genomic and expression profiling of human spermatocytic seminomas: primary spermatocyte as tumorigenic precursor and DMRT1 as candidate chromosome 9 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijenga, L.H.J.; Hersmus, R.; Gillis, A.J.M.; Pfundt, R.; Stoop, H.J.; Gurp, R.J.H.L.M. van; Veltman, J.; Beverloo, H.B.; Drunen, E. van; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Pera, R.R.; Schneider, D.T.; Summersgill, B.; Shipley, J.; McIntyre, A.; Spek, P. van der; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Oosterhuis, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Spermatocytic seminomas are solid tumors found solely in the testis of predominantly elderly individuals. We investigated these tumors using a genome-wide analysis for structural and numerical chromosomal changes through conventional karyotyping, spectral karyotyping, and array comparative genomic

  4. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans

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    Silvia A. Fuertes Marraco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository with accession number GSE65804.

  5. Genomic Profiling on an Unselected Solid Tumor Population Reveals a Highly Mutated Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Associated with Oncogenic EGFR Mutations

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    Jingrui Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs can recruit key effectors in diverse cellular processes to propagate oncogenic signals. Targeted and combinational therapeutic strategies have been successfully applied for treating EGFR-driven cancers. However, a main challenge in EGFR therapies is drug resistance due to mutations, oncogenic shift, alternative signaling, and other potential mechanisms. To further understand the genetic alterations associated with oncogenic EGFRs and to provide further insight into optimal and personalized therapeutic strategies, we applied a proprietary comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS-based assay of 435 genes to systematically study the genomic profiles of 1565 unselected solid cancer patient samples. We found that activating EGFR mutations were predominantly detected in lung cancer, particularly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The mutational landscape of EGFR-driven tumors covered most key signaling pathways and biological processes. Strikingly, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was highly mutated (48 variants detected in 46% of the EGFR-driven tumors, and its variant number topped that in the TP53/apoptosis and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. Furthermore, an analysis of mutation distribution revealed a differential association pattern of gene mutations between EGFR exon 19del and EGFR L858R. Our results confirm the aggressive nature of the oncogenic EGFR-driven tumors and reassure that a combinational strategy should have advantages over an EGFR-targeted monotherapy and holds great promise for overcoming drug resistance.

  6. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: qiulili@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: m_zihui@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  7. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao; Qiu, Lili; Yan, Zequn; Meng, Zihui; Xue, Min; He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  8. Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao JH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Hui Zhao,1,* Qi-Bo Zhang,1,* Bao Liu,2 Xiang-Hua Piao,1 Yu-Lu Yan,1 Xiao-Ge Hu,1 Kuan Zhou,1 Yong-Tai Zhang,1 Nian-Ping Feng1 1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Anethesiology Department, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA was combined with platycodin (PD, a saponin adjuvant. To reduce the toxicity of PD, OVA, and adjuvant were loaded together into liposomes before being incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array.Methods: OVA- and PD-loaded liposomes (OVA-PD-Lipos were prepared using the film dispersion method. Their uptake behavior, toxicity to mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs, and hemolytic activity to rabbit red blood cells (RBCs were evaluated. The OVA-PD-Lipos were incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. The chemical stability of OVA and the physical stability of OVA-PD-Lipos in microneedle arrays were investigated. The immune response of Institute of Cancer Research mice and potential skin irritation reaction of rabbits to OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs were evaluated.Results: The uptake of OVA by mouse BMDCs was greatly enhanced when OVA was prepared as OVA-PD-Lipos, and in this form, the toxicity of PD was dramatically reduced. OVA was chemically stable as OVA-PD-Lipos, when OVA-PD-Lipos was incorporated into a dissolving microneedle array. Institute of Cancer Research mice treated with OVA-PD-Lipos-MNs showed a significantly enhanced immune response. PD combined with OVA elicited a balanced Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response in mice, with minimal irritation in rabbit skin.Conclusion: The dissolving microneedle array-based system is a promising delivery vehicle for subunit vaccine and its adjuvant. Keywords: subunit vaccine, saponin adjuvant, liposomes, dissolving microneedle array, intradermal vaccination

  9. A fast universal immobilization of immunoglobulin G at 4 °C for the development of array-based immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Lin Guo

    Full Text Available To maintain the antibody activity and enhance performance of array-based immunoassays, protein G was used to allow a shorter duration of immunoglobulin G immobilization at 4 °C, with the antibody placed in the appropriate orientation. The multiplexed detection of six pain-related message molecules (PRMMs was used as examples for the development of array-based immunoassays: substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and β-endorphin. Protein G- and non-protein G-coated slides were tested. Compared to non-protein G immunoassays, protein G shortened the antibody immobilization time at 4 °C from overnight to 2 hours. Only protein G-facilitated immunoassays succeeded in simultaneously detecting all six PRMMs with high specificity. Dose-response curves showed that the limits of detection of the protein G-multiplexed immunoassays for the PRMMs was approximately 164, 167, 120, 60, 80, and 92 pg/ml, respectively. Thus, protein G effectively shortens the duration of antibody immobilization at 4 °C, allowing the use of sensitive array-based immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of PRMMs.

  10. Regulatory mechanisms underlying atopic dermatitis: Functional characterization of the C11orf30/LRRC32 locus and analysis of genome-wide expression profiles in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manz, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder with a strong genetic component. Genome-wide association studies have been successful in the identification of common single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with AD, but their functional relevance has not been investigated yet. This work presents a comprehensive functional characterization of common and infrequent variants at the AD-associated C11orf30/LRRC32 locus. Analyses of cutaneous gene expression profiles in AD patients ...

  11. Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Length Polymorphism (MS-AFLP) Microarrays for Epigenetic Analysis of Human Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Suzuki, Koichi; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Perucho, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Somatic, and in a minor scale also germ line, epigenetic aberrations are fundamental to carcinogenesis, cancer progression, and tumor phenotype. DNA methylation is the most extensively studied and arguably the best understood epigenetic mechanisms that become altered in cancer. Both somatic loss of methylation (hypomethylation) and gain of methylation (hypermethylation) are found in the genome of malignant cells. In general, the cancer cell epigenome is globally hypomethylated, while some regions-typically gene-associated CpG islands-become hypermethylated. Given the profound impact that DNA methylation exerts on the transcriptional profile and genomic stability of cancer cells, its characterization is essential to fully understand the complexity of cancer biology, improve tumor classification, and ultimately advance cancer patient management and treatment. A plethora of methods have been devised to analyze and quantify DNA methylation alterations. Several of the early-developed methods relied on the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, whose activity depends on the methylation status of their recognition sequences. Among these techniques, methylation-sensitive amplification length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) was developed in the early 2000s, and successfully adapted from its original gel electrophoresis fingerprinting format to a microarray format that notably increased its throughput and allowed the quantification of the methylation changes. This array-based platform interrogates over 9500 independent loci putatively amplified by the MS-AFLP technique, corresponding to the NotI sites mapped throughout the human genome.

  12. A Spatiotemporal Indexing Approach for Efficient Processing of Big Array-Based Climate Data with MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlong; Hu, Fei; Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; Lee, Tsengdar; Bowen, Michael K.; Yang, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Climate observations and model simulations are producing vast amounts of array-based spatiotemporal data. Efficient processing of these data is essential for assessing global challenges such as climate change, natural disasters, and diseases. This is challenging not only because of the large data volume, but also because of the intrinsic high-dimensional nature of geoscience data. To tackle this challenge, we propose a spatiotemporal indexing approach to efficiently manage and process big climate data with MapReduce in a highly scalable environment. Using this approach, big climate data are directly stored in a Hadoop Distributed File System in its original, native file format. A spatiotemporal index is built to bridge the logical array-based data model and the physical data layout, which enables fast data retrieval when performing spatiotemporal queries. Based on the index, a data-partitioning algorithm is applied to enable MapReduce to achieve high data locality, as well as balancing the workload. The proposed indexing approach is evaluated using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. The experimental results show that the index can significantly accelerate querying and processing (10 speedup compared to the baseline test using the same computing cluster), while keeping the index-to-data ratio small (0.0328). The applicability of the indexing approach is demonstrated by a climate anomaly detection deployed on a NASA Hadoop cluster. This approach is also able to support efficient processing of general array-based spatiotemporal data in various geoscience domains without special configuration on a Hadoop cluster.

  13. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation: Genome sequencing and secondary metabolite cluster profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzini, Juan M; Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Chulze, Sofía N

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions. The genome sequencing allowed us to accurately determine the taxonomy of the strain using a phylogenomic approach, which places it in the Bacillus velezensis clade. In addition, the draft genome allowed us to use bioinformatics to mine the genome for potential metabolites. The genome mining allowed us to identify 9 active secondary metabolites conserved by all B. velezensis strains and one additional secondary metabolite, the lantibiotic ericin, which is unique to this strain. This study represents the first confirmed production of ericin by a B. velezensis strain. The genome also allowed us to do a comparative genomics with its closest relatives and compare the secondary metabolite production of the publically available B. velezensis genomes. The results showed that the diversity in secondary metabolites of strains in the B. velezensis clade is driven by strains making different antibacterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Left-handed compact MIMO antenna array based on wire spiral resonator for 5-GHz wireless applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Rahim, Sharul Kamal Abdul; Narbudowicz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    A compact coplanar waveguide-fed multiple-input multiple-output antenna array based on the left-handed wire loaded spiral resonators (SR) is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a 2 × 2 wire SR with two symmetrical microstrip feed lines, each line exciting a 1 × 2 wire SR. Left-handed metamaterial unit cells are placed on its reverse side and arranged in a 2 × 3 array. A reflection coefficient of less than -16 dB and mutual coupling of less than -28 dB are achieved at 5.15 GHz WLAN band.

  15. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Dayna L.; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W.; Bhatnagar, Adrienne; Parker, Heidi G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies. PMID:27874836

  16. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  17. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Facilitates Implementation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for Lung Cancer Biomarker Testing and Identifies Patients Who May Benefit From Enrollment in Mechanism-Driven Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, James H; Johnson, Adrienne; Albacker, Lee; Wang, Kai; Chmielecki, Juliann; Frampton, Garrett; Gay, Laurie; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Ali, Siraj; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Philip J; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2016-06-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recommend testing for EGFR, BRAF, ERBB2, and MET mutations; ALK, ROS1, and RET rearrangements; and MET amplification. We investigated the feasibility and utility of comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), a hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) test, in clinical practice. CGP was performed to a mean coverage depth of 576× on 6,832 consecutive cases of NSCLC (2012-2015). Genomic alterations (GAs) (point mutations, small indels, copy number changes, and rearrangements) involving EGFR, ALK, BRAF, ERBB2, MET, ROS1, RET, and KRAS were recorded. We also evaluated lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases without GAs, involving these eight genes. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 13-88 years) and 53% were female. Among the patients studied, 4,876 (71%) harbored at least one GA involving EGFR (20%), ALK (4.1%), BRAF (5.7%), ERBB2 (6.0%), MET (5.6%), ROS1 (1.5%), RET (2.4%), or KRAS (32%). In the remaining cohort of lung AD without these known drivers, 273 cancer-related genes were altered in at least 0.1% of cases, including STK11 (21%), NF1 (13%), MYC (9.8%), RICTOR (6.4%), PIK3CA (5.4%), CDK4 (4.3%), CCND1 (4.0%), BRCA2 (2.5%), NRAS (2.3%), BRCA1 (1.7%), MAP2K1 (1.2%), HRAS (0.7%), NTRK1 (0.7%), and NTRK3 (0.2%). CGP is practical and facilitates implementation of the NCCN guidelines for NSCLC by enabling simultaneous detection of GAs involving all seven driver oncogenes and KRAS. Furthermore, without additional tissue use or cost, CGP identifies patients with "pan-negative" lung AD who may benefit from enrollment in mechanism-driven clinical trials. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recommend testing for several genomic alterations (GAs). The feasibility and utility of comprehensive genomic profiling were studied in NSCLC and in lung adenocarcinoma

  18. Effect of Wortmannin on the repair profiles of DNA double-strand breaks in the whole genome and in interstitial telomeric sequences of Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Raquel; Rivero, Maria Teresa; Slijepcevic, Predrag; Goyanes, Vicente; Fernandez, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    The DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) procedure was applied to analyze the effect of Wortmannin (WM) in the rejoining kinetics of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole genome and in the long interstitial telomeric repeat sequence (ITRS) blocks from Chinese hamster cell lines. The results indicate that the ITRS blocks from wild-type Chinese hamster cell lines, CHO9 and V79B, exhibit a slower initial rejoining rate of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs than the genome overall. Neither Rad51C nor the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) activities, involved in homologous recombination (HR) and in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways of DSB repair respectively, influenced the rejoining kinetics within ITRS in contrast to DNA sequences in the whole genome. Nevertheless, DSB removal rate within ITRS was decreased in the absence of Ku86 activity, though at a lower affectation level than in the whole genome, thus homogenizing both rejoining kinetics rates. WM treatment slowed down the DSB rejoining kinetics rate in ITRS, this effect being more pronounced in the whole genome, resulting in a similar pattern to that of the Ku86 deficient cells. In fact, no WM effect was detected in the Ku86 deficient Chinese hamster cells, so probably WM does not add further impairment in DSB rejoining than that resulted as a consequence of absence of Ku activity. The same slowing effect was also observed after treatment of Rad51C and DNA-PKcs defective hamster cells by WM, suggesting that: (1) there is no potentiation of the HR when the NHEJ is impaired by WM, either in the whole genome or in the ITRS, and (2) that this impairment may probably involve more targets than DNA-PKcs. These results suggest that there is an intragenomic heterogeneity in DSB repair, as well as in the effect of WM on this process

  19. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  20. LC-MS/MS-based proteome profiling in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia longicephala: the Daphnia pulex genome database as a key for high throughput proteomics in Daphnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayr Tobias

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphniids, commonly known as waterfleas, serve as important model systems for ecology, evolution and the environmental sciences. The sequencing and annotation of the Daphnia pulex genome both open future avenues of research on this model organism. As proteomics is not only essential to our understanding of cell function, and is also a powerful validation tool for predicted genes in genome annotation projects, a first proteomic dataset is presented in this article. Results A comprehensive set of 701,274 peptide tandem-mass-spectra, derived from Daphnia pulex, was generated, which lead to the identification of 531 proteins. To measure the impact of the Daphnia pulex filtered models database for mass spectrometry based Daphnia protein identification, this result was compared with results obtained with the Swiss-Prot and the Drosophila melanogaster database. To further validate the utility of the Daphnia pulex database for research on other Daphnia species, additional 407,778 peptide tandem-mass-spectra, obtained from Daphnia longicephala, were generated and evaluated, leading to the identification of 317 proteins. Conclusion Peptides identified in our approach provide the first experimental evidence for the translation of a broad variety of predicted coding regions within the Daphnia genome. Furthermore it could be demonstrated that identification of Daphnia longicephala proteins using the Daphnia pulex protein database is feasible but shows a slightly reduced identification rate. Data provided in this article clearly demonstrates that the Daphnia genome database is the key for mass spectrometry based high throughput proteomics in Daphnia.

  1. HGVA: the Human Genome Variation Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Javier; Coll, Jacobo; Haimel, Matthias; Kandasamy, Swaathi; Tarraga, Joaquin; Furio-Tari, Pedro; Bari, Wasim; Bleda, Marta; Rueda, Antonio; Gr?f, Stefan; Rendon, Augusto; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High-profile genomic variation projects like the 1000 Genomes project or the Exome Aggregation Consortium, are generating a wealth of human genomic variation knowledge which can be used as an essential reference for identifying disease-causing genotypes. However, accessing these data, contrasting the various studies and integrating those data in downstream analyses remains cumbersome. The Human Genome Variation Archive (HGVA) tackles these challenges and facilitates access to genomic...

  2. Recurrent Reciprocal Genomic Rearrangements of 17q12 Are Associated with Renal Disease, Diabetes, and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mefford, Heather C. ; Clauin, Séverine ; Sharp, Andrew J. ; Moller, Rikke S. ; Ullmann, Reinhard ; Kapur, Raj ; Pinkel, Dan ; Cooper, Gregory M. ; Ventura, Mario ; Ropers, H. Hilger ; Tommerup, Niels ; Eichler, Evan E. ; Bellanne-Chantelot, Christine 

    2007-01-01

    Most studies of genomic disorders have focused on patients with cognitive disability and/or peripheral nervous system defects. In an effort to broaden the phenotypic spectrum of this disease model, we assessed 155 autopsy samples from fetuses with well-defined developmental pathologies in regions predisposed to recurrent rearrangement, by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We found that 6% of fetal material showed evidence of microdeletion or microduplication, including three inde...

  3. Genetic profiling differentiates second primary tumors from metastases in adult metachronous soft tissue sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernebro, Josefin; Carneiro, Ana; Rydholm, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are at increased risk of second primary malignancies, including a second STS, but distinction between metastases and a second primary STS is difficult. Patients and Methods. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was applied to 30 mu...

  4. Ni nanotube array-based electrodes by electrochemical alloying and de-alloying for efficient water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xue; Wang, Jianying; Ji, Lvlv; Lv, Yaokang; Chen, Zuofeng

    2018-05-17

    The design of cost-efficient earth-abundant catalysts with superior performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is extremely important for future renewable energy production. Herein, we report a facile strategy for constructing Ni nanotube arrays (NTAs) on a Ni foam (NF) substrate through cathodic deposition of NiCu alloy followed by anodic stripping of metallic Cu. Based on Ni NTAs, the as-prepared NiSe2 NTA electrode by NiSe2 electrodeposition and the NiFeOx NTA electrode by dipping in Fe3+ solution exhibit excellent HER and OER performance in alkaline conditions. In these systems, Ni NTAs act as a binder-free multifunctional inner layer to support the electrocatalysts, offer a large specific surface area and serve as a fast electron transport pathway. Moreover, an alkaline electrolyzer has been constructed using NiFeOx NTAs as the anode and NiSe2 NTAs as the cathode, which only demands a cell voltage of 1.78 V to deliver a water-splitting current density of 500 mA cm-2, and demonstrates remarkable stability during long-term electrolysis. This work provides an attractive method for the design and fabrication of nanotube array-based catalyst electrodes for highly efficient water-splitting.

  5. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

  6. Cantilever-type electrode array-based high-throughput microparticle sorting platform driven by gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, Byungkyu; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Younggeun; Shin, Sang-Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (10 7 beads ml −1 ) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.

  7. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  8. Design of Smart Ion-Selective Electrode Arrays Based on Source Separation through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L.T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensor arrays based on Blind Source Separation (BSS provides a promising solution to overcome the interference problem associated with Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE. The main motivation behind this new approach is to ease the time-demanding calibration stage. While the first works on this problem only considered the case in which the ions under analysis have equal valences, the present work aims at developing a BSS technique that works when the ions have different charges. In this situation, the resulting mixing model belongs to a particular class of nonlinear systems that have never been studied in the BSS literature. In order to tackle this sort of mixing process, we adopted a recurrent network as separating system. Moreover, concerning the BSS learning strategy, we develop a mutual information minimization approach based on the notion of the differential of the mutual information. The method works requires a batch operation, and, thus, can be used to perform off-line analysis. The validity of our approach is supported by experiments where the mixing model parameters were extracted from actual data.

  9. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimy, Abdullah Faruq Ibn; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibrahimy, Muhammad Ibn

    2013-01-01

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper

  10. A review of the design and clinical evaluation of the ShefStim array-based functional electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Laurence P; Heller, Ben W; Barker, Anthony T; Reeves, Mark L; Healey, Jamie; Good, Timothy R; Cooper, Glen; Sha, Ning; Prenton, Sarah; Liu, Anmin; Howard, David

    2016-11-01

    Functional electrical stimulation has been shown to be a safe and effective means of correcting foot drop of central neurological origin. Current surface-based devices typically consist of a single channel stimulator, a sensor for determining gait phase and a cuff, within which is housed the anode and cathode. The cuff-mounted electrode design reduces the likelihood of large errors in electrode placement, but the user is still fully responsible for selecting the correct stimulation level each time the system is donned. Researchers have investigated different approaches to automating aspects of setup and/or use, including recent promising work based on iterative learning techniques. This paper reports on the design and clinical evaluation of an electrode array-based FES system for the correction of drop foot, ShefStim. The paper reviews the design process from proof of concept lab-based study, through modelling of the array geometry and interface layer to array search algorithm development. Finally, the paper summarises two clinical studies involving patients with drop foot. The results suggest that the ShefStim system with automated setup produces results which are comparable with clinician setup of conventional systems. Further, the final study demonstrated that patients can use the system without clinical supervision. When used unsupervised, setup time was 14min (9min for automated search plus 5min for donning the equipment), although this figure could be reduced significantly with relatively minor changes to the design. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Array-based FMR1 sequencing and deletion analysis in patients with a fragile X syndrome-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Collins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by loss of function mutations in the FMR1 gene. Trinucleotide CGG-repeat expansions, resulting in FMR1 gene silencing, are the most common mutations observed at this locus. Even though the repeat expansion mutation is a functional null mutation, few conventional mutations have been identified at this locus, largely due to the clinical laboratory focus on the repeat tract.To more thoroughly evaluate the frequency of conventional mutations in FXS-like patients, we used an array-based method to sequence FMR1 in 51 unrelated males exhibiting several features characteristic of FXS but with normal CGG-repeat tracts of FMR1. One patient was identified with a deletion in FMR1, but none of the patients were found to have other conventional mutations.These data suggest that missense mutations in FMR1 are not a common cause of the FXS phenotype in patients who have normal-length CGG-repeat tracts. However, screening for small deletions of FMR1 may be of clinically utility.

  12. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  13. Genome-Wide Profiling of Liver X Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Mouse Liver Reveals Extensive Sharing of Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boergesen, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Gross, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    and correlate with an LXR-dependent hepatic induction of lipogenic genes. To further investigate the roles of RXR and LXR in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, we have mapped the ligand-regulated genome-wide binding of these factors in mouse liver. We find that the RXR agonist bexarotene primarily......The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and are important regulators of lipid metabolism in the liver. We have recently shown that RXR agonist-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in mice are dependent on LXRs...

  14. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eVidovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  15. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA) for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeron, Josep M; Reed, Jordan; Christie, Matthew; Jacobs, Julia S; Dierdorff, Jason; Eberl, Daniel F; Manak, J Robert

    2016-04-05

    Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array)) pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs) as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1) genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2) identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3) screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv) gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation.

  16. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of low-dose, long-term exposure of human osteosarcoma cells to bisphenol A and its analogs bisphenols AF and S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fic, A; Mlakar, S Jurković; Juvan, P; Mlakar, V; Marc, J; Dolenc, M Sollner; Broberg, K; Mašič, L Peterlin

    2015-08-01

    The bisphenols AF (BPAF) and S (BPS) are structural analogs of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and are used in common products as a replacement for BPA. To elucidate genome-wide gene expression responses, estrogen-dependent osteosarcoma cells were cultured with 10 nM BPA, BPAF, or BPS, for 8 h and 3 months. Genome-wide gene expression was analyzed using the Illumina Expression BeadChip. Three months exposure had significant effects on gene expression, particularly for BPS, followed by BPAF and BPA, according to the number of differentially expressed genes (1980, 778, 60, respectively), the magnitude of changes in gene expression, and the number of enriched biological processes (800, 415, 33, respectively) and pathways (77, 52, 6, respectively). 'Embryonic skeletal system development' was the most enriched bone-related process, which was affected only by BPAF and BPS. Interestingly, all three bisphenols showed highest down-regulation of genes related to the cardiovascular system (e.g., NPPB, NPR3, TXNIP). BPA only and BPA/BPAF/BPS also affected genes related to the immune system and fetal development, respectively. For BPAF and BPS, the 'isoprenoid biosynthetic process' was enriched (up-regulated genes: HMGCS1, PDSS1, ACAT2, RCE1, DHDDS). Compared to BPA, BPAF and BPS had more effects on gene expression after long-term exposure. These findings stress the need for careful toxicological characterization of BPA analogs in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh K

    2016-08-19

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptome-Based Expression Profiling of the Sox Gene Family in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Yang, Chao; Tao, Wenjing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-02-23

    The Sox transcription factor family is characterized with the presence of a Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG) box and plays important roles in various biological processes in animals, including sex determination and differentiation, and the development of multiple organs. In this study, 27 Sox genes were identified in the genome of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and were classified into seven groups. The members of each group of the tilapia Sox genes exhibited a relatively conserved exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis showed that the Sox gene family has undergone an expansion in tilapia and other teleost fishes following their whole genome duplication, and group K only exists in teleosts. Transcriptome-based analysis demonstrated that most of the tilapia Sox genes presented stage-specific and/or sex-dimorphic expressions during gonadal development, and six of the group B Sox genes were specifically expressed in the adult brain. Our results provide a better understanding of gene structure and spatio-temporal expression of the Sox gene family in tilapia, and will be useful for further deciphering the roles of the Sox genes during sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptome-Based Expression Profiling of the Sox Gene Family in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sox transcription factor family is characterized with the presence of a Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG box and plays important roles in various biological processes in animals, including sex determination and differentiation, and the development of multiple organs. In this study, 27 Sox genes were identified in the genome of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and were classified into seven groups. The members of each group of the tilapia Sox genes exhibited a relatively conserved exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis showed that the Sox gene family has undergone an expansion in tilapia and other teleost fishes following their whole genome duplication, and group K only exists in teleosts. Transcriptome-based analysis demonstrated that most of the tilapia Sox genes presented stage-specific and/or sex-dimorphic expressions during gonadal development, and six of the group B Sox genes were specifically expressed in the adult brain. Our results provide a better understanding of gene structure and spatio-temporal expression of the Sox gene family in tilapia, and will be useful for further deciphering the roles of the Sox genes during sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts.

  20. Identification of recurrent chromosomal aberrations in germ cell tumors of neonates and infants using genomewide array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.; Veltman, J.; Janssen, I.M.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Oosterhuis, W.; Schneider, D.; Stoop, H.; Gillis, A.J.M.; Zahn, S.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Gobel, U.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Human germ cell tumors (GCTs) of neonates and infants comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, including teratomas and yolk sac tumors with distinct clinical and epidemiologic features. As yet, little is known about the cytogenetic constitution of these tumors. We applied the recently developed

  1. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  2. Data Container Study for Handling array-based data using Hive, Spark, MongoDB, SciDB and Rasdaman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Hu, F.; Yang, J.; Yu, M.; Yang, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience communities have come up with various big data storage solutions, such as Rasdaman and Hive, to address the grand challenges for massive Earth observation data management and processing. To examine the readiness of current solutions in supporting big Earth observation, we propose to investigate and compare four popular data container solutions, including Rasdaman, Hive, Spark, SciDB and MongoDB. Using different types of spatial and non-spatial queries, datasets stored in common scientific data formats (e.g., NetCDF and HDF), and two applications (i.e. dust storm simulation data mining and MERRA data analytics), we systematically compare and evaluate the feature and performance of these four data containers in terms of data discover and access. The computing resources (e.g. CPU, memory, hard drive, network) consumed while performing various queries and operations are monitored and recorded for the performance evaluation. The initial results show that 1) the popular data container clusters are able to handle large volume of data, but their performances vary in different situations. Meanwhile, there is a trade-off between data preprocessing, disk saving, query-time saving, and resource consuming. 2) ClimateSpark, MongoDB and SciDB perform the best among all the containers in all the queries tests, and Hive performs the worst. 3) These studied data containers can be applied on other array-based datasets, such as high resolution remote sensing data and model simulation data. 4) Rasdaman clustering configuration is more complex than the others. A comprehensive report will detail the experimental results, and compare their pros and cons regarding system performance, ease of use, accessibility, scalability, compatibility, and flexibility.

  3. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Eli Joseph

    We present a single-station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 sec the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 sec, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher ( 2%) and significantly higher (>20%), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e., Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves.

  4. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the cystatin gene family in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Wang, Suncai; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-06-01

    Cystatins or phytocystatins (PhyCys) comprise a family of plant-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Such inhibitors are thought to be involved in the regulation of several endogenous processes as well as defense against biotic or abiotic stresses. However, information about this family is limited in apple. We identified 26 PhyCys genes within the entire apple genome. They were clustered into three distinct groups distributed across several chromosomes. All of their putative proteins contained one or two typical cystatin domains, which shared the characteristic motifs of PhyCys. Eight selected genes displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues. Moreover, their transcript levels were also up-regulated significantly in leaves during maturation, senescence or in response to treatment with one or more abiotic stresses. Our results indicated that members of this family may function in tissue development, leaf senescence, and adaptation to adverse environments in apple. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  6. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ruben L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli and pathway inhibitors. Results from these experiments were validated in a human experimental setting using whole blood and purified CD4+ Tcells. Results Calcium-dependent activation of T cells using CD3/CD28 and PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a Th1 expression profile reflected by increased expression of T-bet, RUNX3, IL-2, and IFNγ, whereas calcium-independent activation via PMA/CD28 induced a Th2 expression profile which included GATA3, RXRA, CCL1 and Itk. Knock down with siRNA and gene expression profiling in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors showed that proximal kinases Lck and PKCθ are crucial signaling hubs during T helper cell activation, revealing a clear role for Lck in Th1 development and for PKCθ in both Th1 and Th2 development. Medial signaling via MAPkinases appeared to be less important in these pathways, since specific inhibitors of these kinases displayed a minor effect on gene expression. Translation towards a primary, whole blood setting and purified human CD4+ T cells revealed that PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a more pronounced Th1 specific, Lck and PKCθ dependent IFNγ production, whereas PMA/CD28 induced Th2 specific IL-5 and IL-13 production, independent of Lck activation. PMA/CD3-mediated skewing towards a Th1 phenotype was also reflected in mRNA expression of the master transcription factor Tbet, whereas PMA/CD28-mediated stimulation enhanced GATA3 mRNA expression in primary human CD4+ Tcells. Conclusions This study identifies stimulatory pathways and gene expression profiles for in vitro skewing of T helper cell

  7. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  8. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesesky, Mitchell W; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Patel, Sanket; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitates initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum) antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0 and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance factors and

  9. Genome-Wide Identification of Glyoxalase Genes in Medicago truncatula and Their Expression Profiling in Response to Various Developmental and Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Ghosh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxalase is an evolutionary highly conserved pathway present in all organisms. Conventional glyoxalase pathway has two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI and glyoxalase II (GLYII that act sequentially to detoxify a highly cytotoxic compound methylglyoxal (MG to D-lactate with the help of reduced glutathione. Recently, proteins with DJ-1/PfpI domain have been reported to perform the same conversion in a single step without the help of any cofactor and thus termed as “unique glyoxalase III” enzyme. Genome-wide analysis of glyoxalase genes have been previously conducted in Arabidopsis, rice and Soybean plants, but no such study was performed for one of the agricultural important model legume species, Medicago truncatula. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of Medicago identified a total of putative 29 GLYI, 14 GLYII genes, and 5 glyoxalase III (DJ-1 genes. All these identified genes and their corresponding proteins were analyzed in detail including their chromosomal distribution, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship, and the presence of conserved domain(s. Expression of all these genes was analyzed in different tissues as well as under two devastating abiotic stresses- salinity and drought using publicly available transcript data. This study revealed that MtGLYI-4, MtGLYII-6, and MtDJ-1A are the constitutive members with a high level of expression at all 17 analyzed tissues; while MtGLYI-1, MtGLYI-11, MtGLYI-5, MtGLYI-7, and MtGLYII-13 showed tissue-specific expression. Moreover, most of the genes displayed similar pattern of expression in response to both salinity and drought stress, irrespective of stress duration and tissue type. MtGLYI-8, MtGLYI-11, MtGLYI-6, MtGLYI-16, MtGLYI-21, and MtGLYII-9 showed up-regulation, while MtGLYI-17 and MtGLYI-7/9 showed down-regulation in response to both stresses. Interestingly, MtGLYI-14/15 showed completely opposite pattern of expression in these two stresses. This study provides an initial basis

  10. Evaluation of Machine Learning and Rules-Based Approaches for Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles in Gram-negative Bacilli from Whole Genome Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Pesesky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The time-to-result for culture-based microorganism recovery and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing necessitate initial use of empiric (frequently broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. If the empiric therapy is not optimal, this can lead to adverse patient outcomes and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens. New, more rapid technologies are emerging to meet this need. Many of these are based on identifying resistance genes, rather than directly assaying resistance phenotypes, and thus require interpretation to translate the genotype into treatment recommendations. These interpretations, like other parts of clinical diagnostic workflows, are likely to be increasingly automated in the future. We set out to evaluate the two major approaches that could be amenable to automation pipelines: rules-based methods and machine learning methods. The rules-based algorithm makes predictions based upon current, curated knowledge of Enterobacteriaceae resistance genes. The machine-learning algorithm predicts resistance and susceptibility based on a model built from a training set of variably resistant isolates. As our test set, we used whole genome sequence data from 78 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, previously identified to represent a variety of phenotypes, from fully-susceptible to pan-resistant strains for the antibiotics tested. We tested three antibiotic resistance determinant databases for their utility in identifying the complete resistome for each isolate. The predictions of the rules-based and machine learning algorithms for these isolates were compared to results of phenotype-based diagnostics. The rules based and machine-learning predictions achieved agreement with standard-of-care phenotypic diagnostics of 89.0% and 90.3%, respectively, across twelve antibiotic agents from six major antibiotic classes. Several sources of disagreement between the algorithms were identified. Novel variants of known resistance

  11. Extreme genomes

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Edward F

    2000-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thermoplasma acidophilum, an acid- and heat-loving archaeon, has recently been reported. Comparative genomic analysis of this 'extremophile' is providing new insights into the metabolic machinery, ecology and evolution of thermophilic archaea.

  12. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  13. A comparison of digital gene expression profiling and methyl DNA immunoprecipitation as methods for gene discovery in honeybee (Apis mellifera behavioural genomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guan

    Full Text Available The honey bee has a well-organized system of division of labour among workers. Workers typically progress through a series of discrete behavioural castes as they age, and this has become an important case study for exploring how dynamic changes in gene expression can influence behaviour. Here we applied both digital gene expression analysis and methyl DNA immunoprecipitation analysis to nurse, forager and reverted nurse bees (nurses that have returned to the nursing state after a period spent foraging from the same colony in order to compare the outcomes of these different forms of genomic analysis. A total of 874 and 710 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified in forager/nurse and reverted nurse/forager comparisons respectively. Of these, 229 genes exhibited reversed directions of gene expression differences between the forager/nurse and reverted nurse/forager comparisons. Using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq we identified 366 and 442 significantly differentially methylated genes in forager/nurse and reverted nurse/forager comparisons respectively. Of these, 165 genes were identified as differentially methylated in both comparisons. However, very few genes were identified as both differentially expressed and differentially methylated in our comparisons of nurses and foragers. These findings confirm that changes in both gene expression and DNA methylation are involved in the nurse and forager behavioural castes, but the different analytical methods reveal quite distinct sets of candidate genes.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiles of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN Gene Family in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianquan Yang

    Full Text Available The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis and play crucial roles in the diverse growth and development processes including establishment and maintenance of boundary of developmental lateral organs. In this study we identified and characterized 38 LBD genes in Lotus japonicus (LjLBD and 57 LBD genes in Medicago truncatula (MtLBD, both of which are model legume plants that have some specific development features absent in Arabidopsis. The phylogenetic relationships, their locations in the genome, genes structure and conserved motifs were examined. The results revealed that all LjLBD and MtLBD genes could be distinctly divided into two classes: Class I and II. The evolutionary analysis showed that Type I functional divergence with some significantly site-specific shifts may be the main force for the divergence between Class I and Class II. In addition, the expression patterns of LjLBD genes uncovered the diverse functions in plant development. Interestingly, we found that two LjLBD proteins that were highly expressed during compound leaf and pulvinus development, can interact via yeast two-hybrid assays. Taken together, our findings provide an evolutionary and genetic foundation in further understanding the molecular basis of LBD gene family in general, specifically in L. japonicus and M. truncatula.

  15. Genome-wide analyses of long noncoding RNA expression profiles correlated with radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via next-generation deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Liu, Yong; Liu, Chao; Su, Zhongwu; Ren, Shuling; Wang, Yunyun; Deng, Tengbo; Huang, Donghai; Tian, Yongquan; Qiu, Yuanzheng

    2016-09-06

    Radioresistance is one of the major factors limiting the therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Accumulating evidence has suggested that aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) contributes to cancer progression. Therefore, here we identified lncRNAs associated with radioresistance in NPC. The differential expression profiles of lncRNAs associated with NPC radioresistance were constructed by next-generation deep sequencing by comparing radioresistant NPC cells with their parental cells. LncRNA-related mRNAs were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics algorithms compared with the mRNA profiles related to radioresistance obtained in our previous study. Several lncRNAs and associated mRNAs were validated in established NPC radioresistant cell models and NPC tissues. By comparison between radioresistant CNE-2-Rs and parental CNE-2 cells by next-generation deep sequencing, a total of 781 known lncRNAs and 2054 novel lncRNAs were annotated. The top five upregulated and downregulated known/novel lncRNAs were detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and 7/10 known lncRNAs and 3/10 novel lncRNAs were demonstrated to have significant differential expression trends that were the same as those predicted by deep sequencing. From the prediction process, 13 pairs of lncRNAs and their associated genes were acquired, and the prediction trends of three pairs were validated in both radioresistant CNE-2-Rs and 6-10B-Rs cell lines, including lncRNA n373932 and SLITRK5, n409627 and PRSS12, and n386034 and RIMKLB. LncRNA n373932 and its related SLITRK5 showed dramatic expression changes in post-irradiation radioresistant cells and a negative expression correlation in NPC tissues (R = -0.595, p < 0.05). Our study provides an overview of the expression profiles of radioresistant lncRNAs and potentially related mRNAs, which will facilitate future investigations into the

  16. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  17. ABMapper: a suffix array-based tool for multi-location searching and splice-junction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shao-Ke; Ni, Bing; Lo, Leung-Yau; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Chan, Ting-Fung; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2011-02-01

    Sequencing reads generated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) must first be mapped back to the genome through alignment before they can be further analyzed. Current fast and memory-saving short-read mappers could give us a quick view of the transcriptome. However, they are neither designed for reads that span across splice junctions nor for repetitive reads, which can be mapped to multiple locations in the genome (multi-reads). Here, we describe a new software package: ABMapper, which is specifically designed for exploring all putative locations of reads that are mapped to splice junctions or repetitive in nature. The software is freely available at: http://abmapper.sourceforge.net/. The software is written in C++ and PERL. It runs on all major platforms and operating systems including Windows, Mac OS X and LINUX.

  18. Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: network analysis reveals rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, Samuel S C; Yoo, Boyoung; Alam, Camille; Green, Taryn; Stephens, Melissa T; Zeng, Erliang; George, Gary F; Sheppard, Aaron D; Duffield, Giles E; Milenković, Tijana; Pfrender, Michael E

    2016-08-18

    Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation. However, there is little information at the transcriptional level linking the expression patterns of genes to the rhythmic physiology/behavior of Daphnia. Here we analyzed genome-wide temporal transcriptional patterns from Daphnia pulex collected over a 44 h time period under a 12:12 LD cycle (diel) conditions using a cosine-fitting algorithm. We used a comprehensive network modeling and analysis approach to identify novel co-regulated rhythmic genes that have similar network topological properties and functional annotations as rhythmic genes identified by the cosine-fitting analyses. Furthermore, we used the network approach to predict with high accuracy novel gene-function associations, thus enhancing current functional annotations available for genes in this ecologically relevant model species. Our results reveal that genes in many functional groupings exhibit 24 h rhythms in their expression patterns under diel conditions. We highlight the rhythmic expression of immunity, oxidative detoxification, and sensory process genes. We discuss differences in the chronobiology of D. pulex from other well-characterized terrestrial arthropods. This research adds to a growing body of literature suggesting the genetic mechanisms governing rhythmicity in crustaceans may be divergent from other arthropod lineages including insects. Lastly, these results highlight the power of using a network analysis approach to identify differential gene expression and provide novel

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper: comprehensive sequence and expression profile analysis under heat stress

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    Meng eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are present in all plant species and play important roles in alleviating heat stress and enhancing plant thermotolerance by preventing the irreversible aggregation of denaturing proteins. However, very little is known about the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L., an important vegetable crop with character of temperate but thermosensitive. In this study, a total of 35 putative pepper Hsp20 genes (CaHsp20s were identified and renamed on the basis of their molecular weight, and then their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship and interaction network were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CaHsp20 genes in four different tissues (root, stem, leaf and flower from the thermotolerant line R9 under heat stress condition were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of most CaHsp20 genes maintained a low level in all of the four tissues under normal temperature condition, but were highly induced by heat stress, while the expression of CaHsp16.6b, 16.7 and 23.8 were only detected in specific tissues and were not so sensitive to heat stress like other CaHsp20 genes. In addition, compared to those in thermotolerant line R9, the expression peak of most CaHsp20 genes in thermosensitive line B6 under heat stress was hysteretic, and several CaHsp20 genes (CaHsp16.4, 18.2a, 18.7, 21.2, 22.0, 25.8 and 25.9 showed higher expression levels in both line B6 and R9. These data suggest that the CaHsp20 genes may be involved in heat stress and defense responses in pepper, which provides the basis for further functional analyses of CaHsp20s in the formation of pepper acquired thermotoleance.

  20. Different Array CGH profiles within hereditary breast cancer tumors associated to BRCA1 expression and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Carolina; Aravena, Andrés; Tapia, Teresa; Rozenblum, Ester; Solís, Luisa; Corvalán, Alejandro; Camus, Mauricio; Alvarez, Manuel; Munroe, David; Maass, Alejandro; Carvallo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Array CGH analysis of breast tumors has contributed to the identification of different genomic profiles in these tumors. Loss of DNA repair by BRCA1 functional deficiency in breast cancer has been proposed as a relevant contribution to breast cancer progression for tumors with no germline mutation. Identifying the genomic alterations taking place in BRCA1 not expressing tumors will lead us to a better understanding of the cellular functions affected in this heterogeneous disease. Moreover, specific genomic alterations may contribute to the identification of potential therapeutic targets and offer a more personalized treatment to breast cancer patients. Forty seven tumors from hereditary breast cancer cases, previously analyzed for BRCA1 expression, and screened for germline BRCA1 and 2 mutations, were analyzed by Array based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) using Agilent 4x44K arrays. Overall survival was established for tumors in different clusters using Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) Test. Gene lists obtained from aCGH analysis were analyzed for Gene Ontology enrichment using GOrilla and DAVID tools. Genomic profiling of the tumors showed specific alterations associated to BRCA1 or 2 mutation status, and BRCA1 expression in the tumors, affecting relevant cellular processes. Similar cellular functions were found affected in BRCA1 not expressing and BRCA1 or 2 mutated tumors. Hierarchical clustering classified hereditary breast tumors in four major, groups according to the type and amount of genomic alterations, showing one group with a significantly poor overall survival (p = 0.0221). Within this cluster, deletion of PLEKHO1, GDF11, DARC, DAG1 and CD63 may be associated to the worse outcome of the patients. These results support the fact that BRCA1 lack of expression in tumors should be used as a marker for BRCAness and to select these patients for synthetic lethality approaches such as treatment with PARP inhibitors. In addition, the identification of specific

  1. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

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    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  2. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Changes and Lipid Profile Modifications Induced by Medicago truncatula N5 Overexpression at an Early Stage of the Symbiotic Interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti

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    Chiara Santi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs are small basic secreted proteins, which are characterized by lipid-binding capacity and are putatively involved in lipid trafficking. LTPs play a role in several biological processes, including the root nodule symbiosis. In this regard, the Medicago truncatula nodulin 5 (MtN5 LTP has been proved to positively regulate the nodulation capacity, controlling rhizobial infection and nodule primordia invasion. To better define the lipid transfer protein MtN5 function during the symbiosis, we produced MtN5-downregulated and -overexpressing plants, and we analysed the transcriptomic changes occurring in the roots at an early stage of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. We also carried out the lipid profile analysis of wild type (WT and MtN5-overexpressing roots after rhizobia infection. The downregulation of MtN5 increased the root hair curling, an early event of rhizobia infection, and concomitantly induced changes in the expression of defence-related genes. On the other hand, MtN5 overexpression favoured the invasion of the nodules by rhizobia and determined in the roots the modulation of genes that are involved in lipid transport and metabolism as well as an increased content of lipids, especially galactolipids that characterize the symbiosome membranes. Our findings suggest the potential participation of LTPs in the synthesis and rearrangement of membranes occurring during the formation of the infection threads and the symbiosome membrane.

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling identifies ALDH1A3 promoter methylation as a prognostic predictor in G-CIMP- primary glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Wei; You, Gan; Bao, Zhaoshi; Wang, Yongzhi; Liu, Yanwei; You, Yongping; Jiang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    To date, the aberrations in the DNA methylation patterns that are associated with different prognoses of G-CIMP- primary GBMs remain to be elucidated. Here, DNA methylation profiling of primary GBM tissues from 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ⩾18months) and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ⩽9months) was performed. Then G-CIMP+ samples were excluded. The differentially expressed CpG loci were identified between residual 18 STS and 9 LTS G-CIMP- samples. Methylation levels of 11 CpG loci (10genes) were statistically significantly lower, and 43 CpG loci (40genes) were statistically significantly higher in the tumor tissues of LTS than those of STS G-CIMP- samples (PCIMP- samples, 3 CpG loci localized in the promoter of ALDH1A3. Furthermore, using an independent validation cohort containing 37 primary GBM samples without IDH1 mutation and MGMT promoter methylation, the hypermethylation status of ALDH1A3 promoter predicted a better prognosis with an accompanied low expression of ALDH1A3 protein. Taken together, our results defined prognosis-related methylation signatures systematically for the first time in G-CIMP- primary GBMs. ALDH1A3 promoter methylation conferred a favorable prognosis in G-CIMP- primary GBMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinctive Genomic Profiles of Normal and Transformed Thyrocytes Irradiated with Low vs. High Doses of X-irradiation both in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Ardat, K. [Radiobiology, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Molecular Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Monsieurs, P. [Microbiology, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Janssen, A.; Beck, M; Michaux, A.; Benotmane, R.; Derradji, H.; Baatout, S. [Radiobiology, SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Anastasov, N.; Atkinson, M. [Radiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich (Germany); Beckaert, S.; Van Criekinge, W. [Molecular Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    The increase in cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster led to an elevation of interest in the effect of radiation on the thyroid. Our work hopes to uncover some of the effects of low doses of external X-radiation in in vitro and in vivo models using several techniques and robust analysis. Here we describe the use of such models combined with micro-arrays and sound statistical analysis. we find that low doses of radiation act differently on murine thyroids carrying and lacking the RET/PTC translocation and even bear a distinctive profile to higher irradiation doses in both in vitro and in vivo models. We also find that micro-RNAs are involved in the response of these cells to radiation, even at low doses and that two in particular, let-7g and miR-106a, were significantly involved in the cells' p53-mediated anti-proliferative response

  5. Combined genome-wide expression profiling and targeted RNA interference in primary mouse macrophages reveals perturbation of transcriptional networks associated with interferon signalling

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    Craigon Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferons (IFNs are potent antiviral cytokines capable of reprogramming the macrophage phenotype through the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. Here we have used targeted RNA interference to suppress the expression of a number of key genes associated with IFN signalling in murine macrophages prior to stimulation with interferon-gamma. Genome-wide changes in transcript abundance caused by siRNA activity were measured using exon-level microarrays in the presence or absence of IFNγ. Results Transfection of murine bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs with a non-targeting (control siRNA and 11 sequence-specific siRNAs was performed using a cationic lipid transfection reagent (Lipofectamine2000 prior to stimulation with IFNγ. Total RNA was harvested from cells and gene expression measured on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Network-based analysis of these data revealed six siRNAs to cause a marked shift in the macrophage transcriptome in the presence or absence IFNγ. These six siRNAs targeted the Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2 transcripts. The perturbation of the transcriptome by the six siRNAs was highly similar in each case and affected the expression of over 600 downstream transcripts. Regulated transcripts were clustered based on co-expression into five major groups corresponding to transcriptional networks associated with the type I and II IFN response, cell cycle regulation, and NF-KB signalling. In addition we have observed a significant non-specific immune stimulation of cells transfected with siRNA using Lipofectamine2000, suggesting use of this reagent in BMDMs, even at low concentrations, is enough to induce a type I IFN response. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that the type I IFN response in murine BMDMs is dependent on Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2, and that siRNAs targeted to these genes results in perturbation of key transcriptional networks associated

  6. Embryo genome profiling by single-cell sequencing for successful preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a family harboring COL4A1 c.1537G>A; p.G513S mutation

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    Nayana H Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Genetic profiling of embryos (also known as preimplantation genetic diagnosis before implantation has dramatically enhanced the success quotient of in vitro fertilization (IVF in recent times. The technology helps in avoiding selective pregnancy termination since the baby is likely to be free of the disease under consideration. AIM: Screening of embryos free from c.1537G>A; p.G513S mutation within the COL4A1 gene for which the father was known in before be in heterozygous condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Processing of trophectoderm biopsies was done from twelve embryos for c.1537G>A; p.G513S mutation within the COL4A1 gene. DNA extracted from isolated cells were subjected to whole genome amplification using an isothermal amplification and strand displacement technology. Oligonucleotide primers bracketing the mutation were synthesized and used to amplify 162 base pairs (bp polymerase chain reaction amplicons originating from each embryo which were subsequently sequenced to detect the presence or absence of the single base polymorphism. RESULTS: Three out of 12 embryos interrogated in this study were found to be normal while 9 were found to harbor the mutation in heterozygous condition. Implantation of one of the normal embryos following by chorionic villus sampling at 11 th week of pregnancy indicated that the baby was free from c.1537G>A; p.G513S mutation within the COL4A1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Single-cell sequencing is a helpful tool for preimplantation embryo profiling. This is the first report from India describing the birth of a normal child through IVF procedure where a potential pathogenic COL4A1 allele was avoided using this technology.

  7. Identification and comparative profiling of miRNAs in an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange and its wild type by genome-wide deep sequencing.

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    Lei-Ming Sun

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a regulatory role in various biological and metabolic processes by negatively affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. While the number of known Arabidopsis and rice miRNAs is continuously increasing, information regarding miRNAs from woody plants such as citrus remains limited. Solexa sequencing was performed at different developmental stages on both an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. and its wild-type in this study, resulting in the obtainment of 141 known miRNAs belonging to 99 families and 75 novel miRNAs in four libraries. A total of 317 potential target genes were predicted based on the 51 novel miRNAs families, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that high ranked miRNA-target genes are those implicated in diverse cellular processes in plants, including development, transcription, protein degradation and cross adaptation. To characterize those miRNAs expressed at the juvenile and adult development stages of the mutant and its wild-type, further analysis on the expression profiles of several miRNAs through real-time PCR was performed. The results revealed that most miRNAs were down-regulated at adult stage compared with juvenile stage for both the mutant and its wild-type. These results indicate that both conserved and novel miRNAs may play important roles in citrus growth and development, stress responses and other physiological processes.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Profiling of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Family in Pumpkin Reveals Likely Role in Cold-Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kayum, Md.; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Choi, Eung Kyoo; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2018-01-01

    Plant growth and development can be adversely affected by cold stress, limiting productivity. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family comprises important detoxifying enzymes, which play major roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses by reducing the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) are widely grown, economically important, and nutritious; however, their yield can be severely affected by cold stress. The identification of putative candidate genes responsible for cold-stress tolerance, including the GST family genes, is therefore vital. For the first time, we identified 32 C. maxima GST (CmaGST) genes using a combination of bioinformatics approaches and characterized them by expression profiling. These CmaGST genes represent seven of the 14 known classes of plant GSTs, with 18 CmaGSTs categorized into the tau class. The CmaGSTs were distributed across 13 of pumpkin’s 20 chromosomes, with the highest numbers found on chromosomes 4 and 6. The large number of CmaGST genes resulted from gene duplication; 11 and 5 pairs of CmaGST genes were segmental- and tandem-duplicated, respectively. In addition, all CmaGST genes showed organ-specific expression. The expression of the putative GST genes in pumpkin was examined under cold stress in two lines with contrasting cold tolerance: cold-tolerant CP-1 (C. maxima) and cold-susceptible EP-1 (Cucurbita moschata). Seven genes (CmaGSTU3, CmaGSTU7, CmaGSTU8, CmaGSTU9, CmaGSTU11, CmaGSTU12, and CmaGSTU14) were highly expressed in the cold-tolerant line and are putative candidates for use in breeding cold-tolerant crop varieties. These results increase our understanding of the cold-stress-related functions of the GST family, as well as potentially enhancing pumpkin breeding programs. PMID:29439434

  9. Insights into molecular profiles and genomic evolution of an IRAK4 homolog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): immunogen- and pathogen-induced transcriptional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Whang, Ilson; Lim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee

    2015-04-01

    As a pivotal signaling mediator of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling cascades, the IL-1R-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is engaged in the activation of host immunity. This study investigates the molecular and expressional profiles of an IRAK4-like homolog from Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfIRAK4). The OfIRAK4 gene (8.2 kb) was structured with eleven exons and ten introns. A putative coding sequence (1395bp) was translated to the OfIRAK protein of 464 amino acids. The deduced OfIRAK4 protein featured a bipartite domain structure composed of a death domain (DD) and a kinase domain (PKc). Teleost IRAK4 appears to be distinct and divergent from that of tetrapods in terms of its exon-intron structure and evolutionary relatedness. Analysis of the sequence upstream of translation initiation site revealed the presence of putative regulatory elements, including NF-κB-binding sites, which are possibly involved in transcriptional control of OfIRAK4. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed to assess the transcriptional expression of OfIRAK4 in different juvenile tissues and post-injection of different immunogens and pathogens. Ubiquitous basal mRNA expression was widely detected with highest level in liver. In vivo flagellin (FLA) challenge significantly intensified its mRNA levels in intestine, liver and head kidney indicating its role in FLA-induced signaling. Meanwhile, up-regulated expression was also determined in liver and head kidney of animals challenged with potent immunogens (LPS and poly I:C) and pathogens (Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV)). Taken together, these data implicate that OfIRAK4 might be engaged in antibacterial and antiviral immunity in rock bream. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. using a soybean genome array

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    Das Sayan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi. At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue. At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. Conclusions In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.

  11. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity.

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    Montserrat Torres-Oliva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells.

  12. Genome-wide expression profiling analysis to identify key genes in the anti-HIV mechanism of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijie; Wang, Yunqi; Li, Yi; Dong, Ya; Yang, Aimin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rongqiang

    2018-07-01

    Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Finally, we analyzed the expressions of key proteins in HIV-infected T cells (GSE6740 dataset) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (GSE511 dataset). 1) CD4 + T cells counts and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells decreased while CD8 + T cells counts increased in HIV positive individuals; 2) 517 DEGs were found in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at acute and chronic stage with the criterial of P-value T cells. The main biological processes of the DEGs were response to virus and defense response to virus. At chronic stage, ISG15 protein, in conjunction with IFN-1 pathway might play key roles in anti-HIV responses of CD4 + T cells; and 4) The expression of ISG15 increased in both T cells and PBMCs after HIV infection. Gene expression profile of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells changed significantly in HIV infection, in which ISG15 gene may play a central role in activating the natural antiviral process of immune cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Schneider, Julia; Wiegleb, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells) and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells. PMID:29360820

  14. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling reveal tissue-specific expression and differentially-regulated genes involved in gibberellin metabolism between Williams banana and its dwarf mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Xie, Jianghui; Duan, Yajie; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-27

    Dwarfism is one of the most valuable traits in banana breeding because semi-dwarf cultivars show good resistance to damage by wind and rain. Moreover, these cultivars present advantages of convenient cultivation, management, and so on. We obtained a dwarf mutant '8818-1' through EMS (ethyl methane sulphonate) mutagenesis of Williams banana 8818 (Musa spp. AAA group). Our research have shown that gibberellins (GAs) content in 8818-1 false stems was significantly lower than that in its parent 8818 and the dwarf type of 8818-1 could be restored by application of exogenous GA3. Although GA exerts important impacts on the 8818-1 dwarf type, our understanding of the regulation of GA metabolism during banana dwarf mutant development remains limited. Genome-wide screening revealed 36 candidate GA metabolism genes were systematically identified for the first time; these genes included 3 MaCPS, 2 MaKS, 1 MaKO, 2 MaKAO, 10 MaGA20ox, 4 MaGA3ox, and 14 MaGA2ox genes. Phylogenetic tree and conserved protein domain analyses showed sequence conservation and divergence. GA metabolism genes exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Early GA biosynthesis genes were constitutively expressed but presented differential regulation in different tissues in Williams banana. GA oxidase family genes were mainly transcribed in young fruits, thus suggesting that young fruits were the most active tissue involved in GA metabolism, followed by leaves, bracts, and finally approximately mature fruits. Expression patterns between 8818 and 8818-1 revealed that MaGA20ox4, MaGA20ox5, and MaGA20ox7 of the MaGA20ox gene family and MaGA2ox7, MaGA2ox12, and MaGA2ox14 of the MaGA2ox gene family exhibited significant differential expression and high-expression levels in false stems. These genes are likely to be responsible for the regulation of GAs content in 8818-1 false stems. Overall, phylogenetic evolution, tissue specificity and differential expression analyses of GA metabolism genes can provide a

  15. Development of a High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) Approach Based on the Accessory Genome of Escherichia coli to Characterize Shiga-Toxin Producing E. coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelacci, Valeria; Orsini, Massimiliano; Knijn, Arnold; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains possess a large accessory genome composed of virulence genes existing in multiple allelic variants, which sometimes segregate with specific STEC subpopulations. We analyzed the allelic variability of 91 virulence genes of STEC by Real Time PCR followed by melting curves analysis in 713 E. coli strains including 358 STEC. The 91 genes investigated were located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), OI-57, and OI-122 pathogenicity islands and displayed a total of 476 alleles in the study population. The combinations of the 91 alleles of each strain were termed allelic signatures and used to perform cluster analyses. We termed such an approach High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) and used it to investigate the phylogeny of STEC of multiple serogroups. The dendrograms obtained identified groups of STEC segregating approximately with the serogroups and allowed the identification of subpopulations within the single groups. The study of the allelic signatures provided further evidence of the coevolution of the LEE and OI-122, reflecting the occurrence of their acquisition through a single event. The HReVAP analysis represents a sensitive tool for studying the evolution of LEE-positive STEC. PMID:26941726

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Gene Family in Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) Reveal the Role of AcABCG38 in Pollen Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Piaojuan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Lihua; Hou, Zhimin; Yan, Maokai; Hu, Bingyan; Liu, Yanhui; Azam, Syed Muhammad; Zhang, Ziyan; Rahman, Zia Ur; Liu, Liping; Qin, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) cultivation commonly relies on asexual reproduction which is easily impeded by many factors in agriculture production. Sexual reproduction might be a novel approach to improve the pineapple planting. However, genes controlling pineapple sexual reproduction are still remain elusive. In different organisms a conserved superfamily proteins known as ATP binding cassette (ABC) participate in various biological processes. Whereas, till today the ABC gene family has not been identified in pineapple. Here 100 ABC genes were identified in the pineapple genome and grouped into eight subfamilies (5 ABCAs , 20 ABCB s, 16 ABCCs , 2 ABCDs , one ABCEs , 5 ABCFs , 42 ABCGs and 9 ABCIs ). Gene expression profiling revealed the dynamic expression pattern of ABC gene family in various tissues and different developmental stages. AcABCA5, AcABCB6, AcABCC4 , AcABCC7 , AcABCC9 , AcABCG26 , AcABCG38 and AcABCG42 exhibited preferential expression in ovule and stamen. Over-expression of AcABCG38 in the Arabidopsis double mutant abcg1-2abcg16-2 partially restored its pollen abortion defects, indicating that AcABCG38 plays important roles in pollen development. Our study on ABC gene family in pineapple provides useful information for developing sexual pineapple plantation which could be utilized to improve pineapple agricultural production.

  17. Hybrid Capture-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies Lung Cancer Patients with Well-Characterized Sensitizing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Point Mutations That Were Not Detected by Standard of Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, James H; Schrock, Alexa B; Johnson, Adrienne; Lipson, Doron; Gay, Laurie M; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Elvin, Julia A; Shakir, Abdur; Ruehlman, Peter; Reckamp, Karen L; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Ross, Jeffrey S; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ali, Siraj M

    2018-03-14

    In our recent study, of cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) exon 19 deletions using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), 17/77 (22%) patients with prior standard of care (SOC) EGFR testing results available were previously negative for exon 19 deletion. Our aim was to compare the detection rates of CGP versus SOC testing for well-characterized sensitizing EGFR point mutations (pm) in our 6,832-patient cohort. DNA was extracted from 40 microns of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 6,832 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of various histologies (2012-2015). CGP was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation-based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 576×. Genomic alterations (pm, small indels, copy number changes and rearrangements) involving EGFR were recorded for each case and compared with prior testing results if available. Overall, there were 482 instances of EGFR exon 21 L858R (359) and L861Q (20), exon 18 G719X (73) and exon 20 S768I (30) pm, of which 103 unique cases had prior EGFR testing results that were available for review. Of these 103 cases, CGP identified 22 patients (21%) with sensitizing EGFR pm that were not detected by SOC testing, including 9/75 (12%) patients with L858R, 4/7 (57%) patients with L861Q, 8/20 (40%) patients with G719X, and 4/7 (57%) patients with S768I pm (some patients had multiple EGFR pm). In cases with available clinical data, benefit from small molecule inhibitor therapy was observed. CGP, even when applied to low tumor purity clinical-grade specimens, can detect well-known EGFR pm in NSCLC patients that would otherwise not be detected by SOC testing. Taken together with EGFR exon 19 deletions, over 20% of patients who are positive for EGFR -activating mutations using CGP are previously negative by SOC EGFR mutation testing, suggesting that thousands of such patients per year in the U.S. alone could experience improved clinical

  18. Whole genome-wide transcript profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with seed field emergence in two soybean low phytate mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fengjie; Yu, Xiaomin; Dong, Dekun; Yang, Qinghua; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Shenlong; Zhu, Danhua

    2017-01-18

    , which involves a series of physiological, morphological and transcriptional changes. Compared with TW-1, TW-1-M had a very different gene expression profile, which included genes related to plant hormones, antioxidation, anti-stress and energy metabolism processes. Our research provides a molecular basis for understanding germination mechanisms, and is also an important resource for the genetic analysis of germination in low phytate crops. Plant hormone- and antioxidation-related genes might strongly contribute to the high germination rate in the TW-1-M mutant.

  19. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Conese

    Full Text Available In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of p<0.05 were utilized to identify significant genes. Community networks and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the groups of controls, pre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1, and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1. The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils

  20. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conese, Massimo; Castellani, Stefano; Lepore, Silvia; Palumbo, Orazio; Manca, Antonio; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Copetti, Massimiliano; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Gallo, Crescenzio; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Carella, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log) threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of p<0.05 were utilized to identify significant genes. Community networks and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the groups of controls, pre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1), hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils, both before and

  1. Fast concurrent array-based stacks, queues and deques using fetch-and-increment-bounded, fetch-and-decrement-bounded and store-on-twin synchronization primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alana; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert

    2014-09-16

    Implementation primitives for concurrent array-based stacks, queues, double-ended queues (deques) and wrapped deques are provided. In one aspect, each element of the stack, queue, deque or wrapped deque data structure has its own ticket lock, allowing multiple threads to concurrently use multiple elements of the data structure and thus achieving high performance. In another aspect, new synchronization primitives FetchAndIncrementBounded (Counter, Bound) and FetchAndDecrementBounded (Counter, Bound) are implemented. These primitives can be implemented in hardware and thus promise a very fast throughput for queues, stacks and double-ended queues.

  2. Field programmable gate array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system for in vivo imaging of cardiac dynamics in the chick embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht; Norozi, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    efficient and compact implementation by combining the conversion to an analytic signal with a pulse shaping function without the need for extra resources as compared to the Hilbert transform method. The conversion of the analytic signal to amplitude and phase is done by use of the coordinate rotation......We demonstrate a field programmable gate-array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system. A complex-valued bandpass filter is used for the first time in optical coherence tomography signal processing to create the analytic signal. This method simplifies the filter design, and allows...

  3. Genome Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the cell nucleus (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), and. (3) traits governed ... tively good embryonic development but very poor development of membranes and ... Human homologies for the type of situation described above are naturally ..... imprint; (b) New modifications of the paternal genome in germ cells of each ...

  4. Baculovirus Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus genomes are covalently closed circles of double stranded-DNA varying in size between 80 and 180 kilobase-pair. The genomes of more than fourty-one baculoviruses have been sequenced to date. The majority of these (37) are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts; three infect sawflies

  5. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  6. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  7. Methylation profiling identified novel differentially methylated markers including OPCML and FLRT2 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Davison, Jerry; Qu, Xiaoyu; Morrissey, Colm; Storer, Barry; Brown, Lisha; Vessella, Robert; Nelson, Peter; Fang, Min

    2016-04-02

    To develop new methods to distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancers (PCa), we utilized comprehensive high-throughput array-based relative methylation (CHARM) assay to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) throughout the genome, including both CpG island (CGI) and non-CGI regions in PCa patients based on Gleason grade. Initially, 26 samples, including 8 each of low [Gleason score (GS) 6] and high (GS ≥7) grade PCa samples and 10 matched normal prostate tissues, were analyzed as a discovery cohort. We identified 3,567 DMRs between normal and cancer tissues, and 913 DMRs distinguishing low from high-grade cancers. Most of these DMRs were located at CGI shores. The top 5 candidate DMRs from the low vs. high Gleason comparison, including OPCML, ELAVL2, EXT1, IRX5, and FLRT2, were validated by pyrosequencing using the discovery cohort. OPCML and FLRT2 were further validated in an independent cohort consisting of 20 low-Gleason and 33 high-Gleason tissues. We then compared patients with biochemical recurrence (n=70) vs. those without (n=86) in a third cohort, and they showed no difference in methylation at these DMR loci. When GS 3+4 cases and GS 4+3 cases were compared, OPCML-DMR methylation showed a trend of lower methylation in the recurrence group (n=30) than in the no-recurrence (n=52) group. We conclude that whole-genome methylation profiling with CHARM revealed distinct patterns of differential DNA methylation between normal prostate and PCa tissues, as well as between different risk groups of PCa as defined by Gleason scores. A panel of selected DMRs may serve as novel surrogate biomarkers for Gleason score in PCa.

  8. Value-based genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Pan, Kathy; Fakih, Marwan; Pal, Sumanta; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-20

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge. In this review, we highlight available data through a pre-established and conceptualized framework for evaluating value-based medicine to assess the cost (efficiency), clinical benefit (effectiveness), and toxicity (safety) of genomic profiling in cancer care. We also provide perspectives on future directions of next-generation sequencing from targeted panels to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing and describe potential strategies needed to attain value-based genomics.

  9. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  10. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  11. Genome-Wide Methylation Profiling of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukova B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric disorders. It is a disorder of complex inheritance, involving both heritable and environmental factors. DNA methylation is an inheritable epigenetic modification that stably alters gene expression. We reasoned that genetic modifications that are a result of environmental stimuli could also make a contribution.

  12. Correlation of microRNA levels during hypoxia with predicted target mRNAs through genome-wide microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of oxygen in tissues, seen in situations such as chronic lung disease, necrotic tumors, and high altitude exposures, initiate a signaling pathway that results in active transcription of genes possessing a hypoxia response element (HRE. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in miRNA expression following hypoxia could account for changes in the cellular transcriptome based on currently available miRNA target prediction tools. Methods To identify changes induced by hypoxia, we conducted mRNA- and miRNA-array-based experiments in HT29 cells, and performed comparative analysis of the resulting data sets based on multiple target prediction algorithms. To date, few studies have investigated an environmental perturbation for effects on genome-wide miRNA levels, or their consequent influence on mRNA output. Results Comparison of miRNAs with predicted mRNA targets indicated a lower level of concordance than expected. We did, however, find preliminary evidence of combinatorial regulation of mRNA expression by miRNA. Conclusion Target prediction programs and expression profiling techniques do not yet adequately represent the complexity of miRNA-mediated gene repression, and new methods may be required to better elucidate these pathways. Our data suggest the physiologic impact of miRNAs on cellular transcription results from a multifaceted network of miRNA and mRNA relationships, working together in an interconnected system and in context of hundreds of RNA species. The methods described here for comparative analysis of cellular miRNA and mRNA will be useful for understanding genome wide regulatory responsiveness and refining miRNA predictive algorithms.

  13. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies an essential role of reactive oxygen species in pediatric glioblastoma multiforme and validates a methylome specific for H3 histone family 3A with absence of G-CIMP/isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Prerana; Pia Patric, Irene Rosita; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Pathak, Pankaj; Pal, Jagriti; Sharma, Vikas; Thinagararanjan, Sivaarumugam; Santosh, Vani; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Suri, Ashish; Gupta, Deepak; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Sarkar, Chitra

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is rare, and there is a single study, a seminal discovery showing association of histone H3.3 and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 mutation with a DNA methylation signature. The present study aims to validate these findings in an independent cohort of pediatric GBM, compare it with adult GBM, and evaluate the involvement of important functionally altered pathways. Genome-wide methylation profiling of 21 pediatric GBM cases was done and compared with adult GBM data (GSE22867). We performed gene mutation analysis of IDH1 and H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A), status evaluation of glioma cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), and Gene Ontology analysis. Experimental evaluation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) association was also done. Distinct differences were noted between methylomes of pediatric and adult GBM. Pediatric GBM was characterized by 94 hypermethylated and 1206 hypomethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands, with 3 distinct clusters, having a trend to prognostic correlation. Interestingly, none of the pediatric GBM cases showed G-CIMP/IDH1 mutation. Gene Ontology analysis identified ROS association in pediatric GBM, which was experimentally validated. H3F3A mutants (36.4%; all K27M) harbored distinct methylomes and showed enrichment of processes related to neuronal development, differentiation, and cell-fate commitment. Our study confirms that pediatric GBM has a distinct methylome compared with that of adults. Presence of distinct clusters and an H3F3A mutation-specific methylome indicate existence of epigenetic subgroups within pediatric GBM. Absence of IDH1/G-CIMP status further indicates that findings in adult GBM cannot be simply extrapolated to pediatric GBM and that there is a strong need for identification of separate prognostic markers. A possible role of ROS in pediatric GBM pathogenesis is demonstrated for the first time and needs further evaluation. © The Author(s) 2014

  14. Managing the genomic revolution in cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doreen; Gocke, Christopher D

    2017-08-01

    Molecular tumor profiling is now a routine part of patient care, revealing targetable genomic alterations and molecularly distinct tumor subtypes with therapeutic and prognostic implications. The widespread adoption of next-generation sequencing technologies has greatly facilitated clinical implementation of genomic data and opened the door for high-throughput multigene-targeted sequencing. Herein, we discuss the variability of cancer genetic profiling currently offered by clinical laboratories, the challenges of applying rapidly evolving medical knowledge to individual patients, and the need for more standardized population-based molecular profiling.

  15. Cephalopod genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, ``Paths to Cephalopod Genomics-Strategies, Choices, Organization,'' held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austria......, Australia, China, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Spain and the USA) met to address the pressing need for genome sequencing of cephalopod mollusks. This group, drawn from cephalopod biologists, neuroscientists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, materials scientists, bioinformaticians and researchers...... active in sequencing, assembling and annotating genomes, agreed on a set of cephalopod species of particular importance for initial sequencing and developed strategies and an organization (CephSeq Consortium) to promote this sequencing. The conclusions and recommendations of this meeting are described...

  16. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  17. Comparative Genomics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 8. Comparative Genomics - A Powerful New Tool in Biology. Anand K Bachhawat. General Article Volume 11 Issue 8 August 2006 pp 22-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. GI-POP: a combinational annotation and genomic island prediction pipeline for ongoing microbial genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Yao, Tzu-Jung; Ma, Cheng-Yu; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2013-04-10

    Sequencing of microbial genomes is important because of microbial-carrying antibiotic and pathogenetic activities. However, even with the help of new assembling software, finishing a whole genome is a time-consuming task. In most bacteria, pathogenetic or antibiotic genes are carried in genomic islands. Therefore, a quick genomic island (GI) prediction method is useful for ongoing sequencing genomes. In this work, we built a Web server called GI-POP (http://gipop.life.nthu.edu.tw) which integrates a sequence assembling tool, a functional annotation pipeline, and a high-performance GI predicting module, in a support vector machine (SVM)-based method called genomic island genomic profile scanning (GI-GPS). The draft genomes of the ongoing genome projects in contigs or scaffolds can be submitted to our Web server, and it provides the functional annotation and highly probable GI-predicting results. GI-POP is a comprehensive annotation Web server designed for ongoing genome project analysis. Researchers can perform annotation and obtain pre-analytic information include possible GIs, coding/non-coding sequences and functional analysis from their draft genomes. This pre-analytic system can provide useful information for finishing a genome sequencing project. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitation of heteroplasmy of mtDNA sequence variants identified in a population of AD patients and controls by array-based resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Keith D; Valla, Jon; Szelinger, Szabolics; Schneider, Lonnie E; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Brown, Kevin M; Pearson, John V; Halperin, Rebecca; Dunckley, Travis; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Caselli, Richard J; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich A

    2006-08-01

    The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been well documented. Though evidence for the role of mitochondria in AD seems incontrovertible, the impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in AD etiology remains controversial. Though mutations in mitochondrially encoded genes have repeatedly been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, many of these studies have been plagued by lack of replication as well as potential contamination of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes. To assess the role of mtDNA mutations in the pathogenesis of AD, while avoiding the pitfalls of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes encountered in previous investigations and showcasing the benefits of a novel resequencing technology, we sequenced the entire coding region (15,452 bp) of mtDNA from 19 extremely well-characterized AD patients and 18 age-matched, unaffected controls utilizing a new, reliable, high-throughput array-based resequencing technique, the Human MitoChip. High-throughput, array-based DNA resequencing of the entire mtDNA coding region from platelets of 37 subjects revealed the presence of 208 loci displaying a total of 917 sequence variants. There were no statistically significant differences in overall mutational burden between cases and controls, however, 265 independent sites of statistically significant change between cases and controls were identified. Changed sites were found in genes associated with complexes I (30.2%), III (3.0%), IV (33.2%), and V (9.1%) as well as tRNA (10.6%) and rRNA (14.0%). Despite their statistical significance, the subtle nature of the observed changes makes it difficult to determine whether they represent true functional variants involved in AD etiology or merely naturally occurring dissimilarity. Regardless, this study demonstrates the tremendous value of this novel mtDNA resequencing platform, which avoids the pitfalls of erroneously amplifying nuclear-encoded mtDNA pseudogenes, and

  20. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  1. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Cristina; Guidi, Elena; Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Roperto, Franco; Di Meo, Giulia Pia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Floriot, Sandrine; Boussaha, Mekki; Eggen, André; Ferretti, Luca

    2006-05-23

    The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT) is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis, especially of vesical papillomavirus-associated cancers of

  2. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  3. Personal genomics services: whose genomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, David; Bregman-Eschet, Yael

    2009-07-01

    New companies offering personal whole-genome information services over the internet are dynamic and highly visible players in the personal genomics field. For fees currently ranging from US$399 to US$2500 and a vial of saliva, individuals can now purchase online access to their individual genetic information regarding susceptibility to a range of chronic diseases and phenotypic traits based on a genome-wide SNP scan. Most of the companies offering such services are based in the United States, but their clients may come from nearly anywhere in the world. Although the scientific validity, clinical utility and potential future implications of such services are being hotly debated, several ethical and regulatory questions related to direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing strategies of genetic tests have not yet received sufficient attention. For example, how can we minimize the risk of unauthorized third parties from submitting other people's DNA for testing? Another pressing question concerns the ownership of (genotypic and phenotypic) information, as well as the unclear legal status of customers regarding their own personal information. Current legislation in the US and Europe falls short of providing clear answers to these questions. Until the regulation of personal genomics services catches up with the technology, we call upon commercial providers to self-regulate and coordinate their activities to minimize potential risks to individual privacy. We also point out some specific steps, along the trustee model, that providers of DTC personal genomics services as well as regulators and policy makers could consider for addressing some of the concerns raised below.

  4. Whole-genome sequencing of a laboratory-evolved yeast strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunham Maitreya J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evolution of microbial populations provides a unique opportunity to study evolutionary adaptation in response to controlled selective pressures. However, until recently it has been difficult to identify the precise genetic changes underlying adaptation at a genome-wide scale. New DNA sequencing technologies now allow the genome of parental and evolved strains of microorganisms to be rapidly determined. Results We sequenced >93.5% of the genome of a laboratory-evolved strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its ancestor at >28× depth. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number amplifications were found, with specific gains over array-based methodologies previously used to analyze these genomes. Applying a segmentation algorithm to quantify structural changes, we determined the approximate genomic boundaries of a 5× gene amplification. These boundaries guided the recovery of breakpoint sequences, which provide insights into the nature of a complex genomic rearrangement. Conclusions This study suggests that whole-genome sequencing can provide a rapid approach to uncover the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptations, with further applications in the study of laboratory selections and mutagenesis screens. In addition, we show how single-end, short read sequencing data can provide detailed information about structural rearrangements, and generate predictions about the genomic features and processes that underlie genome plasticity.

  5. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, R.; Enckevort, F.H.J. van; Boekhorst, J.; Molenaar, D; Siezen, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY: A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a

  6. Gas Sensing Studies of an n-n Hetero-Junction Array Based on SnO2 and ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Naik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A composite metal oxide semiconductor (MOS sensor array based on tin dioxide (SNO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO has been fabricated using a straight forward mechanical mixing method. The array was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The array was evaluated against a number of environmentally important reducing and oxidizing gases across a range of operating temperatures (300–500 °C. The highest response achieved was against 100 ppm ethanol by the 50 wt% ZnO–50 wt% SnO2 device, which exhibited a response of 109.1, a 4.5-fold increase with respect to the pure SnO2 counterpart (which displayed a response of 24.4 and a 12.3-fold enhancement with respect to the pure ZnO counterpart (which was associated with a response of 8.9, towards the same concentration of the analyte. Cross sensitivity studies were also carried out against a variety of reducing gases at an operating temperature of 300 °C. The sensors array showed selectivity towards ethanol. The enhanced behaviour of the mixed oxide materials was influenced by junction effects, composition, the packing structure and the device microstructure. The results show that it is possible to tune the sensitivity and selectivity of a composite sensor, through a simple change in the composition of the composite.

  7. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  8. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  9. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  10. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  11. Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Sylvan C; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W; Berger, Michael F; Gabriel, Stacey B; Golub, Todd R; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A; Garraway, Levi A

    2013-04-25

    The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term "chromoplexy," frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of a Piezoelectric Sensor Array-Based Device for Measurement of Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity: The Philips Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shao-Kun; Hong, Xiang-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Yin, Bin; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2018-03-01

    Multiple piezoelectric pressure mechanotransducers topologized into an array might improve efficiency and accuracy in collecting arterial pressure waveforms for measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV). In the present study, we validated a piezoelectric sensor array-based prototype (Philips) against the validated and clinically widely used Complior device (Alam Medical). We recruited 33 subjects with a wide distribution of PWV. For the validation, PWV was measured sequentially with the Complior device (four times) and the Philips prototype (three times). With the 99 paired PWV values, we investigated the agreement between the Philips prototype and the Complior device using Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plot. We also performed analysis on the determinants and reproducibility of PWV measured with both devices. The correlation coefficient for PWV measured with the two devices was 0.92 ( p prototype slightly overestimated PWV by 0.24 (± 2 standard deviations, ± 1.91) m/s, especially when PWV was high. The correlation coefficient between the difference and the average of the Philips and Complior measurements was 0.21 ( p = 0.035). Nonetheless, they had similar determinants. Age, mean arterial pressure, and sex altogether explained 81.6 and 83.9% of the variance of PWV values measured with the Philips prototype and Complior device, respectively. When the two extremes of the three PWV values measured with the Philips prototype and the Complior device were investigated, the coefficients of variation were 8.26 and 3.26%, respectively. Compared with the Complior device, the Philips prototype had similar accuracy, determinants, and reproducibility in measuring PWV.

  13. Array-based molecular karyotyping in 115 VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL-like patients identifies disease-causing copy number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Marsch, Florian; Kause, Franziska; Degenhardt, Franziska; Schmiedeke, Eeberhard; Märzheuser, Stefanie; Hoppe, Bernd; Bachour, Haitham; Boemers, Thomas M; Schäfer, Matthias; Spychalski, Nicole; Neser, Jörg; Leonhardt, Johannes; Kosch, Ferdinand; Ure, Benno; Gómez, Barbara; Lacher, Martin; Deffaa, Oliver J; Palta, Markus; Wittekindt, Boris; Kleine, Katharina; Schmedding, Andrea; Grasshoff-Derr, Sabine; Ven, Amelie van der; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Zwink, Nadine; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

    2017-07-17

    The acronym VATER/VACTERL refers to the rare nonrandom association of the following component features (CF): vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia, renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L). Patients presenting with at least three CFs are diagnosed as having VATER/VACTERL association while patients presenting with only two CFs are diagnosed as having VATER/VACTERL-like phenotypes. Recently, rare causative copy number variations (CNVs) have been identified in patients with VATER/VACTERL association and VATER/VACTERL-like phenotypes. To detect further causative CNVs we performed array based molecular karyotyping in 75 VATER/VACTERL and 40 VATER/VACTERL-like patients. Following the application of stringent filter criteria, we identified 13 microdeletions and seven microduplications in 20 unrelated patients all of which were absent in 1,307 healthy inhouse controls (n microdeletion at 17q12 was confirmed to be de novo. Three microdeletions at 5q23.1, 16q23.3, 22q11.21, and one microduplication at 10q11.21 were all absent in the available parent. Microdeletion of chromosomal region 22q11.21 was previously found in VATER/VACTERL patients rendering it to be causative in our patient. The remaining 15 CNVs were inherited from a healthy parent. In two of 115 patients' causative CNVs were found (2%). The remaining identified rare CNVs represent candidates for further evaluation. Rare inherited CNVs may constitute modifiers of, or contributors to, multifactorial VATER/VACTERL or VATER/VACTERL-like phenotypes. Birth Defects Research 109:1063-1069, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin L; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M

    2016-01-04

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  16. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L Smits

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.

  17. HGVA: the Human Genome Variation Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Javier; Coll, Jacobo; Haimel, Matthias; Kandasamy, Swaathi; Tarraga, Joaquin; Furio-Tari, Pedro; Bari, Wasim; Bleda, Marta; Rueda, Antonio; Gräf, Stefan; Rendon, Augusto; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2017-07-03

    High-profile genomic variation projects like the 1000 Genomes project or the Exome Aggregation Consortium, are generating a wealth of human genomic variation knowledge which can be used as an essential reference for identifying disease-causing genotypes. However, accessing these data, contrasting the various studies and integrating those data in downstream analyses remains cumbersome. The Human Genome Variation Archive (HGVA) tackles these challenges and facilitates access to genomic data for key reference projects in a clean, fast and integrated fashion. HGVA provides an efficient and intuitive web-interface for easy data mining, a comprehensive RESTful API and client libraries in Python, Java and JavaScript for fast programmatic access to its knowledge base. HGVA calculates population frequencies for these projects and enriches their data with variant annotation provided by CellBase, a rich and fast annotation solution. HGVA serves as a proof-of-concept of the genome analysis developments being carried out by the University of Cambridge together with UK's 100 000 genomes project and the National Institute for Health Research BioResource Rare-Diseases, in particular, deploying open-source for Computational Biology (OpenCB) software platform for storing and analyzing massive genomic datasets. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells and its effectiveness in cell-adhesive peptide design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Kaga, Chiaki; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    Peptide array, the designable peptide library covalently synthesized on cellulose support, was applied to assay peptide-cell interaction, between solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells, to study objective peptide design. As a model case, cell-adhesive peptides that could enhance cell growth as tissue engineering scaffold material, was studied. On the peptide array, the relative cell-adhesion ratio of NIH/3T3 cells was 2.5-fold higher on the RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide spot as compared to the spot with no peptide, thus indicating integrin-mediated peptide-cell interaction. Such strong cell adhesion mediated by the RGDS peptide was easily disrupted by single residue substitution on the peptide array, thus indicating that the sequence recognition accuracy of cells was strictly conserved in our optimized scheme. The observed cellular morphological extension with active actin stress-fiber on the RGD motif-containing peptide supported our strategy that peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptide and anchorage-dependant cells (PIASPAC) could provide quantitative data on biological peptide-cell interaction. The analysis of 180 peptides obtained from fibronectin type III domain (no. 1447-1629) yielded 18 novel cell-adhesive peptides without the RGD motif. Taken together with the novel candidates, representative rules of ineffective amino acid usage were obtained from non-effective candidate sequences for the effective designing of cell-adhesive peptides. On comparing the amino acid usage of the top 20 and last 20 peptides from the 180 peptides, the following four brief design rules were indicated: (i) Arg or Lys of positively charged amino acids (except His) could enhance cell adhesion, (ii) small hydrophilic amino acids are favored in cell-adhesion peptides, (iii) negatively charged amino acids and small amino acids (except Gly) could reduce cell adhesion, and (iv) Cys and Met could be excluded from the sequence combination since they have

  19. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  20. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  1. SIGMA: A System for Integrative Genomic Microarray Analysis of Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Jonathan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of high resolution profiling of genomes has created a need for the integrative analysis of information generated from multiple methodologies and platforms. Although the majority of data in the public domain are gene expression profiles, and expression analysis software are available, the increase of array CGH studies has enabled integration of high throughput genomic and gene expression datasets. However, tools for direct mining and analysis of array CGH data are limited. Hence, there is a great need for analytical and display software tailored to cross platform integrative analysis of cancer genomes. Results We have created a user-friendly java application to facilitate sophisticated visualization and analysis such as cross-tumor and cross-platform comparisons. To demonstrate the utility of this software, we assembled array CGH data representing Affymetrix SNP chip, Stanford cDNA arrays and whole genome tiling path array platforms for cross comparison. This cancer genome database contains 267 profiles from commonly used cancer cell lines representing 14 different tissue types. Conclusion In this study we have developed an application for the visualization and analysis of data from high resolution array CGH platforms that can be adapted for analysis of multiple types of high throughput genomic datasets. Furthermore, we invite researchers using array CGH technology to deposit both their raw and processed data, as this will be a continually expanding database of cancer genomes. This publicly available resource, the System for Integrative Genomic Microarray Analysis (SIGMA of cancer genomes, can be accessed at http://sigma.bccrc.ca.

  2. Exploring Other Genomes: Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the importance of genomes other than the human genome project and provides information on the identified bacterial genomes Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Leprosy, Cholera, Meningitis, Tuberculosis, Bubonic Plague, and plant pathogens. Considers the computer's use in genome studies. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

  3. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhamrit Kaur; Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computin...

  4. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-07-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase (CKX) Genes Reveal Likely Roles in Pod Development and Stress Responses in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Bo; Tang, Xin-Yu; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Xin-Tong; Lu, Kun; Li, Jia-Na

    2018-03-16

    Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties. We also analyzed the expression of the 23 BnCKX genes in the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealing their diverse expression patterns. We selected four BnCKX genes based on the results of RNA-sequencing and qRT-PCR and compared their expression in cultivated varieties with extremely long versus short siliques. The expression levels of BnCKX5-1 , 5-2 , 6-1 , and 7-1 significantly differed between the two lines and changed during pod development, suggesting they might play roles in determining silique length and in pod development. Finally, we investigated the effects of treatment with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the expression of the four selected BnCKX genes. Our results suggest that regulating BnCKX expression is a promising way to enhance the harvest index and stress resistance in plants.

  6. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  7. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  8. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhamrit Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computing to genomics are like easy access and sharing of data security of data less cost to pay for resources but still there are some demerits like large time needed to transfer data less network bandwidth.

  9. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  10. Identification of several circulating microRNAs from a genome-wide circulating microRNA expression profile as potential biomarkers for impaired glucose metabolism in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linlin; Huang, Jia; Chen, Yaxiao; Yang, Yabo; Li, Ruiqi; Li, Yu; Chen, Xiaoli; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to detect serum microRNAs (miRNAs) differentially expressed between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), PCOS patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and healthy controls. A TaqMan miRNA array explored serum miRNA profiles as a pilot study, then selected miRNAs were analyzed in a validation cohort consisting of 65 PCOS women with IGM, 65 PCOS women with NGT, and 45 healthy women The relative expression of miR-122, miR-193b, and miR-194 was up-regulated in PCOS patients compared with controls, whereas that of miR-199b-5p was down-regulated. Furthermore, miR-122, miR-193b, and miR-194 were increased in the PCOS-IGM group compared with the PCOS-NGT group. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that miR-193b and body mass index contributed independently to explain 43.7 % (P ovarian follicle development pathways, including the insulin signaling pathway, the neurotrophin signaling pathway, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. This study expands our knowledge of the serum miRNA expression profiles of PCOS patients with IGM and the predicted target signal pathways involved in disease pathophysiology.

  11. The Front Line of Genomic Translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, C. S.; McBride, C. M.; Koehly, L. M.; Bryan, A. D.; Wideroff, L.

    2012-01-0