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Sample records for array vla radio

  1. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  2. Improved analysis of plasmasphere motion using the VLA radio interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Hoogeveen

    Full Text Available Observations using the very large (VLA radio interferometer during the past five years have enabled the discovery of a new type of plasmasphere disturbance, the magnetic eastward-directed wave. Previous work indicated these disturbances were likely frozen to the geomagnetic field as determined from their azimuth distributions. This work provides a method to explain more accurately the azimuth distribution, thereby allowing the calculation of the disturbances' location in the plasmasphere independently of the measured velocity. The measurable velocity due to corotation is calculated and subtracted from the measured trace velocity. This difference, or deviation from corotation, is attributed to electrodynamic convection; the measurement of plasmaspheric convection may lead to the eventual monitoring of mid-latitude electric fields. Disturbances are seen convecting predominantly westward, with the fastest having angular velocities greater than the anticorotating VLA line of sight. The direction of convection and conditions of observations indicate that the disturbances are likely the same phenomenon seen by the Los Alamos satellite beacon array.

  3. VLA radio observations of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: AR Scorpii is unique amongst known white dwarf binaries in showing powerful pulsations extending to radio frequencies. Here we aim to investigate the multi-frequency radio emission of AR Sco in detail, in order to constrain its origin and emission mechanisms. Methods: We present interferometric radio frequency imaging of AR Sco at 1.5, 5 and 9 GHz, analysing the total flux and polarization behaviour of this source at high time resolution (10, 3 and 3 s), across a full 3.6 h orbital period in each band. Results: We find strong modulation of the radio flux on the orbital period and the orbital sideband of the white dwarf's spin period (also known as the "beat" period). This indicates that, like the optical flux, the radio flux arises predominantly from on or near the inner surface of the M-dwarf companion star. The beat-phase pulsations of AR Sco decrease in strength with decreasing frequency. They are strongest at 9 GHz and at an orbital phase 0.5. Unlike the optical emission from this source, radio emission from AR Sco shows weak linear polarization but very strong circular polarization, reaching 30% at an orbital phase 0.8. We infer the probable existence of a non-relativistic cyclotron emission component, which dominates at low radio frequencies. Given the required magnetic fields, this also likely arises from on or near the M-dwarf. A table of the flux time series is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A66

  4. The Very Large Array: Pioneering New Directions in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The Very Large Array (VLA) started science operations in 1980 and was rechristened the Jansky VLA after a major upgrade to its electronics system was completed in 2012. The VLA plays a prominent role in scientific discovery through studies of the Solar System, star and planet formation, galaxy formation, and time domain astronomy. It has attained iconic status as one of the most scientifically productive telescopes on EarthIn 2017, three major initiatives were launched at the VLA with the goal of maintaining its leadership role and impact in radio astronomy in the near and long term future:1. In September, the VLA embarked upon the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), the highest resolution survey ever undertaken at radio wavelengths. The survey was planned in consultation with the astronomy community and will be used to search for transients, study the polarization properties of extragalactic radio sources, and study highly obscured sources in our Galaxy.2. Detailed planning for a next generation VLA (ngVLA) began in earnest in 2017. The ngVLA will open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broad-band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. A proposal for the instrument will be submitted to the 2020 Decadal Survey.3. A multi-year program to replace the 40+ year old infrastructure at the VLA site was initiated in 2017. The program includes the replacement of the VLA’s electrical infrastructure in 2018, improvements to the VLA rail system, and the replacement of heavy maintenance equipment.The VLA continued to play a major role in discovering and explaining the physics of transient phenomena in 2017, to include fast transients, such as fast radio bursts, and long time scale transients, such as novae, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts.More thorough descriptions of the VLASS and ngVLA, along with the science that can be done with

  5. Multifrequency VLA observations of PKS 0745-191: the archetypal 'cooling flow' radio source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, S.A.; O'Dea, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    We present 90-, 20-, 6- and 2-cm VLA observations of the high radio luminosity, cooling flow radio source PKS 0745-191. We find that the radio source has a core with a very steep spectrum and diffuse emission with an even steeper spectrum without clear indications of the jets, hotspots or double lobes found in other radio sources of comparable luminosity. The appearance of the source is highly dependent on frequency and resolution. This dependence reflects both the diffuse nature of the extended emission and the steep, but position-dependent, spectrum of the radio emission. (author)

  6. Getting the Big Picture: Design Considerations for a ngVLA Short Spacing Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian Scott; Cotton, William; Condon, James; Kepley, Amanda; Selina, Rob; Murphy, Eric Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Next Generation VLA (ngVLA) aims to provide a revolutionary increase in cm-wavelength collecting area and sensitivity while at the same time providing excellent image fidelity for a broad spectrum of science cases. Likely ngVLA configurations currently envisioned provide sensitivity over a very wide range of spatial scales. The antenna diameter (notionally 18 meters) fundamentally limits the largest angular scales that can be reached. One simple and powerful way to image larger angular scales is to build a complementary interferometer comprising a smaller number of smaller-diameter dishes.We have investigated the requirements that such an array would need to meet in order to usefully scientifically complement the ngVLA; this poster presents the results of our investigation.

  7. FAINT RADIO-SOURCES WITH PEAKED SPECTRA .1. VLA OBSERVATIONS OF A NEW SAMPLE WITH INTERMEDIATE FLUX-DENSITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SNELLEN, IAG; ZHANG, M; SCHILIZZI, RT; ROTTGERING, HJA; DEBRUYN, AG; MILEY, GK

    We present 2 and 20 cm observations with the VLA of 25 candidate peaked spectrum radio sources. These data combined with those from earlier surveys have allowed us to construct radio spectra spanning a range of frequency from 0.3 to 15 GHz. Ten of the 25 sources are found to be variable with no

  8. A VLA Search for Radio Signals from M31 and M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert H.; Mooley, Kunal

    2017-03-01

    Observing nearby galaxies would facilitate the search for artificial radio signals by sampling several billions of stars simultaneously, but few efforts have been made to exploit this opportunity. An added attraction is that the Milky Way is the second largest member of the Local Group, so our galaxy might be a probable target for hypothetical broadcasters in nearby galaxies. We present the first relatively high spectral resolution (intelligent radio signals of complete galaxies in the Local Group with the Jansky VLA, observing the galaxies M31 (Andromeda) and M33 (Triangulum)—the first and third largest members of the group, respectively—sampling more stars than any prior search of this kind. We used 122 Hz channels over a 1 MHz spectral window in the target galaxy velocity frame of reference, and 15 Hz channels over a 125 kHz window in our local standard of rest. No narrowband signals were detected above a signal-to-noise ratio of 7, suggesting the absence of continuous narrowband flux greater than approximately 0.24 and 1.33 Jy in the respective spectral windows illuminating our part of the Milky Way during our observations in 2014 December and 2015 January. This is also the first study in which the upgraded VLA has been used for SETI.

  9. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  10. VLA radio-continuum survey of a sample of confirmed and marginal barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.A.; Simon, T.; Linsky, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from a 6-cm VLA survey of five confirmed Ba II stars and eight mild Ba II stars, undertaken to search for evidence of gyrosynchrotron emission or thermal emission from the primary star's wind that is enhanced or photoionized by a white dwarf companion. Of these 13 stars, only Beta UMi was detected as a possible radio source at a flux level of 0.11 mJy (3sigma). The 6-cm radio luminosities (L6) of the other stars are as small as log L6 less than or equal to 14.0 and are an order of magnitude or more lower than the average levels found in RS CVn systems, but are consistent with the L6 upper limits previously found for stars of spectral type similar to the Ba II stars and normal elemental abundances. The upper limit to the radio luminosity for the possible mild Ba II star 56 Peg, when combined with its previously known X-ray luminosity, may provide useful constraints on the various models that have been proposed for this interesting object, once its orbital period is known. 28 references

  11. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions. Semiannual Progress Report, 1 February 1985-30 January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, K.R.

    1985-08-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar active regions with the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and the Very Large Array (VLA) have been obtained and analyzed. Combined results enhance the scientific return for beyond that expeted from using either SMM or VLA alone. A total of two weeks of simultaneous SMM/VLA data were obtained. The multiple wavelength VLA observations were used to determine the temperature and magnetic structure at different heights within coronal loops. These data are compared with simultaneous SMM observations. Several papers on the subject are in progress. They include VLA observations of compact, transient sources in the transition region; simultaneous SMM/VLA observations of the coronal loops in one active region and the evolution of another one; and sampling of the coronal plasma using thermal cyclotron lines (magnetic field - VLA) and soft X ray spectral lines (electron density and electron temperaure-SMM)

  12. VLA Observations Of T CrB Reveal Increase in Radio Flux Density Between 2014 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Weston, J.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J.; Nelson, T.; Mukai, K.; Finzell, T.; Rupen, M.; Mioduszewski, A.

    2016-06-01

    We report new observations of the symbiotic binary and known recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis (T CrB) with the Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA). We recently began monitoring T CrB in 2016 May after reports that it was in a super-active state at other wavelengths (Munari, Dallaporta, & Cherini 2016, NewA, 47, 7; ATEL #8675; AAVSO Special Notice 415).

  13. A VLA SURVEY FOR FAINT COMPACT RADIO SOURCES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mann, Rita K. [National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: psheehan@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm continuum maps of compact radio sources in the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC). We mosaicked 34 arcmin{sup 2} at 1.3 cm, 70 arcmin{sup 2} at 3.6 cm and 109 arcmin{sup 2} at 6 cm, containing 778 near-infrared detected young stellar objects and 190 Hubble Space Telescope -identified proplyds (with significant overlap between those characterizations). We detected radio emission from 175 compact radio sources in the ONC, including 26 sources that were detected for the first time at these wavelengths. For each detected source, we fitted a simple free–free and dust emission model to characterize the radio emission. We extrapolate the free–free emission spectrum model for each source to ALMA bands to illustrate how these measurements could be used to correctly measure protoplanetary disk dust masses from submillimeter flux measurements. Finally, we compare the fluxes measured in this survey with previously measured fluxes for our targets, as well as four separate epochs of 1.3 cm data, to search for and quantify the variability of our sources.

  14. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martineau-Huynh, Olivier; Bustamante, Mauricio; Carvalho, Washington

    2017-01-01

    The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned array of ~200 000 radio antennas deployed over ~200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus...

  15. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  16. ngVLA Cryogenic Subsystem Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al; Urbain, Denis; Grammer, Wes; Durand, S.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA’s success over 35 years of operations stems in part from dramatically upgraded components over the years. The time has come to build a new array to lead the radio astronomical science into its next 40 years. To accomplish that, a next generation VLA (ngVLA) is envisioned to have 214 antennas with diameters of 18m. The core of the array will be centered at the current VLA location, but the arms will extend out to 1000km.The VLA cryogenic subsystem equipment and technology have remained virtually unchanged since the early 1980s. While adequate for a 27-antenna array, scaling the current system for an array of 214 antennas would be prohibitively expensive in terms of operating cost and maintenance. The overall goal is to limit operating cost to within three times the current level, despite having 8 times the number of antennas. To help realize this goal, broadband receivers and compact feeds will be utilized to reduce both the size and number of cryostats required. The current baseline front end concept calls for just two moderately-sized cryostats for the entire 1.2-116 GHz frequency range, as opposed to 8 in the VLA.For the ngVLA cryogenics, our objective is a well-optimized and efficient system that uses state-of-the-art technology to minimize per-antenna power consumption and maximize reliability. Application of modern technologies, such as variable-speed operation for the scroll compressors and cryocooler motor drives, allow the cooling capacity of the system to be dynamically matched to thermal loading in each cryostat. Significantly, power savings may be realized while the maintenance interval of the cryocoolers is also extended.Finally, a receiver designed to minimize thermal loading can produce savings directly translating to lower operating cost when variable-speed drives are used. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) on radiation shields and improved IR filters on feed windows can significantly reduce heat loading.Measurements done on existing cryogenic

  17. Frontiers of Radio Astronomy in the 2020s: The Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric Joseph; ngVLA Project Office, ngVLA Science and Technical Advisory Councils, ngVLA Science Working Groups

    2018-01-01

    This talk will describe the current community-driven science goals, design, and planning status of a future large centimeter radio array: the ‘Next Generation Very Large Array’ (ngVLA). The ngVLA is being developed to observe at wavelengths between ALMA at submm wavelengths, and the future SKA-1 at few centimeter and longer wavelengths, opening a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolution, and unprecedented broad band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The current design for the array includes 10x more effective collecting area and 10x higher spatial resolution than the current JVLA or ALMA, carefully optimized for operation in the frequency range 10GHz to 50GHz, while still delivering world-leading sensitivity over the entire 1.2GHz to 116 GHz spectrum.With this array, new frontiers in modern astronomy can be reached, including direct imaging and chemical analysis of planet formation in the terrestrial-zone of nearby stars, studies of dust-obscured star formation and the cosmic baryon cycle down to pc-scales in the local Universe, and detailed imaging of molecular gas and galaxy formation into the epoch of reionization. Novel techniques for exploring temporal phenomena on timescales from milliseconds to years will also be implemented. The ngVLA will be situated in the desert southwest of the United States, centered on the current JVLA infrastructure, with multiple antennas anticipated in states/regions adjacent to NM, and in northern Mexico.A recently formed Project Office is working closely with the U.S. and international research community to design the array, and plan its construction beginning mid next decade. Recent significant funding for design and development brought forward by the NSF will enable detailed science case development and technology prototyping/risk reduction before the next U.S astronomy Decadal Survey.

  18. The B3-VLA CSS sample. VIII. New optical identifications from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey The ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of the young radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, C.; Fanti, R.; Zanichelli, A.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Compact steep-spectrum radio sources and giga-hertz peaked spectrum radio sources (CSS/GPS) are generally considered to be mostly young radio sources. In recent years we studied at many wavelengths a sample of these objects selected from the B3-VLA catalog: the B3-VLA CSS sample. Only ≈60% of the sources were optically identified. Aims: We aim to increase the number of optical identifications and study the properties of the host galaxies of young radio sources. Methods: We cross-correlated the CSS B3-VLA sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), DR7, and complemented the SDSS photometry with available GALEX (DR 4/5 and 6) and near-IR data from UKIRT and 2MASS. Results: We obtained new identifications and photometric redshifts for eight faint galaxies and for one quasar and two quasar candidates. Overall we have 27 galaxies with SDSS photometry in five bands, for which we derived the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution (UV-O-SED). We extended our investigation to additional CSS/GPS selected from the literature. Most of the galaxies show an excess of ultra-violet (UV) radiation compared with the UV-O-SED of local radio-quiet ellipticals. We found a strong dependence of the UV excess on redshift and analyzed it assuming that it is generated either from the nucleus (hidden quasar) or from a young stellar population (YSP). We also compare the UV-O-SEDs of our CSS/GPS sources with those of a selection of large size (LSO) powerful radio sources from the literature. Conclusions: If the major process of the UV excess is caused by a YSP, our conclusion is that it is the result of the merger process that also triggered the onset of the radio source with some time delay. We do not see evidence for a major contribution from a YSP triggered by the radio sources itself. Appendices A-G are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  20. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF DG TAU'S RADIO JET: A HIGHLY COLLIMATED THERMAL OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, C.; Mutel, R. L.; Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States); Guedel, M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ray, T. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Section, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skinner, S. L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. C. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    The active young protostar DG Tau has an extended jet that has been well studied at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We report sensitive new Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations of the core and jet between 5 GHz and 8 GHz. Our high angular resolution observation at 8 GHz clearly shows an unpolarized inner jet with a size of 42 AU (0.''35) extending along a position angle similar to the optical-X ray outer jet. Using our nearly coeval 2012 VLA observations, we find a spectral index {alpha} = +0.46 {+-} 0.05, which combined with the lack of polarization is consistent with bremsstrahlung (free-free) emission, with no evidence for a non-thermal coronal component. By identifying the end of the radio jet as the optical depth unity surface, and calculating the resulting emission measure, we find that our radio results are in agreement with previous optical line studies of electron density and consequent mass-loss rate. We also detect a weak radio knot at 5 GHz located 7'' from the base of the jet, coincident with the inner radio knot detected by Rodriguez et al. in 2009 but at lower surface brightness. We interpret this as due to expansion of post-shock ionized gas in the three years between observations.

  1. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martineau-Huynh Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-energy neutrino astronomy will probe the working of the most violent phenomena in the Universe. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND project consists of an array of ∼ 105 radio antennas deployed over ∼ 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the measurement of air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of τ leptons produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. Our objective with GRAND is to reach a neutrino sensitivity of 5 × 10−11E−2 GeV−1 cm−2 s−1 sr−1 above 3 × 1016 eV. This sensitivity ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and up to 100 events per year are expected for the standard models. GRAND would also probe the neutrino signals produced at the potential sources of UHECRs.

  2. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martineau-Huynh Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND is a planned array of ~ 2·105 radio antennas deployed over ~ 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. GRAND aims at reaching a neutrino sensitivity of 5 · 10−11 E−2 GeV−1 cm−2 s−1 sr−1 above 3 · 1016 eV. This ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and ~50 events per year are expected for the standard models. The instrument will also detect UHECRs and possibly FRBs. Here we show how our preliminary design should enable us to reach our sensitivity goals, and discuss the steps to be taken to achieve GRAND, while the compelling science case for GRAND is discussed in more details in [1].

  3. THE VLA SURVEY OF CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH. V. EVOLUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SUB-MILLIJANSKY RADIO SOURCES AND THE ISSUE OF RADIO EMISSION IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, P.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 μJy at the field center and redshift ∼5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P ∼> 3 x 10 24 W Hz -1 ) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for ∼30% of the sample and ∼60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at ∼< 0.1 mJy. This implies that future, large area sub-millijansky surveys, given the appropriate ancillary multiwavelength data, have the potential of being able to assemble vast samples of radio-quiet AGNs, bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  4. The VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tracy; Peters, Wendy; Brisken, Walter; Giacintucci, Simona; Kassim, Namir; Polisensky, Emil; Helmboldt, Joseph; Richards, Emily E.; Erickson, Alan; Ray, Paul S.; Kerr, Matthew T.; Deneva, Julia; Coburn, William; Huber, Robert; Long, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, http://vlite.nrao.edu/ ) is a commensal low-frequency observing system that has been operational on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) since late 2014. The separate optical paths of the prime-focus sub-GHz dipole feeds and the Cassegrain-focus 1-50 GHz feeds allow both systems to operate simultaneously with independent correlators. The initial 2.5 years of VLITE operation provided real-time correlation of 10 antennas across the 320-384 MHz band with a total observing time approaching 12,000 hours. During the summer of 2017, VLITE was upgraded to a total of 16 antennas (more than doubling the number of baselines) with enhanced correlator capabilities to enable correlation of the on-the-fly observing mode being used for the new NRAO VLA Sky Survey (VLASS).We present an overview of the VLITE system, including highlights of the complexities of a commensal observing program, sparse-array challenges, and scientific capabilities from our science-ready data pipeline. In the longer term, we seek a path to broadband expansion across all VLA antennas to develop a powerful new LOw Band Observatory (LOBO).

  5. NRAO Makes Available VLA Sky Survey Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    An original and comprehensive data set potentially full of scientific surprises now is available to astronomers, students and the public through the information superhighway. Radio images of the sky produced by the Very Large Array radio telescope -- one of the premier astronomical instruments in the world -- as part of a massive survey now are stored in an electronic repository avail- able over the Internet computer communications network. "Each of these sensitive new sky maps shows about a thou- sand radio-emitting objects, most of which have never been seen before," said Dr. J. J. Condon, leader of the National Radio As- tronomy Observatory (NRAO) survey team. "We are releasing them as soon as they are completed because they contain more data than we could possibly analyze by ourselves." "By using electronic distribution, we can open this tre- mendous resource of information for computer analysis by all as- tronomers immediately, without waiting for traditional publication," Condon added. The radio images are copyright NRAO/ AUI. Permission is granted for use of the material without charge for scholarly, educational and private non-commercial purposes. "It is entirely conceivable -- even probable -- that valuable discoveries will be made by students or amateur astrono- mers who devote the time to study these maps carefully," said team member Dr. W. D. Cotton. "Making this new information available electronically means that more people can participate in adding to its scientific value." The maps are a product of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), which began its observational phase in September of 1993 and will cover 82 percent of the sky when completed by the end of 1996. The NVSS is expected to produce a catalog of more than two million ra- dio-emitting objects in the sky, and it is the first sky survey sensitive to linearly polarized emission from radio sources beyond our own Milky Way galaxy. "The NVSS is being made as a service to the entire astronomical

  6. VLA and low-frequency VLBI observations of the radio source 0503 + 467 - Austere constraints on interstellar scattering in two media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, S.R.; Fey, A.L.; Cordes, J.M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY)

    1987-01-01

    The radio source 0503 + 467 lies near the Galactic plane (l = 161.0 deg, b = 3.7 deg) and at the edge of the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 9. The VLA observations show that it has a spectrum typical of a compact extragalactic radio source. The resultant small angular size of the source makes it an excellent probe of turbulence in two media: the diffuse, or type A, component of interstellar turbulence and a hypothesized region of hydromagnetic turbulence upstream of the supernova remnant. An eight-station VLBI experiment at 326 MHz indicates that the source is less than about 20 milliarcseconds (mas) in angular diameter. A value of 16 mas is most appropriate as an upper limit to the interstellar scattering contribution to the measured angular size. The implications of this upper limit are twofold. First, the galactocentric radial scale to the type-A turbulence is probably less than or equal to about 6 kpc. Second, no evidence is seen for shock-associated turbulence upstream of HB 9. The measurements make it possible to constrain a parameter which is a function of the rms density fluctuation in the upstream region, the outer scale to the density turbulence, and the thickness of SNR foreshock region. 14 references

  7. Orbiting low frequency array for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Rai Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Engelen, Steven; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Verhoeven, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection

  8. Recent VLA Measurements of CME-Induced Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason; Thomas, Najma; Guy, Michael; Spangler, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of Faraday rotation, the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma, have been used for decades to determine the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma density. Similarly, observations of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) have the potential to improve our understanding of the CME’s plasma structure. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light coronagraph and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of cosmic radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. A unique aspect of these observations is that the CME occulted several of these radio sources and, therefore, our Faraday rotation measurements provide information on the plasma structure in different regions of the CME. We successfully measured CME-induced Faraday rotation along multiple lines of sight because we made special arrangements with the staff at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory to trigger VLA observations when a candidate CME appeared low in the corona in near real-time images from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 instrument.

  9. VLA Reveals a Close Pair of Potential Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Planets apparently can form in many more binary-star systems than previously thought, according to astronomers who used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image protoplanetary disks around a close pair of stars. "Most stars in the universe are not alone, like our Sun, but are part of double or triple systems, so this means that the number of potential planets is greater than we realized," said Luis Rodriguez, of the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, who led an international observing team that made the discovery. The astronomers announced their results in the Sept. 24 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The researchers used the VLA to study a stellar nursery - a giant cloud of gas and dust - some 450 light-years distant in the constellation Taurus, where stars the size of the Sun or smaller are being formed. They aimed at one particular object, that, based on previous infrared and radio observations, was believed to be a very young star. The VLA observations showed that the object was not a single young star but a pair of young stars, separated only slightly more than the Sun and Pluto. The VLA images show that each star in the pair is surrounded by an orbiting disk of dust, extending out about as far as the orbit of Saturn. Such dusty disks are believed to be the material from which planets form. Similar disks are seen around single stars, but the newly-discovered disks around the stars in the binary system are about ten times smaller, their size limited by the gravitational effect of the other, nearby star. Their existence indicates, however, that such protoplanetary disks, though truncated in size, still can survive in such a close double-star system. "It was surprising to see these disks in a binary system with the stars so close together," said Rodriguez. "Each of these disks contains enough mass to form a solar system like our own," said David Wilner, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

  10. IRAS colors of VLA identified objects in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fich, M.; Terebey, S.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) sources found within 4 degrees of l = 125 deg, b = 2 deg on the 3rd HCON 60 micron Sky Brightness Images were observed at the Very Large Array (VLA). Regions were to be identified where massive stars are forming by looking for small areas of radio continuum emissions. The IRAS sources could be divided into three groups by their IRAS 12 micron/25 micron and 60 micron/100 micron color. The group identified with star forming regions contained essentially all of the objects with extended radio emission. In all of these cases the extended radio emission showed a morphology consistent with the identification of these objects as HII regions. The conclusion drawn is that star formation regions can be distinguished from other objects by their infrared colors

  11. VLA-ANGST: A HIGH-RESOLUTION H I SURVEY OF NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Jürgen; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Walter, Fabian; De Blok, W. J. G.; Koribalski, Bärbel; West, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the 'Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)'. VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km s –1 ) and spatial (∼6'') resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (H I) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic Hubble Space Telescope survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D ∼ –1 for the majority of the galaxies). The VLA-ANGST data products are made publicly available through a dedicated Web site (https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/vla-angst). With available star formation histories from resolved stellar populations and lower resolution ancillary observations from the far-infrared to the ultraviolet, VLA-ANGST will enable detailed studies of the relationship between the ISM and star formation in dwarf galaxies on a ∼100 pc scale.

  12. The Path from VLITE to ngLOBO: A Roadmap for Evolving a Low Frequency Commensal System from the JVLA to the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, Tracy; Giacintucci, Simona; Helmboldt, Joseph; Ray, Paul S.; Peters, Wendy; Polisensky, Emil; hicks, Brian C.; Brisken, Walter; hyman, Scott D.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew T.; Taylor, Gregory; Dowell, Jayce; Schinzel, Frank K.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, ) is a commensal observing system on the NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The separate optical path of the prime-focus sub-GHz dipole feeds and the Cassegrain-focus GHz feeds provided an opportunity to expand the simultaneous frequency operation of the VLA through joint observations across both systems. 16 VLA antennas are outfitted with dedicated samplers and use spare fibers to transport the 320-384 MHz band to the VLITE CPU-based correlator. Initial goals included exploring the scientific potential of a commensal low frequency system for ionospheric remote sensing, astrophysics and transients. VLITE operates at nearly 70% wall time with roughly 6200 hours of VLA time recorded each year.Several papers at this meeting review VLITE science and early results. Here we consider how the project could evolve in the future. Over the next 10 years, a straightforward evolutionary path calls for an expansion of VLITE to all 27 VLA antennas and to the maximum available low band receiver bandwidth (224-480 MHz). The GPU-based correlator for this LOw Band Observatory (LOBO) would also incorporate lower frequency signals from the new VLA 74 MHz system, including from VLA dishes (60-80 MHz) and standalone Long Wavelength Array (LWA) aperture array stations (20-80 MHz).In the longer term, we look towards leveraging the vast infrastructure of the ngVLA to include a commensal low frequency capability, called ngLOBO. As described in our community white paper (Taylor et al. 2018; arXiv:1708.00090), ngLOBO has three primary scientific missions: (1) Radio Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (Radio-LSST): one naturally wide beam, commensal with ngVLA, will conduct a continuous synoptic survey of large swaths of the sky for both slow and fast transients; (2) This same commensal beam will provide complementary low frequency images of all ngVLA targets when such data enhances their value. (3) Independent beams from the ng

  13. The Next-Generation Very Large Array: Technical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    As part of its mandate as a national observatory, the NRAO is looking toward the long range future of radio astronomy and fostering the long term growth of the US astronomical community. NRAO has sponsored a series of science and technical community meetings to consider the science mission and design of a next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA), building on the legacies of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA).The basic ngVLA design emerging from these discussions is an interferometric array with approximately ten times the sensitivity and ten times higher spatial resolution than the VLA and ALMA radio telescopes, optimized for operation in the wavelength range 0.3cm to 3cm. The ngVLA would open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milli-arcsecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broadband continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The specifications and concepts for major ngVLA system elements are rapidly converging.We will provide an overview of the current system design of the ngVLA. The concepts for major system elements such as the antenna, receiving electronics, and central signal processing will be presented. We will also describe the major development activities that are presently underway to advance the design.

  14. DETECTION OF FAST TRANSIENTS WITH RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC ARRAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Chengalur, J. N.; Gupta, Y.; Prasad, J.; Roy, J.; Kudale, S. S.; Cox, P. J.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Van Straten, W.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation radio arrays, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis software. This survey was conducted at 325 and 610 MHz, and covered 360 deg 2 of the sky with short dwell times. It provides large volumes of real data that can be used to test the efficacies of various algorithms and observing strategies applicable for transient detection. We present examples that illustrate the methodologies of detecting short-duration transients, including the use of sub-arrays for higher resilience to spurious events of terrestrial origin, localization of candidate events via imaging, and the use of a phased array for improved signal detection and confirmation. In addition to demonstrating applications of interferometric arrays for fast transient exploration, our efforts mark important steps in the roadmap toward SKA-era science.

  15. Detection of Fast Transients with Radio Interferometric Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Chengalur, J. N.; Cox, P. J.; Gupta, Y.; Prasad, J.; Roy, J.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Kudale, S. S.; van Straten, W.

    2013-05-01

    Next-generation radio arrays, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis software. This survey was conducted at 325 and 610 MHz, and covered 360 deg2 of the sky with short dwell times. It provides large volumes of real data that can be used to test the efficacies of various algorithms and observing strategies applicable for transient detection. We present examples that illustrate the methodologies of detecting short-duration transients, including the use of sub-arrays for higher resilience to spurious events of terrestrial origin, localization of candidate events via imaging, and the use of a phased array for improved signal detection and confirmation. In addition to demonstrating applications of interferometric arrays for fast transient exploration, our efforts mark important steps in the roadmap toward SKA-era science.

  16. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, J; Bandura, K; Cliche, J-F; Dobbs, M; Gilbert, A; Tang, Q Y

    2013-01-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications

  17. Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...

  18. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Frank G.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about 17km2, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of different detection techniques. For the direction and energy of air showers, the precision achieved by AERA is already competitive; for the type of primary particle, several methods are tested and optimized. By combining AERA with the particle detectors we aim for a better understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range from approximately 0.3 to 10 EeV, i.e., significantly higher energies than preceding radio arrays.

  19. Simultaneous Chandra and VLA Observations of the Transitional Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1023+0038: Anti-correlated X-Ray and Radio Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam T.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Archibald, Anne M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Jaodand, Amruta; Patruno, Alessandro; Bassa, Cees; D’Angelo, Caroline

    2018-03-01

    We present coordinated Chandra X-ray Observatory and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 in its low-luminosity accreting state. The unprecedented five hours of strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio continuum coverage for the first time unambiguously show a highly reproducible, anti-correlated variability pattern. The characteristic switches from the X-ray high mode into a low mode are always accompanied by a radio brightening with a duration that closely matches the X-ray low mode interval. This behavior cannot be explained by a canonical inflow/outflow accretion model where the radiated emission and the jet luminosity are powered by, and positively correlated with, the available accretion energy. We interpret this phenomenology as alternating episodes of low-level accretion onto the neutron star during the X-ray high mode that are interrupted by rapid ejections of plasma by the active rotation-powered pulsar, possibly initiated by a reconfiguration of the pulsar magnetosphere, that cause a transition to a less X-ray luminous mode. The observed anti-correlation between radio and X-ray luminosity has an additional consequence: transitional MSPs can make excursions into a region of the radio/X-ray luminosity plane previously thought to be occupied solely by black hole X-ray binary sources. This complicates the use of this luminosity relation for identifying candidate black holes, suggesting the need for additional discriminants when attempting to establish the true nature of the accretor.

  20. GBT, VLA Team Up to Produce New Image of Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Combining the best features of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia with those of the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, astronomers have produced a vastly improved radio image of the Orion Nebula and developed a valuable new technique for studying star formation and other astrophysical processes. GBT-VLA Image of Orion Nebula GBT-VLA Image of Orion Nebula "Our GBT image of the Orion Nebula is the best image ever produced with a single-dish radio telescope and it illustrates the superb performance of this new telescope," said Debra Shepherd, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "By combining data from the GBT with that from the VLA, we get an image that reflects reality far better than images from the separate telescopes could do," she added. Shepherd worked with Ron Maddalena from NRAO in Green Bank and Joe McMullin, from NRAO in Socorro. The astronomers presented their work to the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington, DC. Single-dish radio telescopes such as the GBT, dedicated in 2000, are able to capture the large-scale structure of objects such as the Orion Nebula. However, they are unable to discern the fine detail revealed by multi-antenna arrays such as the VLA. Conversely, a VLA-like array is "blind" to the larger-scale structures. Combining the data from both types of radio telescopes to produce an image showing both large- and small-scale structures in the same celestial object has been a difficult, laborious task. "We are developing new observing techniques and software to make this task much easier and quicker," said McMullin. "We now have achieved in hours what used to take months or even longer to do, but we are producing an observational tool that will allow astronomers to make much higher-fidelity images that will greatly improve our understanding of several important astronomical processes," McMullin added. For this observation

  1. Results from and prospects for the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA is one of the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA is based on experience obtained with the LOPES and CODALEMA experiments in Europe and aims to study in the MHz region the details of the emission mechanism of radio signals from extensive air showers. The data from AERA will be used to assess the sensitivity of MHz radiation to the mass composition of cosmic rays. Because of its energy threshold at 2 × 1017 eV the dip region in the cosmic-ray flux spectrum can be studied in detail. We present first results of AERA and of its prototypes and we provide an outlook towards the future.

  2. Generation of OAM Radio Waves Using Circular Vivaldi Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a feasible and simple solution of generating OAM-carrying radio beams. Eight Vivaldi antenna elements connect sequentially and fold into a hollow cylinder. The circular Vivaldi antenna array is fed with unit amplitude but with a successive phase difference from element to element. By changing the phase difference at the steps of 0, ±45°, ±90°, ±135°, and 180°, the OAM radio beam can be generated with mode numbers 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, and 4. Simulations show that the OAM states of ±2 and ±3 are the same as the traditional states, while the OAM states of 0, ±1, and 4 differ at the boresight. This phenomenon can be explained by the radiation pattern difference between Vivaldi antenna and tripole antenna. A solution of distinguishing OAM states is also proposed. The mode number of OAM can be distinguished with only 2 receivers.

  3. The Askaryan Radio Array: Overview and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfendner, Carl; Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is radio frequency observatory under construction at the South Pole that is searching for ultrahigh energy neutrinos via the Askaryan effect. By instrumenting several gigatons of Antarctic glacial ice, the experiment aims to detect a flux of neutrinos above 10 PeV in energy. The measurement of this expected flux of neutrinos would provide information about the highest energy processes in the universe with no local horizon. The full detector consisting of 37 stations is being constructed in a phased deployment with 3 stations already in place and two more planned for deployment in the 2017-2018 season. Recent results from an analysis of data from two stations and a search for neutrinos correlated with gamma ray bursts are presented here. Funding provided by NSF CAREER Award 1255557, NSF ARA Grant 1404266, BigData Grant 1250720.

  4. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  5. Antenna data storage concept for phased array radio astronomical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, André W.; Kruithof, Gert H.

    2018-04-01

    Low frequency Radio Astronomy instruments like LOFAR and SKA-LOW use arrays of dipole antennas for the collection of radio signals from the sky. Due to the large number of antennas involved, the total data rate produced by all the antennas is enormous. Storage of the antenna data is both economically and technologically infeasible using the current state of the art storage technology. Therefore, real-time processing of the antenna voltage data using beam forming and correlation is applied to achieve a data reduction throughout the signal chain. However, most science could equally well be performed using an archive of raw antenna voltage data coming straight from the A/D converters instead of capturing and processing the antenna data in real time over and over again. Trends on storage and computing technology make such an approach feasible on a time scale of approximately 10 years. The benefits of such a system approach are more science output and a higher flexibility with respect to the science operations. In this paper we present a radically new system concept for a radio telescope based on storage of raw antenna data. LOFAR is used as an example for such a future instrument.

  6. Daris, a low-frequency distributed aperture array for radio astronomy in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.J.; Saks, N.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van 't Klooster, K.; Falcke, H.

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space) is a radio astronomy space mission concept aimed at observing the low-frequency radio sky in the range 1-10 MHz. Because of the Earth's ionospheric disturbances and opaqueness, this frequency range can only be observed from space. The

  7. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  8. Students Use VLA to Make Startling Brown-Dwarf Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A group of summer students making a long-shot astronomical gamble with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) have found the first radio emission ever detected from a brown dwarf, an enigmatic object that is neither a star nor a planet, but something in between. Their surprising discovery is forcing experts to re-think their theories about how brown dwarfs work. The Very Large Array "Many astronomers are surprised at this discovery, because they didn't expect such strong radio emission from this object," said Shri Kulkarni, a Caltech professor who was on the team that first discovered a brown dwarf in 1995, and advisor to one of the students. "What is so cool is that this is research that probably nobody else would have tried to do because of its low chance of success. That made it ideal for summer students -- we had almost nothing to lose," said Kate Becker, a student at Oberlin College in Ohio. "The radio emission these students discovered coming from this brown dwarf is 10,000 times stronger than anyone expected," said Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "This student project is going to open up a whole new area of research for the VLA," Frail added. The students, in addition to Becker, are: Edo Berger from Caltech; Steven Ball from New Mexico Tech in Socorro, NM; Melanie Clarke from Carleton College in Northfield, MN; Therese Fukuda from the University of Denver; Ian Hoffman from the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque; Richard Mellon from The Pennsylvania State University; Emmanuel Momjian from the University of Kentucky; Nathanial Murphy from Amherst College in Amherst, MA; Stacey Teng from the University of Maryland; Timothy Woodruff from Southwestern University in Georgetown, TX; Ashley Zauderer from Agnes Scott College in Decatur, GA; and Robert Zavala from New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, NM. Frail also is an author of the research paper, published in the March

  9. Science Ready Data Products and the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    With angular resolution comparable to ALMA and future ELTs, the ngVLA will be the centimeter wavelength instrument contributing to multi-wavelength astronomy throughout the next decades. To maximize the impact of the ngVLA it is important that it be a facility available to all astronomers, not only to those who consider themselves radio astronomers. Building on the successes of the ALMA and VLA pipelines NRAO has undertaken a multi-year project to provide science ready products to the users of our telescopes and archive. The SRDP initiative addresses one of the technical risk areas of the ngVLA, and demonstrates the Observatories ability to deliver this critical functionality. The SRDP project is currently refining and reviewing the technical and scientific requirements for the existing NRAO telescopes. Capabilities will be made available to the community as they are developed and mature. As the project progresses, a rich archive of science quality radio images from both ALMA and the VLA will be provided to the astronomical community. The current status, concepts, and plans for the SRDP project are presented, as are the implications for the ngVLA facility.

  10. A CLUSTER OF COMPACT RADIO SOURCES IN W40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, Luis F.; Rodney, Steven A.; Reipurth, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We present deep 3.6 cm radio continuum observations of the H II region W40 obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) in its A and B configurations. We detect a total of 20 compact radio sources in a region of 4' x 4', with 11 of them concentrated in a band with 30'' of extent. We also present JHK photometry of the W40 cluster taken with the QUIRC instrument on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. These data reveal that 15 of the 20 VLA sources have infrared counterparts, and 10 show radio variability with periods less than 20 days. Based on these combined radio and IR data, we propose that eight of the radio sources are candidate ultracompact H II regions, seven are likely to be young stellar objects, and two may be shocked interstellar gas.

  11. The Engineering Development Array: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope Utilising SKA Precursor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayth, Randall; Sokolowski, Marcin; Booler, Tom; Crosse, Brian; Emrich, David; Grootjans, Robert; Hall, Peter J.; Horsley, Luke; Juswardy, Budi; Kenney, David; Steele, Kim; Sutinjo, Adrian; Tingay, Steven J.; Ung, Daniel; Walker, Mia; Williams, Andrew; Beardsley, A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Trott, C. M.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array's receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.

  12. Deep VLA images of the HH 124 IRS radio cluster and its surroundings, and a new determination of the distance to NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf del Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Galli, Phillip, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-20

    We present new deep (σ ∼ 6 μJy) radio images of the HH 124 IRS radio cluster at 4.8 and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 50 radio sources, most of them compact. Variability and spectral indices were analyzed in order to determine the nature of the sources and of their radio emission. A proper motion study was also performed for several of these radio sources using previously reported radio observations. Our analysis shows that 11 radio sources can be associated with Galactic objects, most of them probably young stars. Interestingly, 8 of these sources are in an area less than 1 arcmin{sup 2} in size. The importance of such compact clusters resides in that all of its members can be observed in a single pointing with most telescopes and are, therefore, ideal for multi-wavelength studies of variability. Another 4 of the detected sources are clearly extragalactic. Finally, we propose from statistical arguments that out of the remaining sources, about 10 are Galactic, but our study does not allow us to identify which of the sources fall in that specific category. The relatively large proper motions observed for the sources in HH 124 IRS suggest that this region is located at about 400 pc from the Sun. This is significantly smaller than the ∼800-900 pc distance usually assigned to the nearby open cluster NGC 2264 with which HH 124 is thought to be associated. However, a reanalysis of the Hipparcos parallaxes for members of NGC 2264, a convergent point approach, and a kinematic analysis all argue in favor of a distance of the order of 400 pc for NGC 2264 as well.

  13. New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive

  14. Rapid Decline in Radio Flux Density of Nova Sco 2015 Followed By Rise at High Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Nelson, T.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J.; Mukai, K.; Finzell, T.; Weston, J.; Rupen, M.; Mioduszewski, A.

    2015-03-01

    We are monitoring Nova Sco 2015 (PNV J17032620-3504140) at radio wavelengths with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We have observations from three epochs: 2015 Feb 14.5, 2015 Feb 18.5-19.5, and 2015 Feb 24.6-Mar 01.5.

  15. Relativistic jets and the most powerful radio sources in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridle, A.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic jets, which are beams of particles and magnetic fields emitting synchrotron radiation that emanate from black holes at the centers of galaxies and quasars, have been one of the most exciting discoveries made at the Very Large Array (VLA) operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The VLA is an array of 27 antennas, each 25 meters in diameter, distributed in a Y-formation with two branches 21 kilometers long and one branch 19 kilometers long. Astronomers can use it to study relativistic jets that generate intense natural radio sources (or transmitters). These sources, associated with regions hundreds of thousands of light years across, are the most powerful in the universe in energy output. In his lecture, Bridle describes how consecutive advances in imaging techniques for radio astronomy have uncovered the properties of the powerful radio sources, culminating in the discovery at the VLA that many of these sources contain radio emitting jets. He then describes some of the NRAO's research on these jets, and discusses the jets' physical properties. He concludes with an outlook for the future: the NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is to be completed in the early 1990's. The VLBA is an array of ten radio telescopes distributed from Hawaii to St. Croix, from the Canadian border to Texas. With the VLBA, astronomers plan to look more deeply into these radio sources. 15 figs

  16. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Description and Science Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; Baum, Stefi Alison; Chandler, Claire J.; Chatterjee, Shami; Murphy, Eric J.; Myers, Steven T.; VLASS Survey Science Group

    2016-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) will cover 80% of the sky to a target depth of 70muJy in the 2-4GHz S-band of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. With a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, it will deliver the highest angular resolution of any wide area radio survey. Each area of the survey will be observed in three epochs spaced by 32 months in order to investigate the transient radio source population over an unprecedented combination of depth and area, resulting in a uniquely powerful search for hidden explosions in the Universe. The survey will be carried out in full polarization, allowing the characterization of the magneto-ionic medium in AGN and intervening galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, and the study of Faraday rotating foregrounds such as ionized bubbles in the Milky Way. The high angular resolution will allow us to make unambiguous identifications of nearly 10 million radio sources, comprised of both extragalactic objects and more nearby radio sources in the Milky Way, through matching to wide area optical/IR surveys such as SDSS, PanSTARRS, DES, LSST, EUCLID, WFIRST and WISE. Integral to the VLASS plan is an Education and Public Outreach component that will seek to inform and educate both the scientific community and the general public about radio astronomy through the use of social media, citizen science and educational activities. We will discuss opportunities for community involvement in VLASS, including the development of Enhanced Data Products and Services that will greatly increase the scientific utility of the survey.

  17. Adaptive algorithm based on antenna arrays for radio communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the modern world increasingly lead to the growing popularity of wireless technologies. This is possible due to the rapid development of mobile communications, the Internet gaining high popularity, using wireless networks at enterprises, offices, buildings, etc. It requires advanced network technologies with high throughput capacity to meet the needs of users. To date, a popular destination is the development of spatial signal processing techniques allowing to increase spatial bandwidth of communication channels. The most popular method is spatial coding MIMO to increase data transmission speed which is carried out due to several spatial streams emitted by several antennas. Another advantage of this technology is the bandwidth increase to be achieved without expanding the specified frequency range. Spatial coding methods are even more attractive due to a limited frequency resource. Currently, there is an increasing use of wireless communications (for example, WiFi and WiMAX in information transmission networks. One of the main problems of evolving wireless systems is the need to increase bandwidth and improve the quality of service (reducing the error probability. Bandwidth can be increased by expanding the bandwidth or increasing the radiated power. Nevertheless, the application of these methods has some drawbacks, due to the requirements of biological protection and electromagnetic compatibility, the increase of power and the expansion of the frequency band is limited. This problem is especially relevant in mobile (cellular communication systems and wireless networks operating in difficult signal propagation conditions. One of the most effective ways to solve this problem is to use adaptive antenna arrays with weakly correlated antenna elements. Communication systems using such antennas are called MIMO systems (Multiple Input Multiple Output multiple input - multiple outputs. At the moment, existing MIMO-idea implementations do not

  18. The Star Formation in Radio Survey: Jansky Very Large Array 33 GHz Observations of Nearby Galaxy Nuclei and Extranuclear Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Dong, D.; Momjian, E.; Linden, S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Meier, D. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Turner, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present 33 GHz imaging for 112 pointings toward galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming regions at ≈2″ resolution using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. A comparison with 33 GHz Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope single-dish observations indicates that the interferometric VLA observations recover 78% ± 4% of the total flux density over 25″ regions (≈kpc scales) among all fields. On these scales, the emission being resolved out is most likely diffuse non-thermal synchrotron emission. Consequently, on the ≈30–300 pc scales sampled by our VLA observations, the bulk of the 33 GHz emission is recovered and primarily powered by free–free emission from discrete H II regions, making it an excellent tracer of massive star formation. Of the 225 discrete regions used for aperture photometry, 162 are extranuclear (i.e., having galactocentric radii r G ≥ 250 pc) and detected at >3σ significance at 33 GHz and in Hα. Assuming a typical 33 GHz thermal fraction of 90%, the ratio of optically-thin 33 GHz to uncorrected Hα star formation rates indicates a median extinction value on ≈30–300 pc scales of A Hα ≈ 1.26 ± 0.09 mag, with an associated median absolute deviation of 0.87 mag. We find that 10% of these sources are “highly embedded” (i.e., A Hα ≳ 3.3 mag), suggesting that on average, H II regions remain embedded for ≲1 Myr. Finally, we find the median 33 GHz continuum-to-Hα line flux ratio to be statistically larger within r G < 250 pc relative to the outer disk regions by a factor of 1.82 ± 0.39, while the ratio of 33 GHz to 24 μm flux densities is lower by a factor of 0.45 ± 0.08, which may suggest increased extinction in the central regions.

  19. Radio Observations of the Ionosphere From an Imaging Array and a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, B.; Gustavsson, B.; Bullett, T. W.; Bergman, J. E. S.; Rincón-Charris, A.; Bruhn, F.; Funk, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere is a source of many radio emissions in the various low-frequency, medium-frequency, and high-frequency bands (0 to 30 MHz). In addition to natural radio emissions, artificial emissions can be stimulated using high-power radiowave ionospheric modification facilities. Two complementary projects are underway for the purpose of improving our knowledge of the processes of radio emissions from the ionosphere. One project is the Aguadilla radio array, located in northwestern Puerto Rico. The Aguadilla array is intended to produce 2 to 25 MHz radio images of the ionosphere, as well as to perform bistatic radar imaging of the ionosphere over Puerto Rico. The array will consist of multiple antenna elements, each of which is a single active (electromagnetically short) crossed electric dipole. The elements are arranged within a roughly 200 by 300-meter core array, in a semi-random pattern providing an optimal distribution of baseline vectors, with 6-meter minimum spacing to eliminate spacial aliasing. In addition, several elements are arranged in a partial ring around the central core, providing a roughly four times expanded region in u-v space for improved image resolution and quality. Phase is maintained via cabled connections to a central location. A remote array is also being developed, in which phase is maintained between elements by through the use of GPS-disciplined rubidium clocks. The other project involves the GimmeRF radio instrument, designed for 0.3 to 30 MHz vector observation of the radio electric field, and planned for launch in 2020 on a CubeSat. The data rate that can be sustained by GimmeRF far exceeds any available communication strategy. By exploiting fast on-board computing and efficient artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for analysis and data selection, the usage of the telemetry link can be optimized and value added to the mission. Radio images recorded by the radio array from below the ionosphere can be directly compared with the

  20. The VLA Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; VLASS Survey Team, VLASS Survey Science Group

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), which began in September 2017, is a seven year project to image the entire sky north of Declination -40 degrees in three epochs. The survey is being carried out in I,Q and U polarization at a frequency of 2-4GHz, and a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, with each epoch being separated by 32 months. Raw data from the survey, along with basic "quicklook" images are made freely available shortly after observation. Within a few months, NRAO will begin making available further basic data products, including refined images and source lists. In this talk I shall describe the science goals and methodology of the survey, the current survey status, and some early results, along with plans for collaborations with external groups to produce enhanced, high level data products.

  1. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg"2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α_l_o_w) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  2. Microlensing of multiply-imaged compact radio sources - Evidence for compact halo objects in the disk galaxy of B1600+434

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, LVE; de Bruyn, AG

    We present the first unambiguous case of external variability of a radio gravitational lens, CLASS B1600+434. The Very Lai-ge Array (VLA) 8.5-GHz difference light curve of the lensed images, taking the proper time-delay into account, shows the presence of external variability with 14.6-sigma

  3. Subband Adaptive Array for DS-CDMA Mobile Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Xuan Nam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel scheme of subband adaptive array (SBAA for direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA. The scheme exploits the spreading code and pilot signal as the reference signal to estimate the propagation channel. Moreover, instead of combining the array outputs at each output tap using a synthesis filter and then despreading them, we despread directly the array outputs at each output tap by the desired user's code to save the synthesis filter. Although its configuration is far different from that of 2D RAKEs, the proposed scheme exhibits relatively equivalent performance of 2D RAKEs while having less computation load due to utilising adaptive signal processing in subbands. Simulation programs are carried out to explore the performance of the scheme and compare its performance with that of the standard 2D RAKE.

  4. Radio Observations of Gamma-ray Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin D.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V.; project, E.-Nova

    2014-01-01

    Recent detection of gamma-ray emission from classical novae by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope surprised many in the astronomical community. We present results from radio observations, obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of three gamma-ray novae: Mon2012, Sco2012, and Del2013. Radio observations allow for the calculation of ejecta masses, place limits on the distances, and provide information about the gamma-ray emission mechanism for these sources.

  5. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven T.; VLASS Survey Team, Survey Science Group (SSG)

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) is a 5520 hour spectropolarimetric synoptic survey covering the 33885 square degrees of the sky above Declination -40 degrees from 2-4 GHz at 2.5" angular resolution using the upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Over the survey duration of 7 years, each area of the sky will be covered in 3 epochs spaced 32 months apart, to a projected depth of 0.12mJy/beam rms noise per epoch and 0.07mJy/beam for 3 epochs combined. The VLASS employs on-the-fly mosaicking (OTFM) to rapidly scan the sky with a net speed of approximately 20 sq. degrees per hour. The high-level science goals for the survey include the identification and precise location of radio transients, the measurement of magnetic fields in our galaxy and beyond, and the study of radio emission from galaxies and active galactic nuclei throughout the Universe. The ability of the VLASS to see through dust allows us to unveil phenomena such as hidden cosmic explosions, emission from deep within our galaxy, and supermassive black holes buried within host galaxies.The VLASS was proposed in 2014 by our community-led Survey Science Group (SSG). VLASS Pilot observations were taken in mid-2016, and the first epoch covering half the area (VLASS1.1) commenced in September 2017. The raw data from the VLASS are available in the NRAO archive immediately with no proprietary period. The Basic Data Products (BDP) that will be produced by the survey team are public and will additionally include: calibrated visibility data, quick-look continuum images (with a goal of posting to the archive within 1 week of observation), single-epoch and cumulative combined-epoch images, spectral image cubes, and basic object catalogs. Single-epoch and cumulative images are in intensity and linear polarization (Stokes IQU). In addition to the BDP provided by NRAO and served through the NRAO archive, there are plans for Enhanced Data Products and Services to be provided by the community in partnership with the

  6. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  7. Coma cluster ultradiffuse galaxies are not standard radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Mitchell F.

    2018-02-01

    Matching members in the Coma cluster catalogue of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) from SUBARU imaging with a very deep radio continuum survey source catalogue of the cluster using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) within a rectangular region of ∼1.19 deg2 centred on the cluster core reveals matches consistent with random. An overlapping set of 470 UDGs and 696 VLA radio sources in this rectangular area finds 33 matches within a separation of 25 arcsec; dividing the sample into bins with separations bounded by 5, 10, 20 and 25 arcsec finds 1, 4, 17 and 11 matches. An analytical model estimate, based on the Poisson probability distribution, of the number of randomly expected matches within these same separation bounds is 1.7, 4.9, 19.4 and 14.2, each, respectively, consistent with the 95 per cent Poisson confidence intervals of the observed values. Dividing the data into five clustercentric annuli of 0.1° and into the four separation bins, finds the same result. This random match of UDGs with VLA sources implies that UDGs are not radio galaxies by the standard definition. Those VLA sources having integrated flux >1 mJy at 1.4 GHz in Miller, Hornschemeier and Mobasher without SDSS galaxy matches are consistent with the known surface density of background radio sources. We briefly explore the possibility that some unresolved VLA sources near UDGs could be young, compact, bright, supernova remnants of Type Ia events, possibly in the intracluster volume.

  8. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2017-03-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km2. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the underground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60° zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62° to 80° will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km2 for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determination of horizontal showers in the future and the radio detection of neutrino induced showers is possible.

  9. SURVEYING THE DYNAMIC RADIO SKY WITH THE LONG WAVELENGTH DEMONSTRATOR ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Lane, W. M.; Gross, C.; Kassim, N. E.; Hicks, B.; Polisensky, E.; Stewart, K.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, D.; York, J. A.; Kerkhoff, A.; Dalal, N. Paravastu; Cohen, A. S.; Erickson, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a search for radio transients at a frequency of 73.8 MHz (4 m wavelength) using the all-sky imaging capabilities of the Long Wavelength Demonstrator Array (LWDA). The LWDA was a 16-dipole phased array telescope, located on the site of the Very Large Array in New Mexico. The field of view of the individual dipoles was essentially the entire sky, and the number of dipoles was sufficiently small that a simple software correlator could be used to make all-sky images. From 2006 October to 2007 February, we conducted an all-sky transient search program, acquiring a total of 106 hr of data; the time sampling varied, being 5 minutes at the start of the program and improving to 2 minutes by the end of the program. We were able to detect solar flares, and in a special-purpose mode, radio reflections from ionized meteor trails during the 2006 Leonid meteor shower. We detected no transients originating outside of the solar system above a flux density limit of 500 Jy, equivalent to a limit of no more than about 10 -2 events yr -1 deg -2 , having a pulse energy density ∼>1.5 x 10 -20 J m -2 Hz -1 at 73.8 MHz for pulse widths of about 300 s. This event rate is comparable to that determined from previous all-sky transient searches, but at a lower frequency than most previous all-sky searches. We believe that the LWDA illustrates how an all-sky imaging mode could be a useful operational model for low-frequency instruments such as the Low Frequency Array, the Long Wavelength Array station, the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array, and potentially the Lunar Radio Array.

  10. CHANG-ES. IV. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION OF 35 EDGE-ON GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH THE KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY IN D CONFIGURATION—DATA RELEASE 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, Theresa; Irwin, Judith; MacGregor, Stephen, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: 11sm36@queensu.ca [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the first part of the observations made for the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) project. The aim of the CHANG-ES project is to study and characterize the nature of radio halos, their prevalence as well as their magnetic fields, and the cosmic rays illuminating these fields. This paper reports observations with the compact D configuration of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) for the sample of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies of CHANG-ES. With the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the VLA, an unprecedented sensitivity was achieved for all polarization products. The beam resolution is an average of 9.″6 and 36″ with noise levels reaching approximately 6 and 30 μJy beam{sup −1} for C- and L-bands, respectively (robust weighting). We present intensity maps in these two frequency bands (C and L), with different weightings, as well as spectral index maps, polarization maps, and new measurements of star formation rates (SFRs). The data products described herein are available to the public in the CHANG-ES data release available at http://www.queensu.ca/changes. We also present evidence of a trend among galaxies with larger halos having higher SFR surface density, and we show, for the first time, a radio continuum image of the median galaxy, taking advantage of the collective signal-to-noise ratio of 30 of our galaxies. This image shows clearly that a “typical” spiral galaxy is surrounded by a halo of magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

  11. Calibrating the Auger Engineering Radio Array at the Pierre Auger Observatory using an Octocopter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briechle, Florian; Erdmann, Martin; Krause, Raphael [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    With the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) at the Pierre Auger Observatory radio emission of extensive air showers induced by ultra high energy cosmic rays is observed. Characteristics of the primary cosmic ray, e.g., arrival direction, mass or energy, can be measured this way. To produce high quality data, the detector needs to be well understood and calibrated. A useful tool for calibration campaigns is an octocopter. With it, a calibration source can be placed above the array, which makes this a very flexible method useful for different types of calibrations. Special focus is put on the position reconstruction and the position accuracy of the octocopter during the calibration flights. A new optical method using two cameras for these position reconstructions is presented. Results of a measurement campaign in spring 2015 are presented. In this campaign, the sensitivity of the AERA stations as well as timing characteristics were measured. The results of the sensitivity measurement are compared to simulations.

  12. Design, modeling and testing of the Askaryan Radio Array South Pole autonomous renewable power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, D.Z., E-mail: zedlam@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 1082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskaya Highway, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Kennedy, D.M., E-mail: dmkennedy@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 1082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Ratzlaff, K., E-mail: ratzlaff@ku.edu [Instrumentation Design Laboratory, University of Kansas, 6042 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Young, R., E-mail: rwyoung@ku.edu [Instrumentation Design Laboratory, University of Kansas, 6042 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design, construction and operation of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Autonomous Renewable Power Stations, initially installed at the South Pole in December, 2010 with the goal of providing an independently operating 100 W power source capable of year-round operation in extreme environments. In addition to particle astrophysics applications at the South Pole, such a station can easily be, and has since been, extended to operation elsewhere, as described herein.

  13. Design, modeling and testing of the Askaryan Radio Array South Pole autonomous renewable power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, D.Z.; Kennedy, D.M.; Ratzlaff, K.; Young, R.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and operation of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Autonomous Renewable Power Stations, initially installed at the South Pole in December, 2010 with the goal of providing an independently operating 100 W power source capable of year-round operation in extreme environments. In addition to particle astrophysics applications at the South Pole, such a station can easily be, and has since been, extended to operation elsewhere, as described herein

  14. Intriguing Misalignment Between Radio and Optical Structures in Classical Nova V5668 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin; Lawrence, Stephen; Chomiuk, Laura; Sokoloski, Jennifer; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Rupen, Michael; Mioduszewski, Amy; van der Horst, Alexander; Kawash, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The mass-loss and particle acceleration mechanism that drive gamma-ray production in classical novae remain largely unknown, but clues can be found in high spatial resolution images. The nova V5668 Sgr erupted in March of 2015 and was detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope approximately 2 days after its eruption. We obtained high-resolution radio images of the ejecta with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in December 2016 and January 2017. The VLA images reveal a bipolar morphology, very similar to that seen in V959 Mon. We obtained images of the ejecta with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in July 2017 using two narrow-band filters: F657N H-alpha+[N II] and F502N [O III]. The HST images also show a bipolar structure, but the HST structure is not aligned with the VLA structure. We present preliminary results of this multi-wavelength project.

  15. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have produced a scientific gold mine of detailed, high-quality images of nearby galaxies that is yielding important new insights into many aspects of galaxies, including their complex structures, how they form stars, the motions of gas in the galaxies, the relationship of "normal" matter to unseen "dark matter," and many others. An international team of scientists used more than 500 hours of observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to produce detailed sets of images of 34 galaxies at distances from 6 to 50 million light-years from Earth. Their project, called The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, or THINGS, required two years to produce nearly one TeraByte of data. HI ("H-one") is an astronomical term for atomic hydrogen gas. The astronomers presented their initial findings to the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Austin, Texas. "Studying the radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies is an extremely powerful way to learn what's going on in nearby galaxies. The THINGS survey uses that tool to provide sets of images of the highest quality and sensitivity for a substantial sample of galaxies of different types," said Fabian Walter, of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. IC2574M74 Dwarf galaxy IC2574, left, and spiral galaxy M74, in THINGS images. Credit: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click images for high-resolution files (33 KB & 25 KB) Spiral Galaxies in THINGS Most of the galaxies studied in the THINGS survey also have been observed at other wavelengths, including Spitzer space telescope infrared images and GALEX ultraviolet images. This combination provides an unprecedented resource for unravelling the mystery of how a galaxy's gaseous material influences its overall evolution. Analysis of THINGS data already has yielded numerous scientific payoffs. For example, one study has shed new light on astronomers' understanding of the gas-density threshold required to

  16. VLA Observation of Seyfert Galaxy MRK 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    1997-12-01

    We have obtained deep radio observation of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy Mrk6 with all VLA configurations at 6 and 20 cm. We confirm the existence of two pairs of diffuse low surface brightness radio lobes at different scales and orientations. The larger pair of lobes extend ( ~ 40" or 20 kpc) ~ 30(deg) NW-SE, and is evidence of starburst-driven superwind as suggested in Baum et. al (1993). The outer lobes are roughly perpendicular to a set of inner lobes which extend ( ~ 4" or 2 kpc) E-W and are in turn perpendicular to the inner jets imaged by Kukula et. al (1996). Both pairs of lobes appear to have shell-like structures, as implied by the observed anti-symmetric emission morphology which might be due to limb brightening as a result of increasing optical depth at the line of sight. The width of each structure is comparable to the length of the next smaller structure suggesting a "self-similar" (and possibly dynamical) relationship between these structures. These nested "bubble-like" structures with different orientations pose a challenge to the current paradigm of energy transport in Seyfert galaxies.

  17. PROSPECTS FOR THE DETECTION OF FAST RADIO BURSTS WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B., E-mail: cathryn.trott@curtin.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley WA 6845 (Australia)

    2013-10-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short timescale (<<1 s) astrophysical radio signals, presumed to be a signature of cataclysmic events of extragalactic origin. The discovery of six high-redshift events at ∼1400 MHz from the Parkes radio telescope suggests that FRBs may occur at a high rate across the sky. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) operates at low radio frequencies (80-300 MHz) and is expected to detect FRBs due to its large collecting area (∼2500 m{sup 2}) and wide field-of-view (FOV, ∼ 1000 deg{sup 2} at ν = 200 MHz). We compute the expected number of FRB detections for the MWA assuming a source population consistent with the reported detections. Our formalism properly accounts for the frequency-dependence of the antenna primary beam, the MWA system temperature, and unknown spectral index of the source population, for three modes of FRB detection: coherent; incoherent; and fast imaging. We find that the MWA's sensitivity and large FOV combine to provide the expectation of multiple detectable events per week in all modes, potentially making it an excellent high time resolution science instrument. Deviations of the expected number of detections from actual results will provide a strong constraint on the assumptions made for the underlying source population and intervening plasma distribution.

  18. Prospects for the Detection of Fast Radio Bursts with the Murchison Widefield Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2013-10-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short timescale (Lt1 s) astrophysical radio signals, presumed to be a signature of cataclysmic events of extragalactic origin. The discovery of six high-redshift events at ~1400 MHz from the Parkes radio telescope suggests that FRBs may occur at a high rate across the sky. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) operates at low radio frequencies (80-300 MHz) and is expected to detect FRBs due to its large collecting area (~2500 m2) and wide field-of-view (FOV, ~ 1000 deg2 at ν = 200 MHz). We compute the expected number of FRB detections for the MWA assuming a source population consistent with the reported detections. Our formalism properly accounts for the frequency-dependence of the antenna primary beam, the MWA system temperature, and unknown spectral index of the source population, for three modes of FRB detection: coherent; incoherent; and fast imaging. We find that the MWA's sensitivity and large FOV combine to provide the expectation of multiple detectable events per week in all modes, potentially making it an excellent high time resolution science instrument. Deviations of the expected number of detections from actual results will provide a strong constraint on the assumptions made for the underlying source population and intervening plasma distribution.

  19. Observations of inner plasmasphere irregularities with a satellite-beacon radio-interferometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Hoogeveen, G.; Carlos, R.C.; Wu, G.; Fejer, B.G.; Kelley, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    A radio-interferometer array illuminated by 136-MHz beacons of several geosynchronous satellites has been used to study small (≥10 13 m -2 ) transient disturbances in the total electron content along the lines of sight to the satellites. High-frequency (f>3 mHz) electron content oscillations are persistently observed, particularly during night and particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The oscillations move across the array plane at speeds in the range 200 endash 2000 m/s, with propagation azimuths that are strongly peaked in lobes toward the western half-plane. Detailed analysis of this azimuth behavior, involving comparison between observations on various satellite positions, indicates compellingly that the phase oscillations originate in radio refraction due to geomagnetically aligned plasma density perturbations in the inner plasmasphere. The motion of the phase perturbations across the array plane is caused by EXB drift of the plasma medium in which the irregularities are embedded. We review the statistics of 2.5 years of around-the-clock data on the local time, magnetic disturbance, seasonal, and line-of-sight variations of these observed irregularities. We compare the irregularities close-quote inferred electrodynamic drifts to what is known about midlatitude plasma drift from incoherent scatter. Finally, we show in detail how the observation of these irregularities provides a unique and complementary monitor of inner plasmasphere irregularity incidence and zonal drift.copyright 1996 American Geophysical Union

  20. Radio imaging of solar flares using the very large array - New insights into flare process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.; Schmahl, E. J.; Vlahos, L.; Velusamy, T.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretation of VLA observations of microwave bursts is presented in an attempt to distinguish between certain models of flares. The VLA observations provide information about the pre-flare magnetic field topology and the existence of mildly relativistic electrons accelerated during flares. Examples are shown of changes in magnetic field topology in the hour before flares. In one case, new bipolar loops appear to emerge, which is an essential component of the model developed by Heyvaerts et al. (1977). In another case, a quadrupole structure, suggestive of two juxtaposed bipolar loops, appears to trigger the flare. Because of the observed diversity of magnetic field topologies in microwave bursts, it is believed that the magnetic energy must be dissipated in more than one way. The VLA observations are clearly providing means for sorting out the diverse flare models.

  1. Proposal for Definitive Survey for Fast Radio Bursts at the Allen Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Gerald; Tarter, J. C.; Welch, W. J.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2014-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array, a 42-dish radio interferometer in Northern California is now being upgraded with new, more sensitive receivers covering 0.9-18 GHz continuously. Leveraging this frequency coverage and wide field of view, the ATA is a unique and ideal instrument for the discovery and characterization of fast radio bursts (FRBs, discovered at Parkes and Arecibo) and other short-time domain radio phenomena. The field of view (nearly 10 sq. deg. at 1 GHz) allows for a rapid search of 3π steradians with many lookbacks over a period of 2.5 years. The instantaneous wide-frequency range of the upgraded ATA receivers allows sensitive observations at 4 simultaneous frequency ranges (for example, 0.9 - 1.5 GHz, 1.6-2.2 GHz, 2.5-3.1 GHz, and 4.6-5.2 GHz, full Stokes); something not possible at any other major telescope. This enables very accurate dispersion measure and spectral index characterization of ms-timescale bursts (or other time-variable activity) with a localization accuracy ~20" for SNR > 10 (all FRBs discovered to date would meet this criterium). We discuss the new digital processing system required to perform this survey, with a plan to capture ~400 FRB events during the survey period of performance , based on current event-rate estimates of 10^4 events/sky/day.

  2. MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY LIMITS ON RADIO EMISSION FROM ANTARES NEUTRINO EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, S.; Kaplan, D. L.; Tingay, S. J.; Murphy, T.; Rowlinson, A.; Bell, M. E.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Ageron, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a search, using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to two candidate high-energy neutrino events detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope in 2013 November and 2014 March. These events were selected by ANTARES because they are consistent, within 0.°4, with the locations of galaxies within 20 Mpc of Earth. Using MWA archival data at frequencies between 118 and 182 MHz, taken ∼20 days prior to, at the same time as, and up to a year after the neutrino triggers, we look for transient or strongly variable radio sources that are consistent with the neutrino positions. No such counterparts are detected, and we set a 5σ upper limit for low-frequency radio emission of ∼10 37 erg s −1 for progenitors at 20 Mpc. If the neutrino sources are instead not in nearby galaxies, but originate in binary neutron star coalescences, our limits place the progenitors at z ≳ 0.2. While it is possible, due to the high background from atmospheric neutrinos, that neither event is astrophysical, the MWA observations are nevertheless among the first to follow up neutrino candidates in the radio, and illustrate the promise of wide-field instruments like MWA for detecting EM counterparts to such events

  3. MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY LIMITS ON RADIO EMISSION FROM ANTARES NEUTRINO EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [University of California, Berkeley, Astronomy Department, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Tingay, S. J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Murphy, T.; Rowlinson, A. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M. [Institut d’Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC)—Universitat Politècnica de València. C/ Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia (Spain); Ageron, M.; Aubert, J.-J. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288, Marseille (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE—Université de Haute Alsace—Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568-68008 Colmar (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris (France); Collaboration: for the MWA Collaboration; for the ANTARES Collaboration; for the TAROT Collaboration; for the ROTSE Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-01

    We present a search, using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to two candidate high-energy neutrino events detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope in 2013 November and 2014 March. These events were selected by ANTARES because they are consistent, within 0.°4, with the locations of galaxies within 20 Mpc of Earth. Using MWA archival data at frequencies between 118 and 182 MHz, taken ∼20 days prior to, at the same time as, and up to a year after the neutrino triggers, we look for transient or strongly variable radio sources that are consistent with the neutrino positions. No such counterparts are detected, and we set a 5σ upper limit for low-frequency radio emission of ∼10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} for progenitors at 20 Mpc. If the neutrino sources are instead not in nearby galaxies, but originate in binary neutron star coalescences, our limits place the progenitors at z ≳ 0.2. While it is possible, due to the high background from atmospheric neutrinos, that neither event is astrophysical, the MWA observations are nevertheless among the first to follow up neutrino candidates in the radio, and illustrate the promise of wide-field instruments like MWA for detecting EM counterparts to such events.

  4. VLA observations of Cepheid variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.L.; Duric, N.

    1988-01-01

    The 3-sigma, 5 GHz flux-density upper limits between 120 and 180 microJy have been obtained for the classical Cepheids FF Aql, Eta Aql, SU Cas, Delta Cep, and T Mon, and the Type II Cepheids CS Cas and SW Tau using the VLA. On the basis of assumptions outlined in the main text, upper limits for the ionized mass-loss rates of order 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -7th solar masses/yr are derived for these stars. 13 references

  5. The Expanded Very Large Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Rick

    2012-10-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array Project, begun in 2001, is now completed -- on time, on budget, and ``on spec.'' The major goal of the project was to multiply the key observational capabilities of the Very Large Array -- the world's most powerful, versatile, and productive radio telescope -- by a factor of at least an order of magnitude by implementation of modern technologies. The result of the project is an operationally new telescope -- renamed the Jansky Very Large Array -- which is capable of new science unimagined in 1980, when the original VLA was completed. In this talk, I will review the goals of the project, and describe the new capabilities of the Jansky Very Large Array. Already, the array is providing fabulous new insights into the physics of the universe,and I will spend the majority of the time describing examples of new results.

  6. Medicina array demonstrator: calibration and radiation pattern characterization using a UAV-mounted radio-frequency source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupillo, G.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, G.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Perini, F.; Poloni, M.; Schiaffino, M.; Bolli, P.; Lingua, A.; Aicardi, I.; Bendea, H.; Maschio, P.; Piras, M.; Virone, G.; Paonessa, F.; Farooqui, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Addamo, G.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the new-generation Low-Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) radio telescopes is instrument calibration. The operational LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) instrument and the future LFAA element of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) require advanced calibration techniques to reach the expected outstanding performance. In this framework, a small array, called Medicina Array Demonstrator (MAD), has been designed and installed in Italy to provide a test bench for antenna characterization and calibration techniques based on a flying artificial test source. A radio-frequency tone is transmitted through a dipole antenna mounted on a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (hexacopter) and received by each element of the array. A modern digital FPGA-based back-end is responsible for both data-acquisition and data-reduction. A simple amplitude and phase equalization algorithm is exploited for array calibration owing to the high stability and accuracy of the developed artificial test source. Both the measured embedded element patterns and calibrated array patterns are found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. The successful measurement campaign has demonstrated that a UAV-mounted test source provides a means to accurately validate and calibrate the full-polarized response of an antenna/array in operating conditions, including consequently effects like mutual coupling between the array elements and contribution of the environment to the antenna patterns. A similar system can therefore find a future application in the SKA-LFAA context.

  7. EVOLUTION OF THE WATER MASER EXPANDING SHELL IN W75N VLA 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sang Joon [School of Space Science, Kyunghee University, Seocheon-dong, Giheung-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon-Wook [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kurayama, Tomoharu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sasao, Tesuo [Yaeyama Star Club, Ookawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 904-0022 (Japan); Surcis, Gabriele [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Canto, Jorge [Instituto de Astronomia (UNAM), Apartado 70-264, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Torrelles, Jose M., E-mail: evony@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: skim@kasi.re.kr [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC)-UB/IEEC, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-10

    We present Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers in the high-mass star-forming region of W75N, carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) for three epochs in 2007 with an angular resolution of {approx}1 mas. We detected H{sub 2}O maser emission toward the radio jet in VLA 1 and the expanding shell-like structure in VLA 2. The spatial distribution of the H{sub 2}O masers detected with VERA and measured proper motions around VLA 1 and VLA 2 are similar to those found with previous VLBI observations in epochs 1999 and 2005, with the masers in VLA 1 mainly distributed along a linear structure parallel to the radio jet and, on the other hand, forming a shell-like structure around VLA 2. We have made elliptical fits to the VLA 2 H{sub 2}O maser shell-like structure observed in the different epochs (1999, 2005, and 2007), and found that the shell is still expanding eight years after its discovery. From the difference in the size of the semi-major axes of the fitted ellipses in epochs 1999 ({approx_equal}71 {+-} 1 mas), 2005 ({approx_equal}97 {+-} 3 mas), and 2007 ({approx_equal}111 {+-} 1 mas), we estimate an average expanding velocity of {approx}5 mas yr{sup -1}, similar to the proper motions measured in the individual H{sub 2}O maser features. A kinematic age of {approx}20 yr is derived for this structure. In addition, our VERA observations indicate an increase in the ellipticity of the expanding shell around VLA 2 from epochs 1999 to 2007. In fact, the elliptical fit of the VERA data shows a ratio of the minor and major axes of {approx}0.6, in contrast with an almost circular shape for the shell detected in 1999 and 2005 (b/a {approx} 0.9). This suggests that we are probably observing the formation of a jet-driven H{sub 2}O maser structure in VLA2, evolving from a non-collimated pulsed-outflow event during the first stages of evolution of a massive young stellar object (YSO). This may support predictions made

  8. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUN AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY PROTOTYPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberoi, Divya; Matthews, Lynn D.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Benkevitch, Leonid; Cairns, Iver H.; Lobzin, Vasili; Emrich, David; Wayth, Randall B.; Arcus, Wayne; Morgan, Edward H.; Williams, Christopher; Prabu, T.; Vedantham, Harish; Williams, Andrew; White, Stephen M.; Allen, G.; Barnes, David; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first spectroscopic images of solar radio transients from the prototype for the Murchison Widefield Array, observed on 2010 March 27. Our observations span the instantaneous frequency band 170.9- 201.6 MHz. Though our observing period is characterized as a period of 'low' to 'medium' activity, one broadband emission feature and numerous short-lived, narrowband, non-thermal emission features are evident. Our data represent a significant advance in low radio frequency solar imaging, enabling us to follow the spatial, spectral, and temporal evolution of events simultaneously and in unprecedented detail. The rich variety of features seen here reaffirms the coronal diagnostic capability of low radio frequency emission and provides an early glimpse of the nature of radio observations that will become available as the next generation of low-frequency radio interferometers come online over the next few years.

  9. Key Science Goals for a Next-generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric Joseph; ngVLA Science Advisory Council and all ngVLA Science Working Groups

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by dramatic discoveries from the Jansky VLA and ALMA, a plan to pursue a large collecting area radio interferometer that will open new discovery space from proto-planetary disks to distant galaxies is being developed by NRAO and the science community. Building on the superb cm observing conditions and existing infrastructure of the VLA site, the current vision of the ngVLA will be an interferometric array with more than 10 times the effective collecting area and spatial resolution of the current VLA and ALMA, that will operating at frequencies spanning ~1.2. – 116 GHz. The ngVLA will be optimized for observations at wavelengths between the exquisite performance of ALMA at submm wavelengths, and the future SKA-1 at decimeter to meter wavelengths, thus lending itself to be highly complementary with these facilities. As such, the ngVLA will open a new window on the universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcecond resolution, as well as deliver unprecedented broad band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The ngVLA will be the only facility in the world that can tackle a broad range of outstanding scientific questions in modern astronomy by simultaneously delivering the capability to: unveil the formation of Solar System analogues; probe the initial conditions for planetary systems and life with astrochemistry; characterize the assembly, structure, and evolution of galaxies from the first billion years to the present; use pulsars in the Galactic center as fundamental tests of gravity; and understand the formation and evolution of stellar and supermassive blackholes in the era of multi-messenger astronomy.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB 160509A VLA monitoring campain results (Laskar+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, T.; Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.-F.; Margutti, R.; Shivvers, I.; Williams, P. K. G.; Kopac, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Mundell, C.; Gomboc, A.; Zheng, W.; Menten, K. M.; Graham, M. L.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    GRB 160509A was discovered by the Fermi LAT on 2016 May 09 at 08:59:04.36 UTC (Longo+ 2016GCN..19403...1L). We observed the afterglow with the VLA starting at 0.36 days. We tracked the flux density of the afterglow over multiple epochs spanning 1.2-33.5GHz, using 3C48, 3C286, and 3C147 as flux and bandpass calibrators, and J2005+7752 as the gain calibrator. Our VLA observations spanning 0.36-20 days after the burst clearly reveal the presence of multiple spectral components in the radio afterglow. (1 data file).

  11. Nullspace MUSIC and Improved Radio Frequency Emitter Geolocation from a Mobile Antenna Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Andrew L.

    This work advances state-of-the-art Radio Frequency (RF) emitter geolocation from an airborne or spaceborne antenna array. With an antenna array, geolocation is based on Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms such as MUSIC. The MUSIC algorithm applies to arbitrary arrays of polarization sensitive antennas and yields high resolution. However, MUSIC fails to obtain its theoretical resolution for simultaneous, closely spaced, co-frequency signals. We propose the novel Nullspace MUSIC algorithm, which outperforms MUSIC and its existing modifications while maintaining MUSIC(apostrophe)s fundamental orthogonality test. Nullspace MUSIC applies a divide-and-conquer approach and estimates a single DOA at a time. Additionally, an antenna array on an aircraft cannot be perfectly calibrated. RF waves are blocked, reflected, and scattered in a time-varying fashion by the platform around the antenna array. Consequently, full-wave electromagnetics simulations or demanding measurements of the entire platform cannot eliminate the mismatch between the true, in-situ antenna patterns and the antenna patterns that are available for DOA estimation (the antenna array manifold). Platform-induced manifold mismatch severely degrades MUSIC(apostrophe)s resolution and accuracy. We show that Nullspace MUSIC improves DOA accuracy for well separated signals that are incident on an airborne antenna array. Conventionally, geolocation from a mobile platform draws Lines of Bearing (LOB) from the antenna array along the DOAs to find the locations where the DOAs intersect with the ground. However, averaging the LOBs in the global coordinate system yields large errors due to geometric dilution of precision. Since averaging positions fails, a single emitter is typically located by finding the position on the ground that yields the Minimum Apparent Angular Error (MAAE) for the DOA estimates over a flight. We extend the MAAE approach to cluster LOBs from multiple emitters. MAAE clustering

  12. LONG-TERM CALIBRATION STABILITY OF A RADIO ASTRONOMICAL PHASED ARRAY FEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, Michael; Jeffs, Brian D.; Warnick, Karl F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    There are many challenges associated with the implementation of a phased array feed for radio astronomy applications. Among these is the need to have an adequate set of calibration measurements so that reliable beamformers can be computed. Changes in the operating environment and temporal gain drift in the electronics contribute to calibration drift, which affects the beamformer performance. We will show that calibration measurements are relatively stable over a 5 day period and may remain so for up to 70 days or longer. We have incorporated the use of a calibration update system that has the potential to refresh a set of old calibrators, specifically correcting for electronic gain drift. However, the long-term variations that are present with fresh, current calibrators are greater than the degradation due to using an old calibration set, suggesting that, at this time, there is not a need for sophisticated calibration update systems or algorithms.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF ROTATING RADIO TRANSIENTS WITH THE FIRST STATION OF THE LONG WAVELENGTH ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. B.; Stovall, K.; McCrackan, M.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A.; Miller, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States); Karako-Argaman, C. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-11-10

    Rotating radio transients (RRATs) are a subclass of pulsars first identified in 2006 that are detected only in searches for single pulses and not through their time averaged emission. Here, we present the results of observations of 19 RRATs using the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) at frequencies between 30 and 88 MHz. The RRATs observed here were first detected in higher frequency pulsar surveys. Of the 19 RRATs observed, two sources were detected and their dispersion measures, periods, pulse profiles, and flux densities are reported and compared to previous higher frequency measurements. We find a low detection rate (11%), which could be a combination of the lower sensitivity of LWA1 compared to higher frequency telescopes, and the result of scattering by the interstellar medium or a spectral turnover.

  14. Development of a radio-detection array for the observation of UHE neutrino-induced showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, Daniel [SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Nantes, E. Mines Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: Daniel.ardouin@univ-nantes.fr; Charrier, Didier; Lautridou, Pascal [SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Nantes, E. Mines Nantes, Nantes (France); Martineau-Huynh, Olivier [LPNHE, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Ravel, Olivier [SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Nantes, E. Mines Nantes, Nantes (France); Wu Xiangping; Zhao Meng [NAOC, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-01

    The recent demonstration by the CODALEMA collaboration of the ability of the radio-detection technique for the characterization of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) calls for the use of this powerful method for the observation of UHE neutrinos. For this purpose, an adaptation of the already existing 21CM-Array (CMA) in China, is presently under achievement. In an exceptionally low electromagnetic noise level, 10160 log-periodic 50-200 MHz antennas sit along two high-altitude valleys, surrounded by mountain chains. This layout results in 30-60 km effective rock thicknesses for {nu} interactions with low incidence trajectories along the direction of two 4-6 km baselines. We will present first in-situ radio measurements demonstrating that this environment shows particularly favourable physical conditions for the observation of electromagnetic decay signals of {tau}'s leptons originating from the interaction of 10{sup 17-20} eV {nu}{sub {tau}} neutrinos.

  15. Development of a radio-detection array for the observation of UHE neutrino induced showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, D.; Charrier, D.; Lautridou, P.; Ravel, O. [Nantes Univ., E.Mines, SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, 44 (France); Martineau-Huynh, O. [Paris-6 Univ., LPNHE, IN2P3-CNRS, 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies; Xiang-Ping, Wu; Meng, Zhao [NAOC, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    The recent demonstration by the CODALEMA Collaboration of the ability of the radio-detection technique for the characterization of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) calls for the use of this powerful method for the observation of UHE neutrinos. For this purpose, an adaptation of the already existing 21CM-Array in China, is presently under achievement. In an exceptionally low electromagnetic noise level, 10160 log-periodic 50-200 MHz antennas sit along two high altitude valleys, surrounded by mountain chains. This lay-out results in 30-60 km effective rock thicknesses for {nu} interactions with low incidence trajectories along the direction of two 4-6 km baselines. We will present first in-situ radio measurements demonstrating that this environment shows particularly favourable physical conditions for the observation of electromagnetic decay signals of {tau}'s leptons originating from the interaction of 10{sup 17-20} eV {nu}{sub {tau}} neutrinos. (authors)

  16. Radio Channel Sounding Using a Circular Horn Antenna Array in the Horizontal Plane in the 2.3 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Tsutomu; Ogawa, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from an outdoor radio propagation experiment at 2.35 GHz using a channel sounder and a spherical horn antenna array. The propagation test was performed in Aalborg city in Denmark. Comparing the ray-tracing results and the results obtained with the proposed method...... on the measured data shows a good match in both the spatial and time domains....

  17. Research on Wide-field Imaging Technologies for Low-frequency Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, B. Q.; An, T.; Chen, X.; Wu, X. C.; Lu, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Wide-field imaging of low-frequency radio telescopes are subject to a number of difficult problems. One particularly pernicious problem is the non-coplanar baseline effect. It will lead to distortion of the final image when the phase of w direction called w-term is ignored. The image degradation effects are amplified for telescopes with the wide field of view. This paper summarizes and analyzes several w-term correction methods and their technical principles. Their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed after comparing their computational cost and computational complexity. We conduct simulations with two of these methods, faceting and w-projection, based on the configuration of the first-phase Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low frequency array. The resulted images are also compared with the two-dimensional Fourier transform method. The results show that image quality and correctness derived from both faceting and w-projection are better than the two-dimensional Fourier transform method in wide-field imaging. The image quality and run time affected by the number of facets and w steps have been evaluated. The results indicate that the number of facets and w steps must be reasonable. Finally, we analyze the effect of data size on the run time of faceting and w-projection. The results show that faceting and w-projection need to be optimized before the massive amounts of data processing. The research of the present paper initiates the analysis of wide-field imaging techniques and their application in the existing and future low-frequency array, and fosters the application and promotion to much broader fields.

  18. VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY IMAGING OF PARSEC-SCALE RADIO EMISSIONS IN NEARBY RADIO-QUIET NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Akihiro [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Asada, Keiichi; Inoue, Makoto [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fujisawa, Kenta [The Research Institute of Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wajima, Kiyoaki, E-mail: akihiro.doi@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2013-03-01

    We conducted Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of seven nearby narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies at 1.7 GHz ({lambda}18 cm) with milliarcsecond resolution. This is the first systematic very long baseline interferometry study focusing on the central parsec-scale regions of radio-quiet NLS1s. Five of the seven were detected at a brightness temperature of {approx}> 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and contain radio cores with high brightness temperatures of >6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, indicating a nonthermal process driven by jet-producing central engines as in radio-loud NLS1s and other active galactic nucleus classes. VLBA images of MRK 1239, MRK 705, and MRK 766 exhibit parsec-scale jets with clear linear structures. A large portion of the radio power comes from diffuse emission components that are distributed within the nuclear regions ({approx}< 300 pc), which is a common characteristic throughout the observed NLS1s. Jet kinetic powers limited by the Eddington limit may be insufficient to allow the jets to escape to kiloparsec scales for these radio-quiet NLS1s with low-mass black holes of {approx}< 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }.

  19. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image a young, multiple-star system with unprecedented detail, yielding important clues about how such systems are formed. Most Sun-sized or larger stars in the Universe are not single, like our Sun, but are members of multiple-star systems. Astronomers have been divided on how such systems can form, producing competing theoretical models for this process. Multiple Star Formation Graphic Proposed Formation Process for L1551 IRS5 CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information The new VLA study produced a "smoking gun" supporting one of the competing models, said Jeremy Lim, of the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan, whose study, done with Shigehisa Takakuwa of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, is published in the December 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Ironically, their discovery of a third, previously-unknown, young star in the system may support a second theoretical model. "There may be more than one way to make a multiple-star system," Lim explained. The astronomers observed an object called L1551 IRS5, young, still-forming protostars enshrouded in a cloud of gas and dust, some 450 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Taurus. Invisible to optical telescopes because of the gas and dust, this object was discovered in 1976 by astronomers using infrared telescopes. A VLA study in 1998 showed two young stars orbiting each other, each surrounded by a disk of dust that may, in time, congeal into a system of planets. Lim and Takakuwa re-examined the system, using improved technical capabilities that greatly boosted the quality of their images. "In the earlier VLA study, only half of the VLA's 27 antennas had receivers that could collect the radio waves, at a frequency of 43 GigaHertz (GHz), coming from the dusty disks. When we re-observed this

  20. DISENTANGLING THE ENTANGLED: OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF THE TRIPLE NON-COEVAL PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM VLA1623

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, Nadia M.; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Commonplace at every evolutionary stage, multiple protostellar systems (MPSs) are thought to be formed through fragmentation, but it is unclear when and how. The youngest MPSs, which have not yet undergone much evolution, provide important constraints to this question. It is then of interest to disentangle early stage MPSs. In this Letter we present the results of our work on VLA1623 using our observations and archival data from the Submillimeter Array. Our continuum and line observations trace VLA1623's components, outflow, and envelope, revealing unexpected characteristics. We construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) for each component using the results of our work and data from literature, as well as derive physical parameters from continuum and perform a simple kinematical analysis of the circumstellar material. Our results show VLA1623 to be a triple non-coeval system composed of VLA1623A, B, and W, with each source driving its own outflow and unevenly distributed circumstellar material. From the SED, physical parameters, and IR emission we conclude that VLA1623A and W are Class 0 and Class I protostars, respectively, and together drive the bulk of the observed outflow. Furthermore, we find two surprising results, first the presence of a rotating disk-like structure about VLA1623A with indications of pure Keplerian rotation, which, if real, would make it one of the first evidence of Keplerian disk structures around Class 0 protostars. Second, we find VLA1623B to be a bona fide extremely young protostellar object between the starless core and Class 0 stages.

  1. Image Reconstruction in Radio Astronomy with Non-Coplanar Synthesis Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrick, L.

    2015-03-01

    Traditional radio astronomy imaging techniques assume that the interferometric array is coplanar, with a small field of view, and that the two-dimensional Fourier relationship between brightness and visibility remains valid, allowing the Fast Fourier Transform to be used. In practice, to acquire more accurate data, the non-coplanar baseline effects need to be incorporated, as small height variations in the array plane introduces the w spatial frequency component. This component adds an additional phase shift to the incoming signals. There are two approaches to account for the non-coplanar baseline effects: either the full three-dimensional brightness and visibility model can be used to reconstruct an image, or the non-coplanar effects can be removed, reducing the three dimensional relationship to that of the two-dimensional one. This thesis describes and implements the w-projection and w-stacking algorithms. The aim of these algorithms is to account for the phase error introduced by non-coplanar synthesis arrays configurations, making the recovered visibilities more true to the actual brightness distribution model. This is done by reducing the 3D visibilities to a 2D visibility model. The algorithms also have the added benefit of wide-field imaging, although w-stacking supports a wider field of view at the cost of more FFT bin support. For w-projection, the w-term is accounted for in the visibility domain by convolving it out of the problem with a convolution kernel, allowing the use of the two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. Similarly, the w-Stacking algorithm applies a phase correction in the image domain to image layers to produce an intensity model that accounts for the non-coplanar baseline effects. This project considers the KAT7 array for simulation and analysis of the limitations and advantages of both the algorithms. Additionally, a variant of the Högbom CLEAN algorithm was used which employs contour trimming for extended source emission flagging. The

  2. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE RADIO EVOLUTION OF SN 2011dh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, M. I.; Chomiuk, L.; Brunthaler, A.; Rupen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Soderberg, A. M.; Zauderer, B. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bietenholz, M. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, M3J 1P3, Ontario (Canada); Chevalier, R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-10

    We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the Type IIb supernova 2011dh, performed over the first 100 days of its evolution and spanning 1-40 GHz in frequency. The radio emission is well described by the self-similar propagation of a spherical shockwave, generated as the supernova ejecta interact with the local circumstellar environment. Modeling this emission with a standard synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) model gives an average expansion velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.1c, supporting the classification of the progenitor as a compact star (R{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} cm). We find that the circumstellar density is consistent with a {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -2} profile. We determine that the progenitor shed mass at a constant rate of Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, assuming a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup -1} (values appropriate for a Wolf-Rayet star), or Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} assuming 20 km s{sup -1} (appropriate for a yellow supergiant [YSG] star). Both values of the mass-loss rate assume a converted fraction of kinetic to magnetic energy density of {epsilon}{sub B} = 0.1. Although optical imaging shows the presence of a YSG, the rapid optical evolution and fast expansion argue that the progenitor is a more compact star-perhaps a companion to the YSG. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the radio properties of SN 2011dh with the SSA model implies that any YSG companion is likely in a wide, non-interacting orbit.

  3. Reliability-centered maintenance for ground-based large optical telescopes and radio antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Formentin, F.; Rampini, F.

    2014-07-01

    In the last years, EIE GROUP has been more and more involved in large optical telescopes and radio antennas array projects. In this frame, the paper describes a fundamental aspect of the Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) process, that is the application of the Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology for the generation of maintenance plans for ground-based large optical telescopes and radio antennas arrays. This helps maintenance engineers to make sure that the telescopes continue to work properly, doing what their users require them to do in their present operating conditions. The main objective of the RCM process is to establish the complete maintenance regime, with the safe minimum required maintenance, carried out without any risk to personnel, telescope and subsystems. At the same time, a correct application of the RCM allows to increase the cost effectiveness, telescope uptime and items availability, and to provide greater understanding of the level of risk that the organization is managing. At the same time, engineers shall make a great effort since the initial phase of the project to obtain a telescope requiring easy maintenance activities and simple replacement of the major assemblies, taking special care on the accesses design and items location, implementation and design of special lifting equipment and handling devices for the heavy items. This maintenance engineering framework is based on seven points, which lead to the main steps of the RCM program. The initial steps of the RCM process consist of: system selection and data collection (MTBF, MTTR, etc.), definition of system boundaries and operating context, telescope description with the use of functional block diagrams, and the running of a FMECA to address the dominant causes of equipment failure and to lay down the Critical Items List. In the second part of the process the RCM logic is applied, which helps to determine the appropriate maintenance tasks for each identified failure mode. Once

  4. Preliminary Data Pipeline for SunRISE: Assessing the Performance of Space Based Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Amiri, N.; Stuart, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity that was recently awarded phase A funding. SunRISE's main science goals are to localize the source of particle acceleration in coronal mass ejections to 1/4th of their width, and trace the path of electron beams along magnetic field lines out to 20 solar radii. These processes generate cascading Type II and III bursts that have ever only been detected in low frequencies with single spacecraft antenna. These bursts emit below the ionospheric cutoff of 10 MHz past 2 solar radii, so a synthetic aperture made from multiple space antennae is needed to pinpoint the origin of these bursts. In this work, we create an end to end simulation of the data processing pipeline of SunRISE, which uses 6 small satellites to do this localization. One of the main inputs of the simulation is a ground truth of what we want the array to image. We idealized this as an elliptical Gaussian offset from the sun, which previous modeling suggests is a good approximation of what SunRISE would see in space. Another input is an orbit file describing the positions of all the spacecraft. The simulated orbit determinations are made with GPS sidelobes and have an error associated with the recovered positions. From there we compute the Fourier coefficients every antenna will see, then apply the correct phase lags and multiply each pair of coefficients to simulate the process of correlation. We compute the projected UVW coordinates and put these along with the correlated visibilities into a CASA MS file. The correlated visibilities are compared to CASA's simulated visibilities at the same UVW coordinates, verifying the accuracy of our method. The visibilities are then subjected to realistic thermal noise, as well as phase noise from uncertainties in the spacecraft position. We employ CASA's CLEAN algorithm to image the data, and CASA's imfit algorithm to estimate the parameters of the imaged

  5. Searching for giga-Jansky fast radio bursts from the Milky Way with a global array of low-cost radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    If fast radio bursts (FRBs) originate from galaxies at cosmological distances, then their all-sky rate implies that the Milky Way may host an FRB every 30-1500 yr, on average. If many FRBs persistently repeat for decades or more, a local giant FRB could be active now, with 1 GHz radio pulses of flux ˜3 × 1010 Jy, comparable with the fluxes and frequencies detectable by cellular communication devices (cell phones, Wi-Fi and GPS). We propose searching for Galactic FRBs using a global array of low-cost radio receivers. One possibility is the ˜1 GHz communication channel in cellular phones, through a Citizens-Science downloadable application. Participating phones would continuously listen for and record candidate FRBs and would periodically upload information to a central data-processing website which will identify the signature of a real, globe-encompassing, FRB from an astronomical distance. Triangulation of the GPS-based pulse arrival times reported from different Earth locations will provide the FRB sky position, potentially to arcsecond accuracy. Pulse arrival times versus frequency, from reports from phones operating at diverse frequencies, or from fast signal de-dispersion by the application, will yield the dispersion measure (DM). Compared to a Galactic DM model, it will indicate the source distance within the Galaxy. A variant approach uses the built-in ˜100 MHz FM-radio receivers present in cell phones for an FRB search at lower frequencies. Alternatively, numerous 'software-defined radio' devices, costing ˜$10 US each, could be deployed and plugged into USB ports of personal computers (particularly in radio-quiet locations) to establish the global network of receivers.

  6. The prospects of pulsar timing with new-generation radio telescopes and the Square Kilometre Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappers, B. W.; Keane, E. F.; Kramer, M.; Possenti, A.; Stairs, I. H.

    2018-05-01

    Pulsars are highly magnetized and rapidly rotating neutron stars. As they spin, the lighthouse-like beam of radio emission from their magnetic poles sweeps across the Earth with a regularity approaching that of the most precise clocks known. This precision combined with the extreme environments in which they are found, often in compact orbits with other neutron stars and white dwarfs, makes them excellent tools for studying gravity. Present and near-future pulsar surveys, especially those using the new generation of telescopes, will find more extreme binary systems and pulsars that are more precise `clocks'. These telescopes will also greatly improve the precision to which we can measure the arrival times of the pulses. The Square Kilometre Array will revolutionize pulsar searches and timing precision. The increased number of sources will reveal rare sources, including possibly a pulsar-black hole binary, which can provide the most stringent tests of strong-field gravity. The improved timing precision will reveal new phenomena and also allow us to make a detection of gravitational waves in the nanohertz frequency regime. It is here where we expect to see the signature of the binary black holes that are formed as galaxies merge throughout cosmological history. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  7. Primary Beam and Dish Surface Characterization at the Allen Telescope Array by Radio Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, G. R.; Ackermann, R. F.; Nadler, Z. J.; Blair, Samantha K.; Davis, M. M.; Wright, M. C. H.; Forster, J. R.; Deboer, D. R.; Welch, W. J.; Atkinson, Shannon; Backer, D. C.; Backus, P. R.; Barott, William; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bradford, Tucker; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, E. D.; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jordan, Jane; Jorgensen, Susan; Kilsdonk, Tom; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Keating, Garrett; Law, Casey; Lugten, John; MacMahon, D. H. E.; McMahon, Peter; Milgrome, Oren; Siemion, Andrew; Smolek, Ken; Thornton, Douglas; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Shostak, Seth; Tarter, J. C.; Urry, Lynn; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter K. G.; Whysong, David

    2011-06-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a cm-wave interferometer in California, comprising 42 antenna elements with 6-m diameter dishes. We characterize the antenna optical accuracy using two-antenna interferometry and radio holography. The distortion of each telescope relative to the average is small, with RMS differences of 1% of beam peak value. Holography provides images of dish illumination, characterizing as-built mirror surfaces. Maximal distortions across ~ 2 meter lengths appear to result from mounting stresses or solar radiation. Experimental RMS errors are 0.7 mm at night and 3 mm under worst-case solar illumination. For frequencies 4, 10, and 15 GHz, the nighttime values indicate sensitivity losses of 1, 10 and 20%, respectively. ATA's wide-bandwidth receiver permits observations over a continuous range 0.5-11.2 GHz. We probe the antenna optical gain and beam pattern stability as a function of focus position and observation frequency, concluding that ATA can produce high fidelity images over a decade of simultaneous observation frequencies. We quantify solar heating effects on antenna sensitivity and pointing accuracy. We find that during the day, observations >=5 GHz will suffer some sensitivity loss and it may be necessary to make antenna pointing corrections on a 1-2 hourly basis.

  8. Preliminary Antenna Concept for the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, James; Selina, Robert; Grammer, Wes; McKinnon, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    The preliminary concept for a Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) calls for an interferometric array having an effective collecting area and spatial resolution that are both 10 times better than that of the current VLA and operating over a frequency range of 1.2-116 GHz. Given the large number of antennas needed to meet the collecting area goal, the ngVLA antenna concept must strike a balance between competing science requirements and the programmatic targets for the array’s life cycle cost.Antenna diameters currently under consideration for the ngVLA are in the range of 12-25 m, with a nominal 18-m diameter aperture used for the conceptual design. Currently, the optimization for operations and construction cost suggests that a smaller number of larger apertures is preferable.The surface accuracy goal for the antennas is 185 µm rms (λ/16 @ 100 GHz) for the primary and subreflector combined under optimal environmental conditions. The subreflector will be optimized for performance above 10 GHz, with some degradation in aperture efficiency accepted at lower frequencies.For high dynamic range imaging, particularly at the low end of the ngVLA’s frequency range, the optimum optical configuration is likely an offset geometry. An unblocked aperture will minimize scattering, spillover, and sidelobe pickup. Both performance and maintenance requirements favor a receiver feedarm on the low side of the reflector.High pointing accuracy will also be necessary to provide the imaging dynamic range required of the system. With an unblocked aperture, variations in the antenna gain pattern are expected to be dominated by pointing errors. Preliminary requirements are for an absolute pointing accuracy of 40” RMS, with referenced pointing of 3” RMS (FWHM/10 at 10 GHz and 120 GHz, respectively, for an 18-m diameter dish).The antenna mount is expected to be a typical altitude-azimuth design. Both pedestal bearing and rail-based azimuth drives are under consideration. If fast

  9. The Very Large Array Data Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.; Masters, Joseph S.; Chandler, Claire J.; Davis, Lindsey E.; Kern, Jeffrey S.; Ott, Juergen; Schinzel, Frank K.; Medlin, Drew; Muders, Dirk; Williams, Stewart; Geers, Vincent C.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan J.; Nakazato, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kanako

    2018-01-01

    We present the VLA Pipeline, software that is part of the larger pipeline processing framework used for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) for both interferometric and single dish observations.Through a collection of base code jointly used by the VLA and ALMA, the pipeline builds a hierarchy of classes to execute individual atomic pipeline tasks within the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. Each pipeline task contains heuristics designed by the team to actively decide the best processing path and execution parameters for calibration and imaging. The pipeline code is developed and written in Python and uses a "context" structure for tracking the heuristic decisions and processing results. The pipeline "weblog" acts as the user interface in verifying the quality assurance of each calibration and imaging stage. The majority of VLA scheduling blocks above 1 GHz are now processed with the standard continuum recipe of the pipeline and offer a calibrated measurement set as a basic data product to observatory users. In addition, the pipeline is used for processing data from the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), a seven year community-driven endeavor started in September 2017 to survey the entire sky down to a declination of -40 degrees at S-band (2-4 GHz). This 5500 hour next-generation large radio survey will explore the time and spectral domains, relying on pipeline processing to generate calibrated measurement sets, polarimetry, and imaging data products that are available to the astronomical community with no proprietary period. Here we present an overview of the pipeline design philosophy, heuristics, and calibration and imaging results produced by the pipeline. Future development will include the testing of spectral line recipes, low signal-to-noise heuristics, and serving as a testing platform for science ready data products.The pipeline is developed as part of the CASA software package by an

  10. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D.E.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.; Markoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio

  11. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D.E.; Gallagher, P.T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E.P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M.M.; Kerdraon, A.; Avruch, I.M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio

  12. Developments of FPGA-based digital back-ends for low frequency antenna arrays at Medicina radio telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, G.; Bartolini, M.; Mattana, A.; Pupillo, G.; Hickish, J.; Foster, G.; Bianchi, G.; Lingua, A.; Monari, J.; Montebugnoli, S.; Perini, F.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Virone, G.; Zarb Adami, K.

    In radio astronomy Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is largely used for the implementation of digital signal processing techniques applied to antenna arrays. This is mainly due to the good trade-off among computing resources, power consumption and cost offered by FPGA chip compared to other technologies like ASIC, GPU and CPU. In the last years several digital backend systems based on such devices have been developed at the Medicina radio astronomical station (INAF-IRA, Bologna, Italy). Instruments like FX correlator, direct imager, beamformer, multi-beam system have been successfully designed and realized on CASPER (Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research, https://casper.berkeley.edu) processing boards. In this paper we present the gained experience in this kind of applications.

  13. VLA observations of NGC 1265 at 4886 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, F.N.; Burns, J.O.; Rudnick, L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations are presented of the head-tail radio galaxy NGC 1265, made with the VLA at 4886 MHz. The total intensity brightness distribution has a resolution of 1' x 1'.5 and an rms noise of approx.150 μJy/beam area. These observations, combined with data at 2695 and 8085 MHz on a 35 km baseline in Green Bank, show that the nuclear component is less than 0'.1 and has a slightly inverted spectrum.The VLA map reveals a narrow continuous stream of emission leading away from the nucleus and out into the lower-surface brightness tail. Several small knots are superposed on the stream. This brightness distribution is compared with the independent-blob model of Jaffe and Perola. We find that the brightness distribution predicted by this model does not agree well with the observed brightness distribution. We suggest that a hot interstellar medium in the galaxy may be necessary to explain the complex structure

  14. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORE MM1 OF W75N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Su, Y.-N.; Liu, S.-Y.; Yan, C.-H.; Chen, H.-R.; Kim, S.-J.

    2010-01-01

    The massive star-forming core MM1 of W75N was observed using the Submillimeter Array with ∼1'' and 2'' spatial resolutions at 217 and 347 GHz, respectively. From the 217 GHz continuum we found that the MM1 core consists of two sources, separated by about 1'': MM1a (∼0.6 M sun ) and MM1b (∼1.4 M sun ), located near the radio continuum sources VLA 2/VLA 3 and VLA 1, respectively. Within MM1b, two gas clumps were found to be expanding away from VLA 1 at about ±3 km s -1 , as a result of the most recent star formation activity in the region. Observed molecular lines show emission peaks at two positions, MM1a and MM1b: sulfur-bearing species have emission peaks toward MM1a, but methanol and saturated species at MM1b. We identified high-temperature (∼200 K) gas toward MM1a and the hot core in MM1b. This segregation may result from the evolution of the massive star-forming core. In the very early phase of star formation, the hot core is seen through the evaporation of dust ice-mantle species. As the mantle species are consumed via evaporation the high-temperature gas species (such as the sulfur-bearing molecules) become bright. The SiO molecule is unique in having an emission peak exactly at the VLA 2 position, probably tracing a shock powered by VLA 2. The observed sulfur-bearing species show similar abundances both in MM1a and MM1b, whereas the methanol and saturated species show significant abundance enhancement toward MM1b, by about an order of magnitude, compared to MM1a.

  15. Radio Supernovae: Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    years initiated by K. W. Weiler, N. Panagia, and R. A. Sramek. The VLA observing programs have detected dozens of new radio SNe. After discovery , the...analysis of the recent VLA data appears to support this discovery , reporting an inversion of the spectral index at higher 6 Figure 4 Left, the VLA light...formation of pulsar wind-nebula in other SN observations where VLBI measurements are not feasible. 3 The Future of Radio Supernovae Current observing

  16. Chapter 27: Deja vu All Over Again: Using NVO Tools to Re-Investigate a Complete Sample of Texas Radio Survey Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Rohde, David; Tamura, Takayuki; van Dyne, Jeffrey

    At the first NVO Summer School in September 2004, a complete sample of Texas Radio Survey sources, first derived in 1989 and subsequently observed with the VLA in A-array snapshot mode in 1990, was revisited. The original investigators had never had the occasion to reduce the A-array 5-minute snapshot data, nor to do any other significant follow-up, though the sample still seemed a possibly useful but relatively small study of radio galaxies, AGN, quasars, extragalactic sources, and galaxy clusters, etc. At the time of the original sample definition in late 1989, the best optical material available for the region was the SRC-J plate from the UK Schmidt Telescope in Australia. In much more recent times, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has included the region in its DR2 data release, so good multicolor optical imaging in a number of standard bandpasses has finally become available. These data, along with other material in the radio, infrared, and (where available) were used to get a better preliminary idea of the nature of the objects in the 1989 sample. We also investigated one of the original questions: whether these radio sources with steeper (or at least non-flat) radio spectra were associated with galaxy clusters, and in some cases higher-redshift galaxy clusters and AGN. A rudimentary web service was created which allowed the user to perform simple cone searches and SIAP image extractions of specified field sizes for multiwavelength data across the electromagnetic spectrum, and a prototype web page was set up which would display the resulting images in wavelength order across the page for sources in the sample. Finally, as an additional investigation, using radio and X-ray IDs as a proxy for AGN which might be associated with large, central cluster galaxies, positional matches of radio and X-ray sources from two much larger catalogs were done using the tool TOPCAT in order to search for the degree of correlation between ID positions, radio luminosity, and cluster

  17. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mobasher, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg 2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4 G Hz = 1.3 x 10 20 W Hz -1 . The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with M r r r ∼ sun yr -1 .

  18. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlationare proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope's bandwidth (the so-called "FX" structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with 2 opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chipmemory and the CMACs are re-used as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the IC's size and power consumption. It isintended for fabrication in a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76 to 3.3 pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N = 4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-levelI/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5 to 7 pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N = 32) and ALMA (N = 64) telescopes achieve about 5000 pJ and 1000 pJ respectively usingapplication-specific ICs in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA atN = 256; it

  19. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  20. Analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging by the combined field integral equation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, 10/B1D728, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2006-06-21

    We present the combined field integral equation (CFIE) method for analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional models of coils and the human body were used to take into account the electromagnetic coupling. In the method of moments formulation, we applied triangular patches and the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions to model arbitrarily shaped geometries. We first examined a rectangular loop coil to verify the CFIE method and also demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy. We then studied several eight-channel receive-only head coil arrays for 7.0 T SENSE functional MRI. Numerical results show that the signal dropout and the average SNR are two major concerns in SENSE coil array design. A good design should be a balance of these two factors.

  1. VLITE Surveys the Sky: A 340 MHz Companion to the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wendy; Clarke, Tracy; Brisken, Walter; Cotton, William; Richards, Emily E.; Giacintucci, Simona; Kassim, Namir

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Low Band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE; ) is a commensal observing system on the Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) which was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory and NRAO. A 64 MHz sub-band from the prime focus 240-470 MHz dipoles is correlated during nearly all regular VLA observations. VLITE uses dedicated samplers and fibers, as well as a custom designed, real-time DiFX software correlator, and requires no additional resources from the VLA system running the primary science program. The experiment has been operating since November 2014 with 10 antennas; a recent expansion in summer 2017 increased that number to 16 and more than doubled the number of baselines.The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS; ), is an ongoing survey of the entire sky visible to the VLA at a frequency of 2-4 GHz. The observations are made using an "on-the-fly" (OTF) continuous RA scanning technique which fills in the sky by observing along rows of constant declination. VLITE breaks the data into 2-second integrations and correlates these at a central position every 1.5 degrees. All data for each correlator position is imaged separately, corrected and weighted by an appropriately elongated primary beam model, and then combined in the image plane to create a mosaic of the sky. A catalog of the sources is extracted to provide a 340 MHz sky model.We present preliminary images and catalogs from the 2017 VLASS observations which began in early September, 2017, and continued on a nearly daily basis throughout the fall. In addition to providing a unique sky model at 340 MHz, these data complement VLASS by providing spectral indices for all cataloged sources.

  2. Surveying the Dynamic Radio Sky with the Long Wavelength Demonstrator Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    radio wavelengths, there are well-known classes of transients, such as the Sun and ra- dio pulsars , as well as a long history of observ- ing transients...Rupen et al. 2002). Fur- ther, a series of observations and discoveries over the past decade have emphasized that the radio sky may be quite dynamic...Bailes 2010); intense giant pulses have been detected from the Crab pulsar (Hankins et al. 2003); and several as-yet unidentified radio transients have

  3. Multi-Beam Radio Frequency (RF) Aperture Arrays Using Multiplierless Approximate Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, digital array processing , antenna beamformers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...125 3.7 Simulation of 2-D Beams Cross Sections .................................................................... 125 3.7.1 8...unlimited. List of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: N-beam Array Processing System using a Linear Array

  4. Compact printed two dipole array antenna with a high front-back ratio for ultra-high-frequency radio-frequency identification handheld reader applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    A printed two-dipole array antenna with a high front-back ratio is proposed for ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification handheld readers. The proposed antenna is a parasitic dual-element array with the ends of both elements folded back towards each other for additional coupling....

  5. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David; Hess, Kelley M.; Pisano, D. J.; Kreckel, Kathryn; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Oosterloo, Tom; Chomiuk, Laura; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Henning, Patricia A.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Scoville, Nick

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' × 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  6. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hess, Kelley M. [Department of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Pisano, D. J. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Kreckel, Kathryn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Popping, Attila [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Verheijen, M. A. W. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Henning, Patricia A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Scoville, Nick, E-mail: ximena@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' Multiplication-Sign 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  7. Compact field programmable gate array-based pulse-sequencer and radio-frequency generator for experiments with trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned, E-mail: thaned.pruttivarasin@riken.jp [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Katori, Hidetoshi [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Innovative Space-Time Project, ERATO, JST, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We present a compact field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based pulse sequencer and radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold trapped ions and atoms. The unit is capable of outputting a pulse sequence with at least 32 transistor-transistor logic (TTL) channels with a timing resolution of 40 ns and contains a built-in 100 MHz frequency counter for counting electrical pulses from a photo-multiplier tube. There are 16 independent direct-digital-synthesizers RF sources with fast (rise-time of ∼60 ns) amplitude switching and sub-mHz frequency tuning from 0 to 800 MHz.

  8. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  9. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  10. DEEP 1.4 GHz FOLLOW-UP OF THE STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO HALO IN A521

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallacasa, D.; Macario, G.; Setti, G.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.; Venturi, T.; Giacintucci, S.; Kassim, N. E.; Lane, W.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported on the discovery of a radio halo with very steep spectrum in the merging galaxy cluster A521 through observations with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We showed that the steep spectrum of the halo is inconsistent with a secondary origin of the relativistic electrons and supports a turbulent acceleration scenario. At that time, due to the steep spectrum, the available observations at 1.4 GHz (archival NRAO-Very Large Array-VLA-CnB-configuration data) were not adequate to accurately determine the flux density associated with the radio halo. In this paper, we report the detection at 1.4 GHz of the radio halo in A521 using deep VLA observations in the D configuration. We use these new data to confirm the steep spectrum of the object. We consider A521 the prototype of a population of very steep spectrum halos. This population is predicted assuming that turbulence plays an important role in the acceleration of relativistic particles in galaxy clusters, and we expect it will be unveiled by future surveys at low frequencies with the LOFAR and LWA radio telescopes.

  11. EXTENDED RADIO EMISSION IN MOJAVE BLAZARS: CHALLENGES TO UNIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile 'core-only' source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 A, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  12. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile "core-only" source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 Å, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  13. Radio imaging of core-dominated high redshift quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Peter D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1999-01-01

    VLA imaging at kiloparsec-scale resolution of sixteen core-dominated radio-loud QSOs is presented. Many objects appear to display variable radio emission and their radio morphologies are significantly smaller than those of steep-spectrum quasars, consistent with these objects being observed...

  14. Searching for MHz Transients with the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisensky, Emil; Peters, Wendy; Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy; Kassim, Namir E.; hyman, Scott D.; van der Horst, Alexander; Linford, Justin; Waldron, Zach; Frail, Dale

    2018-01-01

    NRL and NRAO have expanded the low frequency capabilities of the VLA through the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, http://vlite.nrao.edu/ ), effectively making the instrument two telescopes in one. VLITE is a commensal observing system that harvests data from the prime focus in parallel with normal Cassegrain focus observing on a subset of VLA antennas. VLITE provides over 6000 observing hours per year in a > 5 square degree field-of-view using 64 MHz bandwidth centered on 352 MHz. By operating in parallel, VLITE offers invaluable low frequency data to targeted observations of transient sources detected at higher frequencies. With arcsec resolution and mJy sensitivity, VLITE additionally offers great potential for blind searches of rarer radio-selected transients. We use catalog matching software on the imaging products from the daily astrophysics pipeline and the LOFAR Transients Pipeline (TraP) on repeated observations of the same fields to search for coherent and incoherent astronomical transients on timescales of a few seconds to years. We present the current status of the VLITE transient science program from its initial deployment on 10 antennas in November 2014 through its expansion to 16 antennas in the summer of 2017. Transient limits from VLITE’s first year of operation (Polisensky et al. 2016) are updated per the most recent analysis.

  15. Murchison Widefield Array Limits on Radio Emission from ANTARES Neutrino Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, S.; van Haren, H.; MWA Collaboration; Antares Collaboration; TAROT Collaboration; ROTSE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present a search, using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to twocandidate high-energy neutrino events detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope in 2013 November and 2014March. These events were selected by ANTARES because they are consistent, within 0°.4,

  16. Radio frequency interference noise reduction using a field programmable gate array for SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, K; Narita, Y; Itozaki, H

    2007-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurement without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is one of the effective methods to reduce environmental noise. Recently, SQUIDs have been used in various applications at high frequencies, such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The NQR frequency from explosives is in the range 0.5-5 MHz. In this case, an NQR sensor is exposed to AM radio frequency interference (RFI). The feasibility of the ANC system for RFI that used digital signal processing was studied. Our investigation showed that this digital ANC system can be applied to SQUID measurements for RFI suppression

  17. Imaging of Stellar Surfacess Using Radio Facilities Including ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eamon

    2018-04-01

    Until very recently, studies focusing on imaging stars at continuum radio wavelengths (here defined as submillimeter, millimeter, and centimeter wavelengths) has been scarce. These studies have mainly been carried out with the Very Large Array on a handful of evolved stars (i.e., Asymptotic Giant Branch and Red Supergiant stars) whereby their stellar disks have just about been spatially resolved. Some of these results however, have challenged our historical views on the nature of evolved star atmospheres. Now, the very long baselines of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the newly upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array provide a new opportunity to image these atmospheres at unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity across a much wider portion of the radio spectrum. In this talk I will first provide a history of stellar radio imaging and then discuss some recent exciting ALMA results. Finally I will present some brand new multi-wavelength ALMA and VLA results for the famous red supergiant Antares.

  18. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS. RESOLVING THE SUB-ARCSECOND BINARY SYSTEM IN NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Melis, Carl; Kratter, Kaitlin; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Plunkett, Adele L.

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to ∼0.''06 and ∼0.''35 in the Ka band and C band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a protobinary system separated by 0.''621 ± 0.''006 (∼143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These two sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.''055 (∼13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1.3 mm data, or Submillimeter Array (SMA) 850 μm data. SMA CO (J = 3 → 2), CARMA CO (J = 2 → 1), and lower-resolution CARMA CO (J = 1 → 0) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO (J = 3 → 2) and (J = 2 → 1) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the east-west outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar

  19. THE VLA NASCENT DISK AND MULTIPLICITY (VANDAM) SURVEY OF PERSEUS PROTOSTARS. RESOLVING THE SUB-ARCSECOND BINARY SYSTEM IN NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandler, Claire J.; Perez, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Hull, Charles L. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sadavoy, Sarah I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kratter, Kaitlin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Plunkett, Adele L., E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu, E-mail: jeskj@nbi.dk [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to ∼0.''06 and ∼0.''35 in the Ka band and C band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a protobinary system separated by 0.''621 ± 0.''006 (∼143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These two sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.''055 (∼13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1.3 mm data, or Submillimeter Array (SMA) 850 μm data. SMA CO (J = 3 → 2), CARMA CO (J = 2 → 1), and lower-resolution CARMA CO (J = 1 → 0) observations are used to examine the outflow origins and the nature of the candidate companions to IRAS2A VLA1. The CO (J = 3 → 2) and (J = 2 → 1) data show that IRAS2A MM2 is coincident with a bright CO emission spot in the east-west outflow, and IRAS2A MM3 is within the north-south outflow. In contrast, IRAS2A VLA2 lies at the east-west outflow symmetry point. We propose that IRAS2A VLA2 is the driving source of the east-west outflow and a true companion to IRAS2A VLA1, whereas IRAS2A MM2 and MM3 may not be protostellar.

  20. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rupen, Michael, E-mail: jrv@astro.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  1. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  2. An Operations Concept for the Next Generation VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda; McKinnon, Mark; Selina, Rob; Murphy, Eric Joseph; ngVLA project

    2018-01-01

    This poster presents an operations plan for the next generation VLA (ngVLA), which is a proposed 214 element interferometer operating from ~1-115GHz, located in the southwestern United States. The operations requirements for this instrument are driven by the large number of antennas spread out over a multi-state area and a cap on the operations budget of 3 times that of the current VLA. These constraints require that the maintenance is a continuous process and that individual antennas are self-sufficient, making flexible subarrays crucial. The ngVLA will produce science ready data products for its users, building on the pioneering work being currently done at ALMA and the JVLA. Finally, the ngVLA will adopt a user support model similar to those at other large facilities (ALMA, HST, JWST, etc).

  3. PROSPECTS FOR THE DETECTION OF FAST RADIO BURSTS WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2013-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short timescale ( 2 ) and wide field-of-view (FOV, ∼ 1000 deg 2 at ν = 200 MHz). We compute the expected number of FRB detections for the MWA assuming a source population consistent with the reported detections. Our formalism properly accounts for the frequency-dependence of the antenna primary beam, the MWA system temperature, and unknown spectral index of the source population, for three modes of FRB detection: coherent; incoherent; and fast imaging. We find that the MWA's sensitivity and large FOV combine to provide the expectation of multiple detectable events per week in all modes, potentially making it an excellent high time resolution science instrument. Deviations of the expected number of detections from actual results will provide a strong constraint on the assumptions made for the underlying source population and intervening plasma distribution

  4. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  5. RADIO SOURCES FROM A 31 GHz SKY SURVEY WITH THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James; Woody, David; Leitch, Erik; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas; Greer, Chris; Hennessy, Ryan; Loh, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P.; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We present the first sample of 31 GHz selected sources to flux levels of 1 mJy. From late 2005 to mid-2007, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array observed 7.7 deg 2 of the sky at 31 GHz to a median rms of 0.18 mJy beam -1 . We identify 209 sources at greater than 5σ significance in the 31 GHz maps, ranging in flux from 0.7 mJy to ∼200 mJy. Archival NVSS data at 1.4 GHz and observations at 5 GHz with the Very Large Array are used to characterize the sources. We determine the maximum-likelihood integrated source count to be N(>S) = (27.2 ± 2.5)deg -2 x (S mJy ) -1.18±0.12 over the flux range 0.7-15 mJy. This result is significantly higher than predictions based on 1.4 GHz selected samples, a discrepancy which can be explained by a small shift in the spectral index distribution for faint 1.4 GHz sources. From comparison with previous measurements of sources within the central arcminute of massive clusters, we derive an overdensity of 6.8 ± 4.4, relative to field sources.

  6. Radio sounding of the magnetosphere from a lunar-based VLF array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    1994-01-01

    Using a lunar-based active radio transmitter and receiver system operating in the 'free space' wave modes, we can obtain much information on the structures and dynamics of remote magnetospheric plasma regions in a way similar to ionosondes. Powerful, narrow-band electromagnetic pulses can be transmitted over a wide frequency range (from 10 kHz to 1 MHz). The signals would be refracted and reflected off magnetospheric structures such as the plasmapause, plasmasheet, magnetopause, and the high and low latitude boundary layers. With a series of long dipole antennas, ranging in size from 400 m to 20 km with an output voltage ranging from 6 kV to less than 0.2 kV, a target plasma region at up to 100 R(sub E) can be explored. We illustrate this remote sensing technique by using the plasmasphere as a remote target, and modeling the propagations of the sounder transmitted and received pulses by ray tracing calculations.

  7. Comparison of Antenna Array Systems Using OFDM for Software Radio via the SIBIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Palmer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of two candidates for software radio WLAN, reconfigurable OFDM modulation and antenna diversity, in an indoor environment. The scenario considered is a 20 m×10 m×3 m room with two base units and one mobile unit. The two base units use omnidirectional antennas to transmit and the mobile unit uses either a single antenna with equalizer, a fixed beamformer with equalizer, or an adaptive beamformer with equalizer to receive. The modulation constellation of the data is QPSK and 16-QAM. The response of the channel at the mobile unit is simulated using a three-dimensional indoor WLAN propagation model that generates multipath components with realistic spatial and temporal correlation. An underlying assumption of the scenario is that existing antenna hardware is available and could be exploited if software processing resources are allocated. The results of the simulations indicate that schemes using more resources outperform simpler schemes in most cases. This implies that desired user performance could be used to dynamically assign software processing resources to the demands of a particular indoor WLAN channel if such resources are available.

  8. VLITE-Fast: A Real-time, 350 MHz Commensal VLA Survey for Fast Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Matthew; Ray, Paul S.; Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, Tracy; Deneva, Julia; Polisensky, Emil

    2018-01-01

    The VLITE (VLA Low Band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment; http://vlite.nrao.edu) program operates commensally during all Very Large Array observations, collecting data from 320 to 384 MHz. Recently expanded to include 16 antennas, the large field of view and huge time on sky offer good coverage of the transient, low-frequency sky. We describe the VLITE-Fast system, a GPU-based signal processor capable of detecting short (system, techniques for mitigating interference, and initial results from searches for FRBs.

  9. Star Formation Rates in Lyman Break Galaxies: Radio Stacking of LBGs in the COSMOS Field and the Sub-μJy Radio Source Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Lee, Nicholas; Capak, P.; Schinnerer, E.; Lee, K.-S.; McCraken, H.; Yun, M. S.; Scoville, N.; Smolčić, V.; Giavalisco, M.; Datta, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Urry, C. Megan

    2008-12-01

    We present an analysis of the radio properties of large samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3, 4, and 5 from the COSMOS field. The median stacking analysis yields a statistical detection of the z ~ 3 LBGs (U-band dropouts), with a 1.4 GHz flux density of 0.90 +/- 0.21 μJy. The stacked emission is unresolved, with a size = 3 is smaller than at lower redshifts. Conversely, the radio luminosity for a given star formation rate may be systematically lower at very high redshift. Two possible causes for a suppressed radio luminosity are (1) increased inverse Compton cooling of the relativistic electron population due to scattering off the increasing CMB at high redshift or (2) cosmic-ray diffusion from systematically smaller galaxies. The radio detections of individual sources are consistent with a radio-loud AGN fraction of 0.3%. One source is identified as a very dusty, extreme starburst galaxy (a "submillimeter galaxy"). Based on observations in the COSMOS Legacy Survey including those taken on the HST, Keck, NRAO-VLA, Subaru, KPNO 4 m, CTIO 4 m, and CFHT 3.6 m. The Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. Classifying Radio Galaxies with the Convolutional Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniyan, A. K.; Thorat, K.

    2017-01-01

    We present the application of a deep machine learning technique to classify radio images of extended sources on a morphological basis using convolutional neural networks (CNN). In this study, we have taken the case of the Fanaroff–Riley (FR) class of radio galaxies as well as radio galaxies with bent-tailed morphology. We have used archival data from the Very Large Array (VLA)—Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey and existing visually classified samples available in the literature to train a neural network for morphological classification of these categories of radio sources. Our training sample size for each of these categories is ∼200 sources, which has been augmented by rotated versions of the same. Our study shows that CNNs can classify images of the FRI and FRII and bent-tailed radio galaxies with high accuracy (maximum precision at 95%) using well-defined samples and a “fusion classifier,” which combines the results of binary classifications, while allowing for a mechanism to find sources with unusual morphologies. The individual precision is highest for bent-tailed radio galaxies at 95% and is 91% and 75% for the FRI and FRII classes, respectively, whereas the recall is highest for FRI and FRIIs at 91% each, while the bent-tailed class has a recall of 79%. These results show that our results are comparable to that of manual classification, while being much faster. Finally, we discuss the computational and data-related challenges associated with the morphological classification of radio galaxies with CNNs.

  11. Classifying Radio Galaxies with the Convolutional Neural Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniyan, A. K.; Thorat, K. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2017-06-01

    We present the application of a deep machine learning technique to classify radio images of extended sources on a morphological basis using convolutional neural networks (CNN). In this study, we have taken the case of the Fanaroff–Riley (FR) class of radio galaxies as well as radio galaxies with bent-tailed morphology. We have used archival data from the Very Large Array (VLA)—Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey and existing visually classified samples available in the literature to train a neural network for morphological classification of these categories of radio sources. Our training sample size for each of these categories is ∼200 sources, which has been augmented by rotated versions of the same. Our study shows that CNNs can classify images of the FRI and FRII and bent-tailed radio galaxies with high accuracy (maximum precision at 95%) using well-defined samples and a “fusion classifier,” which combines the results of binary classifications, while allowing for a mechanism to find sources with unusual morphologies. The individual precision is highest for bent-tailed radio galaxies at 95% and is 91% and 75% for the FRI and FRII classes, respectively, whereas the recall is highest for FRI and FRIIs at 91% each, while the bent-tailed class has a recall of 79%. These results show that our results are comparable to that of manual classification, while being much faster. Finally, we discuss the computational and data-related challenges associated with the morphological classification of radio galaxies with CNNs.

  12. Classifying Radio Galaxies with the Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniyan, A. K.; Thorat, K.

    2017-06-01

    We present the application of a deep machine learning technique to classify radio images of extended sources on a morphological basis using convolutional neural networks (CNN). In this study, we have taken the case of the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class of radio galaxies as well as radio galaxies with bent-tailed morphology. We have used archival data from the Very Large Array (VLA)—Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey and existing visually classified samples available in the literature to train a neural network for morphological classification of these categories of radio sources. Our training sample size for each of these categories is ˜200 sources, which has been augmented by rotated versions of the same. Our study shows that CNNs can classify images of the FRI and FRII and bent-tailed radio galaxies with high accuracy (maximum precision at 95%) using well-defined samples and a “fusion classifier,” which combines the results of binary classifications, while allowing for a mechanism to find sources with unusual morphologies. The individual precision is highest for bent-tailed radio galaxies at 95% and is 91% and 75% for the FRI and FRII classes, respectively, whereas the recall is highest for FRI and FRIIs at 91% each, while the bent-tailed class has a recall of 79%. These results show that our results are comparable to that of manual classification, while being much faster. Finally, we discuss the computational and data-related challenges associated with the morphological classification of radio galaxies with CNNs.

  13. Revolutionizing Our Understanding of AGN Feedback and its Importance to Galaxy Evolution in the Era of the Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K.; Harwood, J. J.; Mukherjee, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Rujopakarn, W.; Emonts, B.; Alatalo, K.; Bicknell, G. V.; Davis, T. A.; Greene, J. E.; Kimball, A.; Lacy, M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Lonsdale, Colin; Maksym, W. P.; Molnár, D. C.; Morabito, L.; Murphy, E. J.; Patil, P.; Prandoni, I.; Sargent, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2018-05-01

    Energetic feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) plays an important evolutionary role in the regulation of star formation on galactic scales. However, the effects of this feedback as a function of redshift and galaxy properties such as mass, environment, and cold gas content remain poorly understood. The broad frequency coverage (1 to 116 GHz), high sensitivity (up to ten times higher than the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array), and superb angular resolution (maximum baselines of at least a few hundred kilometers) of the proposed next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) are uniquely poised to revolutionize our understanding of AGNs and their role in galaxy evolution. Here, we provide an overview of the science related to AGN feedback that will be possible in the ngVLA era and present new continuum ngVLA imaging simulations of resolved radio jets spanning a wide range of intrinsic extents. We also consider key computational challenges and discuss exciting opportunities for multiwavelength synergy with other next-generation instruments, such as the Square Kilometer Array and the James Webb Space Telescope. The unique combination of high-resolution, large collecting area, and wide frequency range will enable significant advancements in our understanding of the effects of jet-driven feedback on sub-galactic scales, particularly for sources with extents of a few parsec to a few kiloparsec, such as young and/or lower-power radio AGNs, AGNs hosted by low-mass galaxies, radio jets that are interacting strongly with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, and AGNs at high redshift.

  14. THE COMPACT, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO SOURCE PROJECTED INSIDE W3(OH): EVIDENCE FOR A PHOTOEVAPORATED DISK?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodriguez-Garza, Carolina B.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis A.; Lizano, Susana, E-mail: s.dzib@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the compact ({approx}0.''05), time-variable radio source projected near the center of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH). The analysis of our new data as well as of VLA archival observations confirms the variability of the source on timescales of years and for a given epoch indicates a spectral index of {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.3 (S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}). This spectral index and the brightness temperature of the source ({approx}6500 K) suggest that we are most likely detecting partially optically thick free-free radiation. The radio source is probably associated with the ionizing star of W3(OH), but an interpretation in terms of an ionized stellar wind fails because the detected flux densities are orders of magnitude larger than expected. We discuss several scenarios and tentatively propose that the radio emission could arise in a static ionized atmosphere around a fossil photoevaporated disk.

  15. THE COMPACT, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO SOURCE PROJECTED INSIDE W3(OH): EVIDENCE FOR A PHOTOEVAPORATED DISK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Garza, Carolina B.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Loinard, Laurent; Zapata, Luis A.; Lizano, Susana

    2013-01-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the compact (∼0.''05), time-variable radio source projected near the center of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH). The analysis of our new data as well as of VLA archival observations confirms the variability of the source on timescales of years and for a given epoch indicates a spectral index of α = 1.3 ± 0.3 (S ν ∝ν α ). This spectral index and the brightness temperature of the source (∼6500 K) suggest that we are most likely detecting partially optically thick free-free radiation. The radio source is probably associated with the ionizing star of W3(OH), but an interpretation in terms of an ionized stellar wind fails because the detected flux densities are orders of magnitude larger than expected. We discuss several scenarios and tentatively propose that the radio emission could arise in a static ionized atmosphere around a fossil photoevaporated disk

  16. OLFAR: the orbiting low frequency array, how a cube sat swarm becomes a novel radio astronomy instrument in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Verhoeven, Chris; van der Veen, Alle-Jan

    2010-01-01

    To study the physical processes in the Universe, observations are done at various wavelengths, from Gamma rays to optical and radio frequencies. At this moment research at low frequencies is one of the major topics in radio astronomy. Several Earth-based radio telescopes are being built and will be

  17. Radio Spectral Imaging of Reflective MHD Waves during the Impulsive Phase of a Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Chen, B.; Reeves, K.

    2017-12-01

    We report a new type of coherent radio bursts observed by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in 1-2 GHz during the impulsive phase of a two-ribbon flare on 2014 November 1, which we interpret as MHD waves reflected near the footpoint of flaring loops. In the dynamic spectrum, this burst starts with a positive frequency drift toward higher frequencies until it slows down near its highest-frequency boundary. Then it turns over and drifts toward lower frequencies. The frequency drift rate in its descending and ascending branch is between 50-150 MHz/s, which is much slower than type III radio bursts associated with fast electron beams but close to the well-known intermediate drift bursts, or fiber bursts, which are usually attributed to propagating whistler or Alfvenic waves. Thanks to VLA's unique capability of imaging with spectrometer-like temporal and spectral resolution (50 ms and 2 MHz), we are able to obtain an image of the radio source at every time and frequency in the dynamic spectrum where the burst is present and trace its spatial evolution. From the imaging results, we find that the radio source firstly moves downward toward one of the flaring ribbons before it "bounces off" at the lowest height (corresponding to the turnover frequency in the dynamic spectrum) and moves upward again. The measured speed in projection is at the order of 1-2 Mm/s, which is characteristic of Alfvenic or fast-mode MHD waves in the low corona. We conclude that the radio burst is emitted by trapped nonthermal electrons in the flaring loop carried along by a large-scale MHD wave. The waves are probably launched during the eruption of a magnetic flux rope in the flare impulsive phase.

  18. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM RADIO VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Chandler, C. J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Forbrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out multi-epoch radio continuum monitoring of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the background Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC; 3 epochs at Q band and 11 epochs at Ka band). Our new observations reveal the presence of 19 radio sources, mainly concentrated in the Trapezium Cluster and the Orion Hot Core (OHC) regions. With the exception of the Becklin–Neugebauer object and source C (which we identify here as dust emission associated with a proplyd) the sources all show radio variability between the different epochs. We have found tentative evidence of variability in the emission from the massive object related to source I. Our observations also confirm radio flux density variations of a factor >2 on timescales of hours to days in five sources. One of these flaring sources, OHC-E, has been detected for the first time. We conclude that the radio emission can be attributed to two different components: (i) highly variable (flaring) non-thermal radio gyrosynchrotron emission produced by electrons accelerated in the magnetospheres of pre-main-sequence low-mass stars and (ii) thermal emission due to free–free radiation from ionized gas and/or heated dust around embedded massive objects and proplyds. Combining our sample with other radio monitoring at 8.3 GHz and the X-ray catalog provided by Chandra, we have studied the properties of the entire sample of radio/X-ray stars in the ONC/OMC region (51 sources). We have found several hints of a relation between the X-ray activity and the mechanisms responsible for (at least some fraction of) the radio emission. We have estimated a radio flaring rate of ∼0.14 flares day −1 in the dense stellar cluster embedded in the OHC region. This suggests that radio flares are more common events during the first stages of stellar evolution than previously thought. The advent of improved sensitivity with the new VLA and ALMA will dramatically increase the number of stars in

  19. Emerging Massive Star Clusters Revealed: High-Resolution Imaging of NGC 4449 from the Radio to the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Goss, W. M.

    2008-06-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of embedded massive clusters in the nearby (3.9 Mpc) starburst galaxy NGC 4449 in an effort to uncover the earliest phases of massive cluster evolution. By combining high-resolution imaging from the radio to the ultraviolet, we reveal these clusters to be in the process of emerging from their gaseous and dusty birth cocoons. We use Very Large Array (VLA) observations at centimeter wavelengths to identify young clusters surrounded by ultra-dense H II regions, detectable via their production of thermal free-free radio continuum. Ultraviolet, optical and infrared observations are obtained from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope archives for comparison. We detect 39 compact radio sources toward NGC 4449 at 3.6 cm using the highest resolution (1farcs3) and sensitivity (~12 μJy) VLA image of the galaxy to date. We reliably identify 13 thermal radio sources and derive their physical properties using both nebular emission from the H II regions and spectral energy distribution fitting to the stellar continuum. These radio-detected clusters have ages lsim5 Myr and stellar masses of order 104 M sun. The measured extinctions are quite low: 12 of the 13 thermal radio sources have A V lsim 1.5, while the most obscured source has A V ≈ 4.3. By combining results from the nebular and stellar emission, we find an I-band excess that is anti-correlated with cluster age and an apparent mass-age correlation. Additionally, we find evidence that local processes such as supernovae and stellar winds likely play an important role in triggering the current bursts of star formation within NGC 4449.

  20. CHANDRA, KECK, AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA DURING THE 2011-APRIL GAMMA-RAY FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; O' Dell, Stephen L. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Office (ZP12), Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blandford, Roger; Funk, Stefan; Romani, Roger W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Buehler, Rolf [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cheung, Chi C. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Costa, Enrico [INFN Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Ferrigno, Carlo [ISDC, Data Center for Astrophysics of the University of Geneva, chemin d' cogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Habermehl, Moritz; Horns, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Linford, Justin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Lobanov, Andrei [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mignani, Roberto [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-01

    We present results from our analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Crab Nebula that were contemporaneous with the {gamma}-ray flare of 2011 April. Despite hints in the X-ray data, we find no evidence for statistically significant variations that pinpoint the specific location of the flares within the Nebula. The Keck observations extend this conclusion to the 'inner knot', i.e., the feature within an arcsecond of the pulsar. The VLA observations support this conclusion. We also discuss theoretical implications of the {gamma}-ray flares and suggest that the most dramatic {gamma}-ray flares are due to radiation-reaction-limited synchrotron emission associated with sudden, dissipative changes in the current system sustained by the central pulsar.

  1. Radio and X-Ray Observations of the 1998 Outburst of the Recurrent X-Ray Transient 4U 1630-47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellming, R. M.; Rupen, M. P.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Kuulkers, E.; McCollough, M.; Harmon, B. A.; Buxton, M.; Sood, R.; Tzioumis, A.; Rayner, D.; Dieters, S.; Durouchoux, P.

    1999-03-01

    We report radio (NRAO VLA and Australia Telescope Compact Array), soft X-ray (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer ASM), and hard X-ray (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE) observations of a 1998 outburst in the recurring X-ray transient 4U 1630-47, where radio emission was detected for the first time. The radio observations identify the position of 4U 1630-47 to within 1". Because the radio emission is optically thin with a spectral index of ~-0.8 during the rise, peak, and decay of the initial radio event, the emission is probably coming from an optically thin radio jet ejected over a period of time. The 20-100 keV emission first appeared 1998 January 28 (MJD 50841), the 2-12 keV emission first appeared 1998 February 3 (MJD 50847), and the first radio emission was detected 1998 February 12.6 (MJD 50856.6). The rise of the radio emission probably began about 1998 February 7 (MJD 50851) when the X-rays were in a very hard fluctuating-hardness state, just before changing to a softer, more stable hardness state.

  2. Direction-dependent Corrections in Polarimetric Radio Imaging. I. Characterizing the Effects of the Primary Beam on Full-Stokes Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, P.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro (United States); Taylor, A. R., E-mail: pjaganna@nrao.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-08-01

    Next generation radio telescope arrays are being designed and commissioned to accurately measure polarized intensity and rotation measures (RMs) across the entire sky through deep, wide-field radio interferometric surveys. Radio interferometer dish antenna arrays are affected by direction-dependent (DD) gains due to both instrumental and atmospheric effects. In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of DD errors of the parabolic dish antenna array on the measured polarized intensities of radio sources in interferometric images. We characterize the extent of polarimetric image degradation due to the DD gains through wide-band VLA simulations of representative point-source simulations of the radio sky at L band (1–2 GHz). We show that at the 0.5 gain level of the primary beam there is significant flux leakage from Stokes I to Q , U amounting to 10% of the total intensity. We further demonstrate that while the instrumental response averages down for observations over large parallactic angle intervals, full-polarization DD correction is required to remove the effects of DD leakage. We also explore the effect of the DD beam on the RM signals and show that while the instrumental effect is primarily centered around 0 rad-m{sup −2}, the effect is significant over a broad range of RM requiring full polarization DD correction to accurately reconstruct the RM synthesis signal.

  3. VLA Observations of the Disk around the Young Brown Dwarf 2MASS J044427+2512

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Rome, H. [The Kinkaid School, 201 Kinkaid School Drive, Houston, TX 77024 (United States); Pinilla, P. [Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Facchini, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Birnstiel, T. [University Observatory, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Testi, L., E-mail: luca.ricci@rice.edu [European Southern Observatory (ESO) Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations obtained with the VLA of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young brown dwarf 2MASS J04442713+2512164 (2M0444) in the Taurus star-forming region. 2M0444 is the brightest known brown dwarf disk at millimeter wavelengths, making this an ideal target to probe radio emission from a young brown dwarf. Thermal emission from dust in the disk is detected at 6.8 and 9.1 mm, whereas the 1.36 cm measured flux is dominated by ionized gas emission. We combine these data with previous observations at shorter sub-mm and mm wavelengths to test the predictions of dust evolution models in gas-rich disks after adapting their parameters to the case of 2M0444. These models show that the radial drift mechanism affecting solids in a gaseous environment has to be either completely made inefficient, or significantly slowed down by very strong gas pressure bumps in order to explain the presence of mm/cm-sized grains in the outer regions of the 2M0444 disk. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for the origin of the ionized gas emission detected at 1.36 cm. The inferred radio luminosity for this emission is in line with the relation between radio and bolometric luminosity valid for for more massive and luminous young stellar objects, and extrapolated down to the very low luminosity of the 2M0444 brown dwarf.

  4. Very Large Array Multiband Monitoring Observations of M31*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Zhiyuan [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Sjouwerman, Loránt O. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Yuan, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang, E-mail: lizy@nju.edu.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2017-08-20

    The Andromeda galaxy (M31) hosts one of the nearest and most quiescent supermassive black holes, which provides a rare, but promising opportunity for studying the physics of black hole accretion at the lowest state. We have conducted a multifrequency, multi-epoch observing campaign, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in its extended configurations in 2011–2012, to advance our knowledge of the still poorly known radio properties of M31*. For the first time, we detect M31* at 10, 15, and 20 GHz and measure its spectral index, α ≈ −0.45 ± 0.08 (S{sub ν} ∝ ν {sup α}), over the frequency range of 5–20 GHz. The relatively steep spectrum suggests that the observed radio flux is dominated by the optically thin part of a putative jet, which is located at no more than a few thousand Schwarzschild radii from the black hole. On the other hand, our sensitive radio images show little evidence for an extended component, perhaps except for several parsec-scale “plumes,” the nature of which remains unclear. Our data also reveal significant (a few tens of percent) flux variation of M31* at 6 GHz, on timescales of hours to days. Furthermore, a curious decrease of the mean flux density, by ∼50%, is found between VLA observations taken during 2002–2005 and our new observations, which might be associated with a substantial increase in the mean X-ray flux of M31* starting in 2006.

  5. Very Large Array Multiband Monitoring Observations of M31*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Zhiyuan; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.; Yuan, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy (M31) hosts one of the nearest and most quiescent supermassive black holes, which provides a rare, but promising opportunity for studying the physics of black hole accretion at the lowest state. We have conducted a multifrequency, multi-epoch observing campaign, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in its extended configurations in 2011–2012, to advance our knowledge of the still poorly known radio properties of M31*. For the first time, we detect M31* at 10, 15, and 20 GHz and measure its spectral index, α ≈ −0.45 ± 0.08 (S ν ∝ ν α ), over the frequency range of 5–20 GHz. The relatively steep spectrum suggests that the observed radio flux is dominated by the optically thin part of a putative jet, which is located at no more than a few thousand Schwarzschild radii from the black hole. On the other hand, our sensitive radio images show little evidence for an extended component, perhaps except for several parsec-scale “plumes,” the nature of which remains unclear. Our data also reveal significant (a few tens of percent) flux variation of M31* at 6 GHz, on timescales of hours to days. Furthermore, a curious decrease of the mean flux density, by ∼50%, is found between VLA observations taken during 2002–2005 and our new observations, which might be associated with a substantial increase in the mean X-ray flux of M31* starting in 2006.

  6. Very Large Array Multiband Monitoring Observations of M31*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Zhiyuan; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.; Yuan, Feng; Shen, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The Andromeda galaxy (M31) hosts one of the nearest and most quiescent supermassive black holes, which provides a rare, but promising opportunity for studying the physics of black hole accretion at the lowest state. We have conducted a multifrequency, multi-epoch observing campaign, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in its extended configurations in 2011-2012, to advance our knowledge of the still poorly known radio properties of M31*. For the first time, we detect M31* at 10, 15, and 20 GHz and measure its spectral index, α ≈ -0.45 ± 0.08 (S ν ∝ ν α ), over the frequency range of 5-20 GHz. The relatively steep spectrum suggests that the observed radio flux is dominated by the optically thin part of a putative jet, which is located at no more than a few thousand Schwarzschild radii from the black hole. On the other hand, our sensitive radio images show little evidence for an extended component, perhaps except for several parsec-scale “plumes,” the nature of which remains unclear. Our data also reveal significant (a few tens of percent) flux variation of M31* at 6 GHz, on timescales of hours to days. Furthermore, a curious decrease of the mean flux density, by ˜50%, is found between VLA observations taken during 2002-2005 and our new observations, which might be associated with a substantial increase in the mean X-ray flux of M31* starting in 2006.

  7. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  8. The effect of applied electric field on pulsed radio frequency and pulsed direct current plasma jet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J. T.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we compare the plasma plume propagation characteristics of a 3-channel pulsed RF plasma jet array and those of the same device operated by a pulsed dc source. For the pulsed-RF jet array, numerous long life time ions and metastables accumulated in the plasma channel make the plasma plume respond quickly to applied electric field. Its structure similar as “plasma bullet” is an anode glow indeed. For the pulsed dc plasma jet array, the strong electric field in the vicinity of the tube is the reason for the growing plasma bullet in the launching period. The repulsive forces between the growing plasma bullets result in the divergence of the pulsed dc plasma jet array. Finally, the comparison of 309 nm and 777 nm emissions between these two jet arrays suggests the high chemical activity of pulsed RF plasma jet array.

  9. Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive

  10. LOFAR reveals the giant: a low-frequency radio continuum study of the outflow in the nearby FR I radio galaxy 3C 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Croston, J. H.; Morganti, R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Stewart, A. J.; Best, P. N.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Brunetti, G.; ChyŻy, K. T.; Harwood, J. J.; Haverkorn, M.; Hess, K. M.; Intema, H. T.; Jamrozy, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; McKean, J. P.; Orrú, E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shulevski, A.; White, G. J.; Wilcots, E. M.; Williams, W. L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a deep, low-frequency radio continuum study of the nearby Fanaroff-Riley class I (FR I) radio galaxy 3C 31 using a combination of LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR; 30-85 and 115-178 MHz), Very Large Array (VLA; 290-420 MHz), Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT; 609 MHz) and Giant Metre Radio Telescope (GMRT; 615 MHz) observations. Our new LOFAR 145-MHz map shows that 3C 31 has a largest physical size of 1.1 Mpc in projection, which means 3C 31 now falls in the class of giant radio galaxies. We model the radio continuum intensities with advective cosmic ray transport, evolving the cosmic ray electron population and magnetic field strength in the tails as functions of distance to the nucleus. We find that if there is no in situ particle acceleration in the tails, then decelerating flows are required that depend on radius r as v∝rβ (β ≈ -1). This then compensates for the strong adiabatic losses due to the lateral expansion of the tails. We are able to find self-consistent solutions in agreement with the entrainment model of Croston & Hardcastle, where the magnetic field provides ≈1/3 of the pressure needed for equilibrium with the surrounding intracluster medium. We obtain an advective time-scale of ≈190 Myr, which, if equated to the source age, would require an average expansion Mach number M ≈ 5 over the source lifetime. Dynamical arguments suggest that instead either the outer tail material does not represent the oldest jet plasma or else the particle ages are underestimated due to the effects of particle acceleration on large scales.

  11. THE RADIO LIGHT CURVE OF THE GAMMA-RAY NOVA IN V407 CYG: THERMAL EMISSION FROM THE IONIZED SYMBIOTIC ENVELOPE, DEVOURED FROM WITHIN BY THE NOVA BLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Krauss, Miriam I.; Rupen, Michael P.; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Nelson, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Sokoloski, Jennifer L.; Weston, Jennifer [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mukai, Koji [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Munari, Ulisse [INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-36012 Asiago (VI) (Italy); O' Brien, Tim J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Eyres, Stewart P. S. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bode, Michael F., E-mail: chomiuk@pa.msu.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-20

    We present multi-frequency radio observations of the 2010 nova event in the symbiotic binary V407 Cygni, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and spanning 1-45 GHz and 17-770 days following discovery. This nova-the first ever detected in gamma rays-shows a radio light curve dominated by the wind of the Mira giant companion, rather than the nova ejecta themselves. The radio luminosity grew as the wind became increasingly ionized by the nova outburst, and faded as the wind was violently heated from within by the nova shock. This study marks the first time that this physical mechanism has been shown to dominate the radio light curve of an astrophysical transient. We do not observe a thermal signature from the nova ejecta or synchrotron emission from the shock, due to the fact that these components were hidden behind the absorbing screen of the Mira wind. We estimate a mass-loss rate for the Mira wind of M-dot{sub w} approx. 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We also present the only radio detection of V407 Cyg before the 2010 nova, gleaned from unpublished 1993 archival VLA data, which shows that the radio luminosity of the Mira wind varies by a factor of {approx}>20 even in quiescence. Although V407 Cyg likely hosts a massive accreting white dwarf, making it a candidate progenitor system for a Type Ia supernova, the dense and radially continuous circumbinary material surrounding V407 Cyg is inconsistent with observational constraints on the environments of most Type Ia supernovae.

  12. The Radio Light Curve of the Gamma-Ray Nova in V407 CYG: Thermal Emission from the Ionized Symbiotic Envelope, Devoured from Within by the Nova Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Krauss, Miriam I.; Rupen, Michael P.; Nelson, Thomas; Roy, Nirupam; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.; Mukai, Koji; Munari, Ulisse; Mioduszewski, Amy; Weston, Jeninfer; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-frequency radio observations of the 2010 nova event in the symbiotic binary V407 Cygni, obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and spanning 1.45 GHz and 17.770 days following discovery. This nova.the first ever detected in gamma rays.shows a radio light curve dominated by the wind of the Mira giant companion, rather than the nova ejecta themselves. The radio luminosity grewas the wind became increasingly ionized by the nova outburst, and faded as the wind was violently heated from within by the nova shock. This study marks the first time that this physical mechanism has been shown to dominate the radio light curve of an astrophysical transient. We do not observe a thermal signature from the nova ejecta or synchrotron emission from the shock, due to the fact that these components were hidden behind the absorbing screen of the Mira wind. We estimate a mass-loss rate for the Mira wind of .Mw approximately equals 10(exp -6) Solar mass yr(exp -1). We also present the only radio detection of V407 Cyg before the 2010 nova, gleaned from unpublished 1993 archival VLA data, which shows that the radio luminosity of the Mira wind varies by a factor of 20 even in quiescence. Although V407 Cyg likely hosts a massive accreting white dwarf, making it a candidate progenitor system for a Type Ia supernova, the dense and radially continuous circumbinary material surrounding V407 Cyg is inconsistent with observational constraints on the environments of most Type Ia supernovae.

  13. Interaction of VLA-5 Molecule With Rheumatoid Articular Cartilage Surface : An Electron Microscopic Evidence of Expression of VLA-5 on Pannus Invading Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Hirata, Souichirou; Saura, Ryuuichi; Andoh, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Kosaku

    1998-01-01

    Pannus is made up mainly of fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes. VLA-5 positive cells are present in the pannus in large numbers. It is likely that the tissue distribution of infiltrated cells derived from post-capillary venules is influenced by the ECM of the pannus and the ability of these cells to interact with the ECM through surface receptor expression. VLA-5 molecules are the predominant (31 integrins expressed by synovial pannus. Since the VLA integrins function as fibronectin rec...

  14. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  15. Precise VLA positions and flux-density measurements of the Jupiter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.; Berge, G.L.; Rudy, D.; Niell, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    VLA C array configuration observations at 2 and 6 cm are presented for Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto at eastern and western elongations with respect to Jupiter, which allowed measurements in right ascension and declination of the satellites with an rms precision of about + or - 0.03 arcsec. The transfer of the mean offsets of Ganymede to Jupiter yields offsets of -0.185 + or - 0.03 arcsec and -0.06 + or - 0.03 arcsec, with respect to JPL-DE-200, at the mean epoch of April 28, 1983; the large offset in right ascension is a combination of the Jupiter ephemeris error and the error in the frame tie of the Jovian planets with the VLBI system of precise positions which was used as the absolute reference frame for the observations. A significant error is noted in the orbital position of Callisto with respect to Ganymede. 12 references

  16. The radio-X-ray relation as a star formation indicator: results from the Very Large Array-Extended Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattakunnel, S.; Tozzi, P.; Matteucci, F.; Padovani, P.; Miller, N.; Bonzini, M.; Mainieri, V.; Paolillo, M.; Vincoletto, L.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2012-03-01

    In order to trace the instantaneous star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift, and thus help in understanding the relation between the different emission mechanisms related to star formation, we combine the recent 4-Ms Chandra X-ray data and the deep Very Large Array radio data in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South region. We find 268 sources detected both in the X-ray and radio bands. The availability of redshifts for ˜95 per cent of the sources in our sample allows us to derive reliable luminosity estimates and the intrinsic properties from X-ray analysis for the majority of the objects. With the aim of selecting sources powered by star formation in both bands, we adopt classification criteria based on X-ray and radio data, exploiting the X-ray spectral features and time variability, taking advantage of observations scattered across more than 10 years. We identify 43 objects consistent with being powered by star formation. We also add another 111 and 70 star-forming candidates detected only in the radio and X-ray bands, respectively. We find a clear linear correlation between radio and X-ray luminosity in star-forming galaxies over three orders of magnitude and up to z˜ 1.5. We also measure a significant scatter of the order of 0.4 dex, higher than that observed at low redshift, implying an intrinsic scatter component. The correlation is consistent with that measured locally, and no evolution with redshift is observed. Using a locally calibrated relation between the SFR and the radio luminosity, we investigate the LX(2-10 keV)-SFR relation at high redshift. The comparison of the SFR measured in our sample with some theoretical models for the Milky Way and M31, two typical spiral galaxies, indicates that, with current data, we can trace typical spirals only at z≤ 0.2, and strong starburst galaxies with SFRs as high as ˜100 M⊙ yr-1, up to z˜ 1.5.

  17. A Radio Emission Analysis of Classical Nova V351 Pup (1991)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendeln, Carolyn; Chomiuk, Laura; Finzell, Thomas; Linford, Justin D.; Strader, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Previously, Nova Puppis 1991 (V351 Pup) was measured to host one of the most massive ejections claimed in the literature. Multi-frequency radio detections from one epoch were published for this nova in the 1990's; and yet, the remaining data collected by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) have remained unpublished. In this paper, we analyze the remaining unpublished data sets for V351 Pup at frequencies of 4.9, 8.4, 14.9, and 22.5 GHz. We fit the resulting light curve to a model of expanding thermal ejecta, under the assumption that the radio emission is dominated by free-free radiation and accounting for high levels of clumping in the ejecta. Images of V351 Pup in both the radio (from the VLA) and Hα+[N II] (from Hubble Space Telescope) exhibit no aspherical structure, strengthening our assumption of spherical symmetry. From expansion parallax methods, we estimate the distance to V351 Pup to be 5.0 ± 1.5 kpc. Our light-curve fit yields a value of {{log}}10({M}{ej})=-5.2+/- 0.7 {M}⊙ for the ejecta mass, implying that V351 Pup is on the low end of expectations for ejecta mass from classical novae. A comparison between our derived ejecta mass and theoretical models gives evidence for a very massive (1.25 {M}⊙ ) white dwarf, which is consistent with spectroscopic evidence for an oxygen-neon white dwarf.

  18. Subarray Processing for Projection-based RFI Mitigation in Radio Astronomical Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mitchell C.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Black, Richard A.; Warnick, Karl F.

    2018-04-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a major problem for observations in Radio Astronomy (RA). Adaptive spatial filtering techniques such as subspace projection are promising candidates for RFI mitigation; however, for radio interferometric imaging arrays, these have primarily been used in engineering demonstration experiments rather than mainstream scientific observations. This paper considers one reason that adoption of such algorithms is limited: RFI decorrelates across the interferometric array because of long baseline lengths. This occurs when the relative RFI time delay along a baseline is large compared to the frequency channel inverse bandwidth used in the processing chain. Maximum achievable excision of the RFI is limited by covariance matrix estimation error when identifying interference subspace parameters, and decorrelation of the RFI introduces errors that corrupt the subspace estimate, rendering subspace projection ineffective over the entire array. In this work, we present an algorithm that overcomes this challenge of decorrelation by applying subspace projection via subarray processing (SP-SAP). Each subarray is designed to have a set of elements with high mutual correlation in the interferer for better estimation of subspace parameters. In an RFI simulation scenario for the proposed ngVLA interferometric imaging array with 15 kHz channel bandwidth for correlator processing, we show that compared to the former approach of applying subspace projection on the full array, SP-SAP improves mitigation of the RFI on the order of 9 dB. An example of improved image synthesis and reduced RFI artifacts for a simulated image “phantom” using the SP-SAP algorithm is presented.

  19. New radio observations of NGC1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedlar, A.; Perley, R.; Crane, P.; Harrison, B.; Davies, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    VLA maps are presented for NGC1275 at 20 cm, with resolutions ranging from 1 to 40 arcsec. Over the central 30 arcsec there is evidence for collimated ejection at position angle -160 deg. Outside this region the radio structure bends rapidly by approximately 90 deg before merging into the 10-arcmin radio halo. It is suggested that models of pressure-driven accretion flows should take into account the presence of the relativistic gas which is responsible for the radio halo. 14 references

  20. A combined multiwavelength VLA/ALMA/Chandra study unveils the complex magnetosphere of the B-type star HR5907

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Oskinova, L. M.; Ignace, R.; Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Leone, F.; Phillips, N. M.; Agliozzo, C.; Todt, H.; Cerrigone, L.

    2018-05-01

    We present new radio/millimeter measurements of the hot magnetic star HR 5907 obtained with the VLA and ALMA interferometers. We find that HR 5907 is the most radio luminous early type star in the cm-mm band among those presently known. Its multi-wavelength radio light curves are strongly variable with an amplitude that increases with radio frequency. The radio emission can be explained by the populations of the non-thermal electrons accelerated in the current sheets on the outer border of the magnetosphere of this fast-rotating magnetic star. We classify HR 5907 as another member of the growing class of strongly magnetic fast-rotating hot stars where the gyro-synchrotron emission mechanism efficiently operates in their magnetospheres. The new radio observations of HR 5907 are combined with archival X-ray data to study the physical condition of its magnetosphere. The X-ray spectra of HR 5907 show tentative evidence for the presence of non-thermal spectral component. We suggest that non-thermal X-rays originate a stellar X-ray aurora due to streams of non-thermal electrons impacting on the stellar surface. Taking advantage of the relation between the spectral indices of the X-ray power-law spectrum and the non-thermal electron energy distributions, we perform 3-D modelling of the radio emission for HR 5907. The wavelength-dependent radio light curves probe magnetospheric layers at different heights above the stellar surface. A detailed comparison between simulated and observed radio light curves leads us to conclude that the stellar magnetic field of HR 5907 is likely non-dipolar, providing further indirect evidence of the complex magnetic field topology of HR 5907.

  1. Debris Disk Studies with the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, David; Matthews, Brenda; Matra, Luca; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Greaves, Jane

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the potential for the ngVLA to advance understanding of debris disks around main-sequence stars. Since the dust-producing planetesimals that replenish these disks through collisions persist only in stable regions like belts and resonances, their locations and physical properties encode essential information about the formation of exoplanetary systems and their dynamical evolution. Observations at long millimeter wavelengths can play a special role because the large grains that dominate the emission are faithful tracers of the dust-producing planetesimals, unlike small grains seen at shorter wavelengths that are rapidly redistributed by stellar radiation and winds. Sensitive observations of debris disks with the ngVLA can (1) reveal structures resulting from otherwise inaccessible planets on wide orbits, (2) test collisional models using spectral slopes to constrain mm/cm grain size distributions, and (3) for select sources, probe the water content of exocomets using the 21 cm HI line.

  2. Gemini IFU, VLA, and HST observations of the OH megamaser galaxy IRAS F23199+0123: the hidden monster and its outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekatelyne, C.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Sales, Dinalva; Robinson, Andrew; Gallimore, Jack; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Kharb, Preeti; O'Dea, Christopher; Baum, Stefi

    2018-03-01

    We present Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral field Unit (IFU), Very Large Array (VLA), and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the OH megamaser (OHM) galaxy IRAS F23199+0123. Our observations show that this system is an interacting pair, with two OHM sources associated with the eastern (IRAS 23199E) member. The two members of the pair present somewhat extended radio emission at 3 and 20 cm, with flux peaks at each nucleus. The GMOS-IFU observations cover the inner ˜6 kpc of IRAS 23199E at a spatial resolution of 2.3 kpc. The GMOS-IFU flux distributions in Hα and [N II] λ6583 are similar to that of an HST [N II]+Hα narrow-band image, being more extended along the north-east-south-west direction, as also observed in the continuum HST F814W image. The GMOS-IFU Hα flux map of IRAS 23199E shows three extranuclear knots attributed to star-forming complexes. We have discovered a Seyfert 1 nucleus in this galaxy, as its nuclear spectrum shows an unresolved broad (full width at half-maximum ≈2170 km s-1) double-peaked Hα component, from which we derive a black hole mass of M_{BH} = 3.8^{+0.3}_{-0.2}× 106 M⊙. The gas kinematics shows low velocity dispersions (σ) and low [N II]/Hα ratios for the star-forming complexes and higher σ and [N II]/Hα surrounding the radio emission region, supporting interaction between the radio plasma and ambient gas. The two OH masers detected in IRAS F23199E are observed in the vicinity of these enhanced σ regions, supporting their association with the active nucleus and its interaction with the surrounding gas. The gas velocity field can be partially reproduced by rotation in a disc, with residuals along the north-south direction being tentatively attributed to emission from the front walls of a bipolar outflow.

  3. The Low Band Observatory (LOBO): Expanding the VLA Low Frequency Commensal System for Continuous, Broad-band, sub-GHz Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Helmboldt, Joseph F.; Peters, Wendy M.; Brisken, Walter; Hyman, Scott D.; Polisensky, Emil; Hicks, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) are currently commissioning the VLA Low Frequency Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) on a subset of JVLA antennas at modest bandwidth. Its bounded scientific goals are to leverage thousands of JVLA on-sky hours per year for ionospheric and transient studies, and to demonstrate the practicality of a prime-focus commensal system on the JVLA. Here we explore the natural expansion of VLITE to a full-antenna, full-bandwidth Low Band Observatory (LOBO) that would follow naturally from a successful VLITE experience. The new Low Band JVLA receivers, coupled with the existing primary focus feeds, can access two frequency bands: 4 band (54 - 86 MHz) and P band (236-492 MHz). The 4 band feeds are newly designed and now undergoing testing. If they prove successful then they can be permanently mounted at the primary focus, unlike their narrow band predecessors. The combination of Low Band receivers and fixed, primary-focus feeds could provide continuous, broad-band data over two complimentary low-frequency bands. The system would also leverage the relatively large fields-of-view of ~10 degrees at 4 band, and ~2.5 degrees at P band, coupling an excellent survey capability with a natural advantage for serendipitous discoveries. We discuss the compelling science case that flows from LOBO's robust imaging and time domain capabilities coupled with thousands of hours of wide-field, JVLA observing time each year. We also touch on the possibility to incorporate Long Wavelength Array (LWA) stations as additional 'dishes' through the LOBO backend, to improve calibration and sensitivity in LOBO's 4 band.

  4. The measurement of fringing fields in a radio-frequency hyperthermia array with emphasis on bolus size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.; van Dijk, J. D.; Sijbrands, J.; Schneider, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    The limited aperture size through which the em-field of the applicator is emanated and the constraining of this em-field near the bolus' edge is related to the appearance of superficial 'hot spot' phenomena in radiative hyperthermia. Regarding systems based on the concept of the annular phased array

  5. The anatomy of a radio source hot spot : Very large baseline array imaging of 3C 205

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonsdale, CJ; Barthel, PD

    Total intensity and linear polarization Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images of the high-redshift quasar 3C 205 at a wavelength of 18 cm reveal a complex curved hot-spot structure with polarization percentages frequently as high as 70%. A one-sided jet is detected emerging from the central

  6. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  7. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal V, A.; Schroeder, F.G. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haungs, A.; Huege, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10{sup 16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole. (orig.)

  8. Astronomers Detect Powerful Bursting Radio Source Discovery Points to New Class of Astronomical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Astronomers at Sweet Briar College and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have detected a powerful new bursting radio source whose unique properties suggest the discovery of a new class of astronomical objects. The researchers have monitored the center of the Milky Way Galaxy for several years and reveal their findings in the March 3, 2005 edition of the journal, “Nature”. This radio image of the central region of the Milky Way Galaxy holds a new radio source, GCRT J1745-3009. The arrow points to an expanding ring of debris expelled by a supernova. CREDIT: N.E. Kassim et al., Naval Research Laboratory, NRAO/AUI/NSF Principal investigator, Dr. Scott Hyman, professor of physics at Sweet Briar College, said the discovery came after analyzing some additional observations from 2002 provided by researchers at Northwestern University. “"We hit the jackpot!” Hyman said referring to the observations. “An image of the Galactic center, made by collecting radio waves of about 1-meter in wavelength, revealed multiple bursts from the source during a seven-hour period from Sept. 30 to Oct. 1, 2002 — five bursts in fact, and repeating at remarkably constant intervals.” Hyman, four Sweet Briar students, and his NRL collaborators, Drs. Namir Kassim and Joseph Lazio, happened upon transient emission from two radio sources while studying the Galactic center in 1998. This prompted the team to propose an ongoing monitoring program using the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the VLA, approved the program. The data collected, laid the groundwork for the detection of the new radio source. “Amazingly, even though the sky is known to be full of transient objects emitting at X- and gamma-ray wavelengths,” NRL astronomer Dr. Joseph Lazio pointed out, “very little has been done to look for radio bursts, which are often easier for astronomical objects to produce

  9. A mid-life crisis? Sudden changes in radio and X-ray emission from supernova 1970G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Chomiuk, L.; Goss, W. M.; Chevalier, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) provide a backdrop from which we can probe the end state of stellar evolution in the final years before the progenitor star explodes. As the shock from the SN expands, the timespan of mass-loss history we are able to probe also extends, providing insight to rapid timescale processes that govern the end state of massive stars. While SNe transition into remnants on timescales of decades to centuries, observations of this phase are currently limited. Here, we present observations of SN 1970G, serendipitously observed during the monitoring campaign of SN 2011fe, which shares the same host galaxy. Utilizing the new Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) upgrade and a deep X-ray exposure taken by Chandra, we are able to recover this middle-aged SN and distinctly resolve it from the H II cloud with which it is associated. We find that the flux density of SN 1970G has changed significantly since it was last observed—the X-ray luminosity has increased by a factor of ∼3, while we observe a significantly lower radio flux of only 27.5 μJy at 6.75 GHz, a level only detectable through the upgrades now in operation at the Jansky VLA. These changes suggest that SN 1970G has entered a new stage of evolution toward an SN remnant, and we may be detecting the turn-on of the pulsar wind nebula. Deep radio observations of additional middle-aged SNe with the improved radio facilities will provide a statistical census of the delicate transition period between SN and remnant.

  10. TESTING THE MAGNETAR MODEL VIA LATE-TIME RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO MACRONOVA CANDIDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horesh, Assaf [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hancock, Paul [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)

    2016-03-10

    Compact binary mergers may have already been observed as they are the leading model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs). Radioactive decay within the ejecta from these mergers is expected to produce an infrared flare, dubbed macronova (or kilonova), on a timescale of a week. Recently, two such macronova candidates were identified in followup observations of sGRBs, strengthening the possibility that those indeed arise from mergers. The same ejecta will also produce long-term (months to years) radio emission due to its interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium. In the search for this emission, we observed the two macronova candidates, GRB 130603B and GRB 060614, with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our observations resulted in null-detections, putting strong upper limits on the kinetic energy and mass of the ejecta. A possible outcome of a merger is a highly magnetized neutron star (a magnetar), which has been suggested as the central engine for GRBs. Such a magnetar will deposit a significant fraction of its energy into the ejecta leading to a brighter radio flare. Our results, therefore, rule out magnetars in these two events.

  11. Double-peaked Emission Lines Due to a Radio Outflow in KISSR 1219

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharb, P.; Vaddi, S. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics—Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Postbag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Subramanian, S. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Das, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Paragi, Z., E-mail: kharb@ncra.tifr.res.in [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2017-09-01

    We present the results from 1.5 and 5 GHz phase-referenced VLBA and 1.5 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy KISSR 1219, which exhibits double-peaked emission lines in its optical spectrum. The VLA and VLBA data reveal a one-sided core-jet structure at roughly the same position angles, providing evidence of an active galactic nucleus outflow. The absence of dual parsec-scale radio cores puts the binary black-hole picture in doubt for the case of KISSR 1219. The high brightness temperatures of the parsec-scale core and jet components (>10{sup 6} K) are consistent with this interpretation. Doppler boosting with jet speeds of ≳0.55 c to ≳0.25 c , going from parsec to kiloparsec scales, at a jet inclination ≳50° can explain the jet one-sidedness in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. A blueshifted broad emission line component in [O iii] is also indicative of an outflow in the emission line gas at a velocity of ∼350 km s{sup −1}, while the [O i] doublet lines suggest the presence of shock-heated gas. A detailed line ratio study using the MAPPINGS III code further suggests that a shock+precursor model can explain the line ionization data well. Overall, our data suggest that the radio outflow in KISSR 1219 is pushing the emission line clouds, both ahead of the jet and in a lateral direction, giving rise to the double peak emission line spectra.

  12. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs

  13. Twin radio relics in the nearby low-mass galaxy cluster Abell 168

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakanath, K. S.; Parekh, V.; Kale, R.; George, L. T.

    2018-06-01

    We report the discovery of twin radio relics in the outskirts of the low-mass merging galaxy cluster Abell 168 (redshift=0.045). One of the relics is elongated with a linear extent ˜800 kpc and projected width of ˜80 kpc and is located ˜900 kpc towards the north of the cluster centre, oriented roughly perpendicular to the major axis of the X-ray emission. The second relic is ring-shaped with a size ˜220 kpc and is located near the inner edge of the elongated relic at a distance of ˜600 kpc from the cluster centre. These radio sources were imaged at 323 and 608 MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope and at 1520 MHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The elongated relic was detected at all frequencies, with a radio power of 1.38 ± 0.14 × 1023 W Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz and a power law in the frequency range 70-1500 MHz (S ∝ να, α = -1.1 ± 0.04). This radio power is in good agreement with that expected from the known empirical relation between the radio powers of relics and host cluster masses. This is the lowest mass (M500 = 1.24 × 1014 M⊙) cluster in which relics due to merger shocks are detected. The ring-shaped relic has a steeper spectral index (α) of -1.74 ± 0.29 in the frequency range 100-600 MHz. We propose this relic to be an old plasma, revived due to adiabatic compression by the outgoing shock that produced the elongated relic.

  14. Radio Telescopes to Keep Sharp Eye on Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Laboratory will get the relayed information," Ghigo added. In Socorro, scientists will collect signals from Phoenix with antennas of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), which produces the sharpest images of any astronomical instrument in existence. They will use the VLBA's ability to mark the position of objects in the sky with pinpoint precision to reconstruct the craft's location relative to other spacecraft at Mars to within about 100 feet, despite its great distance from Earth. The VLBA observations will demonstrate NRAO's capability to provide extremely precise measurements of spacecraft positions. This capability may be used to improve the navigational accuracy of future interplanetary missions. NRAO telescopes have contributed to the success of several previous space missions. The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In 1989, the Very Large Array (VLA) received signals from the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it flew by the distant planet Neptune. The combined collecting area of the 27 VLA antennas and their sensitive receivers made possible a higher data-transmission rate from the spacecraft, thus enabling scientists to obtain more images of Neptune, its rings, and its moons. In 1995, the VLA captured signals from the Galileo spaccraft's probe as the probe dived into the giant planet Jupiter's atmosphere. Like Phoenix, the Galileo probe was designed to send its information to the main spacecraft, which would then relay the signal to Earth. However, the VLA's direct reception of the probe's signal measured the Doppler shift in the signal's frequency and made measurements of Jovian wind speeds 10 times more accurate than they otherwise would have been. In 2005, the GBT and the VLBA snagged the signal from the Huygens probe as it descended into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. The Doppler measurements of wind speeds made by NRAO and other radio telescopes provided the only wind data from the mission, because of a malfunction in communication

  15. Quasar 3C351: VLA maps and a deep search for optical emission in the outer lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, P.P.; Clarke, J.N.; van den Bergh, S.

    1980-01-01

    VLA radio maps of the quasar 3C351 (z=0.371) at approx.2'' and 0.''4 resolution (a) show interaction with a relatively dense intergalactic medium, (b) show that there is electron acceleration within at least one of the radio lobes, and (c) imply that the intergalactic gas density is different on one side of the source than on the other. Striking similarities are found between the northern radio lobe of 3C351 and one of the outer hotspots of Cygnus A, and possibly other similar systems, in that the outer, on-axis hotspot is resolved and cusp-shaped, and the ''secondary'' off-axis hotspot is more compact. A search for optical emission in the outer lobes shows no emission stronger than 22/sup m/ in the J band and approx.21/sup m/ in the F band. There is also no evidence at these limits for a cluster of galaxies near the radio source, as is suggested by our conclusion that it is interacting with a medium of typical intracluster density

  16. The Distance to Nova V959 Mon from VLA Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Chomiuk, L.; Nelson, T.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Rupen, M. P.; Mukai, K.; O'Brien, T. J.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Weston, J.

    2015-06-01

    Determining reliable distances to classical novae is a challenging but crucial step in deriving their ejected masses and explosion energetics. Here we combine radio expansion measurements from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with velocities derived from optical spectra to estimate an expansion parallax for nova V959 Mon, the first nova discovered through its γ-ray emission. We spatially resolve the nova at frequencies of 4.5-36.5 GHz in nine different imaging epochs. The first five epochs cover the expansion of the ejecta from 2012 October to 2013 January, while the final four epochs span 2014 February-May. These observations correspond to days 126 through 199 and days 615 through 703 after the first detection of the nova. The images clearly show a non-spherical ejecta geometry. Utilizing ejecta velocities derived from three-dimensional modeling of optical spectroscopy, the radio expansion implies a distance between 0.9 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.4 kpc, with a most probable distance of 1.4 ± 0.4 kpc. This distance implies a γ-ray luminosity of 0.6× {{10}35} erg s-1, which is much less than the prototype γ-ray-detected nova, V407 Cyg, possibly due to the lack of a red giant companion in the V959 Mon system. V959 Mon also has a much lower γ-ray luminosity than other classical novae detected in γ-rays to date, indicating a range of at least a factor of 10 in the γ-ray luminosities for these explosions.

  17. Tracing the Baryon Cycle within Nearby Galaxies with a next-generation VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, Adam; Murphy, Eric J.; ngVLA Baryon Cycle Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies over cosmic time is shaped by the cycling of baryons through these systems, namely the inflow of atomic gas, the formation of molecular structures, the birth of stars, and the expulsion of gas due to associated feedback processes. The best way to study this cycle in detail are observations of nearby galaxies. These systems provide a complete picture of baryon cycling over a wide range of astrophysical conditions. In the next decade, higher resolution/sensitivity observations of such galaxies will fundamentally improve our knowledge of galaxy formation and evolution, allowing us to better interpret higher redshift observations of sources that were rapidly evolving at epochs soon after the Big Bang. In particular, the centimeter-to-millimeter part of the spectrum provides critical diagnostics for each of the key baryon cycling processes and access to almost all phases of gas in galaxies: cool and cold gas (via emission and absorption lines), ionized gas (via free-free continuum and recombination lines), cosmic rays and hot gas (via synchrotron emission and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect). This poster highlights a number of key science problems in this area whose solutions require a next-generation radio-mm interferometer such as the next-generation VLA.

  18. VLA observations of dwarf M flare stars and magnetic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Foster, P.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for 6 cm emission from 16 nearby dwarf M stars, leading to the detection of only one of them - Gliese 735. The dwarf M flare stars AD Leonis and YZ Canis Minoris were also monitored at 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength in order to study variability. Successive oppositely circularly polarized bursts were detected from AD Leo at 6 cm, suggesting the presence of magnetic fields of both magnetic polarities. An impulsive 20-cm burst from YZ CMi preceded slowly varying 6-cm emission. The VLA was also used, unsuccessfully, to search for 6-cm emission from 13 magnetic Ap stars, all of which exhibit kG magnetic fields. Although the Ap magnetic stars have strong dipolar magnetic fields, the failure to detect gyroresonant radiation suggests that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The quiescent microwave emission from GL 735 is probably due to nonthermal radiation, since unusually high (H = 50 kG or greater) surface magnetic fields are inferred under the assumption that the 6-cm radiation is the gyroresonant radiation of thermal electrons.

  19. ngVLA Key Science Goal 3: Charting the Assembly, Structure, and Evolution of Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Carilli, Chris; Casey, Caitlin M.; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Narayanan, Desika; Walter, Fabian; ngVLA Galaxy Assembly through Cosmic Time Science Working Group, ngVLA Galaxy Ecosystems Science Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will fundamentally advance our understanding of the formation processes that lead to the assembly of galaxies throughout cosmic history. The combination of large bandwidth with unprecedented sensitivity to the critical low-level CO lines over virtually the entire redshift range will open up the opportunity to conduct large-scale, deep cold molecular gas surveys, mapping the fuel for star formation in galaxies over substantial cosmic volumes. Imaging of the sub-kiloparsec scale distribution and kinematic structure of molecular gas in both normal main-sequence galaxies and large starbursts back to early cosmic epochs will reveal the physical processes responsible for star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over a broad range in redshifts. In the nearby universe, the ngVLA has the capability to survey the structure of the cold, star-forming interstellar medium at parsec-resolution out to the Virgo cluster. A range of molecular tracers will be accessible to map the motion, distribution, and physical and chemical state of the gas as it flows in from the outer disk, assembles into clouds, and experiences feedback due to star formation or accretion into central super-massive black holes. These investigations will crucially complement studies of the star formation and stellar mass histories with the Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor and the Origins Space Telescope, providing the means to obtain a comprehensive picture of galaxy evolution through cosmic times.

  20. Radio Telescopes Reveal Youngest Stellar Corpse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers using a global combination of radio telescopes to study a stellar explosion some 30 million light-years from Earth have likely discovered either the youngest black hole or the youngest neutron star known in the Universe. Their discovery also marks the first time that a black hole or neutron star has been found associated with a supernova that has been seen to explode since the invention of the telescope nearly 400 years ago. M51 An artist's impression of Supernova 1986J. The newly discovered nebula around the black hole or neutron star in the center is shown in blue, and is in the center of the expanding, fragmented shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion, which is shown in red. CREDIT: Norbert Bartel and Michael F. Bietenholz, York University; Artist: G. Arguner (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Artist's Conception (above image, 836K) Galaxy and Supernova (47K) A VLA image (left) of the galaxy NGC 891, showing the bright supernova explosion below the galaxy's center. At right, a closer view of the supernova, made with a global array of radio telescopes. CREDIT: Miguel A. Perez-Torres, Antxon Alberdi and Lucas Lara, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia - CSIC, Spain, Jon Marcaide and Jose C. Guirado, Universidad de Valencia, Spain Franco Mantovani, IRA-CNR, Italy, Eduardo Ros, MPIfR, Germany, and Kurt W. Weiler, Naval Research Laboratory, USA Multi-Frequency Closeup View (201K) Blue and white area shows the nebula surrounding the black hole or neutron star lurking in the center of the supernova. This nebula is apparent at a higher radio frequency (15 GHz). The red and also the contours show the distorted, expanding shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion. This shell is seen at a lower radio frequency (5 GHz). CREDIT: Michael F. Bietenholz and Norbert Bartel, York University, Michael Rupen, NRAO, NRAO/AUI/NSF A supernova is the explosion of a massive star after it exhausts its supply of nuclear fuel and

  1. Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M.; Vink, J.; de Gasperin, F.; Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; van Dijk, P. C. G.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Krankowski, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulder, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pekal, R.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Smirnov, O.; Soida, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vocks, C.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Zucca, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of 44Ti, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims: Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods: We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17″ (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results: We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 ± 0.48 M⊙ for an assumed gas temperatureof T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114″± 6″ and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta

  2. Activated Protein C Attenuates Severe Inflammation by Targeting VLA-3high Neutrophil Subpopulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Pranita P; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lerman, Yelena V; Trzeciak, Alissa; Harrower, Eric J; Rezaie, Alireza R; Kim, Minsoo

    2017-10-15

    The host injury involved in multiorgan system failure during severe inflammation is mediated, in part, by massive infiltration and sequestration of hyperactive neutrophils in the visceral organ. A recombinant form of human activated protein C (rhAPC) has shown cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions in some clinical and animal studies, but the direct mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that, during endotoxemia and severe polymicrobial peritonitis, integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) is specifically upregulated on hyperinflammatory neutrophils and that targeting the VLA-3 high neutrophil subpopulation improved survival in mice. In this article, we report that rhAPC binds to human neutrophils via integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) with a higher affinity compared with other Arg-Gly-Asp binding integrins. Similarly, there is preferential binding of activated protein C (PC) to Gr1 high CD11b high VLA-3 high cells isolated from the bone marrow of septic mice. Furthermore, specific binding of rhAPC to human neutrophils via VLA-3 was inhibited by an antagonistic peptide (LXY2). In addition, genetically modified mutant activated PC, with a high affinity for VLA-3, shows significantly improved binding to neutrophils compared with wild-type activated PC and significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of septic mice. These data indicate that variants of activated PC have a stronger affinity for integrin VLA-3, which reveals novel therapeutic possibilities. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. VLA and CARMA observations of protostars in the Cepheus clouds: Sub-arcsecond proto-binaries formed via disk fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, John J.; Looney, Leslie W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Wilner, David J.; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; D' Alessio, Paola [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kwon, Woojin, E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-12-20

    We present observations of three Class 0/I protostars (L1157-mm, CB230 IRS1, and L1165-SMM1) using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of two (L1165-SMM1 and CB230 IRS1) with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The VLA observations were taken at wavelengths of λ = 7.3 mm, 1.4 cm, 3.3 cm, 4.0 cm, and 6.5 cm with a best resolution of ∼0.''06 (18 AU) at 7.3 mm. The L1165-SMM1 CARMA observations were taken at λ = 1.3 mm with a best resolution of ∼0.''3 (100 AU) and the CB230 IRS1 observations were taken at λ = 3.4 mm with a best resolution of ∼3'' (900 AU). We find that L1165-SMM1 and CB230 IRS1 have probable binary companions at separations of ∼0.''3 (100 AU) from detections of secondary peaks at multiple wavelengths. The position angles of these companions are nearly orthogonal to the direction of the observed bipolar outflows, consistent with the expected protostellar disk orientations. We suggest that these companions may have formed from disk fragmentation; turbulent fragmentation would not preferentially arrange the binary companions to be orthogonal to the outflow direction. For L1165-SMM1, both the 7.3 mm and 1.3 mm emission show evidence of a large (R > 100 AU) disk. For the L1165-SMM1 primary protostar and the CB230 IRS1 secondary protostar, the 7.3 mm emission is resolved into structures consistent with ∼20 AU radius disks. For the other protostars, including L1157-mm, the emission is unresolved, suggesting disks with radii <20 AU.

  4. The extreme flare in III Zw 2:. Evolution of a radio jet in a Seyfert galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunthaler, A.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bower, G.C.; Aller, M.F.; Aller, H.D.; Teräsranta, H.

    2005-01-01

    A very detailed monitoring of a radio flare in the Seyfert I galaxy III Zw 2 with the VLA and the VLBA is presented. The relative astrometry in the VLBA observations was precise to a few muas. The spectral and spatial evolutions of the source are closely linked, and these observations allowed us to

  5. The extreme flare in III Zw 2: evolution of a radio jet in a Seyfert galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunthaler, A.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bower, G.C.; Aller, M.F.; Aller, H.D.; Teraesranta, H.

    2005-01-01

    A very detailed monitoring of a radio flare in the Seyfert I galaxy III Zw 2 with the VLA and the VLBA is presented. The relative astrometry in the VLBA observations was precise on a level of a few microarcseconds. Spectral and spatial evolution of the source are closely linked and these

  6. Activated integrin VLA-4 localizes to the lamellipodia and mediates T cell migration on VCAM-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Min; Chung, Hung-Li; McGrath, James L.; Waugh, Richard E.; Kim, Minsoo

    2009-01-01

    Lymphocyte migration from blood into lymphoid tissues or to sites of inflammation occurs through interactions between cell surface integrins and their ligands expressed on the vascular endothelium and the extracellular matrix. Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4, α4β1) is a key integrin in the effective trafficking of lymphocytes. Although it has been well established that integrins undergo functionally significant conformational changes to mediate cell adhesion, there is no mechanistic information that explains how these are dynamically and spatially regulated during lymphocyte polarization and migration. Using dynamic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis of a novel VLA-4 FRET sensor under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we show that VLA-4 activation localizes to the lamellipodium in living cells. During T cell migration on VCAM-1, VLA-4 activation concurs with spatial redistribution of chemokine receptor and active Rap1 at the leading edge. Selective inhibition of the activated VLA-4 at leading edge with a small molecule inhibitor is sufficient to block T cell migration. These data suggest that a subpopulation of activated VLA-4 is mainly localized to the leading edge of polarized human T cells, and is critical for T cell migration on VCAM-1. PMID:19542447

  7. Update on the Commensal VLA Low-band Ionospheric and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Ray, Paul S.; Polisensky, Emil; Peters, Wendy M.; Giacintucci, Simona; Helmboldt, Joseph F.; Hyman, Scott D.; Brisken, Walter; Hicks, Brian; Deneva, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    The JVLA Low-band Ionospheric and Transient Experiment (VLITE) is a commensal observing system on the NRAO JVLA. The separate optical path of the prime-focus sub-GHz dipole feeds and the Cassegrain-focus GHz feeds provided an opportunity to expand the simultaneous frequency operation of the JVLA through joint observations across both systems. The low-band receivers on 10 JVLA antennas are outfitted with dedicated samplers and use spare fibers to transport the 320-384 MHz band to the VLITE correlator. The initial phase of VLITE uses a custom-designed real-time DiFX software correlator to produce autocorrelations, as well as parallel and cross-hand cross-correlations from the linear dipole feeds. NRL and NRAO have worked together to explore the scientific potential of the commensal low frequency system for ionospheric remote sensing, astrophysics and transients. VLITE operates at nearly 70% wall time with roughly 6200 hours of JVLA time recorded each year.VLITE data are used in real-time for ionospheric research and are transferred daily to NRL for processing in the astrophysics and transient pipelines. These pipelines provide automated radio frequency interference excision, calibration, imaging and self-calibration of data.We will review early scientific results from VLITE across all three science focus areas, including the ionosphere, slow (> 1 sec) transients, and astrophysics. We also discuss the future of the project, that includes its planned expansion to eVLITE including the addition of more antennas, and a parallel capability to search for fast (complement NRAO’s 3 GHz VLA Sky Survey (VLASS). Revised pipelines are under development for operation during the on-the-fly operation mode of the sky survey.

  8. A Rotation Measure Gradient on the M87 VLA Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algaba Juan Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotation measures (RMs have proven to be an excellent tool to study magnetic field structures in AGNs. Here we study RM properties on kiloparsec scales of theM87 jet via stacked multi wavelength polarized VLA observations. Our results show for the first time an indication of the RM gradient transverse to the jet in knot A, and possibly knot C and HST-1. Motivated by the shape of the RM in knots A and B, we discuss that part of it may be a filamentary structure of higher RM due to an external Faraday screen, although we consider this unlikely The data presented here can be easily explained by a helical magnetic field. By combining this result together with polarization direction plus the shape and degree of the fractional polarization across the jet, we can fairly conclude the presence of systematically wrapped, possibly helical, magnetic fields tightly wounded in knots A and C, in agreement with an MHD quad shock model.

  9. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  10. Primena metode MUSIC za određivanje smera dolaska radio-signala korišćenjem antenskih nizova ADCOCK / Application of the MUSIC method for direction of arrival estimation using the ADCOCK antenna arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljko M. Erić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiziran je problem procene smera dolaska radio-signala metodom MUSIC korišćenjem antenskih nizova ADCOCK. Formulisan je matematički model signala na antenskom nizu ADCOCK. Izvedene su relacije između vektora prostiranja ADCOCK i vektora prostiranja ukupnog antenskog niza (niza od koga se ADCOCK-ov niz formira. Definisana je kriterijumska funkcija algoritma MUSIC i funkcija neodređenosti antenskog niza ADCOCK. Prikazani su rezultati simulacije, kao i rezultati praktične verifikacije mogućnosti primene metode MUSIC na antenske nizove ADCOCK. / The MUSIC based Direction of Arrival estimation using the ADCOCK antenna arrays is considered. Starting from signal model formulation, the cost function of the MUSIC algorithm and the ambiguity functions for the ADCOCK antenna array have been formulated. Some simulation results and some preliminary results of the verification in practice are presented.

  11. No evidence for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocke, J.T.; Morris, S.L.; Gioia, I.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a large, flux-limited sample of faint X-ray sources, a search has been conducted for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects. None has been found. Thirty-two X-ray-selected BL Lac objects and BL Lac candidates have been found within the sources of the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). Thirty-one of these have been observed with the VLA and all have been detected at 5 GHz. While the optical magnitudes of the EMSS BL Lac objects range from 17 to 20.8, their radio-to-optical spectral indices occupy a very small range. The very bright X-ray-selected BL Lac objects like PKS 2155-304 and Markarian 501 have similar range values. Therefore, unlike the clear dichotomy between radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet QSOs, there is no evidence for two populations of Lacertids distinguished by radio loudness. 43 refs

  12. Discovery of H I gas in a young radio galaxy at z = 0.44 using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Hunstead, R. W.; Pracy, M. B.; Curran, S. J.; Croom, S. M.; Glowacki, M.; Morganti, R.; Shabala, S. S.; Zwaan, M. A.; Allen, G.; Amy, S. W.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K. W.; Barker, S.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Braun, R.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Brown, A.; Bunton, J. D.; Cantrall, C.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Edwards, P. G.; Ekers, R.; Feain, I.; Ferris, R. H.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Grancea, A.; Gupta, N.; Guzman, J. C.; Hampson, G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Haskins, C.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B. T.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kendall, R.; Kesteven, M.; Kiraly, D.; Koribalski, B. S.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Macleod, A.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Mirtschin, P.; Norris, R. P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A.; Serra, P.; Shaw, R.; Shields, M.; Shimwell, T.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, T.; Troup, E.; Turner, B.; Tuthill, J.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Wilson, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new 21-cm H I absorption system using commissioning data from the Boolardy Engineering Test Array of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). Using the 711.5-1015.5 MHz band of ASKAP we were able to conduct a blind search for the 21-cm line in a

  13. Measurement of Arcminute Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy with the BIMA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. S.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S. J.; Miller, A.; Nagai, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of our continued study of arcminute scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array. The survey consists of ten independent fields selected for low infrared dust emission and lack of bright radio point sources. With observations from the VLA (Very Large Array) at 4.8 GHz, we have identified point sources which could act as contaminants in estimates of the CMB power spectrum and removed them in the analysis. Modeling the observed power spectrum with a single. flat band power with average multipole of l(sub eff) = 6864, we find Delta T = 14.2((sup +4.8)(sub -6.0)) micro K at 68% confidence. The signal in the visibility data exceeds the expected contribution from instrumental noise with 96.5% confidence. We have also divided the data into two bins corresponding to different spatial resolutions in the power spectrum. We find Delta T(sub 1) = 16.6((sup +5.3)(sub -5.9)) micro K at 68% confidence for CMB flat band power described by an average multipole of l(sub eff) = 5237 and Delta T(sub 2) is less than 26.5 micro K at 95% confidence for l(sub eff) = 8748.

  14. Exploring anti-correlated radio/X-ray modes in transitional millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodand, Amruta

    2017-09-01

    Recently, using coordinated VLA+Chandra observations, Bogdanov et al.(2017) have uncovered a stunning anti-correlation in the LMXB state of the tMSP PSR J1023+0038. They see that radio luminosity consistently peaks during the X-ray `low' luminosity modes. Also, we have found a promising candidate tMSP, 3FGL J1544-1125(J1544) (Bogdanov and Halpern 2015; currently only tMSP candidate apart from J1023 in a persistent LMXB state). Using VLA and simultaneous Swift observations we see that it lies on the proposed tMSP track in radio vs. X-ray luminosity (L_ R/L_X) diagram. This finding strengthens its classification as a tMSP and provides an excellent opportunity to a)determine universality of radio/X-ray brightness anti-correlatio and b)understand jet/outflow formation in tMSPs.

  15. Radio Remote Sensing of Coronal Mass Ejections: Implications for Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. E.; Thomas, N. C.; Guy, M. B., III; Spangler, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are fast-moving magnetic field structures of enhanced plasma density that play an important role in space weather. The Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe will usher in a new era of in situ measurements, probing CMEs within distances of 60 and 10 solar radii, respectively. At the present, only remote-sensing techniques such as Faraday rotation can probe the plasma structure of CMEs at these distances. Faraday rotation is the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma (e.g. a CME) and is proportional to the path integral of the electron density and line-of-sight magnetic field. In conjunction with white-light coronagraph measurements, Faraday rotation observations have been used in recent years to determine the magnetic field strength of CMEs. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. These Faraday rotation observations provide a priori estimates for comparison with future in situ measurements made by the Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe. Similar Faraday rotation observations made simultaneously with observations by the Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe in the future could provide information about the global structure of CMEs sampled by these probes and, therefore, aid in understanding the in situ measurements.

  16. A new VLA/e-MERLIN limit on central images in the gravitational lens system CLASS B1030+074

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, Jonathan; Jackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal; Biggs, Andrew; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chapman, Scott; De Zotti, Gianfranco; McKean, John; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Scott, Douglas; Serjeant, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We present the new Very Large Array 22 GHz and extended Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network 5 GHz observations of CLASS B1030+074, a two-image strong gravitational lens system whose background source is a compact flat-spectrum radio quasar. In such systems we expect a third image of

  17. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VI. Radio Constraints on a Relativistic Jet and Predictions for Late-time Emission from the Kilonova Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Williams, P. K. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Margutti, R.; Metzger, B. D.; Annis, J.; Blanchard, P. K.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H. -Y.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Drout, M.; Eftekhari, T.; Frieman, J.; Holz, D. E.; Nicholl, M.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Villar, V. A.

    2017-10-16

    We present Very Large Array (VLA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array ALMA radio observations of GW\\,170817, the first Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo gravitational wave (GW) event from a binary neutron star merger and the first GW event with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. Our data include the first observations following the discovery of the optical transient at both the centimeter ($13.7$ hours post merger) and millimeter ($2.41$ days post merger) bands. We detect faint emission at 6 GHz at 19.47 and 39.23 days after the merger, but not in an earlier observation at 2.46 d. We do not detect cm/mm emission at the position of the optical counterpart at frequencies of 10-97.5 GHz at times ranging from 0.6 to 30 days post merger, ruling out an on-axis short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) for energies $\\gtrsim 10^{48}$ erg. For fiducial SGRB parameters, our limits require an observer viewer angle of $\\gtrsim 20^{\\circ}$. The radio and X-ray data can be jointly explained as the afterglow emission from an SGRB with a jet energy of $\\sim 10^{49}-10^{50}$ erg that exploded in a uniform density environment with $n\\sim 10^{-4}-10^{-2}$ cm$^{-3}$, viewed at an angle of $\\sim 20^{\\circ}-40^{\\circ}$ from the jet axis. Using the results of our light curve and spectral modeling, in conjunction with the inference of the circumbinary density, we predict the emergence of late-time radio emission from the deceleration of the kilonova (KN) ejecta on a timescale of $\\sim 5-10$ years that will remain detectable for decades with next-generation radio facilities, making GW\\,170817 a compelling target for long-term radio monitoring.

  18. Archiving of interferometric radio and mm/submm data at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Modern radio interferometers such as ALMA and the VLA are capable of producing ~1TB/day of data for processing into image products of comparable size. Besides the shear volume of data, the products themselves can be complicated and are sometimes hard to map into standard astronomical archive metadata. We also face similar issues to those faced by archives at other wavelengths, namely the role of archives as the basis of reprocessing platforms and facilities, and the validation and ingestion of user-derived products. In this talk I shall discuss the plans of NRAO in these areas over the next decade.

  19. Radio properties of central dominant galaxies in cluster cooling flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dea, C.P.; Baum, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    New VLA observations of central dominant (cd) galaxies currently thought to be in cluster cooling flows are combined with observations from the literature to examine the global properties of a heterogeneous sample of 31 cd galaxies. The radio sources tend to be of low or intermediate radio power and have small sizes (median extent about 25 kpc). The resolved sources tend to have distorted morphologies (e.g., wide-angle tails and S shapes). It is not yet clear whether the radio emission from these cd galaxies is significantly different from those not thought to be in cluster cooling flows. The result of Jones and Forman (1984), that there is a possible correlation between radio power and excess X-ray luminosity in the cluster center (above a King model fit to the X-ray surface brightness), is confirmed. 43 references

  20. Ichtyofauna střední části Vlašimské Blanice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanel, L.; Lusk, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2009), s. 43-61 ISSN 0487-5648 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ichtyofauna * abundance * electrofishing * River Blanice Vlašimská (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) * Blaník Protected Landscape Area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Increased prevalence of late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1) in active juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels; Platz, P

    1987-01-01

    The presence of activated T cells as judged from the reaction with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against (a) a late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1), (b) the interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor (CD25), and (c) four different HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR, DRw52, DQ, and DP) was studied in 15 pati...

  2. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys - II. Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P; Marlow, D; Quast, R; Wilkinson, PN; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE

    We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this is the largest gravitational lens survey which has been analysed, cosmological constraints are only comparable to those from optical

  3. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys; 2, Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P.; Marlow, D. R.; Quast, R.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Browne, I. W. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    1999-01-01

    Published in: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136 (1999) no. 2, pp.297-305 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present constraints on the cosmological constant $lambda_{0}$ from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this

  4. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Radio and Infrared Galaxies from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, VLA 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ~1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always

  5. Performance evaluation of annular arrays in practice: The measurement of phase and amplitude patterns of radio-frequency deep body applicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, C.J.; Kuijer, J.P.A.; Colussi, L.C.; Schepp, C.J.; Dijk, J.D.P. van

    1995-01-01

    An approach to a solution of two major problems in operating Annular Phased Arrays in deep body hyperthermia is presented: an E-field sensor capable of measuring phase and amplitude at 70 MHz and the concept of a power transmission factor to determine the effective amplitude of each applicator. In

  6. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  7. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P.; Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M Hi ) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M Hi /L B < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within the last few

  8. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: cmartink@macalester.edu, E-mail: leisman@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: hallenbg@union.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M{sub Hi}) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M{sub Hi}/L{sub B} < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within

  9. Broadband radio spectro-polarimetric observations of high-Faraday-rotation-measure AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Alice; Carrasco-González, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Shane; Basu, Aritra; Bruni, Gabriele; Kraus, Alex; Curiel, Salvador; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-01

    We present broadband polarimetric observations of a sample of high-Faraday-rotation-measure (high-RM) active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) telescope from 1 to 2 GHz, and 4 to 12 GHz. The sample (14 sources) consists of very compact sources (linear resolution smaller than ≈5 kpc) that are unpolarized at 1.4 GHz in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Total intensity data have been modeled using a combination of synchrotron components, revealing complex structure in their radio spectra. Depolarization modeling, through the so-called qu-fitting (the modeling of the fractional quantities of the Stokes Q and U parameters), has been performed on the polarized data using an equation that attempts to simplify the process of fitting many different depolarization models. These models can be divided into two major categories: external depolarization (ED) and internal depolarization (ID) models. Understanding which of the two mechanisms is the most representative would help the qualitative understanding of the AGN jet environment and whether it is embedded in a dense external magneto-ionic medium or if it is the jet-wind that causes the high RM and strong depolarization. This could help to probe the jet magnetic field geometry (e.g., helical or otherwise). This new high-sensitivity data shows a complicated behavior in the total intensity and polarization radio spectrum of individual sources. We observed the presence of several synchrotron components and Faraday components in their total intensity and polarized spectra. For the majority of our targets (12 sources), the depolarization seems to be caused by a turbulent magnetic field. Thus, our main selection criteria (lack of polarization at 1.4 GHz in the NVSS) result in a sample of sources with very large RMs and depolarization due to turbulent magnetic fields local to the source. These broadband JVLA data reveal the complexity of the polarization properties of this class of radio sources

  10. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  11. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE RADIO BRIGHT ZONE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: FEEDBACK FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam{sup −1}, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized

  12. Radio ejection and broad forbidden emission lines in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7674

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Axon, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Seyfert nucleus in NGC7674 (Mkn533) is remarkable for its broad asymmetric forbidden line profiles, which extend 2000 kms -1 blueward of the systemic velocity. The galaxy also has a compact nuclear radio source. We have obtained new high-resolution radio observations of NGC7674, using the European VLBI network and the VLA, and optical spectroscopic observations using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The radio maps reveal a triple radio source with a total angular extent of about 0.7 arcsec, and provide evidence that the radio emission is powered by collimated ejection. In the plane of the sky, the ejection axis appears roughly perpendicular to the galactic rotation axis. Although the dominant radio components are separated by 0.5 arcsec, the broad [OIII]λ5007 line emission is confined to within about 0.25 arcsec of the continuum nucleus. (author)

  13. A Case Study of On-the-fly Wide-field Radio Imaging Applied to the Gravitational Wave Event GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooley, K. P.; Frail, D. A.; Myers, S. T.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Hotokezaka, K.; Singer, L. P.; Horesh, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Hallinan, G.

    2018-04-01

    We apply a newly developed on-the-fly mosaicing technique on the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 3 GHz in order to carry out a sensitive search for an afterglow from the Advanced LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226. In three epochs between 1.5 and 6 months post-merger, we observed a 100 deg2 region, with more than 80% of the survey region having an rms sensitivity of better than 150 μJy/beam, in the northern hemisphere with a merger containment probability of 10%. The data were processed in near real time and analyzed to search for transients and variables. No transients were found but we have demonstrated the ability to conduct blind searches in a time-frequency phase space where the predicted afterglow signals are strongest. If the gravitational wave event is contained within our survey region, the upper limit on any late-time radio afterglow from the merger event at an assumed mean distance of 440 Mpc is about 1029 erg s‑1 Hz‑1. Approximately 1.5% of the radio sources in the field showed variability at a level of 30%, and can be attributed to normal activity from active galactic nuclei. The low rate of false positives in the radio sky suggests that wide-field imaging searches at a few Gigahertz can be an efficient and competitive search strategy. We discuss our search method in the context of the recent afterglow detection from GW170817 and radio follow-up in future gravitational wave observing runs.

  14. The Effect of Solar Radiation on Radio Signal for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hazmin Sabri; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Wan Zul Adli Wan Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Radio astronomy is a subfields of astronomy which is discovers the celestial objects at radio frequencies. Observation in radio astronomy is conducted using single antenna or array of antennas, known as radio telescope. Other than that, radio astronomy also holds an advantage over other alternatives to optical astronomy due to its capability of observing from the ground level. In this study, the effect of solar radiation that contributes the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) is reviewed. The low RFI level is required to set up the radio telescope for radio astronomy observation. The effect of solar radiation on radio signal was investigated by determining the RFI pattern using spectrum analyzer. The solar radiation data was obtained from weather station located at KUSZA Observatory, East Coast Environmental Research Institute (ESERI), UniSZA. We can conclude that the solar radiation factor give the minimum significant effect to radio signal. (author)

  15. VLA Zeeman Observations of the NGC 6334 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, E. A.; Sarma, A. P.; Troland, T. H.

    2004-05-01

    We present OH 1665 and 1667 MHz observations of the NGC 6334 complex taken with the Very Large Array in the BnA configuration. We have combined our data with the lower resolution CnB data of Sarma et al (1999), in order to perform a detailed study of Source A, a compact continuum source in the SW region of the complex. Our observations reveal magnetic fields with peak values of the order of 700μ G toward Source A. Virial estimates presented indicate the significance of the magnetic field in the support of the molecular cloud against gravitational collapse.

  16. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  17. A Preliminary Detection of Arcminute Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy with the BIMA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. S.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S. J.; Reese, E. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) array outfitted with sensitive cm-wave receivers to expand our search for minute scale anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The interferometer was placed in a compact configuration to obtain high brightness sensitivity on arcminute scales over its 6.6' FWHM field of view. The sensitivity of this experiment to flat band power peaks at a multipole of 1 = 5530 which corresponds to an angular scale of -2'. We present the analysis of a total of 470 hours of on-source integration time on eleven independent fields which were selected based on their low IR contrast and lack of bright radio sources. Applying a Bayesian analysis to the visibility data, we find CMB anisotropy flat band power Q_flat = 6.1(+2.8/-4.8) microKelvin at 68% confidence. The confidence of a nonzero signal is 76% and we find an upper limit of Q_flat < 12.4 microKelvin at 95% confidence. We have supplemented our BIMA observations with concurrent observations at 4.8 GHz with the VLA to search for and remove point sources. We find the point sources make an insignificant contribution to the observed anisotropy.

  18. Identification of a Likely Radio Counterpart to the Rapid Burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher B.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Fox, Derek W.; Guerriero, Robert A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Fender, Robert; van Paradijs, Jan

    2000-04-01

    We have identified a likely radio counterpart to the low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1730-335 (the Rapid Burster). The counterpart has shown 8.4 GHz radio on/off behavior correlated with the X-ray on/off behavior as observed by the RXTE/ASM during six VLA observations. The probability of an unrelated, randomly varying background source duplicating this behavior is 1%-3% depending on the correlation timescale. The location of the radio source is R.A. 17h33m24.61s, decl. -33 deg23'19.8" (J2000), +/-0.1". We do not detect 8.4 GHz radio emission coincident with type II (accretion-driven) X-ray bursts. The ratio of radio to X-ray emission during such bursts is constrained to be below the ratio observed during X-ray-persistent emission at the 2.9 σ level. Synchrotron bubble models of the radio emission can provide a reasonable fit to the full data set, collected over several outbursts, assuming that the radio evolution is the same from outburst to outburst but given the physical constraints the emission is more likely to be due to ~1 hr radio flares such as have been observed from the X-ray binary GRS 1915+105.

  19. RADIO VARIABILITY IN SEYFERT NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of 8.4 GHz radio images of a sample of eleven, early-type Seyfert galaxies with previous observations reveals possible variation in the nuclear radio flux density in five of them over a seven year period. Four Seyferts (NGC 2110, NGC 3081, MCG -6-30-15, and NGC 5273) show a decline in their 8.4 GHz nuclear flux density between 1992 and 1999, while one (NGC 4117) shows an increase; the flux densities of the remaining six Seyferts (Mrk 607, NGC 1386, Mrk 620, NGC 3516, NGC 4968, and NGC 7465) have remained constant over this period. New images of MCG -5-23-16 are also presented. We find no correlation between radio variability and nuclear radio luminosity or Seyfert nuclear type, although the sample is small and dominated by type 2 Seyferts. Instead, a possible correlation between the presence of nuclear radio variability and the absence of hundred parsec-scale radio emission is seen, with four out of five marginally resolved or unresolved nuclei showing a change in nuclear flux density, while five out of six extended sources show no nuclear variability despite having unresolved nuclear sources. NGC 2110 is the only source in our sample with significant extended radio structure and strong nuclear variability (∼38% decline in nuclear flux density over seven years). The observed nuclear flux variability indicates significant changes are likely to have occurred in the structure of the nucleus on scales smaller than the VLA beam size (i.e., within the central ∼0.''1 (15 pc)), between the two epochs, possibly due to the appearance and fading of new components or shocks in the jet, consistent with previous detection of subparsec-scale nuclear structure in this Seyfert. Our results suggest that all Seyferts may exhibit variation in their nuclear radio flux density at 8.4 GHz, but that variability is more easily recognized in compact sources in which emission from the variable nucleus is not diluted by unresolved, constant flux density radio jet emission

  20. VLA observations of circumnebular neutral hydrogen in IC 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Gussie, G.T.; Goss, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of the planetary nebula IC 418 have been made with the Very Large Array. These images show H I emission and absorption in close association with the nebula. Assuming a distance of 1 kpc, the total mass of circumnebular neutral hydrogen is 0.35 + or - 0.05 solar mass. Model fits to the data indicate that the neutral gas falls as a 1/r-squared density distribution, with outflow velocity about 5 km/s less than the expansion rate of the ionized gas. The observations also indicate that there is a region devoid of H I emission between the outer edge of the H II nebula and the inner edge of the H I shell. It is suggested that this gap is comprised of molecular hydrogen and that the surrounding H I shell is produced by photodissociation of H2 by the interstellar radiation field. Physical parameters of the H I gas are derived. 25 refs

  1. Radio identifications of UGC galaxies - starbursts and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Broderick, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    New and previously published observational data on galaxies with declination less than +82 deg from the Uppsala General Catalog (Nilson, 1973) are compiled in extensive tables and characterized in detail. Optical positions are confirmed by measurement of Palomar Sky Survey O prints, and radio identifications for 176 galaxies are made on the basis of 1.4-GHz Green Bank sky maps or 1.49-GHz observations obtained with the C configuration of the VLA in November-December 1986; contour maps based on the latter observations are provided. Radio-selected and IR-selected galaxy populations are found to be similar (and distinct from optically selected populations), and three radio/IR criteria are developed to distinguish galaxies powered by starbursts from those with supermassive black holes or other monster energy sources. 197 references

  2. An intrinsically asymmetric radio galaxy: 0500+630?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, D. J.; Thomasson, P.; Jackson, N.; Salter, C. J.; Junor, W.

    1996-10-01

    As part of a search for high-luminosity radio galaxies with one-sided structures, the radio galaxy 0500+630 has been imaged with both the VLA and MERLIN and its optical spectrum determined using the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. The galaxy is found to have a redshift of 0.290+/-0.004. The radio observations show the source to be highly asymmetric, with an overall structure which cannot be understood easily by ascribing it either to orientation and relativistic beaming effects or to an asymmetric distribution of gas in the central region. A comparison of this source with objects of similar luminosity suggests that it is one of the best examples yet of a source with possibly an intrinsic asymmetry in either the collimation of its jets or the supply of energy from the central engine to opposite sides.

  3. Global spiral structure of M81 - radio continuum maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bash, F.N.; Kaufman, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus)

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of the radio continuum emission from M81 at 6 and 20 cm are presented and used to check the predictions of density-wave theories. Both thermal and nonthermal radiation from the spiral arms are detected. Most of the bright knots along the radio arms are giant radio H II regions. The nonthermal emission defines spiral arms that are patchy and well-resolved, with a width of 1-2 kpc. The observed nonthermal arms are too broad to agree with the continuum gasdynamical calculations of Roberts (1969), Shu et al. (1972), and Visser (1978, 1980) for a classical density wave model. The observed arm widths appear consistent with the predictions of density-wave models that emphasize the clumpy nature of the ISM. The 20 cm arms appear to spiral outward from a faint inner H I ring, suggesting that the ring is produced by the inner Lindblad resonance. 36 references

  4. Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R.A.; Schwab, F.R.; Bridle, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays

  5. Process of establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for conceptual design of a VLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.

  6. Radio transients from newborn black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Murase, Kohta

    2018-05-01

    We consider radio emission from a newborn black hole (BH), which is accompanied by a mini-disk with a mass of ≲ M⊙. Such a disk can be formed from an outer edge of the progenitor's envelope, especially for metal-poor massive stars and/or massive stars in close binaries. The disk accretion rate is typically super-Eddington and an ultrafast outflow with a velocity of ˜0.1-0.3 c will be launched into the circumstellar medium. The outflow forms a collisionless shock, and electrons are accelerated and emit synchrotron emission in radio bands with a flux of ˜ 10^{26-30} erg s^{-1} Hz^{-1} days to decades after the BH formation. The model predicts not only a fast UV/optical transient but also quasi-simultaneous inverse-Compton X-ray emission ˜ a few days after the BH formation, and the discovery of the radio counterpart with coordinated searches will enable us to identify this type of transients. The occurrence rate can be 0.1 - 10 % of the core-collapse supernova rate, which makes them a promising target of dedicated radio observations such as the Jansky VLA Sky Survey.

  7. a Look at Nitrile Chemistry in SGR B2(N) Using the Combined Power of the GBT and the VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steber, Amanda; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Neill, Justin; Muckle, Matt; Pate, Brooks; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Nitriles form the most prolific family of molecules known in the ISM, and laboratory work shows that radical-driven chemistry can account for the formation of a diverse set of nitrile and imine molecules. Broadband reaction screening of nitrile chemistry in a pulsed discharge nozzle coupled to a chirped-pulse Fourier transform rotational spectrometer has enabled detections of several new interstellar species including E- and Z-ethanimine and E-cyanomethanimine. The detections were made by direct comparisons of laboratory broadband rotational spectra with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecule Survery (PRIMOS) survey towards Sgr B2(N), the most chemically complex interstellar region known. In order to probe nitrile chemistry in Sgr B2, we targeted low energy rotational transitions in the 18-21 GHz range of several nitriles with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at ˜1 arcsecond resolution. The data indicate that most nitriles and nitrile derivatives are co-spatial with shell shaped continuum features thought to be expanding ionization fronts. The CH2CN radical and imine species in particular are NOT associated with the hot core known as the "Large Molecule Heimat", where most large organic molecules are thought to reside. This result suggests radical driven nitrile chemistry may be promoted by near-UV radiation in moderate density regions of molecular clouds, and the data will be useful for evaluating possible formation mechanisms. R.A. Loomis et al. Ap. J. L., 765, (L9), 2013. D.P. Zaleski et al. Ap. J. L., 765, (L10), 2013.

  8. Radio Photosphere and Mass-Loss Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscy, S. J.; Jura, M.; Reid, M. J.

    2005-06-01

    We have used the VLA to detect emission from the supergiant VY CMa at radio wavelengths and have constructed 3000-4500 K isothermal outer atmospheres constrained by the data. These models produce a radio photosphere at 1.5-2 R*. An extrapolation of the model can account for the observed total mass-loss rate of the star. We also present mid-infrared imaging of the supergiant which suggests that warm dust is extended in the same direction as the near-infrared reflection nebula around VY CMa. The origin of the asymmetries in the outflow remains an unsolved problem.

  9. Integrated radio continuum spectra of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvil, Joshua; Owen, Frazer [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Eilek, Jean, E-mail: josh.marvil@csiro.au [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral shape of the total continuum radiation, between 74 MHz and 5 GHz (400-6 cm in wavelength), for a large sample of bright galaxies. We take advantage of the overlapping survey coverage of the VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey, the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and the Green Bank 6 cm Survey to achieve significantly better resolution, sensitivity, and sample size compared to prior efforts of this nature. For our sample of 250 bright galaxies we measure a mean spectral index, α, of –0.69 between 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, –0.55 between 325 MHz and 1.4 GHz, and –0.45 between 74 and 325 MHz, which amounts to a detection of curvature in the mean spectrum. The magnitude of this curvature is approximately Δα = –0.2 per logarithmic frequency decade when fit with a generalized function having constant curvature. No trend in low-frequency spectral flattening versus galaxy inclination is evident in our data, suggesting that free-free absorption is not a satisfying explanation for the observed curvature. The ratio of thermal to non-thermal emission is estimated through two independent methods: (1) using the IRAS far-IR fluxes and (2) with the value of the total spectral index. Method (1) results in a distribution of 1.4 GHz thermal fractions of 9% ± 3%, which is consistent with previous studies, while method (2) produces a mean 1.4 GHz thermal fraction of 51% with dispersion 26%. The highly implausible values produced by method (2) indicate that the sum of typical power-law thermal and non-thermal components is not a viable model for the total spectral index between 325 and 1.4 GHz. An investigation into relationships between spectral index, infrared-derived quantities, and additional source properties reveals that galaxies with high radio luminosity in our sample are found to have, on average, a flatter radio spectral index, and early types tend to have excess radio emission when compared to the radio-infrared ratio of later

  10. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  11. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  12. VLA AND ALMA IMAGING OF INTENSE GALAXY-WIDE STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 2 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; McLure, R. J.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cibinel, A. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Nyland, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Jagannathan, P.; Bhatnagar, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, Garching (Germany); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Elbaz, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Geach, J. E. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hayward, C. C. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Kirkpatrick, A., E-mail: wiphu.rujopakarn@ipmu.jp [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2016-12-10

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z  = 1.3–3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2′ × 2′ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ  = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z  ∼ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), thereby representing a diversity of z  ∼ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3–8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (∼300 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.

  13. VLA AND ALMA IMAGING OF INTENSE GALAXY-WIDE STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 2 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Silverman, J. D.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; McLure, R. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Cibinel, A.; Nyland, K.; Jagannathan, P.; Bhatnagar, S.; Alexander, D. M.; Biggs, A. D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Geach, J. E.; Hayward, C. C.; Kirkpatrick, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z  = 1.3–3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2′ × 2′ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ  = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z  ∼ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), thereby representing a diversity of z  ∼ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M ⊙ yr −1 kpc −2 , sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3–8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (∼300 M ⊙ yr −1 ) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.

  14. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  15. The Southwest Configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin Kellermann, Kenneth; Carilli, Chris; Condon, James; Cotton, William; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Nyland, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the planned array configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). The configuration, termed the "Southwest Array," consists of 214 antennas each 18 m in diameter, distributed over the Southwest United States and Northern Mexico. The antenna locations have been set applying rough real-world constraints, such as road, fiber, and power access. The antenna locations will be fixed, with roughly 50% of the antennas in a "core" of 2 km diameter, located at the site of the JVLA. Another 30% of the antennas will be distributed over the Plains of San Augustin to a diameter of 30 km, possibly along, or near, the current JVLA arms. The remaining 20% of the antennas will be distributed in a rough two-arm spiral pattern to the South and East, out to a maximum distance of 500 km, into Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua. Years of experience with the VLA up to 50 GHz, plus intensive antenna testing up to 250 GHz for the ALMA prototype antennas, verify the VLA site as having very good observing conditions (opacity, phase stability), up to 115 GHz (ngVLA Memo No. 1). Using a suite of tools implemented in CASA, we have made extensive imaging simulations with this configuration. We find that good imaging performance can be obtained through appropriate weighting of the visibilities, for resolutions ranging from that of the core of the array (1" at 30 GHz), out to the longest baselines (10 mas at 30 GHz), with a loss of roughly a factor of two in sensitivity relative to natural weighting (ngVLA Memo No. 16). The off-set core, located on the northern edge of the long baseline configuration, provides excellent sensitivity even on the longest baselines. We are considering, in addition, a compact configuration of 16 close-packed 6 m antennas to obtain uv-coverage down to baselines ~ 10 m for imaging large scale structure, as well as a configuration including 9 stations distributed to continental scales.

  16. Radio and optical studies of high luminosity Iras galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstencroft, R.D.; Parker, Q.A.; Savage, A.; MacGillivray, H.T.; Leggett, S.K.; Clowes, R.G.; Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Heasley, J.N.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up observations of a complete sample of 154 IRAS galaxies, optically identified down to B=21, indicate that between 3 and 9% of the sample are ultraluminous depending on the choice of H 0 . VLA observations at 20 cm of the complete sample indicate that 85% are detected above 1mJy and for the most part the radio emission is centrally concentrated. The tight linear relation between radio and infrared luminosities is valid at the highest luminosities. Of the 11 most luminous objects one is a quasar: it fits the radio infrared relation very well which suggests that the infrared and radio emission has the same origin as in the other IRAS galaxies, ie. it probably originates primarily in regions of star formation in the host galaxy. The other 10 very luminous galaxies are either close but resolved mergers or double galaxies, presumably interacting. Radio observations of the 10 original empty field sources in our sample with no optical counterpart (B ≤ 21) allow us to conclude that 4 of these are fainter galaxies just outside the IRAS error ellipse with high values of L IR /L B . One other object, with a radio source at the edge of the error ellipse but no optical counterpart brighter than B = 23, may prove to be a highly luminous galaxy with L IR /L B > ∼ 1250

  17. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A.M.

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS)

  18. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentati, L. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D.; Sharon, C. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Capak, P.; Scoville, N. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Smail, I. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Daddi, E. [CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Smolčć, V., E-mail: ltl21@mrao.cam.ac.uk [University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  19. VLA limits for comets Austin (1982 VI) and P/Crommelin (1983n) - evidence for a diffuse OH halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenewerk, M.S.; Palmer, P.; Snyder, L.E.; De Pater, I.; Chicago Univ., IL; Illinois Univ., Urbana; California Univ., Berkeley)

    1986-01-01

    Unsuccessful searches of Comet Austin (1982 VI = 1982g) and Comet P/Crommelin (1983n) for 18 cm wavelength OH emission or absorption and for continuum emission have been made with the VLA. The results of the OH searches of both comets and the 2 cm wavelength continuum search for Comet P/Crommelin are given here. The detection of OH emission and absorption in both comets with single-element telescopes and the nondetection of OH with the VLA are interpreted as evidence for a diffuse OH halo. The nondetection of continuum emission supports the growing body of observational evidence against the conventional icy-grain halo theory. 20 references

  20. 10C survey of radio sources at 15.7 GHz - II. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMI Consortium; Davies, Mathhew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony; Olamaie, Malak; Pooley, Guy G.; Riley, Julia M.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Schammel, Michel P.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2011-08-01

    In a previous paper (Paper I), the observational, mapping and source-extraction techniques used for the Tenth Cambridge (10C) Survey of Radio Sources were described. Here, the first results from the survey, carried out using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (LA) at an observing frequency of 15.7 GHz, are presented. The survey fields cover an area of ≈27 deg2 to a flux-density completeness of 1 mJy. Results for some deeper areas, covering ≈12 deg2, wholly contained within the total areas and complete to 0.5 mJy, are also presented. The completeness for both areas is estimated to be at least 93 per cent. The 10C survey is the deepest radio survey of any significant extent (≳0.2 deg2) above 1.4 GHz. The 10C source catalogue contains 1897 entries and is available online. The source catalogue has been combined with that of the Ninth Cambridge Survey to calculate the 15.7-GHz source counts. A broken power law is found to provide a good parametrization of the differential count between 0.5 mJy and 1 Jy. The measured source count has been compared with that predicted by de Zotti et al. - the model is found to display good agreement with the data at the highest flux densities. However, over the entire flux-density range of the measured count (0.5 mJy to 1 Jy), the model is found to underpredict the integrated count by ≈30 per cent. Entries from the source catalogue have been matched with those contained in the catalogues of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (both of which have observing frequencies of 1.4 GHz). This matching provides evidence for a shift in the typical 1.4-GHz spectral index to 15.7-GHz spectral index of the 15.7-GHz-selected source population with decreasing flux density towards sub-mJy levels - the spectra tend to become less steep. Automated methods for detecting extended sources, developed in Paper I, have been applied to the data; ≈5 per cent of the sources are found to be extended

  1. Continent-Spanning Radio Telescope Blazes Trails At the Frontiers of Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The supersharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is revealing unprecedented details of astronomical objects from stars in our own cosmic neighborhood to galaxies billions of light-years away. Astronomers from across North America and beyond are presenting the results of VLBA research at the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Chicago. "The VLBA is one of the most powerful tools in the world for astronomy," said Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which operates the VLBA. "It can produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those produced by the Hubble Space Telescope, and that capability has yielded some spectacular scientific results." Examples of VLBA research presented at the AAS meeting include the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to another galaxy; the detection of our Solar System's orbital motion around the center of our own Galaxy; a "movie" showing the expansion of debris from a star's explosion in a galaxy 11 million light-years away; and a "movie" of gas motions in the atmosphere of a star more than 1,000 light-years away -- the first time gas motions have ever been tracked in a star other than the Sun. With ten giant dish antennas spread from Hawaii in the Pacific to St. Croix in the Caribbean, all working together as a single telescope, the VLBA is "the world's biggest astronomical instrument," Vanden Bout said. The VLBA has been in full operation for more than five years. A pair of sessions at the AAS meeting is devoted to reports of research using the VLBA. In more than 40 scientific presentations, astronomers tell how they used the VLBA to gain valuable new information about nearly every area from the frontiers of astrophysics. Some of those reporting on their VLBA research are graduate students working on their Ph.D degrees. "We are particularly proud that this instrument, one of the world's premier facilities

  2. ngVLA Key Science Goal 4: Using Pulsars in the Galactic Center as Fundamental Tests of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James; Demorest, Paul; Dexter, Jason; Kramer, Michael; Lazio, Joseph; Ransom, Scott; Wharton, Robert; ngVLA Science Working Group 4

    2018-01-01

    monitor pulsars. The ngVLA with its enhanced sensitivity at radio frequencies between 10 and 30 GHz will be unique in its capability to open a new door for the study of pulsars in the GC.

  3. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  4. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  5. Extended radio emission and the nature of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonucci, R.R.J.; Ulvestad, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The VLA has been used at 20 cm to map all 23 of the 54 confirmed blazars listed in the Angel and Stockman review paper that had not been mapped before at high resolution. (Blazars include BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars.) In addition, data on most of the previously mapped blazars have been reprocessed in order to achieve higher dynamic range. Extended emission has been detected associated with 49 of the 54 objects. The extended radio emission has been used to test the hypothesis that blazars are normal radio galaxies and radio quasars viewed along the jet axes. We find that blazars have substantial extended power, consistent with this hypothesis. Many have extended powers as high as the luminous Fanaroff-Riley class 2 radio doubles. The projected linear sizes are small, as expected from foreshortening of the extended sources, and many blazars have the expected core-halo morphology. There are also several small doubles, a head-tail source, and some one-sided sources, and these could be in cases where the line of sight is slightly off the jet axis, or projections of asymmetrical radio galaxies and quasars. The ratio of core to extended radio emission has been studied as a possible indicator of viewing aspect or beaming intensity. It is found to correlate with optical polarization, optical and radio core variability, and one-sided radio morphology. We can go beyond these consistency checks and work toward a proof of the hypothesis under discussion. The flux from the extended emission alone is sufficient in some blazars to qualify them for inclusion in the 3C and 4C catalogs. Suppose that the radio core emission is anisotropic, but the extended emission is predominantly isotropic. The isotropy of the extended emission implies that these blazars would be in the catalogs even if viewed from the side

  6. A radio and optical study of Molonglo radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Saikia, D. J.; McCarthy, P. J.; van Breugel, W. J. M.

    2001-05-01

    We present multi-wavelength radio observations with the Very Large Array, and narrow- and broad-band optical observations with the 2.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, of a well-defined sample of high-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley class II radio galaxies and quasars, selected from the Molonglo Reference Catalogue 1-Jy sample. These observations were carried out as part of a programme to investigate the effects of orientation and environment on some of the observed properties of these sources. We examine the dependence of the Liu-Pooley relationship, which shows that radio lobes with flatter radio spectra are less depolarized, on size, identification and redshift, and show that it is significantly stronger for smaller sources, with the strength of the relationship being similar for both radio galaxies and quasars. In addition to Doppler effects, there appear to be intrinsic differences between the lobes on opposite sides. We discuss the asymmetry in brightness and location of the hotspots, and present estimates of the ages and velocities from matched-resolution observations in the L and C bands. Narrow- and broad-band optical images of some of these sources were made to study their environments and correlate with the symmetry parameters. An extended emission-line region is seen in a quasar, and in four of the objects possible companion galaxies are seen close to the radio axis.

  7. Radio continuum processes in clusters of galaxies; Proceedings of the Workshop, Green Bank, WV, Aug. 4-8, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dea, C.P.; Uson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of clusters of galaxies are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include radio surveys of clusters, accretion flows, wide-angle-tail radio sources, the interaction of radio sources with the intracluster medium, diffuse emission in clusters, cluster dynamics, and the environment of powerful radio sources. Particular attention is given to a local perspective on galaxies in rich clusters, X-ray observations of clusters, VLA observations of distant clusters, the halo of Vir A at 327 MHz, Exosat observations of the Vir Cluster, accretion flows in elliptical galaxies, jet disruption in wide-angle-tail radio galaxies, beam trajectories in the intracluster medium, the Suniaev-Zel'dovich effect, dark matter in clusters, and the H I environment of high-redshift quasars

  8. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  9. Latest results of the Tunka Radio Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostunin D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tunka Radio Extension (Tunka-Rex is an antenna array consisting of 63 antennas at the location of the TAIGA facility (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy in Eastern Siberia, nearby Lake Baikal. Tunka-Rex is triggered by the air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133 during clear and moonless winter nights and by the scintillator array Tunka-Grande during the remaining time. Tunka-Rex measures the radio emission from the same air-showers as Tunka-133 and Tunka-Grande, but with a higher threshold of about 100 PeV. During the first stages of its operation, Tunka-Rex has proven, that sparse radio arrays can measure air-showers with an energy resolution of better than 15% and the depth of the shower maximum with a resolution of better than 40 g/cm2. To improve and interpret our measurements as well as to study systematic uncertainties due to interaction models, we perform radio simulations with CORSIKA and CoREAS. In this overview we present the setup of Tunka-Rex, discuss the achieved results and the prospects of mass-composition studies with radio arrays.

  10. Compact continuum radio sources in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay, G.; Moran, J.M.; Reid, M.J.; European Southern Observatory, Garching, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    The Orion Nebula was observed with the VLA in order to search for radio emission from compact H II regions indicative of embedded OB stars or from winds associated with pre-main sequence, low-mass stars. Fourteen of the 21 detected radio sources are within 30 arcsec of Omega 1 Orionis C; 13 of these objects are probably neutral condensations surrounded by ionized envelopes that are excited by the star. If the temperature of the ionized envelopes is 10,000 K and their electron densities decrease as the square of the distance from the core center, then a typical neutral condensation has a radius of 10 to the 15th cm and a peak electron density of 400,000/cu cm. Seven sources are in or near the Orion molecular cloud. Four of the sources have optical counterparts. Two are highly variable radio sources associated with X-ray sources, and two have radio spectra indicative of thermal emission. Two of the three optically invisible sources have radio emission likely to arise in a dense ionized envelope surrounding and excited by an early B-type star. 46 references

  11. Endothelium adhesion molecules ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1 and VLA-4 expression in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Juarez; Sousa Aarão, Tinara Leila; Rodrigues de Sousa, Jorge; Hirai, Kelly Emi; Silva, Luciana Mota; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Oliveira Carneiro, Francisca Regina; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy triggers a complex relationship between the pathogen and host immune response. Endothelium plays an important role in this immune response by directly influencing cell migration to infected tissues. The objective of this work is to investigate the possible role of endothelium in M. leprae infection, correlating the characteristics of endothelial markers with the expression pattern of cytokines. Thirty-six skin biopsy samples were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen for morphological analysis and then submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, and VLA-4. Immunostaining for ICAM-1 showed a significantly larger number of stained endothelial cells in the tuberculoid leprosy (9.92 ± 1.11 cells/mm 2 ) when compared to lepromatous samples (5.87 ± 1.01 cells/mm 2 ) and ICAM-2 revealed no significant difference in the number of endothelial cells expressing this marker between the tuberculoid (13.21 ± 1.27 cells/mm 2 ) and lepromatous leprosy (14.3 ± 1.02 cells/mm 2 ). VCAM-1-immunostained showed 18.28 ± 1.46/mm 2 cells in tuberculoid leprosy and 10.67 ± 1.25 cells/mm 2 in the lepromatous leprosy. VLA-4 exhibited 22.46 ± 1.38 cells/mm 2 in the tuberculoid leprosy 16.04 ± 1.56 cells/mm 2 in the lepromatous leprosy. Samples with characteristics of the tuberculoid leprosy exhibited a larger number of cells stained with ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and VLA-4, demonstrating the importance of these molecules in the migration and selection of cells that reach the inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  13. EARLY-TIME VLA OBSERVATIONS AND BROADBAND AFTERGLOW ANALYSIS OF THE FERMI/LAT DETECTED GRB 130907A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, Péter; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the hyper-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130907A, a Swift-discovered burst with early radio observations starting at ≈4 hr after the γ-ray trigger. GRB 130907A was also detected by the Fermi/LAT instrument and at late times showed a strong spectral evolution in X-rays. We focus on the early-time radio observations, especially at >10 GHz, to attempt to identify reverse shock signatures. While our radio follow-up of GRB 130907A ranks among the earliest observations of a GRB with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we did not see an unambiguous signature of a reverse shock. While a model with both reverse and forward shock can correctly describe the observations, the data is not constraining enough to decide upon the presence of the reverse-shock component. We model the broadband data using a simple forward-shock synchrotron scenario with a transition from a wind environment to a constant density interstellar medium (ISM) in order to account for the observed features. Within the confines of this model, we also derive the underlying physical parameters of the fireball, which are within typical ranges except for the wind density parameter (A * ), which is higher than those for bursts with wind-ISM transition, but typical for the general population of bursts. We note the importance of early-time radio observations of the afterglow (and of well-sampled light curves) for unambiguously identifying the potential contribution of the reverse shock

  14. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9 +0.9 –0.5 , and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M ☉ yr –1 and IR luminosities of ∼10 13 L ☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  15. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  16. Ghostly Glow Reveals a Hidden Class of Long-Wavelength Radio Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (Washington, DC. 08)- A team of scientists, including astronomers from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), have detected long wavelength radio emission from a colliding, massive galaxy cluster which, surprisingly, is not detected at the shorter wavelengths typically seen in these objects. The discovery implies that existing radio telescopes have missed a large population of these colliding objects. It also provides an important confirmation of the theoretical prediction that colliding galaxy clusters accelerate electrons and other particles to very high energies through the process of turbulent waves. The team revealed their findings in the October 16, 2008 edition of Nature. This new population of objects is most easily detected at long wavelengths. Professor Greg Taylor of the University of New Mexico and scientific director of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) points out, "This result is just the tip of the iceberg. When an emerging suite of much more powerful low frequency telescopes, including the LWA in New Mexico, turn their views to the cosmos, the sky will 'light up' with hundreds or even thousands of colliding galaxy clusters." NRL has played a key role in promoting the development of this generation of new instruments and is currently involved with the development of the LWA. NRL radio astronomer and LWA Project Scientist Namir Kassim says "Our discovery of a previously hidden class of low frequency cluster-radio sources is particularly important since the study of galaxy clusters was a primary motivation for development of the LWA." The discovery of the emission in the galaxy cluster Abell 521 (or A521 for short) was made using the Giant Metrewave Radiotelescope (GMRT) in India, and its long wavelength nature was confirmed by the National Science Foundation's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The attached image shows the radio emission at a wavelength of 125cm in red superimposed on a blue image made from data taken by the

  17. THE EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY: A NEW TELESCOPE FOR NEW SCIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R. A.; Chandler, C. J.; Butler, B. J.; Wrobel, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Since its commissioning in 1980, the Very Large Array (VLA) has consistently demonstrated its scientific productivity. However, its fundamental capabilities have changed little since 1980, particularly in the key areas of sensitivity, frequency coverage, and velocity resolution. These limitations have been addressed by a major upgrade of the array, which began in 2001 and will be completed at the end of 2012. When completed, the Expanded VLA-the EVLA-will provide complete frequency coverage from 1 to 50 GHz, a continuum sensitivity of typically 1 μJy beam -1 (in 9 hr with full bandwidth), and a modern correlator with vastly greater capabilities and flexibility than the VLA's. In this Letter, we describe the goals of the EVLA project, its current status, and the anticipated expansion of capabilities over the next few years. User access to the array through the Open Shared Risk Observing and Resident Shared Risk Observing programs is described. The following papers in this special issue, derived from observations in its early science period, demonstrate the astonishing breadth of this most flexible and powerful general-purpose telescope.

  18. Amateur Planetary Radio Data Archived for Science and Education: Radio Jove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cecconi, B.; Sky, J.; Garcia, L. N.; King, T. A.; Higgins, C. A.; Fung, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build simple radio telescopes, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth usually with simple dipole antennas. Some of the amateur observers have upgraded their receivers to spectrographs and their antennas have become more sophisticated as well. The data records compare favorably to more sophisticated professional radio telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Nancay Decametric Array. Since these data are often carefully calibrated and recorded around the clock in widely scattered locations they represent a valuable database useful not only to amateur radio astronomers but to the professional science community as well. Some interesting phenomena have been noted in the data that are of interest to the professionals familiar with such records. The continuous monitoring of radio emissions from Jupiter could serve as useful "ground truth" data during the coming Juno mission's radio observations of Jupiter. Radio Jove has long maintained an archive for thousands of Radio Jove observations, but the database was intended for use by the Radio Jove participants only. Now, increased scientific interest in the use of these data has resulted in several proposals to translate the data into a science community data format standard and store the data in professional archives. Progress is being made in translating Radio Jove data to the Common Data Format (CDF) and also in generating new observations in that format as well. Metadata describing the Radio Jove data would follow the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) standard. The proposed archive to be used for long term preservation would be the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data sharing would be achieved through the PDS and the Paris Astronomical Data Centre (PADC) and the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO

  19. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  20. Observations of a nearby filament of galaxy clusters with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Valentina; Murgia, M.; Loi, F. Govoni F.; Vazza, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Carretti, E.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Concu, R.; Melis, A.; Gheller, C.; Paladino, R.; Poppi, S.; Valente, G.; Bernardi, G.; Boschin, W.; Brienza, M.; Clarke, T. E.; Colafrancesco, S.; Enßlin, T.; Ferrari, C.; de Gasperin, F.; Gastaldello, F.; Girardi, M.; Gregorini, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Junklewitz, H.; Orrù, E.; Parma, P.; Perley, R.; Taylor, G. B.

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of diffuse radio emission which might be connected to a large-scale filament of the cosmic web covering a 8° × 8° area in the sky, likely associated with a z≈0.1 over-density traced by nine massive galaxy clusters. In this work, we present radio observations of this region taken with the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Two of the clusters in the field host a powerful radio halo sustained by violent ongoing mergers and provide direct proof of intra-cluster magnetic fields. In order to investigate the presence of large-scale diffuse radio synchrotron emission in and beyond the galaxy clusters in this complex system, we combined the data taken at 1.4 GHz with the Sardinia Radio Telescope with higher resolution data taken with the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. We found 28 candidate new sources with a size larger and X-ray emission fainter than known diffuse large-scale synchrotron cluster sources for a given radio power. This new population is potentially the tip of the iceberg of a class of diffuse large-scale synchrotron sources associated with the filaments of the cosmic web. In addition, we found in the field a candidate new giant radio galaxy.

  1. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  2. Radio observations of the peripheral region of the Coma cluster near Coma A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, G.

    1986-01-01

    VLA and WSRT observations are reported for the extended radio source 1253+275 on the periphery of the Coma cluster and for two active Coma radio galaxies within 20 arcmin of 1253+275. The data are presented in contour maps and characterized in detail. Source 1253+275 is shown to be a relic radio galaxy with physical conditions similar to those seen in the external regions (30-50 kpc from the cores) of the two active sources (NGC 4789 and NGC 4827). It is suggested that these regions survived for long periods (400 Myr) after the last acceleration of the radiating electrons because transverse expansion was inhibited by the local intergalactic medium, which has a density comparable to that in other rich clusters of galaxies. 7 references

  3. Radio emission from pre-main-sequence stars in Corona Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    The central region of the Corona Australis molecular cloud surrounding the stars R and TY CrA has been studied using the VLA at 6 cm. Eleven radio sources are detected including five associated with pre-main-sequence objects. The most striking is associated with the near-IR source IRS 7 and shows a complex structure comprising two strong pointlike sources positioned either side of the deeply embedded IR source and two extended lobes of radio emission. The IRS 7 radio source appears to be similar to that associated with Lynds 1551 IRS 5 but has a considerably larger angular size. The other detected sources include the massive pre-main-sequence star TY CrA, the near-IR sources IRS 1 and IRS 5, and the Herbig-Haro object HH 101. The stars R and T CrA were not detected. 35 references

  4. Extreme Radio Flares and Associated X-Ray Variability from Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Reid, Mark J.; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Rivilla, Victor M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Rau, Urvashi; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Young stellar objects are known to exhibit strong radio variability on timescales of weeks to months, and a few reports have documented extreme radio flares with at least an order of magnitude change in flux density on timescales of hours to days. However, there have been few constraints on the occurrence rate of such radio flares or on the correlation with pre-main sequence X-ray flares, although such correlations are known for the Sun and nearby active stars. Here we report simultaneous deep VLA radio and Chandra X-ray observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster, targeting hundreds of sources to look for the occurrence rate of extreme radio variability and potential correlation with the most extreme X-ray variability. We identify 13 radio sources with extreme radio variability, with some showing an order of magnitude change in flux density in less than 30 minutes. All of these sources show X-ray emission and variability, but we find clear correlations with extreme radio flaring only on timescales <1 hr. Strong X-ray variability does not predict the extreme radio sources and vice versa. Radio flares thus provide us with a new perspective on high-energy processes in YSOs and the irradiation of their protoplanetary disks. Finally, our results highlight implications for interferometric imaging of sources violating the constant-sky assumption.

  5. Radio Selection of the Most Distant Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddi, E.; Jin, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Wang, T.; Ferrari, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Calabró, A.; Coogan, R.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Gu, Q.; Liu, D.; Novak, M.; Valentino, F.

    2017-09-01

    We show that the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date, Cl J1001 at {z}{spec}=2.506, hosts a strong overdensity of radio sources. Six of them are individually detected (within 10\\prime\\prime ) in deep 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 75 resolution VLA 3 GHz imaging, with {S}3{GHz}> 8 μ {Jy}. Of the six, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) likely affects the radio emission in two galaxies, while star formation is the dominant source powering the remaining four. We searched for cluster candidates over the full COSMOS 2 deg2 field using radio-detected 3 GHz sources and looking for peaks in {{{Σ }}}5 density maps. Cl J1001 is the strongest overdensity by far with > 10σ , with a simple {z}{phot}> 1.5 preselection. A cruder photometric rejection of zsamples of the first generation of forming galaxy clusters. In these remarkable structures, widespread star formation and AGN activity of massive galaxy cluster members, residing within the inner cluster core, will ultimately lead to radio continuum as one of the most effective means for their identification, with detection rates expected in the ballpark of 0.1-1 per square degree at z≳ 2.5. Samples of hundreds such high-redshift clusters could potentially constrain cosmological parameters and test cluster and galaxy formation models.

  6. Radio-emission of pre-main sequence stars of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud: observations and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.

    1987-11-01

    Observations of the radio continuum emission of a young star population have been made at VLA on the whole molecular cloud Rho Ophiuchi, one of the closest site of star formation. A dozen of stellar sources have been detected. Radio emission of some identified objects seems to have a magnetic nature and be produced by gyrosynchrotron mechanism. In particular, one of the sources shows a radio radiation circularly polarized; two other stars have a radiation strongly variable probably due to magnetic eruptions more important than those detected in X radiation. More generally, radio observations select probably a specific population of young stars characterized by magnetic field presence extended on several stellar radii and by absence of dense circumstellar environment. Spatial distribution of these objects suggest, they are younger than most of the pre-main sequence stars [fr

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLA Low-frequency Sky Survey at 74MHz (Perley+ 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Cohen, A. S.; Lane, W. M.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Erickson, W. C.

    2006-08-01

    The VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) is a 74MHz (4m) continuum survey covering the entire sky north of -30{deg} declination. Using the VLA in B- and BnA-configurations, we will map the entire survey region at a resolution of 80" and with an average rms noise of 0.1 Jy/beam. For a detailed description of the survey and its scientific motivations, please see the original proposal to the NRAO skeptical review committee. The VLSS is being made as a service to the astronomical community, and the principal data products are being released to the public as soon as they are produced and verified. Details and access to the images can be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/VLSS/ (1 data file).

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLA Low-frequency Sky Survey at 74MHz (Cohen+ 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A. S.; Lane, W. M.; Cotton, W. D.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Perley, R. A.; Condon, J. J.; Erickson, W. C.

    2006-08-01

    The VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) is a 74MHz (4m) continuum survey covering the entire sky north of -30{deg} declination. Using the VLA in B- and BnA-configurations, we will map the entire survey region at a resolution of 80" and with an average rms noise of 0.1 Jy/beam. For a detailed description of the survey and its scientific motivations, please see the original proposal to the NRAO skeptical review committee. The VLSS is being made as a service to the astronomical community, and the principal data products are being released to the public as soon as they are produced and verified. Details and access to the images can be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/VLSS/ (1 data file).

  9. Multi-channel software defined radio experimental evaluation and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel software-defined radios (SDRs) can be utilised as inexpensive prototyping platforms for transceiver arrays. The application for multi-channel prototyping is discussed and measured results of coherent channels for both receiver...

  10. The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution Toward Big Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin Kevin

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the sequence of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO, the construction and development of instrumentation and the contributions and discovery events and to relate the significance of these events to the evolution of the sciences of radio astronomy and cosmology. After an overview of the resources, a brief discussion of the early days of the science is given to set the stage for an examination of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO. The developmental and construction phases of the major instruments including the 85-foot Tatel telescope, the 300-foot telescope, the 140-foot telescope, and the Green Bank lnterferometer are examined. The technical evolution of these instruments is traced and their relevance to scientific programs and discovery events is discussed. The history is told in narrative format that is interspersed with technical and scientific explanations. Through the use of original data technical and scientific information of historical concern is provided to elucidate major developments and events. An interpretive discussion of selected programs, events and technological developments that epitomize the contributions of the NRAO to the science of radio astronomy is provided. Scientific programs conducted with the NRAO instruments that were significant to galactic and extragalactic astronomy are presented. NRAO research programs presented include continuum and source surveys, mapping, a high precision verification of general relativity, and SETI programs. Cosmic phenomena investigated in these programs include galactic and extragalactic HI and HII, emission nebula, supernova remnants, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio stars, normal and radio galaxies, and quasars. Modern NRAO instruments including the VLA and VLBA and their scientific programs are presented in the final chapter as well as plans for future NRAO instruments such as the GBT.

  11. The radio universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worvill, R.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary description of the development of radioastronomy, radio waves from the sun and planets, the use of radio telescopes and the detection of nebulae, supernova, radio galaxies and quasars is presented. A brief glossary of terms is included. (UK)

  12. Functional and clinical relevance of VLA-4 (CD49d/CD29) in ibrutinib-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissino, Erika; Benedetti, Dania; Herman, Sarah E.M.; ten Hacken, Elisa; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Dal Bo, Michele; Bulian, Pietro; Bomben, Riccardo; Bayer, Elisabeth; Härzschel, Andrea; Gutjahr, Julia Christine; Postorino, Massimiliano; Santinelli, Enrico; Zaja, Francesco; Pozzato, Gabriele; Chigaev, Alexandre; Sklar, Larry A.; Burger, Jan A.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Wiestner, Adrian; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Hartmann, Tanja Nicole

    2018-01-01

    The Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, which antagonizes B cell receptor (BCR) signals, demonstrates remarkable clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The lymphocytosis experienced by most patients under ibrutinib has previously been attributed to inhibition of BTK-dependent integrin and chemokine cues operating to retain the tumor cells in nodal compartments. Here, we show that the VLA-4 integrin, as expressed by CD49d-positive CLL, can be inside-out activated upon BCR triggering, thus reinforcing the adhesive capacities of CLL cells. In vitro and in vivo ibrutinib treatment, although reducing the constitutive VLA-4 activation and cell adhesion, can be overcome by exogenous BCR triggering in a BTK-independent manner involving PI3K. Clinically, in three independent ibrutinib-treated CLL cohorts, CD49d expression identifies cases with reduced lymphocytosis and inferior nodal response and behaves as independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival, suggesting the retention of CD49d-expressing CLL cells in tissue sites via activated VLA-4. Evaluation of CD49d expression should be incorporated in the characterization of CLL undergoing therapy with BCR inhibitors. PMID:29301866

  13. Sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with similar international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA as well as our sensitivity to gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. I will show that a detection is possible by the end of the decade.

  14. The LOFAR pilot surveys for pulsars and fast radio transient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Hessels, J.W.T.; et al., [Unknown; Alexov, A.; van der Horst, A.; Law, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Swinbank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted two pilot surveys for radio pulsars and fast transients with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) around 140 MHz and here report on the first low-frequency fast-radio burst limit and the discovery of two new pulsars. The first survey, the LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS), observed a

  15. The LOFAR pilot surveys for pulsars and fast radio transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Stappers, B.W.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Alexov, A.; Breton, R.P.; Bilous, A.; Cooper, S.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R.A.; Gajjar, V.; Griessmeier, J.M.; Hassall, T.E.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted two pilot surveys for radio pulsars and fast transients with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) around 140 MHz and here report on the first low-frequency fast-radio burst limit and the discovery of two new pulsars. The first survey, the LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS), observed a

  16. Fast radio burst tied to distant dwarf galaxy (Image 2)

    National Science Foundation

    2017-06-07

    Full Text Available Radio telescope at Arecibo only localized the fast radio burst to the area inside the two circles in this image, but the Very Large Array was able to pinpoint it as a dwarf galaxy within the square (shown at intersection of cross hairs in enlarged box)

  17. LOFAR discovery of a double radio halo system in Abell 1758 and radio/X-ray study of the cluster pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteon, A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Bonafede, A.; Dallacasa, D.; Brunetti, G.; Mandal, S.; van Weeren, R. J.; Brüggen, M.; Cassano, R.; de Gasperin, F.; Hoang, D. N.; Hoeft, M.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Savini, F.; White, G. J.; Wilber, A.; Venturi, T.

    2018-05-01

    Radio halos and radio relics are diffuse synchrotron sources that extend over Mpc-scales and are found in a number of merger galaxy clusters. They are believed to form as a consequence of the energy that is dissipated by turbulence and shocks in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). However, the precise physical processes that generate these steep synchrotron spectrum sources are still poorly constrained. We present a new LOFAR observation of the double galaxy cluster Abell 1758. This system is composed of A1758N, a massive cluster hosting a known giant radio halo, and A1758S, which is a less massive cluster whose diffuse radio emission is confirmed here for the first time. Our observations have revealed a radio halo and a candidate radio relic in A1758S, and a suggestion of emission along the bridge connecting the two systems which deserves confirmation. We combined the LOFAR data with archival VLA and GMRT observations to constrain the spectral properties of the diffuse emission. We also analyzed a deep archival Chandra observation and used this to provide evidence that A1758N and A1758S are in a pre-merger phase. The ICM temperature across the bridge that connects the two systems shows a jump which might indicate the presence of a transversal shock generated in the initial stage of the merger.

  18. Ionospheric Caustics in Solar Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, A.; Chen, Y.; Stanislavsky, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth ionosphere possesses by natural focusing and defocusing effects on radio waves due to presence of variable ionospheric irregularities which could act like convergent and divergent lenses on incident radiation. In particular, the focusing of emission from the Sun was firstly detected on the Nançay Decameter Array dynamic spectra in the 1980s. On time-frequency spectrograms the intensity variations form specific structures different from well-known solar radio bursts and clearly distinguishing on a background of solar radiation. Such structures have been identified as ionospheric caustics (ICs) and considered to be the result of radio waves refraction on medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Although nowadays the ICs are registered by different radio observatories due to augmentation of low-frequency radio telescopes, the most recent papers devoted to ICs in solar radio records date back to the 1980s. In this study, we revisit the ICs issue with some new results by conducting a statistical analysis of occurrence rate of ICs in solar dynamic spectra in meter-decameter wavelength range for long continuous period (15 years). The seasonal variations in ICs appearance have been found for the first time. Besides, we report the possible solar cycle dependence of ICs emergence. The radio waves propagation in the ionosphere comprising MSTIDs will be considered. The present research renews the subject of ICs in the low-frequency solar radio astronomy after about 35-year letup.

  19. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylard, M J

    2013-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  20. The statistics of low frequency radio interference at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Lewis, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the low frequency radio-frequency interference (RFI) environment at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), the location selected for the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array. Data were collected from the BIGHORNS instrument, located at the MRO, which records a contiguous bandwidth between 70 and 300 MHz, between November 2014 to March 2015 inclusive. The data were processed to identify RFI, and we describe a series of statistics in both the time and ...

  1. The detectability of radio emission from exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C. R.; Murphy, Tara; Lenc, E.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    Like the magnetised planets in our Solar System, magnetised exoplanets should emit strongly at radio wavelengths. Radio emission directly traces the planetary magnetic fields and radio detections can place constraints on the physical parameters of these features. Large comparative studies of predicted radio emission characteristics for the known population of exoplanets help to identify what physical parameters could be key for producing bright, observable radio emission. Since the last comparative study, many thousands of exoplanets have been discovered. We report new estimates for the radio flux densities and maximum emission frequencies for the current population of known exoplanets orbiting pre-main sequence and main-sequence stars with spectral types F-M. The set of exoplanets predicted to produce observable radio emission are Hot Jupiters orbiting young stars. The youth of these system predicts strong stellar magnetic fields and/or dense winds, which are key for producing bright, observable radio emission. We use a new all-sky circular polarisation Murchison Widefield Array survey to place sensitive limits on 200 MHz emission from exoplanets, with 3σ values ranging from 4.0 - 45.0 mJy. Using a targeted Giant Metre Wave Radio Telescope observing campaign, we also report a 3σ upper limit of 4.5 mJy on the radio emission from V830 Tau b, the first Hot Jupiter to be discovered orbiting a pre-main sequence star. Our limit is the first to be reported for the low-frequency radio emission from this source.

  2. The Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 as Seen on Milliarcsecond Angular Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcote, B.; Paragi, Z.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keimpema, A.; van Langevelde, H.J.; Huang, Y.; Bassa, C.G.; Bogdanov, S.; Bower, G.C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B.J.; Campbell, R.M.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.M.; Demorest, P.; Garrett, M.A.; Ghosh, T.; Kaspi, V.M.; Law, C.J.; Lazio, T.J.W.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Ransom, S.M.; Salter, C.J.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Siemion, A.; Spitler, L.G.; Tendulkar, S.P.; Wharton, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    The millisecond-duration radio flashes known as fast radio bursts (FRBs) represent an enigmatic astrophysical phenomenon. Recently, the sub-arcsecond localization (∼100 mas precision) of FRB 121102 using the Very Large Array has led to its unambiguous association with persistent radio and optical

  3. Direction of Radio Finding via MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) Algorithm for Hardware Design System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Concept of radio direction finding systems, which use radio direction finding is based on digital signal processing algorithms. Thus, the radio direction finding system becomes capable to locate and track signals by the both. Performance of radio direction finding significantly depends on effectiveness of digital signal processing algorithms. The algorithm uses the Direction of Arrival (DOA) algorithms to estimate the number of incidents plane waves on the antenna array and their angle of incidence. This manuscript investigates implementation of the DOA algorithms (MUSIC) on the uniform linear array in the presence of white noise. The experiment results exhibit that MUSIC algorithm changed well with the radio direction.

  4. Scorpius X-1 - an evolving double radio source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Fomalont, E.B.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    The radio emission from Sco X-1 has been monitored with the VLA over a 5 yr period with 0.4 arcsec resolution at 4.85 GHz. The source contains three components: an unresolved radio core coincident with the stellar binary system; an unresolved lobe northeast of the core; and an extended lobe southwest of the core. All radio components are approximately comoving with the binary system and are thus undoubtedly associated with it. The northeast lobe is moving away from the core at a rate of 0.013-0.017 arcsec/yr, which corresponds to a velocity of 31-41 km/sec, assuming a distance of 500 pc to Sco X-1. The relative velocity of a hot spot in the southwest lobe with respect to the core is less than 70 km/sec. The flux density in the lobes appears to vary by about 20 percent over time scales of 1 yr, and the variations between the lobes may be correlated. The twin-exhaust beam model where energy is transported from the core to the lobes in narrow beams is the most acceptable model for the evolution of the source. However, interstellar density (greater than 0.6/cu cm) is needed to restrain the velocity of the northeast lobe (presumably the working surface of the beam). 16 references

  5. X-ray study of a sample of FR0 radio galaxies: unveiling the nature of the central engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresi, E.; Grandi, P.; Capetti, A.; Baldi, R. D.; Giovannini, G.

    2018-06-01

    Fanaroff-Riley type 0 radio galaxies (FR0s) are compact radio sources that represent the bulk of the radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) population, but they are still poorly understood. Pilot studies on these sources have been already performed at radio and optical wavelengths: here we present the first X-ray study of a sample of 19 FR0 radio galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/NRAO VLA Sky Survey/Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm sample of Best & Heckman, with redshift ≤0.15, radio size ≤10 kpc, and optically classified as low-excitation galaxies. The X-ray spectra are modelled with a power-law component absorbed by Galactic column density with, in some cases, a contribution from thermal extended gas. The X-ray photons are likely produced by the jet as attested by the observed correlation between X-ray (2-10 keV) and radio (5 GHz) luminosities, similar to Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies (FRIs). The estimated Eddington-scaled luminosities indicate a low accretion rate. Overall, we find that the X-ray properties of FR0s are indistinguishable from those of FRIs, thus adding another similarity between AGN associated with compact and extended radio sources. A comparison between FR0s and low-luminosity BL Lacs rules out important beaming effects in the X-ray emission of the compact radio galaxies. FR0s have different X-ray properties with respect to young radio sources (e.g. gigahertz-peaked spectrum/compact steep spectrum sources), generally characterized by higher X-ray luminosities and more complex spectra. In conclusion, the paucity of extended radio emission in FR0s is probably related to the intrinsic properties of their jets that prevent the formation of extended structures, and/or to intermittent activity of their engines.

  6. Stellar Dynamics and Star Formation Histories of z ∼ 1 Radio-loud Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barišić, Ivana; Van der Wel, Arjen; Chauké, Priscilla; Van Houdt, Josha; Straatman, Caroline [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Bezanson, Rachel [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pacifici, Camilla [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Noeske, Kai [experimenta gGmbH, Kranenstraße 14, 74072 Heilbronn (Germany); Muñoz-Mateos, Juan C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Maseda, Michael V.; Sobral, David [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 AA Leiden (Netherlands); Smolčić, Vernesa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Calhau, João [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YB (United Kingdom); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Gallazzi, Anna [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofsico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Muzzin, Adam, E-mail: barisic@mpia.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, ON MJ3 1P3 (Canada); and others

    2017-09-20

    We investigate the stellar kinematics and stellar populations of 58 radio-loud galaxies of intermediate luminosities ( L {sub 3} {sub GHz} > 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup −1}) at 0.6 < z < 1. This sample is constructed by cross-matching galaxies from the deep VLT/VIMOS LEGA-C spectroscopic survey with the VLA 3 GHz data set. The LEGA-C continuum spectra reveal for the first time stellar velocity dispersions and age indicators of z ∼ 1 radio galaxies. We find that z ∼ 1 radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) occur exclusively in predominantly old galaxies with high velocity dispersions: σ {sub *} > 175 km s{sup −1}, corresponding to black hole masses in excess of 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}. Furthermore, we confirm that at a fixed stellar mass the fraction of radio-loud AGN at z ∼ 1 is five to 10 times higher than in the local universe, suggesting that quiescent, massive galaxies at z ∼ 1 switch on as radio AGN on average once every Gyr. Our results strengthen the existing evidence for a link between high black hole masses, radio loudness, and quiescence at z ∼ 1.

  7. Radio and optical observations of 0218+357 - The smallest Einstein ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Stanghellini, Carlo; Dey, Arjun; Van Breugel, Wil; Deustua, Susana; Smith, Eric P.

    1992-01-01

    VLA radio observations and optical imaging and spectroscopy of the Einstein radio ring 0218+357 are presented. The ring is detected at 22.4 GHz and shows a basically similar structure at 5, 15, and 22.4 GHz. The B component has varied and was about 15 percent brighter in the 8.4 GHz data than in the data of Patnaik et al. (1992). The ring is highly polarized. A weak jetlike feature extending out roughly 2 arcsec to the southeast of component A is detected at 6 cm. The source has amorphous radio structure extending out to about 11 arcsec from the core. For an adopted redshift of 0.68, the extended radio emission is very powerful. The optical spectrum is rather red and shows no strong features. A redshift of about 0.68 is obtained. The identification is a faint compact m(r) about 20 galaxy which extends to about 4.5 arcsec (about 27 kpc). As much as 50 percent of the total light may be due to a central AGN. The observed double core and ring may be produced by an off-center radio core with extended radio structure.

  8. Radio Astronomers Lift "Fog" on Milky Way's Dark Heart: Black Hole Fits Inside Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Thirty years after astronomers discovered the mysterious object at the exact center of our Milky Way Galaxy, an international team of scientists has finally succeeded in directly measuring the size of that object, which surrounds a black hole nearly four million times more massive than the Sun. This is the closest telescopic approach to a black hole so far and puts a major frontier of astrophysics within reach of future observations. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to make the breakthrough. Milky Way Nucleus The Milky Way's nucleus, as seen with the VLA. Sagittarius A* is the bright white dot at center. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, Jun-Hui Zhao, W.M. Goss (Click on Image for Larger Version) "This is a big step forward," said Geoffrey Bower, of the University of California-Berkeley. "This is something that people have wanted to do for 30 years," since the Galactic center object, called Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star"), was discovered in 1974. The astronomers reported their research in the April 1 edition of Science Express. "Now we have a size for the object, but the mystery about its exact nature still remains," Bower added. The next step, he explained, is to learn its shape, "so we can tell if it is jets, a thin disk, or a spherical cloud." The Milky Way's center, 26,000 light-years from Earth, is obscured by dust, so visible-light telescopes cannot study the object. While radio waves from the Galaxy's central region can penetrate the dust, they are scattered by turbulent charged plasma in the space along the line of sight to Earth. This scattering had frustrated earlier attempts to measure the size of the central object, just as fog blurs the glare of distant lighthouses. "After 30 years, radio telescopes finally have lifted the fog and we can see what is going on," said Heino Falcke, of the Westerbork Radio Observatory in the Netherlands, another member of the research team. The bright, radio

  9. Radio observations and the mass flow rate of αCyg (A2Ia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, B.; Stahl, O.; Altenhoff, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    From the free-free excess at 10μ Barlow and Cohen (1977) derived a mass loss rate of 6.9 x 10 -7 solar masses yr -1 for αCyg. They predicted a 10 GHz radio flux of 2.2 mJy. On the other hand Praderie et al. (1980) derived a considerable lower mass loss rate of 1.1 x 10 -8 -8 solar masses yr -1 from a curve of growth analysis of the envelope ultraviolet FeII-lines of αCyg. Radio observations are desirable to make a decision about these discrepant results. Therefore the authors observed αCyg at 15 GHz with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR at Effelsberg. The observations are discussed together with recent VLA data of Abbott et al. (1980). (Auth.)

  10. Radio emission from supernovae. I. One to twelve year old supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, K.W.; Panagia, N.; Sramek, R.A.; Van Der Hulst, J.M.; Roberts, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    All recorded optical supernovae brighter than 14.0 mag from SN 1970A to SN 1981A were observed in May 1982 using VLA at 6 cm. Apart from the known radio supernovae (SN 1970G, SN 1979C, and SN 1980K), radio emissions were not detected from any of the objects to a limit of about 0.5 mJy. Limits on mass-loss rates from the presupernova systems are established. It is found that Type Ia Sns originate in systems which contain very little circumstellar material at the time of explosion. These systems are very different from those which originate Type Ib Sns. With some exceptions, Type II SNs originate with the high presupernova mass-loss rates expected from red supergiant progenitors with original main-sequence masses greater than about 8 solar masses. 16 references

  11. Interferometry and synthesis in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, A Richard; Swenson Jr , George W

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum observable from the ground, 10 MHz to 1 THz; an analysis of factors that affect array speed; and an expanded discussion of digital signal-processing techniques and of scintillation phenomena and the effects of atmospheric water vapor on image distortion, among many other topics. With its comprehensiveness and detailed exposition of all aspects of the theory and practice of radio interferometry and synthesis imaging, this book has established itself as a standard reference in the field. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of radio astronomy, a short history of the development of radio interferometry, and an elementary discussion of the operation of an interferomete...

  12. Radio emission from embryonic superluminous supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omand, Conor M. B.; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely argued that Type-I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) are driven by powerful central engines with a long-lasting energy injection after the core-collapse of massive progenitors. One of the popular hypotheses is that the hidden engines are fast-rotating pulsars with a magnetic field of B ˜ 1013-1015 G. Murase, Kashiyama & Mészáros proposed that quasi-steady radio/submm emission from non-thermal electron-positron pairs in nascent pulsar wind nebulae can be used as a relevant counterpart of such pulsar-driven supernovae (SNe). In this work, focusing on the nascent SLSN-I remnants, we examine constraints that can be placed by radio emission. We show that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array can detect the radio nebula from SNe at DL ˜ 1 Gpc in a few years after the explosion, while the Jansky Very Large Array can also detect the counterpart in a few decades. The proposed radio follow-up observation could solve the parameter degeneracy in the pulsar-driven SN model for optical/UV light curves, and could also give us clues to young neutron star scenarios for SLSNe-I and fast radio bursts.

  13. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-α enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun

    2012-01-01

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer–endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-α could enhance cancer–endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer–endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous oral cancer–endothelial cell fusion. ► TNF-α enhanced cell fusions. ► VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. ► TNF-α increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. ► VCAM-1/VLA-4 mediated TNF-α-enhanced cell fusions.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  16. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  17. Baseline-dependent averaging in radio interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnholds, S. J.; Willis, A. G.; Salvini, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the applicability and benefits of baseline-dependent averaging (BDA) in modern radio interferometers and in particular the Square Kilometre Array. We demonstrate that BDA does not affect the information content of the data other than a well-defined decorrelation loss for which closed form expressions are readily available. We verify these theoretical findings using simulations. We therefore conclude that BDA can be used reliably in modern radio interferometry allowing a reduction of visibility data volume (and hence processing costs for handling visibility data) by more than 80 per cent.

  18. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  19. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  20. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane

    2017-09-12

    ) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up ...

  1. A revised lens time delay for JVAS B0218+357 from a reanalysis of VLA monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, A. D.; Browne, I. W. A.

    2018-06-01

    We have reanalysed the 1996/1997 Very Large Array monitoring data of the gravitational lens system JVAS B0218+357 to produce improved total flux density and polarization variability curves at 15, 8.4, and 5 GHz. This has been done using improved calibration techniques, accurate subtraction of the emission from the Einstein ring, and careful correction of various systematic effects, especially an offset in polarization position angle that is hour-angle dependent. The variations in total and polarized flux density give the best constraints and we determine a combined delay estimate of 11.3 ± 0.2 d (1σ). This is consistent with the γ-ray value recently derived using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and thus we find no evidence for a positional shift between the radio and γ-ray emitting regions. Combined with the previously published lens model found using LENSCLEAN, the new delay gives a value for the Hubble constant of H0 = 72.9 ± 2.6 km s-1 Mpc-1 (1σ).

  2. ngVLA Key Science Goal 2: Probing the Initial Conditions for Planetary Systems and Life with Astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett; ngVLA Science Working Group 1

    2018-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects in understanding the origin and evolution of planets and planetary systems is tracing the influence of chemistry on the physical evolution of a system from a molecular cloud to a solar system. Existing facilities have already shown the stunning degree of molecular complexity present in these systems. The unique combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution offered by the ngVLA will permit the observation of both highly complex and very low-abundance chemical species that are exquisitely sensitive to the physical conditions and evolutionary history of their sources, which are out of reach of current observatories. In turn, by understanding the chemical evolution of these complex molecules, unprecedentedly detailed astrophysical insight can be gleaned from these astrochemical observations.This poster will overview a number of key science goals in astrochemistry which will be enabled by the ngVLA, including:1) imaging of the deepest, densest regions in protoplanetary disks and unveiling the physical history through isotopic ratios2) probing the ammonia snow line in these disks, thought to be the only viable tracer of the water snowline3) observations of the molecular content of giant planet atmospheres4) detections of new, complex molecules, potentially including the simplest amino acids and sugars5) tracing the origin of chiral excess in star-forming regions

  3. La radio digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cortés S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Las nuevas tecnologías interconectadas permiten la aparición de nuevos modos de audiencia y la implementación de herramientas versátiles. Habla del problema de los estándares, de la radio satelital, la radio digital terrestre, las radios internacionales, la interactividad.

  4. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  5. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  6. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane

    2012-10-01

    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared-faint radio sources catalog (Collier+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. D.; Banfield, J. K.; Norris, R. P.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Kimball, A. E.; Filipovic, M. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2014-11-01

    The 20cm radio data come from the Unified Radio Catalog (URC) compiled by Kimball & Ivezic (2008AJ....136..684K). This radio catalogue combines data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) VLA Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65), Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST; Becker, White & Helfand, 1995, cat. VIII/92), Green Bank 6cm survey (GB6; Gregory et al., 1996, Cat. VIII/40), the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS; Rengelink et al. 1997; de Bruyn et al. 2000, Cat. VIII/62) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282). We use updated NVSS and FIRST data from the URC version 2.0 (Kimball & Ivezic, in preparation), which includes a number of new sources as well as updated positions and flux densities. The IR data come from WISE (Wright et al. (WISE Team) 2009, Cat. II/311), which is an all-sky survey centred at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um (referred to as bands W1, W2, W3 and W4), with respective angular resolutions of 6.1, 6.4, 6.5 and 12.0-arcsec (full width at half-maximum, FWHM), and typical 5σ sensitivity levels of 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6mJy, with sensitivity increasing towards the ecliptic poles. (1 data file).

  8. Radio and x-ray observations of compact sources in or near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Gilmore, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    We present VLA multifrequency radio observations of six compact radio sources from the list of nine objects proposed by Ryle et al. [Nature 276, 571 (1978)] as a new class of radio star, possibly the stellar remnants of supernovae. We also present the results of a search for x-ray emission from four of these objects with the Einstein observatory. The radio observations provide information on spectra, polarization, time variability, angular structure, and positions for these sources. The bearing of these new data on the nature of the sources is discussed. One particularly interesting result is that the polarization and angular-size measurements are combined in an astrophysical argument to conclude that one of the sources (2013+370) is extragalactic. No x-ray emission was detected from any of the four objects observed, but an extended x-ray source was found coincident with the supernova remnant G 33.6+0.1 near 1849+005. Our measurements provide no compelling arguments to consider any of the six objects studied as radio stars

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy clusters: radio halos, relics and parameters (Yuan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2017-10-01

    A large number of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos have been discovered and measured in recent decades through observations with VLA (e.g., Giovannini & Feretti 2000NewA....5..335G; van Weeren et al. 2011A&A...533A..35V), GMRT (e.g., Venturi et al. 2007A&A...463..937V; Kale et al. 2015A&A...579A..92K), WSRT (e.g., van Weeren et al. 2010Sci...330..347V; Trasatti et al. 2015A&A...575A..45T), and also ATCA (e.g., Shimwell et al. 2014MNRAS.440.2901S, 2015MNRAS.449.1486S). We have checked the radio images of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos in the literature and collected in Table 1 the radio flux Sν at frequencies within a few per cent around 1.4 GHz, 610 MHz, and 325 MHz; we have interpolated the flux at an intermediate frequency if measurements are available at higher and lower frequencies. To establish reliable scaling relations, we include only the very firm detection of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters, and omit questionable detections or flux estimates due to problematic point-source subtraction. (3 data files).

  10. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  11. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  12. Citizen Science Opportunity With the NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium (HEC)-Radio JOVE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S. F.; Higgins, C.; Thieman, J.; Garcia, L. N.; Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Radio JOVE project has long been a hands-on inquiry-based educational project that allows students, teachers and the general public to learn and practice radio astronomy by building their own radio antenna and receiver system from an inexpensive kit that operates at 20.1 MHz and/or using remote radio telescopes through the Internet. Radio JOVE participants observe and analyze natural radio emissions from Jupiter and the Sun. Within the last few years, several Radio JOVE amateurs have upgraded their equipment to make semi-professional spectrographic observations in the frequency band of 15-30 MHz. Due to the widely distributed Radio JOVE observing stations across the US, the Radio JOVE observations can uniquely augment observations by professional telescopes, such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) . The Radio JOVE project has recently partnered with the NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium (HEC) to work with students and interested amateur radio astronomers to establish additional spectrograph and single-frequency Radio JOVE stations. These additional Radio JOVE stations will help build a larger amateur radio science network and increase the spatial coverage of long-wavelength radio observations across the US. Our presentation will describe the Radio JOVE project within the context of the HEC. We will discuss the potential for citizen scientists to make and use Radio JOVE observations to study solar radio bursts (particularly during the upcoming solar eclipse in August 2017) and Jovian radio emissions. Radio JOVE observations will also be used to study ionospheric radio scintillation, promoting appreciation and understanding of this important space weather effect.

  13. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  14. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  15. A determination of H-0 with the class gravitational lens B1608+656. I. Time delay measurements with the VLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassnacht, CD; Pearson, TJ; Readhead, ACS; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE; Myers, ST; Wilkinson, PN

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a program to monitor the four-image gravitational lens B1608 + 656 with the VLA. The system was observed over a 7 month period from 1996 October to 1997 May. The 64 epochs of observation have an average spacing of 3.6 days. The light curves of the four images of the

  16. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  17. A very brief description of LOFAR the Low Frequency Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.D.; van Haarlem, M.P.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Braun, R.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Stappers, B.W.; Boland, W.H.W.M.; Butcher, H.R.; de Geus, E.J.; Koopmans, L.V.; Fender, R.P.; Kuijpers, H.J.M.E.; Miley, G.K.; Schilizzi, R.T.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wise, M.; Brouw, W.N.; Hamaker, J.P.; Noordam, J.E.; Oosterloo, T.; Bähren, L.; Brentjens, M.A.; Wijnholds, S.J.; Bregman, J.D.; van Cappellen, W.A.; Gunst, A.W.; Kant, G.W.; Reitsma, J.; van der Schaaf, K.; de Vos, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30 240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering

  18. A very brief description of LOFAR - the Low Frequency Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.; Haarlem, M.P. van; Wijnholds, S.J.; Bregman, J.D.; Cappellen, W.A.; Gunst, A.W.; Kant, G.W.; Reitsma, J.; Schaaf, K. van der; Vos, C.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30-240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient

  19. A very brief description of LOFAR -- the Low Frequency Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.D.E.; Haarlem, M.P. van; Bruyn, A.G. de; Braun, R.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Stappers, B.; Boland, W.H.W.M.; Butcher, H.R.; Geus, E.J. de; Koopmans, L.V.; Fender, R.P.; Kuijpers, H.J.M.E.; Miley, G.K.; Schilizzi, R.T.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wise, M.W.; Brouw, W.N.; Hamaker, J.P.; Noordam, J.E.; Oosterloo, T.; Bähren, L.; Brentjens, M.A.; Wijnholds, S.J.; Bregman, J.D.; Cappellen, W.A. van; Gunst, A.W.; Kant, G.W.; Reitsma, J.; Schaaf, K. van der; Vos, C.M. de

    2007-01-01

    LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30-240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio haloes in nearby galaxies (Heesen+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.; Adebahr, B.; Bomans, D. J.; Carretti, E.; Dumke, M.; Heald, G.; Irwin, J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Westmeier, T.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2018-02-01

    We present radio continuum observations of 12 nearby (D=2-27Mpc) edge-on galaxies at two different frequencies, namely at 1.4 and 5GHz (one galaxy at 8.5GHz instead of 5GHz). Our sample includes 11 late-type spiral (Sb or Sc) galaxies and one Magellanic-type barred galaxy (SBm), which are all highly inclined (i>=76°). As part of our study we have obtained several additional radio continuum maps. We make these maps publicly available (as well as all the other radio continuum maps in the paper). For 4 galaxies (NGC 55, 253, 891 and 4631) we have used single-dish maps, to correct for the missing zero-spacing flux where necessary. The Effelsberg maps of NGC 253 and 4631 were already presented in Heesen et al. (2009A&A...494..563H) and Mora & Krause (2013A&A...560A..42M), respectively, and the Effelsberg map of NGC 891 was already presented in Dumke (1997, PhD thesis, University of Bonn). We present these maps for completeness. The 4.80-GHz map of NGC 55 obtained with the 64-m Parkes telescope is so far unpublished. Furthermore, we show two maps of NGC 4631 at 1.35 and 1.65GHz observed with the VLA in D- configuration (R. Beck 2016, priv. comm.). The data were observed in August 1996, with 12 h on-source (ID: AG486) and reduced in standard fashion with AIPS. The maps have an angular resolution of 52 arcsec, so that we did not use them in the analysis, but they also show the halo of this galaxy very well. Lastly, we obtained maps of three further edge-on galaxies observed with the VLA (NGC 4157, 4217 and 4634). We reduced the data as described in Section 2, but since we had only one frequency available and no spectral index map, we did not use them in the analysis. The maps of NGC 4157 and 4217 were created by re-reducing archive data (IDs AI23, AF85, AH457 and AS392 for NGC 4157 and ID AM573 for NGC 4217). The map of NGC 4634 was created by using so far unpublished data from the VLA (ID: AD538). (3 data files).

  1. THE RADIO PROPERTIES OF RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES ON PARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Minfeng; Chen, Yongjun; Shen, Zhiqiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yuan, Weimin [Key Lab for Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wajima, Kiyoaki [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Hongyan, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2015-11-15

    We present the detection of the compact radio structures of 14 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 5 GHz performed in 2013. While 50% of the sources of our sample show a compact core only, the remaining 50% exhibit a core-jet structure. The measured brightness temperatures of the cores range from 10{sup 8.4} to 10{sup 11.4} K with a median value of 10{sup 10.1} K, indicating that the radio emission is from non-thermal jets, and that, likely, most sources are not strongly beamed, thus implying a low jet speed in these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies. In combination with archival data taken at multiple frequencies, we find that seven sources show flat or even inverted radio spectra, while steep spectra are revealed in the remaining seven objects. Although all of these sources are very radio-loud with R > 100, their jet properties are diverse in terms of their milliarcsecond (mas) scale (parsec scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shape. The evidence for slow jet speeds (i.e., less relativistic jets), in combination with the low kinetic/radio power, may offer an explanation for the compact VLBA radio structure in most sources. The mildly relativistic jets in these high accretion rate systems are consistent with a scenario where jets are accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and the radiation force of the accretion disk. Alternatively, a low jet bulk velocity can be explained by low spin in the Blandford–Znajek mechanism.

  2. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  3. MASER: Measuring, Analysing, Simulating low frequency Radio Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zarka, P. M.; Louis, C.; Coffre, A.; Lamy, L.; Denis, L.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Faden, J.; Piker, C.; André, N.; Genot, V. N.; Erard, S.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.; Sharlow, M.; Sky, J.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The MASER (Measuring, Analysing and Simulating Radio Emissions) project provides a comprehensive infrastructure dedicated to low frequency radio emissions (typically Radioastronomie de Nançay and the CDPP deep archive. These datasets include Cassini/RPWS, STEREO/Waves, WIND/Waves, Ulysses/URAP, ISEE3/SBH, Voyager/PRA, Nançay Decameter Array (Routine, NewRoutine, JunoN), RadioJove archive, swedish Viking mission, Interball/POLRAD... MASER also includes a Python software library for reading raw data.

  4. First Resolved Images of the Mira AB Symbiotic Binary at Centimeter Wavelengths

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Karovska, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    We report the first spatially resolved radio continuum measurements of the Mira AB symbiotic binary system, based on observations obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first time that a symbiotic binary has been resolved unambiguously at centimeter wavelengths. We describe the results of VLA monitoring of both stars over a ten month period, together with constraints on their individual spectral energy distributions, variability, and radio emission mechanisms. The emission from...

  5. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We report multi-frequency radio continuum and hydrogen radio recombination line observations of HII regions near = 24.8°, = 0.1° using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope(GMRT) at 1.28 GHz ( = 172), 0.61 GHz ( = 220) and the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.42 GHz ( = 166). The region consists ...

  6. Evolution of radio quasars from redshift 0.6-3.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, S.G.; Hutchings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of VLA radio imaging of 58 radio-loud quasars with redshift 2.0 or higher, which fill the redshift-luminosity plane as evenly as possible. This work completes a survey of about 250 quasars covering redshifts from 0.6-3.7, which attempts to sample luminosity and look-back time in a uniform way. Within the constraints of possible selection effects it is found that the relative population of extended and unresolved sources changes with redshift in a way that suggests that radio quasars may live longer and spend more time as large triple sources in the present epoch than in the earlier universe. There appear to be few low-luminosity radio quasars at high redshift. Ejection of material appears to occur on one side at a time, with usually at least one reversal of direction in the source lifetime. The velocity of ejection appears to be mildly relativistic at high redshift, but of lower velocity in the present epoch. There is also evidence suggestive of changes in the IGM with cosmic time; however, the data presented do not show the minimum in density at z about 2 that has been suggested for cluster environments. 11 refs

  7. Radio properties of type 1.8 and 1.9 Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvestad, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A number of type 1.8 and 1.9 Seyfert galaxies have been observed at the VLA in order to compare their properties with those of the other types of Seyfert galaxy. The observed types have radio luminosities in the range of 10 to the 39th-40.5th args/s, with the median near 10 to the 40th ergs/s. Most of these galaxies have radio sources with diameters of about 500 pc or less. The ratio of radio luminosity to featureless optical continuum luminosity in the Seyfert 1.8/12.9 galaxies and Seyfert 1.2/1.5 galaxies is intermediate between the values for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. The infrared-to-radio ratio decreases along the sequence from Seyfert 1 galaxies, through intermediate Seyfert galaxies, to Seyfert 2 galaxies. This systematic statistical difference in the ratio of two aspect-independent quantities implies that the differences among the Seyfert classes cannot be attributed solely to differences in viewing angle. 39 references

  8. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  9. LOFAR, the low frequency array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a next-generation radio telescope designed by ASTRON, with antenna stations concentrated in the north of the Netherlands and currently spread into Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom; plans for more LOFAR stations exist in several other countries. Utilizing a novel, phased-array design, LOFAR is optimized for the largely unexplored low frequency range between 30 and 240 MHz. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid re-pointing of the telescopes as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. Processing (e.g. cross-correlation) takes place in the LOFAR BlueGene/P supercomputer, and associated post-processing facilities. With its dense core (inner few km) array and long (more than 1000 km) interferometric baselines, LOFAR reaches unparalleled sensitivity and resolution in the low frequency radio regime. The International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) is now issuing its first call for observing projects that will be peer reviewed and selected for observing starting in December. Part of the allocations will be made on the basis of a fully Open Skies policy; there are also reserved fractions assigned by national consortia in return for contributions from their country to the ILT. In this invited talk, the gradually expanding complement of operationally verified observing modes and capabilities are reviewed, and some of the exciting first astronomical results are presented.

  10. The very-long-baseline array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, K.I.; Thompson, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of radio technology in World War II opened a completely new window on the universe. When astronomers turned radio antennas to the heavens, they began to find a previously unknown universe of solar and planetary radio bursts, quasars, pulsars, radio galaxies, giant molecular clouds and cosmic masers. Not only do the radio waves reveal a new world of astronomical phenomena but also-because they are much longer than light waves-they are not as severely distorted by atmospheric turbulence or small imperfections in the telescope. About 25 years ago radio astronomers became aware that they could synthesize a resolution equivalent to that of a large aperture by combining data from smaller radio antennas that are widely separated. The effective aperture size would be about equal to the largest separation between the antennas. The technique is called synthesis imaging and is based on the principles of interferometry. Radio astronomers in the U.S. are now building a synthesis radio telescope called the Very-Long-Baseline Array, or VLBA. With 10 antennas sited across the country from the Virgin Islands to Hawaii, it will synthesize a radio antenna 8,000 kilometers across, nearly the diameter of the earth. The VLBA'S angular resolution will be less than a thousandth of an arc-second-about three orders of magnitude better than that of the largest conventional ground-based optical telescopes. Astronomers eagerly await the completion early in the next decade of the VLBA, which is expected, among other things, to give an unprecedentedly clear view into the cores of quasars and galactic nuclei and to reveal details of the processe-thought to be powered by black holes-that drive them

  11. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  12. Writing for Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Marianna S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  13. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  14. The Radio Jove Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  15. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  16. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  17. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  18. Limits on fast radio bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karastergiou, A.; Chennamangalam, J.; Armour, W.; Williams, C.; Mort, B.; Dulwich, F.; Salvini, S.; Magro, A.; Roberts, S.; Serylak, M.; Doo, A.; Bilous, A.V.; Breton, R.P.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keane, E.F.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B.W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR)

  19. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Joerg; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Rossetto, Laura; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays impinging on the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that generate coherent radio wave emission that has been detected with LOFAR, a large and dense array of simple radio

  20. DARIS, a fleet of passive formation flying small satellites for low frequency radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saks, Noah; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Rajan, Raj Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Beliën, Frederik; van 't Klooster, Kees

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) is a mission to conduct radio astronomy in the low frequency region from 1-10MHz. This region has not yet been explored, as the Earth's ionosphere is opaque to those frequencies, and so a space based observatory is the only solution.

  1. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  2. Radio observations of a galactic high energy gamma-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacani, E.; Rovero, A.C. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-10-01

    PSR B1706-44 is one of the very few galactic pulsars that has been discovered at TeV energies. PSR B1706-44 has been also detected in the X-ray domain. It has been suggested that the high energy radiation could be due to inverse Compton radiation from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). It was reported on VLA high-resolution observations of a region around the pulsar PSR B1706-44 at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.4 GHz. The pulsar appears embedded in a synchrotron nebula. It was proposed that this synchrotron nebula is the radio counterpart of the high energy emission powered by the spin-down energy of the pulsar.

  3. Compact radio and infrared sources near the centre of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.E.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Chavarria-K, C.; Neri, L.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-frequency study of the central region of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud has been made in an attempt to localize and understand its driving source. We have detected a weak (≅ 0.6 mJy) radio continuum source at 6 cm, using the VLA; a bright (≅ 270 Jy) H 2 O maser, using the Haystack Observatory telescope; and near-infrared counterparts to these sources at San Pedro Martir Observatory. Stromgren and JHKL'M photometry of stellar objects in the region was also carried out at this observatory. The star-like object W166, a probable Herbig Be/Ae star, which has strong Hα emission and a near-infrared excess, is located closest to the centroid of the bipolar outflow and is probably its driving source. (author)

  4. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, S.L.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out. 32 refs

  5. Configuration Considerations for Low Frequency Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    The advance of digital signal processing capabilities has spurred a new effort to exploit the lowest radio frequencies observable from the ground, from ˜10 MHz to a few hundred MHz. Multiple scientifically and technically complementary instruments are planned, including the Mileura Widefield Array (MWA) in the 80-300 MHz range, and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) in the 20-80 MHz range. The latter instrument will target relatively high angular resolution, and baselines up to a few hundred km. An important practical question for the design of such an array is how to distribute the collecting area on the ground. The answer to this question profoundly affects both cost and performance. In this contribution, the factors which determine the anticipated performance of any such array are examined, paying particular attention to the viability and accuracy of array calibration. It is argued that due to the severity of ionospheric effects in particular, it will be difficult or impossible to achieve routine, high dynamic range imaging with a geographically large low frequency array, unless a large number of physically separate array stations is built. This conclusion is general, is based on the need for adequate sampling of ionospheric irregularities, and is independent of the calibration algorithms and techniques that might be employed. It is further argued that array configuration figures of merit that are traditionally used for higher frequency arrays are inappropriate, and a different set of criteria are proposed.

  6. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  7. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  8. VLA observations of a highly symmetric OH maser in a bipolar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.; Bowers, P.F.; Turner, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Very Large Array was used to map 1667 MHz OH maser emission from the bipolar nebula OH 231.8+4.2 at 23 distinct velocities within the unusual, 100 km s -1 wide profile. The source is large (approx.10''equivalent3 x 10 17 cm) and well resolved, and displays ordered large-scale velocity gradients. At most velocities, the maser maps display an unmistakable symmetry about the bipolar axis defined by the optical and infrared reflection nebulae. Most of the data can be accounted for by an axisymmetric model in which the measuring OH is concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane and is expanding radially away from the central star. The observation of complete rings of maser emission at some velocities, however, shows that the maser is also present at high latitudes above the equatorial plane. A model which incorporates these features plus other known aspects of bipolar nebulae is presented and discussed

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio obs. of NGC 6251 jet (Tseng+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C.-Y.; Asada, K.; Nakamura, M.; Pu, H.-Y.; Algaba, J.-C.; Lo, W.-P.

    2017-05-01

    We conducted European VLBI Network (EVN) observations of NGC 6251 on 2013 March 10 at 1.6GHz with the stations at Badary, Svetloe, Zelenchukskaya (Russia), Effelsberg (Germany), Jodrell Bank (UK), Medicina, Noto (Italy), Onsala (Sweden), Shanghai, Urumqi (China), Torun (Poland), and Westerbork (Netherlands). Archival Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data at 5GHz are used and calibrated in the same manner as the EVN data. Also, 12 epochs of the VLBA data at 15GHz are obtained from the MOJAVE database (Lister+ 2009, J/AJ/137/3718). Observations were conducted during 1998-2013. We also use a published VLA image of NGC 6251 at 1.4GHz to compare with the VLBI measurements in Section 4.1. The image, as well as the calibration processes, is shown in Sambruna+ (2004A&A...414..885S). Observations were conducted on 1995 August 15 using the full VLA in its A-configuration. The beam is restored to be circular with an FWHM of 2". (1 data file).

  10. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  11. Radio continuum emission from winds, chromospheres, and coronae of cool giants and supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.A.; Linsky, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a sensitive VLA radio continuum survey at 6 cm of 39 of the nearest, single cool giants and supergiants with spectral types in the range G0--M5. We discuss our findings in the context of the various mechanisms that might be producing radio emission in these cool stars. We have definitely detected four K and M giants (α 1 Her, α Boo, rho Per, and μ Gem) and probably detected a fifth ( β UMi) at flux levels of 0.1--1.0 mJy. We believe that in all five of these cases the radio emission is thermal emission from cool stellar winds. We have made additional 2 cm observations of several stars, including the four stars definitely detected at 6 cm. We have derived spectral indices for α Boo, α 1 Her, and rho Per of 0.80, 0.84, and 0.95, respectively, that are close to the 0.6 value predicted by standard stellar wind models in the optically thick regime. An additional cool giant (α Tau) was detected only at 2 cm, implying a spectral index of > or =0.87. None of the coronal or hybrid-chromosphere giants observed were detected in this study, with the exception of α Aur, a 0.2 mJy radio source at 6 cm, which is in fact a widely separated, long-period (P/sub orb/approx.104/sup d/) RS CVn system containing two cool giant stars. In this case, we believe that the 6 cm radio emission is optically thin, thermal emission from the corona(e) of one or both of the components, since the radio-emission measure is consistent with that of the observed x-ray emission

  12. Probing ionospheric structures using the LOFAR radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; van der Tol, S.; Pandey, V.N.; Vedantham, H. K.; Brentjens, M. A.; Bruyn, A. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Asad, K. M. B.; Bregman, J. D.; Brouw, W. N.; Bus, S.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Fernandez, E. R.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Jelic, Vibor; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Noordam, J. E.; Offringa, A. R.; Patil, A. H.; Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2016-01-01

    LOFAR is the LOw-Frequency Radio interferometer ARray located at midlatitude (52°53'N). Here we present results on ionospheric structures derived from 29 LOFAR nighttime observations during the winters of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. We show that LOFAR is able to determine differential ionospheric total

  13. Interpreting behavioural data from Radio-Acoustic Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To detect behavioural patterns of individually tagged squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii in a Radio-Acoustic Positioning Telemetry (RAPT) buoy array, trajectories reflecting the four dimensions of latitude, longitude, depth and time were plotted from data collected during field experiments in South Africa. Finding a continuous ...

  14. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  15. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported....... Finally, a flexible metadata schema is suggested, that includes both general metadata and highly media and research project specific metadata....

  16. Radio y elecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa Alva de la Selva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la radio en México ante la contienda electoral de julio de 2000. Se examina el papel de la radio como espacio para la discusión política, así como el tratamiento informativo que hizo del tema. Asimismo, se analiza la posible repercusión de factores de reciente surgimiento en el panorama radiofónico para un manejo más autónomo de la información política en la radio

  17. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, director general of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), today signed a historic agreement jointly to construct and operate ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy," said Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and we will be able to study and understand our Universe in ways that have previously been beyond our vision." ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site Dr. Cesarsky also commented, "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward toward wonderful research projects. With ALMA, we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvelous facility." When complete in 2011, ALMA will be an array of 64, 12-meter radio antennas that will work together as one telescope to study millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength light from space. These wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, which cross the critical boundary between infrared and microwave radiation, hold the key to understanding such processes as planet and star formation, the formation of early galaxies and galaxy

  18. RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate observational properties of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in radio frequencies. If AIC is triggered by accretion from a companion star, a dense circumstellar medium can be formed around the progenitor system. Then, the ejecta from AIC collide with the dense circumstellar medium, creating a strong shock. The strong shock can produce synchrotron emission that can be observed in radio frequencies. Even if AIC occurs as a result of WD mergers, we argue that AIC may cause fast radio bursts (FRBs) if a certain condition is satisfied. If AIC forms neutron stars (NSs) that are so massive that rotation is required to support themselves (i.e., supramassive NSs), the supramassive NSs may immediately lose their rotational energy by the r-mode instability and collapse to black holes. If the collapsing supramassive NSs are strongly magnetized, they may emit FRBs, as previously proposed. The AIC radio transients from single-degenerate systems may be detected in future radio transient surveys like the Very Large Array Sky Survey or the Square Kilometer Array transient survey. Because AIC has been proposed as a source of gravitational waves (GWs), GWs from AIC may be accompanied by radio-bright transients that can be used to confirm the AIC origin of observed GWs.

  19. RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate observational properties of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs) in radio frequencies. If AIC is triggered by accretion from a companion star, a dense circumstellar medium can be formed around the progenitor system. Then, the ejecta from AIC collide with the dense circumstellar medium, creating a strong shock. The strong shock can produce synchrotron emission that can be observed in radio frequencies. Even if AIC occurs as a result of WD mergers, we argue that AIC may cause fast radio bursts (FRBs) if a certain condition is satisfied. If AIC forms neutron stars (NSs) that are so massive that rotation is required to support themselves (i.e., supramassive NSs), the supramassive NSs may immediately lose their rotational energy by the r-mode instability and collapse to black holes. If the collapsing supramassive NSs are strongly magnetized, they may emit FRBs, as previously proposed. The AIC radio transients from single-degenerate systems may be detected in future radio transient surveys like the Very Large Array Sky Survey or the Square Kilometer Array transient survey. Because AIC has been proposed as a source of gravitational waves (GWs), GWs from AIC may be accompanied by radio-bright transients that can be used to confirm the AIC origin of observed GWs.

  20. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Average Heating Rate of Hot Atmospheres in Distant Galaxy Clusters by Radio AGN: Evidence for Continuous AGN Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cheng-Jiun; McNamara, B.; Nulsen, P.; Schaffer, R.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray observations of nearby clusters and galaxies have shown that energetic feedback from AGN is heating hot atmospheres and is probably the principal agent that is offsetting cooling flows. Here we examine AGN heating in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within the central 250 kpc that is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. We find no significant correlation between radio power, hence jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in redshift range 0.1 -- 0.6. The detection frequency of radio AGN is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in 400SD, but cannot rule out the presence of weak cooling flows. The average jet power of central radio AGN is approximately 2 10^{44} erg/s. The jet power corresponds to an average heating of approximately 0.2 keV/particle for gas within R_500. Assuming the current AGN heating rate remained constant out to redshifts of about 2, these figures would rise by a factor of two. Our results show that the integrated energy injected from radio AGN outbursts in clusters is statistically significant compared to the excess entropy in hot atmospheres that is required for the breaking of self-similarity in cluster scaling relations. It is not clear that central AGN in 400SD clusters are maintained by a self-regulated feedback loop at the base of a cooling flow. However, they may play a significant role in preventing the development of strong cooling flows at early epochs.

  2. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  3. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de día o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque

  4. The digital sport radio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  5. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads

    2016-01-01

    of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex nonlinearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life.......Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music–radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...

  6. ITSY Handheld Software Radio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bose, Vanu

    2001-01-01

    .... A handheld software radio platform would enable the construction of devices that could inter-operate with multiple legacy systems, download new waveforms and be used to construct adhoc networks...

  7. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 10 9 to 10 15 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  8. Virtual observatory tools and amateur radio observations supporting scientific analysis of Jupiter radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Hess, Sebastien; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Savalle, Renaud; Stéphane, Erard; Coffre, Andrée; Thétas, Emmanuel; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Thieman, Jim; Typinski, Dave; Sky, Jim; Higgins, Chuck; Imai, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the preparation of the NASA/JUNO and ESA/JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) missions, and the development of a planetary sciences virtual observatory (VO), we are proposing a new set of tools directed to data providers as well as users, in order to ease data sharing and discovery. We will focus on ground based planetary radio observations (thus mainly Jupiter radio emissions), trying for instance to enhance the temporal coverage of jovian decametric emission. The data service we will be using is EPN-TAP, a planetary science data access protocol developed by Europlanet-VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access). This protocol is derived from IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) standards. The Jupiter Routine Observations from the Nancay Decameter Array are already shared on the planetary science VO using this protocol, as well as data from the Iitate Low Frquency Radio Antenna, in Japan. Amateur radio data from the RadioJOVE project is also available. The attached figure shows data from those three providers. We will first introduce the VO tools and concepts of interest for the planetary radioastronomy community. We will then present the various data formats now used for such data services, as well as their associated metadata. We will finally show various prototypical tools that make use of this shared datasets.

  9. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  10. ¿Radios ciudadanas?

    OpenAIRE

    López Vigil, José Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    Educativas, sindicales, populares, comunitarias, libres, rebeldes, participativas, alternativas, alterativas, han sido las denominaciones de la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas y nobles -dice elautor-pero devaluadas, a las que ahora se agrega la radio ciudadana, para relievarla como ejercicio depoder y espacio de verdadera participación de la genteenla vida de su nación.

  11. Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Apaydin, Gokhan

    2018-01-01

    A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...

  12. Multi-wave band SMM-VLA observations of an M2 flare and an associated coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Gonzalez, Raymond D.; Smith, Kermit L.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of an M2 flare and an associated coronal mass ejection CME by instruments on the SMM as well as by the VLA and other ground-based observatories on September 30, 1988. The multiwave band data show a gradual slowly changing event which lasted several hours. The microwave burst emission was found to originate in compact moderately circularly polarized sources located near the sites of bright H-alpha and soft X-ray emission. These data are combined with estimates of an electron temperature of 1.5 x 10 to the 7th K and an emission measure of about 2.0 x 10 to the 49th/cu cm obtained from Ca XIX and Fe XXV spectra to show that the microwave emission can be attributed to thermal gyrosynchrotron radiation in regions where the magnetic field strength is 425-650 G. The CME acceleration at low altitudes is measured on the basis of ground- and space-based coronagraphs.

  13. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  14. VLA OH Zeeman Observations of the NGC 6334 Complex Source A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, E. A.; Sarma, A. P.; Troland, T. H.; Abel, N. P.

    2004-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the NGC 6334 complex source A, a compact continuum source in the SW region of the complex. Our intent is to determine the significance of the magnetic field in the support of the surrounding molecular cloud against gravitational collapse. We have performed OH 1665 and 1667 MHz observations taken with the Very Large Array in the BnA configuration and combined these data with the lower resolution CnB data of Sarma et al. (2000). These observations reveal magnetic fields with values of the order of 350 μ G toward source A, with maximum fields reaching 500 μ G. We have also theoretically modeled the molecular cloud surrounding source A using Cloudy, with the constraints to the model based on observation. This model provides significant information on the density of H2 through the cloud and also the relative density of H2 to OH which is important to our analysis of the region. We will combine the knowledge gained through the Cloudy modeling with Virial estimates to determine the significance of the magnetic field to the dynamics and evolution of source A.

  15. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  16. Evaluation of (68)Ga- and (177)Lu-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A for VLA-4-Targeted PET Imaging and Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaino, Wissam; Nedrow, Jessie R; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2015-06-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer, and the incidence of this disease is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Despite advances in the treatment of melanoma, patients with metastatic disease still have a poor prognosis and low survival rate. New strategies, including targeted radiotherapy, would provide options for patients who become resistant to therapies such as BRAF inhibitors. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) is expressed on melanoma tumor cells in higher levels in more aggressive and metastatic disease and may provide an ideal target for drug delivery and targeted radiotherapy. In this study, we evaluated (177)Lu- and (68)Ga-labeled DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A as a VLA-4-targeted radiotherapeutic with a companion PET agent for diagnosis and monitoring metastatic melanoma treatment. DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A was synthesized by solid-phase synthesis. The affinity of (177)Lu- and (68)Ga-labeled DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A to VLA-4 was determined in B16F10 melanoma cells by saturation binding and competitive binding assays, respectively. Biodistribution of the LLP2A conjugates was determined in C57BL/6 mice bearing B16F10 subcutaneous tumors, while PET/CT imaging was performed in subcutaneous and metastatic models. (177)Lu-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A showed high affinity to VLA-4 with a Kd of 4.1 ± 1.5 nM and demonstrated significant accumulation in the B16F10 melanoma tumor after 4 h (31.5 ± 7.8%ID/g). The tumor/blood ratio of (177)Lu-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A was highest at 24 h (185 ± 26). PET imaging of metastatic melanoma with (68)Ga-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A showed high uptake in sites of metastases and correlated with bioluminescence imaging of the tumors. These data demonstrate that (177)Lu-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A has potential as a targeted therapeutic for treating melanoma as well as other VLA-4-expressing tumors. In addition, (68)Ga-DOTA-PEG4-LLP2A is a readily translatable companion PET tracer for imaging of metastatic melanoma.

  17. First results of the TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau-Huynh, O., E-mail: omartino@in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Hautes Energies, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex (France); National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ardouin, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Carloganu, C. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermond-Ferrand (France); Charrier, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Gou, Q.; Hu, H. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kai, L. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Lautridou, P. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Niess, V. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermond-Ferrand (France); Ravel, O. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Saugrin, T.; Wu, X. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, M. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Zheng, Y. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-01-11

    We present the first results of a set-up called TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection (TREND) being presently deployed on the site of the 21 cm array (21CMA) radio telescope, in XinJiang, China. We describe here its detection performances as well as the analysis method we applied to the data recorded with a small scale prototype. We demonstrate the ability of the TREND set-up for an autonomous radio-detection of extended air showers induced by cosmic rays. The full set-up will consist of 80 antennas deployed over a 4 km{sup 2} area, and could result in a very attractive and unequalled radio-detection facility for the characterization of showers induced by ultra-high energy neutrinos with energies around 10{sup 17} eV.

  18. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array

  19. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  20. Solar radio observations and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    The recent solar radio observations related to flares are reviewed for the frequency range of a few kilohertz to several gigahertz. The analysis of the radio data leads to boundary conditions on the acceleration processes which are responsible for the fast particles which cause radio emission. The role and cause of plasma turbulence at the plasma-frequency and at much lower frequencies is discussed in relation to the acceleration processes and the radio emission mechanisms for the various radio bursts. (author)

  1. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  2. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: c.carrasco@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: r.galvan@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: linz@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.

  3. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura; Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra; Flock, Mario; Menten, Karl; Testi, Leonardo; Torrelles, José M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10 −3 M ⊙ , depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings

  4. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Susan G. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eilek, Jean A. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Owen, Frazer N., E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O,  Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  5. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  6. The double quasar 0957+561: a radio study at 6-centimeters wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Greenfield, P E; Burke, B F

    1979-08-31

    The optical double quasar 0957+561 has been interpreted as the gravitational double image of a single object. A radio map made with the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory shows unresolved sources coincident With the optical images as well as a complex of related extended emission. Although the results cannot rule out the gravitational lens hypothesis, the complex radio structure is more easily interpreted as two separate quasars. The optical and radio properties of the two quasars are so similar that the two must have been formed at the same time with similar initial conditions.

  7. Low-frequency Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface (LROLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, Robert; Network for Exploration and Space Science (NESS)

    2018-06-01

    A radio observatory on the lunar surface will provide the capability to image solar radio bursts and other sources. Radio burst imaging will improve understanding of radio burst mechanisms, particle acceleration, and space weather. Low-frequency observations (less than ~20 MHz) must be made from space, because lower frequencies are blocked by Earth’s ionosphere. Solar radio observations do not mandate an observatory on the farside of the Moon, although such a location would permit study of less intense solar bursts because the Moon occults the terrestrial radio frequency interference. The components of the lunar radio observatory array are: the antenna system consisting of 10 – 100 antennas distributed over a square kilometer or more; the system to transfer the radio signals from the antennas to the central processing unit; electronics to digitize the signals and possibly to calculate correlations; storage for the data until it is down-linked to Earth. Such transmission requires amplification and a high-gain antenna system or possibly laser comm. For observatories on the lunar farside a satellite or other intermediate transfer system is required to direct the signal to Earth. On the ground, the aperture synthesis analysis is completed to display the radio image as a function of time. Other requirements for lunar surface systems include the power supply, utilizing solar arrays with batteries to maintain the system at adequate thermal levels during the lunar night. An alternative would be a radioisotope thermoelectric generator requiring less mass. The individual antennas might be designed with their own solar arrays and electronics to transmit data to the central processing unit, but surviving lunar night would be a challenge. Harnesses for power and data transfer from the central processing unit to the antennas are an alternative, but a harness-based system complicates deployment. The concept of placing the antennas and harnesses on rolls of polyimide and

  8. Signal Processing for a Lunar Array: Minimizing Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry; Simmons, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for the study is: (1) Lunar Radio Array for low frequency, high redshift Dark Ages/Epoch of Reionization observations (z =6-50, f=30-200 MHz) (2) High precision cosmological measurements of 21 cm H I line fluctuations (3) Probe universe before first star formation and provide information about the Intergalactic Medium and evolution of large scale structures (5) Does the current cosmological model accurately describe the Universe before reionization? Lunar Radio Array is for (1) Radio interferometer based on the far side of the moon (1a) Necessary for precision measurements, (1b) Shielding from earth-based and solar RFI (12) No permanent ionosphere, (2) Minimum collecting area of approximately 1 square km and brightness sensitivity 10 mK (3)Several technologies must be developed before deployment The power needed to process signals from a large array of nonsteerable elements is not prohibitive, even for the Moon, and even in current technology. Two different concepts have been proposed: (1) Dark Ages Radio Interferometer (DALI) (2)( Lunar Array for Radio Cosmology (LARC)

  9. The Growth, Polarization, and Motion of the Radio Afterglow from the Giant Flare from SGR 1806-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G

    2005-04-20

    The extraordinary giant flare (GF) of 2004 December 27 from the soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1806-20 was followed by a bright radio afterglow. We present an analysis of VLA observations of this radio afterglow from SGR1806-20, consisting of previously reported 8.5 GHz data covering days 7 to 20 after the GF, plus new observations at 8.5 and 22 GHz from day 24 to 81. For a symmetric outflow, we find a deceleration in the expansion, from {approx}4.5 mas/day to <2.5 mas/day. The time of deceleration is roughly coincident with the rebrightening in the radio light curve, as expected to result when the ejecta from the GF sweeps up enough of the external medium, and transitions from a coasting phase to the Sedov-Taylor regime. The radio afterglow is elongated and maintains a 2:1 axis ratio with an average position angle of -40{sup o} (north through east), oriented perpendicular to the average intrinsic linear polarization angle. We also report on the discovery of motion in the flux centroid of the afterglow, at an average velocity of 0.26 {+-} 0.03 c (assuming a distance of 15 kpc) at a position angle of -45{sup o}. This motion, in combination with the growth and polarization measurements, suggests an initially asymmetric outflow, mainly from one side of the magnetar.

  10. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources ---Microblazars or Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    In recent years Ultra-Luminous X-Ray sources (ULXs) received wide attention, however, their true nature is not yet understood. Many explanations have been suggested, including intermediate-mass black holes, super-Eddington accretion flows, anisotropic emission, and relativistic beaming of microquasars. We model the logN-logS distribution of ULXs assuming that each neutron star or black hole XRB can be described by an accretion disk plus jet model, where the jet is relativistically beamed. The distribution can be either fit by intermediate-mass black holes or by stellar mass black holes with mildly relativistic jets. Even though the jet is intrinsically weaker than the accretion disk, relativistic beaming can in the latter approach lead to the high fluxes observed. To further explore the possibility of microblazars contributing to the ULX phenomenon, we have embarked on a radio-monitoring study of ULXs in nearby galaxies with the VLA. However, up to now no radio flare has been detected. Using the radio/X-ray correlation the upper limits on the radio flux can be converted into upper limits for the black hole masses of MBH ≲ 10^3 M⊙.

  11. RADIO ACTIVE GALAXY NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: HEATING HOT ATMOSPHERES AND DRIVING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH OVER COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.-J.; McNamara, B. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    We estimate the average radio active galactic nucleus (AGN, mechanical) power deposited into the hot atmospheres of galaxy clusters over more than three quarters of the age of the Universe. Our sample was drawn from eight major X-ray cluster surveys and includes 685 clusters in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.6 that overlap the area covered by the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). The radio-AGN mechanical power was estimated from the radio luminosity of central NVSS sources, using the relation of Cavagnolo et al. that is based on mechanical powers determined from the enthalpies of X-ray cavities. We find only a weak correlation between radio luminosity and cluster X-ray luminosity, although the most powerful radio sources reside in luminous clusters. The average AGN mechanical power of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} exceeds the X-ray luminosity of 44% of the clusters, indicating that the accumulation of radio-AGN energy is significant in these clusters. Integrating the AGN mechanical power to redshift z = 2.0, using simple models for its evolution and disregarding the hierarchical growth of clusters, we find that the AGN energy accumulated per particle in low luminosity X-ray clusters exceeds 1 keV per particle. This result represents a conservative lower limit to the accumulated thermal energy. The estimate is comparable to the level of energy needed to 'preheat' clusters, indicating that continual outbursts from radio-AGN are a significant source of gas energy in hot atmospheres. Assuming an average mass conversion efficiency of {eta} = 0.1, our result implies that the supermassive black holes that released this energy did so by accreting an average of {approx}10{sup 9} M {sub Sun} over time, which is comparable to the level of growth expected during the quasar era.

  12. Phased arrays: A strategy to lower the energy threshold for neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissel Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-ice radio arrays are optimized for detecting the highest energy, cosmogenic neutrinos expected to be produced though cosmic ray interactions with background photons. However, there are two expected populations of high energy neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed by IceCube (~1 PeV and the cosmogenic flux (~ 1017 eV or 100 PeV. Typical radio arrays employ a noise-riding trigger, which limits their minimum energy threshold based on the background noise temperature of the ice. Phased radio arrays could lower the energy threshold by combining the signals from several channels before triggering, thereby improving the signal-to-noise at the trigger level. Reducing the energy threshold would allow radio experiments to more efficiently overlap with optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes as well as for more efficient searches for cosmogenic neutrinos. We discuss the proposed technique and prototypical phased arrays deployed in an anechoic chamber and at Greenland’s Summit Station.

  13. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  14. Simulating the Sky as Seen by the Square Kilometer Array using the MIT Array Performance Simulator (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Doeleman, S. S.; Fish, V. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Oberoi, D.; Wayth, R. B.

    2009-05-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is a proposed next-generation radio telescope that will operate at frequencies of 0.1-30 GHz and be 50-100 times more sensitive than existing radio arrays. Meeting the performance goals of this instrument will require innovative new hardware and software developments, a variety of which are now under consideration. Key to evaluating the performance characteristics of proposed SKA designs and testing the feasibility of new data calibration and processing algorithms is the ability to carry out realistic simulations of radio wavelength arrays under a variety of observing conditions. The MIT Array Performance Simulator (MAPS) (http://www.haystack.mit.edu/ast/arrays/maps/index.html) is an observations simulation package designed to achieve this goal. MAPS accepts an input source list or sky model and generates a model visibility set for a user-defined "virtual observatory'', incorporating such factors as array geometry, primary beam shape, field-of-view, and time and frequency resolution. Optionally, effects such as thermal noise, out-of-beam sources, variable station beams, and time/location-dependent ionospheric effects can be included. We will showcase current capabilities of MAPS for SKA applications by presenting results from an analysis of the effects of realistic sky backgrounds on the achievable image fidelity and dynamic range of SKA-like arrays comprising large numbers of small-diameter antennas.

  15. AURA-A radio frequency extension to IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, H.; Ruckman, L.; Varner, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The excellent radio frequency (RF) transparency of cold polar ice, combined with the coherent Cherenkov emission produced by neutrino-induced showers when viewed at wavelengths longer than a few centimeters, has spurred considerable interest in a large-scale radio-wave neutrino detector array. The AURA (Askaryan Under-ice Radio Array) experimental effort, within the IceCube collaboration, seeks to take advantage of the opportunity presented by IceCube [A. Karle, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (2009), this issue, doi: (10.1016/j.nima.2009.03.180).; A. Achtenberg et al., The IceCube Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 26 (2006) 155 ] drilling through 2010 to establish the RF technology needed to achieve 100-1000km 3 effective volumes. In the 2006-2007 Austral summer, three deep in-ice RF clusters were deployed at depths of ∼1300 and ∼300m on top of the IceCube strings. Additional three clusters will be deployed in the Austral summer of 2008-2009. Verification and calibration results from the current deployed clusters are presented, and the detector design and performances are discussed. Augmentation of IceCube with large-scale (1000km 3 sr) radio and acoustic arrays would extend the physics reach of IceCube into the EeV-ZeV regime and offer substantial technological redundancy.

  16. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  17. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  18. Radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velusamy, T.

    1976-01-01

    The basic features of the different radio emissions from the planet Jupiter are reviewed. These radio emissions characterized into three types as thermal, decimetric and decametric, are discussed. The coherent emission mechanism for the origin of the decametric bursts and the acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons in the decimetric radiation have not been properly understood. The emissions are much related to the magnetic field of Jupiter. The system III rotation period for Jupiter has been calculated as 092 55 m 29.74 S. (A.K.)

  19. ¿Radios Comunitarias?

    OpenAIRE

    José Ignacio López Vigil

    2015-01-01

    Varias han sido las denominaciones dadas a la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas pero devaluadas al decir del autor, a las que ahora se suma otras radios ciudadanas. Ciudadana para relievarla como ejercicio de poder y espacio de verdadera participación de la gente en la vida de su nación. Ciudadanos son los que piensan con cabeza propia y pesan en la opinión pública. Presenta una sinopsis de la historia de éstas desde 1974. Señala que la competencia obl...

  20. THE SPITZER HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Breuck, Carlos; Galametz, Audrey; Vernet, Joel; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Lacy, Mark; Rettura, Alessandro; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive imaging survey of 70 radio galaxies at redshifts 1 3 μ m /S 1.6 μ m versus S 5 μ m /S 3 μ m criterion, we identify 42 sources where the rest-frame 1.6 μm emission from the stellar population can be measured. For these radio galaxies, the median stellar mass is high, 2 x 10 11 M sun , and remarkably constant within the range 1 3, there is tentative evidence for a factor of two decrease in stellar mass. This suggests that radio galaxies have assembled the bulk of their stellar mass by z ∼ 3, but confirmation by more detailed decomposition of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission is needed. The rest-frame 500 MHz radio luminosities are only marginally correlated with stellar mass but are strongly correlated with the rest-frame 5 μm hot dust luminosity. This suggests that the radio galaxies have a large range of Eddington ratios. We also present new Very Large Array 4.86 and 8.46 GHz imaging of 14 radio galaxies and find that radio core dominance-an indicator of jet orientation-is strongly correlated with hot dust luminosity. While all of our targets were selected as narrow-lined, type 2 AGNs, this result can be understood in the context of orientation-dependent models if there is a continuous distribution of orientations from obscured type 2 to unobscured type 1 AGNs rather than a clear dichotomy. Finally, four radio galaxies have nearby (<6'') companions whose mid-IR colors are suggestive of their being AGNs. This may indicate an association between radio galaxy activity and major mergers.

  1. A radio search for planetary nebulae near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Because of galactic center is a hostile environment, and because planetaries are weak radio emitters, it is not clear a priori that one expects to detect any planetary nebulae at all in the nuclear region of the Galaxy. Therefore the expected lifetime and flux density distribution of galactic center nebulae is considered. The principal observational results from the Westerbork data, and the results of some pilot observations with the Very Large Array, which were intended to distinguish planetaries from other radio sources on an individual basis are given. (Auth.)

  2. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, J.C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio

  3. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  4. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  5. Radio Observations of Elongated Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stephen C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    The majority of pulsars' rotational energy is carried away by relativistic winds, which are energetic particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. The confinement of the winds by the ambient medium result in synchrotron bubbles with broad-band emission, which are commonly referred to as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). Due to long synchrotron cooling time, a radio PWN reflects the integrated history of the system, complementing information obtained from the X-ray and higher energy bands. In addition, radio polarization measurements can offer a powerful probe of the PWN magnetic field structure. Altogether these can reveal the physical conditions and evolutionary history of a system.I report on preliminary results from high-resolution radio observations of PWNe associated with G327.1-1.1, PSRs J1015-5719, B1509-58, and J1549-4848 taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Their magnetic field structure and multiwavelength comparison with other observations are discussed.This work is supported by a ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  6. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  7. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  8. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  9. Radio Frequency Identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around sinceearly 2000. Its use has currently become commonplace as thecost of RFID tags has rapidly decreased. RFID tags have alsobecome more 'intelligent' with the incorporation of processorsand sensors in them. They are widely used now in manyinnovative ways.

  10. Nanolensed Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, David

    2017-12-01

    It is suggested that fast radio bursts can probe gravitational lensing by clumpy dark matter objects that range in mass from 10-3 M ⊙-102 M ⊙. They may provide a more sensitive probe than observations of lensings of objects in the Magellanic Clouds, and could find or rule out clumpy dark matter with an extended mass spectrum.

  11. AMATEUR "HAM" RADIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    these cooler months. Did you know your body can cool 25 times faster in water than in air? That water code at 13 or 20 words-per-minute will no longer be required to obtain amateur radio operating be found by contacting the ARRL or using an Internet search engine to search on such topics as "

  12. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio

  13. Improved dark energy detection through the polarization-assisted cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background with radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-Li

    2011-01-01

    Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect can be estimated by cross-correlating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with tracers of the local matter distribution. At late cosmic time, the dark energy-induced decay of gravitation potential generates a cross correlation signal on large angular scales. The dominant noise is the intrinsic CMB anisotropies from the inflationary epoch. In this paper we use CMB polarization to reduce this intrinsic noise. We cross-correlate the microwave sky observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the radio source catalog compiled by NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to study the efficiency of the noise suppression. We find that the error bars are reduced by about 4 to 14% and the statistical power in the signal is improved.

  14. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A team of radio astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to a faraway galaxy. Their direct measurement calls into question the precision of distance determinations made by other techniques, including those announced last week by a team using the Hubble Space Telescope. The radio astronomers measured a distance of 23.5 million light-years to a galaxy called NGC 4258 in Ursa Major. "Ours is a direct measurement, using geometry, and is independent of all other methods of determining cosmic distances," said Jim Herrnstein, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. The team says their measurement is accurate to within less than a million light-years, or four percent. The galaxy is also known as Messier 106 and is visible with amateur telescopes. Herrnstein, along with James Moran and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Phillip Diamond, of the Merlin radio telescope facility at Jodrell Bank and the University of Manchester in England; Makato Inoue and Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Mikato Miyoshi of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; Christian Henkel of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; and Adam Riess of the University of California at Berkeley, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. "This is an incredible achievement to measure the distance to another galaxy with this precision," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director of VLA/VLBA Operations. "This is the first time such a great distance has been measured this accurately. It took painstaking work on the part of the observing team, and it took a radio telescope the size of the Earth -- the VLBA -- to make it possible," Goss said. "Astronomers have sought to determine the Hubble Constant, the rate of expansion of the universe, for decades. This will in turn lead to an

  15. Very large array and green bank telescope observations of Orion B (NGC 2024, W12): photodissociation region properties and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshi, D. Anish [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville and Green Bank, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Jeyakumar, S., E-mail: aroshi@nrao.edu, E-mail: mgoss@nrao.edu, E-mail: sjk@astro.ugto.mx [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, AP 144, Guanajuato CP 36000 (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We present images of C110α and H110α radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 4.8 GHz and images of H166α, C166α, and X166α RRL emission at 1.4 GHz, observed toward the star-forming region NGC 2024. The 1.4 GHz image with angular resolution ∼70'' is obtained using Very Large Array (VLA) data. The 4.8 GHz image with angular resolution ∼17'' is obtained by combining VLA and Green Bank Telescope data in order to add the short and zero spacing data in the uv plane. These images reveal that the spatial distributions of C110α line emission is confined to the southern rim of the H II region close to the ionization front whereas the C166α line emission is extended in the north-south direction across the H II region. The LSR velocity of the C110α line is 10.3 km s{sup –1} similar to that of lines observed from molecular material located at the far side of the H II region. This similarity suggests that the photodissociation region (PDR) responsible for C110α line emission is at the far side of the H II region. The LSR velocity of C166α is 8.8 km s{sup –1}. This velocity is comparable with the velocity of molecular absorption lines observed from the foreground gas, suggesting that the PDR is at the near side of the H II region. Non-LTE models for carbon line-forming regions are presented. Typical properties of the foreground PDR are T {sub PDR} ∼ 100 K, n{sub e}{sup PDR}∼5 cm{sup –3}, n {sub H} ∼ 1.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and path length l ∼ 0.06 pc, and those of the far side PDR are T {sub PDR} ∼ 200 K, n{sub e}{sup PDR}∼ 50 cm{sup –3}, n {sub H} ∼ 1.7 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}, and l ∼ 0.03 pc. Our modeling indicates that the far side PDR is located within the H II region. We estimate the magnetic field strength in the foreground PDR to be 60 μG and that in the far side PDR to be 220 μG. Our field estimates compare well with the values obtained from OH Zeeman observations toward NGC 2024. The H166α spectrum

  16. Very large array and green bank telescope observations of Orion B (NGC 2024, W12): photodissociation region properties and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshi, D. Anish; Goss, W. M.; Jeyakumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present images of C110α and H110α radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 4.8 GHz and images of H166α, C166α, and X166α RRL emission at 1.4 GHz, observed toward the star-forming region NGC 2024. The 1.4 GHz image with angular resolution ∼70'' is obtained using Very Large Array (VLA) data. The 4.8 GHz image with angular resolution ∼17'' is obtained by combining VLA and Green Bank Telescope data in order to add the short and zero spacing data in the uv plane. These images reveal that the spatial distributions of C110α line emission is confined to the southern rim of the H II region close to the ionization front whereas the C166α line emission is extended in the north-south direction across the H II region. The LSR velocity of the C110α line is 10.3 km s –1 similar to that of lines observed from molecular material located at the far side of the H II region. This similarity suggests that the photodissociation region (PDR) responsible for C110α line emission is at the far side of the H II region. The LSR velocity of C166α is 8.8 km s –1 . This velocity is comparable with the velocity of molecular absorption lines observed from the foreground gas, suggesting that the PDR is at the near side of the H II region. Non-LTE models for carbon line-forming regions are presented. Typical properties of the foreground PDR are T PDR ∼ 100 K, n e PDR ∼5 cm –3 , n H ∼ 1.7 × 10 4 cm –3 , and path length l ∼ 0.06 pc, and those of the far side PDR are T PDR ∼ 200 K, n e PDR ∼ 50 cm –3 , n H ∼ 1.7 × 10 5 cm –3 , and l ∼ 0.03 pc. Our modeling indicates that the far side PDR is located within the H II region. We estimate the magnetic field strength in the foreground PDR to be 60 μG and that in the far side PDR to be 220 μG. Our field estimates compare well with the values obtained from OH Zeeman observations toward NGC 2024. The H166α spectrum shows narrow (1.7 km s –1 ) and broad (33 km s –1 ) line features. The

  17. Radio images of the planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, I.

    1990-01-01

    Observations at radio wavelengths make possible detailed studies of planetary atmospheres, magnetospheres, and surface layers. The paper addresses the question of what can be learned from interferometric radio images of planets. Results from single-element radio observations are also discussed. Observations of both the terrestrial and the giant planets are considered. 106 refs

  18. Radio Videos of Orion Protostars (with X-ray Colors!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Jan; Wolk, Scott; Menten, Karl; Reid, Mark; Osten, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    High-energy processes in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) can be observed both in X-rays and in the centimetric radio wavelength range. While the past decade has brought a lot of progress in the field of X-ray observations of YSOs, (proto)stellar centimetric radio astronomy has only recently begun to catch up with the advent of the newly expanded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA). The enhanced sensitivity is fundamentally improving our understanding of YSO radio properties by providing unprecedented sensitivity and thus spectral as well as temporal resolution. As a result, it is becoming easier to disentangle coronal-type nonthermal radio emission emanating from the immediate vicinity of YSOs from thermal emission on larger spatial scales, for example ionized material at the base of outflows. Of particular interest is the correlation of the by now relatively well-characterized X-ray flaring variability with the nonthermal radio variability. We present first results of multi-epoch simultaneous observations using Chandra and the JVLA, targeting the Orion Nebula Cluster and highlighting the capabilities of the JVLA for radio continuum observations of YSOs.

  19. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  20. Utilization of antenna arrays in HF systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bertel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Different applications of radio systems are based on the implementation of antenna arrays. Classically, radio direction

    finding operates with a multi channel receiving system connected to an array of receiving antennas. More

    recently, MIMO architectures have been proposed to increase the capacity of radio links by the use of antenna

    arrays at both the transmitter and receiver.

    The first part of this paper describes some novel experimental work carried out to examine the feasibility of applying

    MIMO techniques for communications within the HF radio band. A detailed correlation analysis of a variety

    of different antenna array configurations is presented. The second section of the paper also deals with HF

    MIMO communications, focusing on the problem from a modelling point of view. The third part presents a sensitivity

    analysis of different antenna array structures for HF direction finding applications. The results demonstrate

    that when modelling errors, heterogeneous antenna arrays are more robust in comparison to homogeneous structures


  1. From radio signals to cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, C.

    2009-12-01

    Radio detection of high energy cosmic rays is currently being reinvested, both on the experimental and theoretical sides. The question is to know whether radio-detection is a competitive technique compared or in addition to usual detection techniques; in order to increase statistics at the highest energies (around 10 20 eV - where particle astronomy should be possible) or to characterize precisely the cosmic rays at lower energies (some 10 18 eV). During this work, we tried to progress towards the answer, using radio emission models, experimental data analysis and preparing the next generation of detectors. On the theoretical side, geo-synchrotron emission of the particles of the showers has been computed analytically using a simplified shower model as well as using the Monte Carlo simulation AIRES to have a realistic shower development. Various dependencies of the electric field have been extracted, among which a proportionality of the field with the -v → * B → vector under certain conditions. Experimentally, the analysis of CODALEMA data enabled to characterise more precisely the electric field produced by air showers, in particular the topology of the field at ground level, the energy dependency and the coherence with a -v → * B → proportionality. These results are summarised in an overall parametrization of the electric field. More data are probably required in order to give a definitive statement on the interest of the radio-detection technique. The CODALEMA parametrization has finally been used to extrapolate CODALEMA's results to a future larger array, extrapolation applied in particular to the AERA detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. (author)

  2. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  3. Radio follow-up observations of stellar tidal disruption flares: Constraints on off-axis jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körding E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs, which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. Plus, the existing followup observation are mostly within ∼ 10 months of the discovery, so the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of six known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1–8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57.

  4. Measuring size evolution of distant, faint galaxies in the radio regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, L.; Knudsen, K. K.; Stanley, F.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Beswick, R. J.; Conway, J.; Radcliffe, J. F.; Wrigley, N.

    2018-05-01

    We measure the evolution of sizes for star-forming galaxies as seen in 1.4 GHz continuum radio for z = 0-3. The measurements are based on combined VLA+MERLIN data of the Hubble Deep Field, and using a uv-stacking algorithm combined with model fitting to estimate the average sizes of galaxies. A sample of ˜1000 star-forming galaxies is selected from optical and near-infrared catalogues, with stellar masses M⊙ ≈ 1010-1011 M⊙ and photometric redshifts 0-3. The median sizes are parametrized for stellar mass M* = 5 × 1010 M⊙ as R_e = A× {}(H(z)/H(1.5))^{α _z}. We find that the median radio sizes evolve towards larger sizes at later times with αz = -1.1 ± 0.6, and A (the median size at z ≈ 1.5) is found to be 0.26^'' ± 0.07^'' or 2.3±0.6 kpc. The measured radio sizes are typically a factor of 2 smaller than those measure in the optical, and are also smaller than the typical H α sizes in the literature. This indicates that star formation, as traced by the radio continuum, is typically concentrated towards the centre of galaxies, for the sampled redshift range. Furthermore, the discrepancy of measured sizes from different tracers of star formation, indicates the need for models of size evolution to adopt a multiwavelength approach in the measurement of the sizes star-forming regions.

  5. Superwind Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies? : Large-Scale Radio Maps of an Edge-On Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Gallimore, J.; Baum, S.; O'Dea, C.

    1995-03-01

    Large-scale galactic winds (superwinds) are commonly found flowing out of the nuclear region of ultraluminous infrared and powerful starburst galaxies. Stellar winds and supernovae from the nuclear starburst provide the energy to drive these superwinds. The outflowing gas escapes along the rotation axis, sweeping up and shock-heating clouds in the halo, which produces optical line emission, radio synchrotron emission, and X-rays. These features can most easily be studied in edge-on systems, so that the wind emission is not confused by that from the disk. We have begun a systematic search for superwind outflows in Seyfert galaxies. In an earlier optical emission-line survey, we found extended minor axis emission and/or double-peaked emission line profiles in >~30% of the sample objects. We present here large-scale (6cm VLA C-config) radio maps of 11 edge-on Seyfert galaxies, selected (without bias) from a distance-limited sample of 23 edge-on Seyferts. These data have been used to estimate the frequency of occurrence of superwinds. Preliminary results indicate that four (36%) of the 11 objects observed and six (26%) of the 23 objects in the distance-limited sample have extended radio emission oriented perpendicular to the galaxy disk. This emission may be produced by a galactic wind blowing out of the disk. Two (NGC 2992 and NGC 5506) of the nine objects for which we have both radio and optical data show good evidence for a galactic wind in both datasets. We suggest that galactic winds occur in >~30% of all Seyferts. A goal of this work is to find a diagnostic that can be used to distinguish between large-scale outflows that are driven by starbursts and those that are driven by an AGN. The presence of starburst-driven superwinds in Seyferts, if established, would have important implications for the connection between starburst galaxies and AGN.

  6. Introduction to international radio regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicella, S M [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-12-15

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field.

  7. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  8. THE RADIO ACTIVITY-ROTATION RELATION OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, M.; Berger, E.; Reiners, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the Very Large Array. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. As part of the survey we discovered radio emission from three new objects, 2MASS J 0518113 – 310153 (M6.5), 2MASS J 0952219 – 192431 (M7), and 2MASS J 1314203 + 132001 (M7), and made an additional detection of LP 349-25 (M8). Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at L rad /L bol ≈ 10 –7.5 above vsin i ≈ 5 km s –1 , similar to the relation in Hα and X-rays. However, at spectral types ∼> M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases significantly regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 ) exhibit 'super-saturation' in X-rays and Hα, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 have a higher radio detection fraction by about a factor of three compared to objects with vsin i ∼ –1 . When measured in terms of the Rossby number (Ro), the radio activity-rotation relation follows a single trend and with no apparent saturation from G to L dwarfs and down to Ro ∼ 10 –3 ; in X-rays and Hα there is clear saturation at Ro ∼ rad /R 2 * ) as a function of Ro. The continued role of rotation in the overall level of radio activity and in the fraction of active sources, and the single trend of L rad /L bol and L rad /R 2 * as a function of Ro from G to L dwarfs, indicates that rotation effects are important in regulating the topology or strength of magnetic fields in at least some fully convective dwarfs. The fact that

  9. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatma, V. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Williams, W. L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J. H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J. J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Tasse, C.

    2018-04-01

    Only a small fraction of observed active galactic nuclei (AGN) display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Very Large Array, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indices (-1.5≤slant α ^{1400}_{150}≤slant -0.5), confirming that the lobes of some remnants may possess flat spectra at low frequencies just as active sources do. We suggest that, even with the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR, our sample may still only contain the youngest of the remnant population.

  10. FIRST Bent-Double Radio Sources: Tracers of High-Redshift Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, E. L.; Gregg, M. D.; Helfand, D. J.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Bent-double radio sources can act as tracers for clusters of galaxies. We present imaging and spectroscopic observations of the environments surrounding 10 of these sources (most of them wide-angle tails [WATs]) selected from the VLA FIRST survey. Our results reveal a previously unknown cluster associated with eight of the radio sources with redshifts in the range 0.33< z<0.85; furthermore, we cannot rule out that the other two bent doubles may be associated with clusters at higher redshift. Richness measurements indicate that these clusters are typical of the majority of those found in the Abell catalog, with a range of Abell richness classes from 0 to 2. The line-of-sight velocity dispersions are very different from cluster to cluster, ranging from approximately 300 to 1100 km s-1. At the upper end of these intervals, we may be sampling some of the highest redshift massive clusters known. Alternatively, the large velocity dispersions measured in some of the clusters may indicate that they are merging systems with significant substructure, consistent with recent ideas concerning WAT formation (Burns et al.). (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  11. On the Possibility of Fast Radio Bursts from Inside Supernovae: The Case of SN 1986J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietenholz, Michael F.; Bartel, Norbert

    2017-12-01

    We discuss the possibility of obtaining fast radio bursts (FRBs) from the interior of supernovae, in particular SN 1986J. Young neutron stars are involved in many of the possible scenarios for the origin of FRBs, and it has been suggested that the high dispersion measures observed in FRBs might be produced by the ionized material in the ejecta of associated supernovae. Using VLA and VLBI measurements of the Type IIn SN 1986J, which has a central compact component not seen in other supernovae, we can directly observe for the first time radio signals, which originate in the interior of a young (∼30 year old) supernova. We show that at an age of 30 years, any FRB signal at ∼1 GHz would still be largely absorbed by the ejecta. By the time the ejecta have expanded so that a 1 GHz signal would be visible, the internal dispersion measure due to the SN ejecta would be below the values typically seen for FRBs. The high dispersion measures seen for the FRBs detected so far could of course be due to propagation through the intergalactic medium provided that the FRBs are at distances much larger than that of SN 1986J, which is 10 Mpc. We conclude that if FRBs originate in Type II SNe/SNRs, they would likely not become visible until 60 ∼ 200 years after the SN explosion.

  12. Review of decametric radio astronomy - instruments and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Cane, H.V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources. 38 references

  13. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  14. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    , educational and didactic effort which would enlighten all of society. For a while it seemed that radio music was considered a genre of its own. To fulfil its function, radio music had to consider technical limitations as well as the educational level and listening modes of the new mass audience. Public radio......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  15. Targeted blockade in lethal West Nile virus encephalitis indicates a crucial role for very late antigen (VLA-4-dependent recruitment of nitric oxide-producing macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getts Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infiltration of Ly6Chi monocytes from the blood is a hallmark of viral encephalitis. In mice with lethal encephalitis caused by West Nile virus (WNV, an emerging neurotropic flavivirus, inhibition of Ly6Chi monocyte trafficking into the brain by anti-very late antigen (VLA-4 integrin antibody blockade at the time of first weight loss and leukocyte influx resulted in long-term survival of up to 60% of infected mice, with subsequent sterilizing immunity. This treatment had no effect on viral titers but appeared to be due to inhibition of Ly6Chi macrophage immigration. Although macrophages isolated from the infected brain induced WNV-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation, T cells did not directly contribute to pathology, but are likely to be important in viral control, as antibody-mediated T-cell depletion could not reproduce the therapeutic benefit of anti-VLA-4. Instead, 70% of infiltrating inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were found to be making nitric oxide (NO. Furthermore, aminoguanidine-mediated inhibition of induced NO synthase activity in infiltrating macrophages significantly prolonged survival, indicating involvement of NO in the immunopathology. These data show for the first time the therapeutic effects of temporally targeting pathogenic NO-producing macrophages during neurotropic viral encephalitis.

  16. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  17. Radio telescope control

    CERN Document Server

    Schraml, J

    1972-01-01

    An on-line computer control process developed for the 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie in Bonn is described. The instrument is the largest fully steerable antenna in the world. Its operation started on May 31st 1972. It is controlled by a Ferranti Argus 500 on-line computer. The first part of the paper deals with the process itself, the radio telescope and its operation, and the demands resulting for the control program. The second part briefly describes the computer and its hardware. The final part introduces the architecture of the executive program in general, which has been tailored to meet the demands of the process and the hardware. The communication between the observer and the system, the format of data on magnetic tape and an on-line reduction of position measurements are considered. (0 refs).

  18. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  19. The Receiver System for the Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The legacy Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) is being reconfigured as a 264-element synthesis telescope, called the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA). Its antenna elements are the contiguous 1.92 m sections of the parabolic cylinder. It will operate in a 38-MHz frequency band centred at 326.5 MHz and will be equipped with a ...

  20. A Communications Link for an Implantable Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    be gene -rated from the 256 electrodes in a 16 x 16 array which is narrow enough in bandwidth to be transmitted over a FM radio frequency carrier. The...MARCH 1973 DESIGNED FOR HIGH-SPE ED, MEDIUM-POWER SWITCHINGU AND GENERAL PURPOSE AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS a hFE ... Guaranteed from 100 1pA to 500 mA

  1. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    cosas afectan la recepción de señas de la radio. Por ejemplo, las extensiones grandes de agua de sal receptor con una antena interior de calidad buena, o conectarlo a una antena externa. Generalmente los Programación Español Listado de estación Explicacion de SAME Coverage Station Listing County Listing

  2. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  3. Fundamental limits of radio interferometers: calibration and source parameter estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We use information theory to derive fundamental limits on the capacity to calibrate next-generation radio interferometers, and measure parameters of point sources for instrument calibration, point source subtraction, and data deconvolution. We demonstrate the implications of these fundamental limits, with particular reference to estimation of the 21cm Epoch of Reionization power spectrum with next-generation low-frequency instruments (e.g., the Murchison Widefield Array -- MWA, Precision Arra...

  4. Calibration Errors in Interferometric Radio Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.

    2017-08-01

    Residual calibration errors are difficult to predict in interferometric radio polarimetry because they depend on the observational calibration strategy employed, encompassing the Stokes vector of the calibrator and parallactic angle coverage. This work presents analytic derivations and simulations that enable examination of residual on-axis instrumental leakage and position-angle errors for a suite of calibration strategies. The focus is on arrays comprising alt-azimuth antennas with common feeds over which parallactic angle is approximately uniform. The results indicate that calibration schemes requiring parallactic angle coverage in the linear feed basis (e.g., the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) need only observe over 30°, beyond which no significant improvements in calibration accuracy are obtained. In the circular feed basis (e.g., the Very Large Array above 1 GHz), 30° is also appropriate when the Stokes vector of the leakage calibrator is known a priori, but this rises to 90° when the Stokes vector is unknown. These findings illustrate and quantify concepts that were previously obscure rules of thumb.

  5. Radio Wavelength Studies of the Galactic Center Source N3, Spectroscopic Instrumentation For Robotic Telescope Systems, and Developing Active Learning Activities for Astronomy Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic Alesio

    2017-08-01

    The mysterious radio source N3 appears to be located within the vicinity of the Radio Arc region of the Galactic Center. To investigate the nature of this source, we have conducted radio observations with the VLA and the VLBA. Continuum observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is an extremely compact and bright source with a non-thermal spectrum. Molecular line observations with the VLA reveal a compact molecular cloud adjacent to N3 in projection. The properties of this cloud are consistent with other galactic center clouds. We are able to rule out several hypotheses for the nature of N3, though a micro-blazar origin cannot be ruled out. Robotic Telescope systems are now seeing widespread deployment as both teaching and research instruments. While these systems have traditionally been able to produce high quality images, these systems have lacked the capability to conduct spectroscopic observations. To enable spectroscopic observations on the Iowa Robotic Observatory, we have developed a low cost (˜ 500), low resolution (R ˜ 300) spectrometer which mounts inside a modified filter wheel and a moderate cost (˜ 5000), medium resolution (R ˜ 8000) fiber-fed spectrometer. Software has been developed to operate both instruments robotically and calibration pipelines are being developed to automate calibration of the data. The University of Iowa offers several introductory astronomy laboratory courses taken by many hundreds of students each semester. To improve student learning in these laboratory courses, we have worked to integrate active learning into laboratory activities. We present the pedagogical approaches used to develop and update the laboratory activities and present an inventory of the current laboratory exercises. Using the inventory, we make observations of the strengths and weaknesses of the current exercises and provide suggestions for future refinement of the astronomy laboratory curriculum.

  6. Revealing the Faraday depth structure of radio galaxy NGC 612 with broad-band radio polarimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, J. F.; Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present full-polarization, broad-band observations of the radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS B0131-637) from 1.3 to 3.1 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The relatively large angular scale of the radio galaxy makes it a good candidate with which to investigate the polarization mechanisms responsible for the observed Faraday depth structure. By fitting complex polarization models to the polarized spectrum of each pixel, we find that a single polarization component can adequately describe the observed signal for the majority of the radio galaxy. While we cannot definitively rule out internal Faraday rotation, we argue that the bulk of the Faraday rotation is taking place in a thin skin that girts the polarized emission. Using minimum energy estimates, we find an implied total magnetic field strength of 4.2 μG.

  7. THE UBIQUITOUS RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM THE MOST MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Michael J. I.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Floyd, David J. E.; Mould, Jeremy R.

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the radio continuum emission of 396 early-type galaxies brighter than K = 9, using 1.4 GHz imagery from the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey, Green Bank 300 ft Telescope, and 64 m Parkes Radio Telescope. For M K K < -25.5 early-type galaxies are greater than zero in all cases. It is thus highly likely that the most massive galaxies always host an active galactic nucleus or have recently undergone star formation.

  8. Low-frequency synthesis array in earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Preston, R.A.; Kuiper, T.B.H.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific objectives and design concept of a space-based VLBI array for high-resolution astronomical observations at 1-30 MHz are discussed. The types of investigations calling for such an array include radio spectroscopy of individual objects, measurement of the effects of scattering and refraction by the interplanetary medium (IPM) and the ISM, mapping the distribution of low-energy cosmic-ray electrons, and determining the extent of the Galactic halo. Consideration is given to the limitations imposed on an LF VLBI array by the ionosphere, the IPM, and the ISM; the calibration advantages offered by circular polar orbits of slightly differing ascending-node longitude for the array satellites; and collection of the IF data streams from the array satellites by one master satellite prior to transmission to the ground. It is shown that determination of the three-dimensional array geometry by means of intersatellite radio links is feasible if there are at least seven spacecraft in the array

  9. A radio monitoring survey of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg s-1. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times over 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is ≈0.15 mJy (4σ) for radio flares and ≈60 μJy for continuous emission. In M 82 two ULXs seem to have coincident compact radio sources, which are probably supernova remnants. No continuous or flaring radio emission has been detected from any other ULX. Thus, ULXs do not generally emit steady-state radio emission above radio powers of 1.5 × 1017 W/Hz. The non-detections of the continuous emission are consistent with beamed or unbeamed radio emission from accreting black holes of ≤ 103 M⊙ based on the radio/X-ray correlation. Other published radio detections (M 82, NGC 5408) are also discussed in this context. Both detections are significantly above our detection limit. If ULXs have flaring radio emission above 4 × 1017 W/Hz we can give an upper limit on the duty cycle of the flares of 6%. This upper limit is in agreement with the observed number of flares in Galactic radio transients. Additionally we present a yet unreported radio double structure in the nearby low-luminosity AGN NGC 4736.

  10. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: yypspore@gmail.com, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-09-20

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  11. Study at radio wavelengths of circumstellar envelopes around red giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Thi Hoai

    2015-01-01

    The thesis studies mass losing AGB stars and their circumstellar environments, with focus on the development of stellar outflows and their interaction with the surrounding medium. It uses emission from two tracers: carbon monoxide (CO), through its rotational lines in the millimeter range, probes the inner regions of the circumstellar shells out to photodissociation distances, while atomic hydrogen (HI, 21 cm) is better suited to the study of the external regions. The high spectral and spatial resolutions achieved in radio observations allow for a detailed exploration of the kinematics of the relatively slow outflows of red giants. After having introduced the subject, I discuss the case of an S-type star (RS Cnc) that has been observed in CO with the IRAM telescopes, as well as in HI with the VLA, concentrating on the modelling of the spatially resolved CO line profiles and illustrating the complementarity between HI and CO. Results of the CO modelling of other AGB stars observed at IRAM (EP Aqr, XHer and RXBoo) and of a post-AGB star observed with ALMA, the Red Rectangle, are also presented. The formation of the HI line profile in various cases of mass losing AGB stars, in particular YCVn for which a model is presented, is studied next, exploring several effects that might explain the lack of detected emission from stars with high mass loss rates. Similarities between the bipolar outflows of the AGB stars that have been studied, all having mass loss rates in the region of 10"-"7 solar masses per year and displaying nearly spherical morphologies are discussed together with the information on the gas temperature obtained from the simultaneous observation of two CO lines. (author)

  12. Searching for Compact Radio Sources Associated with UCH ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Trinidad, Miguel A.; Rodríguez-Rico, Carlos A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, 36000 Guanajuato, México (Mexico); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Ultra-compact (UC)H ii regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation. The structure and evolution of these regions are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations showed in recent years that compact sources of uncertain nature are associated with some UCH ii regions. To examine this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCH ii regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCH ii regions. With these observations, we find 13 compact sources that are associated with 9 UCH ii regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that are probably deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCH ii region. These sources are photoevaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCH ii region as the photoevaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem of these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photoevaporating objects such as those of the first type, but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The remaining sources of this second type appear unresolved, and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.

  13. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  14. Hydrogen Epoch of Reinozation Array (HERA) Calibrated FFT Correlator Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Jeffrey David; Parsons, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) project is an astronomical radio interferometer array with a redundant baseline configuration. Interferometer arrays are being used widely in radio astronomy because they have a variety of advantages over single antenna systems. For example, they produce images (visibilities) closely matching that of a large antenna (such as the Arecibo observatory), while both the hardware and maintenance costs are significantly lower. However, this method has some complications; one being the computational cost of correlating data from all of the antennas. A correlator is an electronic device that cross-correlates the data between the individual antennas; these are what radio astronomers call visibilities. HERA, being in its early stages, utilizes a traditional correlator system. The correlator cost scales as N2, where N is the number of antennas in the array. The purpose of a redundant baseline configuration array setup is for the use of a more efficient Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) correlator. FFT correlators scale as Nlog2N. The data acquired from this sort of setup, however, inherits geometric delay and uncalibrated antenna gains. This particular project simulates the process of calibrating signals from astronomical sources. Each signal “received” by an antenna in the simulation is given random antenna gain and geometric delay. The “linsolve” Python module was used to solve for the unknown variables in the simulation (complex gains and delays), which then gave a value for the true visibilities. This first version of the simulation only mimics a one dimensional redundant telescope array detecting a small amount of sources located in the volume above the antenna plane. Future versions, using GPUs, will handle a two dimensional redundant array of telescopes detecting a large amount of sources in the volume above the array.

  15. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  16. A nanoradio utilizing the mechanical resonance of a vertically aligned nanopillar array

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Seung S.

    2014-01-01

    A nanoradio based on the mechanical resonance of a nanomaterial has promising applications in terms of size reduction of an antenna and integrity of all components of a radio except a speaker. In this letter, a nanopillar array radio utilizing the mechanical resonance of a vertically aligned nanopillar array is realized by a reliable top-down method. By exploiting the field emission phenomenon, it was found that the nanopillar array functions as a radio with a demodulator without any electrical circuitry. The array of vertically aligned nanopillars increases the demodulated current and signal to noise ratio, and this fabrication method makes manipulation and positioning of nanostructures possible intrinsically for industrial applications. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. The properties of radio ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Disney, M.J.; Rodgers, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and additional radio data are presented for the bright galaxies of the Disney and Wall survey (1977 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 235). These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas. (author)

  18. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  19. Central radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phinney, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The compact radio sources in the nuclei of most active galaxies lie closer to their centers of activity than any other region accessible to observation, excepting only the broad emission line region. They provide uniquely strong evidence for bulk motion of matter at relativistic velocities, encouraging the belief that the activity originates in a gravitational potential well whose escape velocity is of the order of the speed of light. The observational facts are reviewed as well as several theoretical pictures of them. Those places where systematic observations could help to distinguish the true theoretical picture from the many competing forgeries are emphasized. 76 references

  20. Properties of Radio Sources in the FRB 121102 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chatterjee, Shami; Wharton, Robert; Law, Casey J.; Hessels, Jason; Spolaor, Sarah; Abruzzo, Matthew W.; Bassa, Cees; Butler, Bryan J.; Cordes, James M.; Demorest, Paul; Kaspi, Victoria M.; McLaughlin, Maura; Ransom, Scott M.; Scholz, Paul; Seymour, Andrew; Spitler, Laura; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; PALFA Survey; VLA+AO FRB121102 Simultaneous Campaign Team; EVN FRB121102 Campaign Team; Realfast Team

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond duration radio pulses of unknown origin. With dispersion measures substantially in excess of expected Galactic contributions, FRBs are inferred to originate extragalactically, implying very high luminosities. Models include a wide range of high energy systems such as magnetars, merging neutron star binaries, black holes, and strong stellar magnetic fields driving coherent radio emission. Central to the mystery of FRB origins are the absence of confirmed host objects at any wavelength. This is primarily the result of the poor localization from single dish detection of FRBs. Of the approximately 20 known examples, only one, FRB 121102, has been observed to repeat. This repetition presents an opportunity for detailed follow-up if interferometric localization to arcsecond accuracy can be obtained. The Very Large Array has previously been used to localize individual pulses from pulsars and rotating radio transients to arcsecond localizaiton. We present here the results of radio observations of the field of FRB 121102 that permit us to constrain models of possible progenitors of this bursting source. These observations can characterize active galactic nuclei, stars, and other progenitor objects.

  1. A search for radio emission from exoplanets around evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Coughlan, C. P.; Vlemmings, W.; Varenius, E.; Sirothia, S.; Ray, T. P.; Olofsson, H.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of searches for radio emission from exoplanets have to date focused on short period planets, i.e., the so-called hot Jupiter type planets. However, these planets are likely to be tidally locked to their host stars and may not generate sufficiently strong magnetic fields to emit electron cyclotron maser emission at the low frequencies used in observations (typically ≥150 MHz). In comparison, the large mass-loss rates of evolved stars could enable exoplanets at larger orbital distances to emit detectable radio emission. Here, we first show that the large ionized mass-loss rates of certain evolved stars relative to the solar value could make them detectable with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 150 MHz (λ = 2 m), provided they have surface magnetic field strengths >50 G. We then report radio observations of three long period (>1 au) planets that orbit the evolved stars β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi using LOFAR at 150 MHz. We do not detect radio emission from any system but place tight 3σ upper limits of 0.98, 0.87, and 0.57 mJy on the flux density at 150 MHz for β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi, respectively. Despite our non-detections these stringent upper limits highlight the potential of LOFAR as a tool to search for exoplanetary radio emission at meter wavelengths.

  2. The Nature of the Stingray Nebula from Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hardwick, Jennifer A.; De Marco, Orsola; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Gonidakis, Ioannis; Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James A.

    2018-06-01

    We have analysed the full suite of Australia Telescope Compact Array data for the Stingray planetary nebula. Data were taken in the 4- to 23-GHz range of radio frequencies between 1991 and 2016. The radio flux density of the nebula generally declined during that period, but between 2013 and 2016 it shows signs of halting that decline. We produced the first spatially resolved radio images of the Stingray nebula from data taken in 2005. A ring structure, which appears to be associated with the ring seen in HST images, was visible. In addition, we found a narrow extension to the radio emission towards the eastern and western edges of the nebula. We derived the emission measure of the nebula - this decreased between 1992 and 2011, suggesting that the nebula is undergoing recombination. The radio spectral index is broadly consistent with a free-free emission mechanism, however a single data point hints that a steeper spectral index has possibly emerged since 2013, which could indicate the presence of synchrotron emission. If a non-thermal component component has emerged, such as one associated with a region that is launching a jet or outflow, we predict that it would intensify in the years to come.

  3. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY SPINNING PULSARS AND FAST TRANSIENTS IN UNIDENTIFIED RADIO SOURCES WITH THE NRAO 43 METER TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Deborah; Crawford, Fronefield; Gilpin, Claire [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We have searched 75 unidentified radio sources selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog for the presence of rapidly spinning pulsars and short, dispersed radio bursts. The sources are radio bright, have no identifications or optical source coincidences, are more than 5% linearly polarized, and are spatially unresolved in the catalog. If these sources are fast-spinning pulsars (e.g., sub-millisecond pulsars), previous large-scale pulsar surveys may have missed detection due to instrumental and computational limitations, eclipsing effects, or diffractive scintillation. The discovery of a sub-millisecond pulsar would significantly constrain the neutron star equation of state and would have implications for models predicting a rapid slowdown of highly recycled X-ray pulsars to millisecond periods from, e.g., accretion disk decoupling. These same sources were previously searched unsuccessfully for pulsations at 610 MHz with the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank. This new search was conducted at a different epoch with a new 800 MHz backend on the NRAO 43 m Telescope at a center frequency of 1200 MHz. Our search was sensitive to sub-millisecond pulsars in highly accelerated binary systems and to short transient pulses. No periodic or transient signals were detected from any of the target sources. We conclude that diffractive scintillation, dispersive smearing, and binary acceleration are unlikely to have prevented detection of the large majority of the sources if they are pulsars, though we cannot rule out eclipsing, nulling or intermittent emission, or radio interference as possible factors for some non-detections. Other (speculative) possibilities for what these sources might include radio-emitting magnetic cataclysmic variables or older pulsars with aligned magnetic and spin axes.

  4. Effect of Parasitic Element on 408 MHz Antenna for Radio Astronomy Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radial Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna is one of the important subsystem components in a radio telescope system. In this paper, analysis on the effect of parasitic element on 408 MHz antenna in a radio telescope system is presented. Higher gain up to 10.24 dBi with reduction on beamwidth size has been achieved by optimizing the position of parasitic element relative to the driven element. The proposed antenna is suitable to be utilized in a transient radio telescope array.

  5. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  6. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  7. PHASED ARRAY FEED CALIBRATION, BEAMFORMING, AND IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, Jonathan; Elmer, Michael; Waldron, Jacob; Jones, David; Stemmons, Alan; Jeffs, Brian D.; Warnick, Karl F.; Richard Fisher, J.; Norrod, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Phased array feeds (PAFs) for reflector antennas offer the potential for increased reflector field of view and faster survey speeds. To address some of the development challenges that remain for scientifically useful PAFs, including calibration and beamforming algorithms, sensitivity optimization, and demonstration of wide field of view imaging, we report experimental results from a 19 element room temperature L-band PAF mounted on the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope. Formed beams achieved an aperture efficiency of 69% and a system noise temperature of 66 K. Radio camera images of several sky regions are presented. We investigate the noise performance and sensitivity of the system as a function of elevation angle with statistically optimal beamforming and demonstrate cancelation of radio frequency interference sources with adaptive spatial filtering.

  8. The Square Kilometre Array: An Engineering Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    This volume is an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the engineering of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a revolutionary instrument which will be the world’s largest radio telescope. Expected to be completed by 2020, the SKA will be a pre-eminent tool in probing the Early Universe and in enhancing greatly the discovery potential of radio astronomy in many other fields. This book, containing 36 refereed papers written by leaders in SKA engineering, has been compiled by the International SKA Project Office and is the only contemporary compendium available. It features papers dealing with pivotal technologies such as antennas, RF systems and data transport. As well, overviews of important SKA demonstrator instruments and key system design issues are included. Practising professionals, and students interested in next-generation telescopes, will find this book an invaluable reference.

  9. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  10. The Radio/Gamma-Ray Connection from 120 MHz to 230 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Giroletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio loud active galactic nuclei are composed of different spatial features, each one characterized by different spectral properties in the radio band. Among them, blazars are the most common class of sources detected at gamma-rays by Fermi, and their radio emission is dominated by the flat spectrum compact core. In this contribution, we explore the connection between emission at high energy revealed by Fermi and at radio frequencies. Taking as a reference the strong and very highly significant correlation found between gamma rays and cm-λ radio emission, we explore the different behaviours found as we change the energy range in gamma rays and in radio, therefore changing the physical parameters of the zones involved in the emitted radiation. We find that the correlation weakens when we consider (1 gamma rays of energy above 10 GeV (except for high synchrotron peaked blazars or (2 low frequency radio data taken by the Murchison Widefield Array; on the other hand, the correlation strengthens when we consider mm-λ data taken by Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA.

  11. Computing platforms for software-defined radio

    CERN Document Server

    Nurmi, Jari; Isoaho, Jouni; Garzia, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses Software-Defined Radio (SDR) baseband processing from the computer architecture point of view, providing a detailed exploration of different computing platforms by classifying different approaches, highlighting the common features related to SDR requirements and by showing pros and cons of the proposed solutions. Coverage includes architectures exploiting parallelism by extending single-processor environment (such as VLIW, SIMD, TTA approaches), multi-core platforms distributing the computation to either a homogeneous array or a set of specialized heterogeneous processors, and architectures exploiting fine-grained, coarse-grained, or hybrid reconfigurability. Describes a computer engineering approach to SDR baseband processing hardware; Discusses implementation of numerous compute-intensive signal processing algorithms on single and multicore platforms; Enables deep understanding of optimization techniques related to power and energy consumption of multicore platforms using several basic a...

  12. Dramatugi Penyiar Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastika Yanti Nora

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dramaturgy is the work of Erving Goffman. He wrote "Presentation of Self in Everyday Life" in '1959. Following the theatrical analogy, Goffman spoke of a front stage and back stage. The front stage is that part of the performance that generally functions in rather fixed and general ways to define the situation for those who observed the performance. The back stage is situation where facts suppressed in the front or various kinds of informal actions may appear. A back stage is usually adjacent to the front stage, but it also cut off from it. Everyone in this world have to run his role in their everyday life. It also a radio announcer. As an actor, they have to be a nice and friendy person when they perform to make air personality, that is  a good  impression, from their audience. But before their perform in the front stage, there so much to do to prepare in the backstage. The front and back stage is radio announcer dramaturgy.

  13. Compact features in radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, A.

    1981-05-01

    The structure of compact features ('hotspots') in the outer lobes of classical double radio sources over a large flux density interval at 81.5 MHz is investigated in order to understand more fully the structural evolution of radio sources with both luminosity and redshift. The technique of interplanetary scintillations is used. An account is given of the development of a new telescope, the 3.6-hectare Array. A method for eliminating zero level and phase drifts from interferometric records and a method for analysing data scattered according to a skewed probability distribution are described. New observations of hotspots in complete samples of bright 3CR sources and 4C quasars having an intermediate flux density are then presented. The problems of interpreting scintillation data are then considered and three methods are suggested to reduce the difficulties imposed by the observational limitation known as 'blending', whereby the whole outer lobe may scintillate and distort the measured hotspot size. Finally, all the new observational data are assimilated and this leads to models for (a) the dependence of source structure on luminosity and (b) for the dependence of observed hotspot size on both luminosity and redshift. (author)

  14. KILOPARSEC-SCALE RADIO STRUCTURES IN NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Akihiro; Kino, Motoki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Nagira, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kawakatu, Nozomu [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Asada, Keiichi, E-mail: akihiro.doi@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-20

    We report the finding of kiloparsec (kpc)-scale radio structures in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters of the Very Large Array, which increases the number of known radio-loud NLS1s with kpc-scale structures to six, including two {gamma}-ray-emitting NLS1s (PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The detection rate of extended radio emissions in NLS1s is lower than that in broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a statistical significance. We found both core-dominated (blazar-like) and lobe-dominated (radio-galaxy-like) radio structures in these six NLS1s, which can be understood in the framework of the unified scheme of radio-loud AGNs that considers radio galaxies as non-beamed parent populations of blazars. Five of the six NLS1s have (1) extended radio luminosities suggesting jet kinetic powers of {approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, which is sufficient to make jets escape from hosts' dense environments; (2) black holes of {approx}> 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }, which can generate the necessary jet powers from near-Eddington mass accretion; and (3) two-sided