WorldWideScience

Sample records for array device capable

  1. Microreactor Array Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Labaer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

  2. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Anthony L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  3. Microfluidic device capable of sensing ultrafast chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Teck; Ko, Seok Oh; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2009-05-15

    Based on the principle of liquid core waveguide, a novel microfluidic device with micro-scale detection window capable of sensing flashlight emitted from rapid 1,1'-oxalyldi-4-methylimidazole (OD4MI) chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was fabricated. Light emitted from OD4MI CL reaction occurring in the micro-dimensional pentagonal detection window (length of each line segment: 900.0 microm, depth: 50.0 microm) of the microfluidic device with two inlets and one outlet was so bright that it was possible to take an image every 1/30 s at the optimal focusing distance (60 cm) using a commercial digital camera. Peaks obtained using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system with the micro-scale detection window and OD4MI CL detection show excellent resolution and reproducibility without any band-broadening observed in analytical devices having additional reaction channel(s) to measure light generated from slow CL reaction. Maximum height (H(max)) and area (A) of peak, reproducibility and sensitivity observed in the FIA system with the microfluidic device and OD4MI CL detection depends on (1) the mole ratio between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate and 4-methyl imidazole yielding OD4MI, (2) the flow rate to mix OD4MI, H(2)O(2) and 1-AP in the detection window of the microfluidic device, and (3) H(2)O(2) concentration. We obtained linear calibration curves with wide dynamic ranges using H(max) and A. The detection limit of 1-AP determined with H(max) and A was as low as 0.05 fmole/injection (signal/background=3.0). PMID:19269463

  4. Advanced Capabilities Medical Suction Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact microgravity and hypogravity compatible vacuum device is proposed to provide medical suction and containment of extracted fluids. The proposed aspirator...

  5. Imaging capabilities of weak-phase interferometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Andre

    1998-07-01

    The first imaging devices of optical interferometry are likely to be of weak phase, typically: a set of three- element arrays, coherent and stable, independently observing the same object. The study of their imaging capabilities essentially addresses the self-calibration problem and its stability. Like in VLBI, the principle of our self- calibration methods consists in preforming a series of alternate phase calibration operations and Fourier synthesis processes. Algebraic graph theory and algebraic number theory prove to be the key topics involved in the phase calibration operation. The latter can often be written in closed form. As expected, the relative expressions explicitly refer to a set of independent closure phases. To illustrate this essential point, we consider the special case of three-element arrays. The corresponding phase calibration formula, which is then particularly simple, provides all the elements for coping with the possible global instabilities. The Fourier synthesis process, which is also involved in the self-calibration cycles, is performed via WIPE, a methodology recently introduced in radio imaging and optical interferometry. The robustness of the image reconstruction process can then be well controlled.

  6. Printable Graphene-based Thermoelectric Device with High Temperature Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Chen, Yanan; Drew, Dennis; Hu, Liangbing; NanomaterialsEmerging Devices Collaboration

    Thermoelectric devices are of particular interest due to their capability to convert heat into electrical power. We demonstrate the use of a Graphene-based thermoelectric device that can generate output voltages of hundreds of millivolts with an illuminating Graphene strip as the blackbody source. Our proposed device is superior for thermoelectric conversion mainly due to its high temperature capability that yields a maximum Carnot efficiency limit of 90% (referenced to room temperature) and a high Seebeck coefficient. Our device is also macroscopic with good mechanical strength and stabilized performance, making it attractive for large scale and reliable thermoelectric devices.

  7. Nanotube Production Devices Expand Research Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In order for the Hubble Space Telescope to take incredible, never-seen-before shots of celestial bodies and then send them back to Earth, the spacecraft needs power. While in orbit, Hubble cannot plug into an electrical outlet or stop at a store for some batteries. One of the ways NASA supplies power aboard a spacecraft is by harnessing energy from the most powerful entity in the solar system: the Sun. Since the 1960s, photovoltaic technology, or technology that converts sunlight into electricity, has been instrumental in the exploration of space. To build upon existing photovoltaic technology, NASA s Glenn Research Center has worked on a variety of innovative designs and materials to incorporate into photovoltaic cells, the building blocks of solar power systems. One of these materials is the carbon nanotube - a tiny structure about 50,000 times finer than the average human hair, with notably high electrical and thermal conductivity and an extreme amount of mechanical strength. Such properties give carbon nanotubes great potential to enhance the reliability of power generation and storage devices in space and on Earth. Dennis J. Flood, the branch chief of the photovoltaic division at Glenn in the 1990s, was looking into using carbon nanotubes to improve the efficiency of solar cells when he ran into a major roadblock - high-quality carbon nanotubes were not readily available. To address this problem, one of the chemists in Flood s group came up with a process and system for growing them. A senior chemist at Glenn, Aloysius F. Hepp, devised an injection chemical vapor deposition process using a specific organometallic catalyst in a two-zone furnace. Hepp's group found the unique process produced high-quality carbon nanotubes with less than 5 percent metal impurity. In addition, the process was more efficient than existing techniques, as it eliminated pre-patterning of the substrate used for growing the nanotubes, a timely and cost-prohibitive step.

  8. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  9. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  10. Device Characteristics and Capabilities Discovery for Multimedia Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faisal Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of web and mobile technologies has allowed people to access multimedia content from a wide range of heterogeneous client devices that have different characteristics and capabilities. In order to deliver the best presentation of content requested, the web system must possess a mechanism that is able to accurately discover the characteristics and capabilities of a client’s device. Existing content negotiation techniques mainly focus on static profiling approach without considering the combination of static and dynamic approaches that are capable of overcoming the device scalability issues. In view of these issues, we propose a hybrid approach for recognizing devices and their capabilities using token-based method. By proposing such solution, we can provide flexible, extensible, and scalable method that provides more accurate information in resolving the content negotiation issues. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we construct a laboratory and field studies to investigate its performance and accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid approach has better performances in several aspects compared to the static profiling.

  11. Monolithic arrays of surface emitting laser NOR logic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Song, J.-I-; Lee, Y. H.; Yoo, J. Y.; Shin, J H; Scherer, A.; Leibenguth, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic, cascadable, laser-logic-device arrays have been realized and characterized. The monolithic surface-emitting laser logic (SELL) device consists of an AlGaAs superlattice lasing around 780 nm connected to a heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) in parallel and a resistor in series. Arrays up to 8×8 have been fabricated, and 2×2 arrays show uniform characteristics. The optical logic output is switched off with 40 μW incident optical input.

  12. Device, array, and methods for disease detection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rupa S.; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2016-06-14

    A device and array coupled to capture molecules are provided. Specifically, the device and array can be used for detecting the presence and concentration of biomarkers in a sample from a subject. The device and array can also allow the use of a method for scoring a sample for, e.g., the purpose of diagnosing a disease. The method can also be advantageous to applications where there is a need to accurately determine the disease stage of a subject for the purpose of making therapeutic decisions.

  13. Field-Capable Biodetection Devices for Homeland Security Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, G M; Clague, D S; Miles, R R

    2007-04-05

    Biodetection instrumentation that is capable of functioning effectively outside the controlled laboratory environment is critical for the detection of health threats, and is a crucial technology for Health Security. Experience in bringing technologies from the basic research laboratory to integrated fieldable instruments suggests lessons for the engineering of these systems. This overview will cover several classes of such devices, with examples from systems developed for homeland security missions by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Recent trends suggest that front-end sample processing is becoming a critical performance-determining factor for many classes of fieldable biodetection devices. This paper introduces some results of a recent study that was undertaken to assess the requirements and potential technologies for next-generation integrated sample processing.

  14. On the interference rejection capabilities of triangular antenna array for cellular base stations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of the triangular antenna arrays in terms of the interference rejection capability. In this context, we derive an expression to calculate the spatial interference suppression coefficient for the triangular antenna array with variable number of antenna elements. The performance of the triangular antenna array has been compared with the circular antenna array with respect to interference suppression performance, steering beam pattern, beamwidth and directivity. Simulation results show that the triangular array with large number of elements produces a sharper beamwidth and better interference suppression performance than the circular antenna array. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Electrical coupling in multi-array charge coupled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Sakarvadiya, Vishal; Dubey, Neeraj; Kirkire, Shweta; Thapa, Nitesh; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Silicon based charge coupled device (CCD) performances have improved immensely over the years. Scientific community across the globe target challenging remote sensing applications with CCD as optical imaging detector. Over the years, both pixel count (from few hundreds to few tens of thousands) and line readout rate (from few kHz to few tens of kHz) have increased considerably. Pixels are readout using a large number of output ports driven up to few tens of MHz Moreover, for multi-spectral applications, same Si die contains multiple arrays sharing input stimuli. This is usually done to optimize package pin count. Si die as well as package level layout of clock and bias lines become critical for closely spaced multi-array devices. The inter-array separation may go down to few hundreds of microns when filter coating is laid on top of the die. Die level layout becomes quite critical for devices with such architecture. The inter-array (consecutive arrays) separation is optimized to reduce optical coupling / stray light in devices integrated multi-band strip filter. Layout constraints along with shared bias/clock lines are known to produce electrical cross-talk or coupling. Effect of this (within one array or between two arrays) cross-talk is more pronounced in systems having low noise floor. Video signal dependent coupling in a multi-port system becomes quite complex and leads to a relatively noisier system (post correction). The paper presents results of simulations and tests (pre and post correction) addressing this type of electrical coupling. The paper presents cause, impact and possible remedial measures to minimize such coupling in a multi-array, multi-port TDI CCD from 1.3% to below 0.06%.

  16. Multiplexed charge-locking device for large arrays of quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddy, R. K.; Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; Chong, C. H.; Farrer, I.; Griffiths, J. P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Pepper, M.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method of forming and controlling large arrays of gate-defined quantum devices. The method uses an on-chip, multiplexed charge-locking system and helps to overcome the restraints imposed by the number of wires available in cryostat measurement systems. The device architecture that we describe here utilises a multiplexer-type scheme to lock charge onto gate electrodes. The design allows access to and control of gates whose total number exceeds that of the available electrical contacts and enables the formation, modulation and measurement of large arrays of quantum devices. We fabricate such devices on n-type GaAs/AlGaAs substrates and investigate the stability of the charge locked on to the gates. Proof-of-concept is shown by measurement of the Coulomb blockade peaks of a single quantum dot formed by a floating gate in the device. The floating gate is seen to drift by approximately one Coulomb oscillation per hour.

  17. Multiplexed charge-locking device for large arrays of quantum devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puddy, R. K., E-mail: rkp27@cam.ac.uk; Smith, L. W; Chong, C. H.; Farrer, I.; Griffiths, J. P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Pepper, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    We present a method of forming and controlling large arrays of gate-defined quantum devices. The method uses an on-chip, multiplexed charge-locking system and helps to overcome the restraints imposed by the number of wires available in cryostat measurement systems. The device architecture that we describe here utilises a multiplexer-type scheme to lock charge onto gate electrodes. The design allows access to and control of gates whose total number exceeds that of the available electrical contacts and enables the formation, modulation and measurement of large arrays of quantum devices. We fabricate such devices on n-type GaAs/AlGaAs substrates and investigate the stability of the charge locked on to the gates. Proof-of-concept is shown by measurement of the Coulomb blockade peaks of a single quantum dot formed by a floating gate in the device. The floating gate is seen to drift by approximately one Coulomb oscillation per hour.

  18. First Results On The Imaging Capabilities Of A DROID Array In The UV/Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Venn, R.

    2009-12-01

    Within the SCAM project of the European Space Agency the next step in the development of a cryogenic optical photon counting imaging spectrometer would be to increase the field of view using DROIDs (Distributed Read-Out Imaging Detector). We present the results of the first system test using an array of 60 360×33.5 μm2 DROIDs in a 3×20 format for optical photon detection. This is an increase in area by a factor of 5.5 compared to the successful S-Cam 3 detector. The responsivity of the DROID array tested is too low for actual use on the telescope. However the spatial resolution of ˜35 μm is just above the size of a virtual pixel and imaging capabilities of the array can be demonstrated. With increasing responsivity this will improve, yielding a DROID array which can be used as an astronomical optical photon counting imaging spectrometer.

  19. Development and evaluation of an ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambe, T., E-mail: hiro-a-be.n@akane.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ikeda, H. [ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Matsuda, H.; Kato, T. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-21

    We developed a front-end ASIC for future PET scanners with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) capability to be coupled with 4×4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays. The ASIC is designed based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and realized in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 16-channel, low impedance current conveyors for effectively acquiring fast MPPC signals. For precise measurement of the coincidence timing of 511-keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was used to discriminate the signals. We first tested the time response of the ASIC by illuminating each channel of a MPPC array device 3×3 mm{sup 2} in size with a Pico-second Light Pulsar with a light emission peak of 655 nm and pulse duration of 54 ps (FWHM). We obtained 105 ps (FWHM) on average for each channel in time jitter measurements. Moreover, we compensated for the time lag of each channel with inner delay circuits and succeeded in suppressing about a 700-ps lag to only 15 ps. This paper reports TOF measurements using back-to-back 511-keV signals, and suggests that the ASIC can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners based on the MPPC array. - Highlights: • We developed a newly designed large-area monolithic MPPC array. • We obtained fine gain uniformity, and good energy and time resolutions when coupled to the LYSO scintillator. • We fabricated gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array and the submillimeter pixelized LYSO and GGAG scintillators. • In the flood images, each crystal of scintillator matrices was clearly resolved. • Good energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each LYSO and GGAG scintillator matrices were obtained.

  20. Reconfiguration of Urban Photovoltaic Arrays Using Commercial Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garcés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent approach to mitigate the adverse effects of photovoltaic (PV arrays operating under mismatching conditions is the dynamic electrical reconfiguration of the PV panels. This paper introduces a procedure to determine the best configuration of a PV array connected in a series-parallel structure without using complex mathematical models. Such a procedure uses the experimental current vs. voltage curves of the PV panels, which are composed of multiple PV modules, to construct the power vs. voltage curves of all of the possible configurations to identify the optimal one. The main advantage of this method is the low computational effort required to reconstruct the power vs. voltage curves of the array. This characteristic enables one to implement the proposed solution using inexpensive embedded devices, which are widely adopted in industrial applications. The proposed method, and its embedded implementation, were tested using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the PV system. Finally, the real-time operation and benefits of the proposed solution are illustrated using a practical example based on commercial devices.

  1. MEMS Micro-Translation Device with Improved Linear Travel Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushagur, Mustafa A. G. (Inventor); Ferguson, Cynthia K. (Inventor); Nordin, Gregory P. (Inventor); English, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic translation device for a microelectromechanical system includes a pair of linear stator assemblies disposed in spaced relation to define an elongate channel. Each assembly is formed by a plurality of stators arranged in a row along the channel. A shuttle member is disposed between the stator assemblies for translating movement along the channel. The shuttle member includes a plurality of rotors extending outwardly from opposite sides. The shuttle is grounded through the stator assemblies and includes a mounting area for an object to be translated. Electrical lines are individually connected to alternate stators of a plurality of groups of the stators. A current supply sequentially supplies current through the electrical lines to the alternate stators so as to effect charging of the stators in a predetermined sequence. This produces a tangential capacitive force that causes translation of the shuttle.

  2. Location capability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory seismic array, northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The adequacy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory seismic array in northern New Mexico has been evaluated by a recently implemented least squares inversion program for seismic arrival time data. The condition number of the partial derivative matrix of travel times provides information for estimating the quality of hypocentral solutions. Spatial variation of the condition number combined with the results of inversion of synthetic arrival time data enables us to assess the capability of the seismic array in locating earthquakes occurring throughout the northern part of the state. The results define a large portion of north-central New Mexico over which earthquake epicenters can be detected and located by the Los Alamos array.

  3. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  4. Further Development of a Conformable Phased Array Device for Inspection Over Irregular Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.; Cawley, P.

    2008-02-01

    Further development of a conformable phased array device that allows reliable ultrasonic inspection of components with irregular surfaces has been undertaken. The device uses a standard linear phased array transducer, which is coupled to the surface under test by a water path, encapsulated by a low loss, castable polyurethane rubber membrane. It is shown that the conformable membrane coupled phased array device provides a solution for ultrasonic inspection around the weld region of welded pipes.

  5. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels: advanced wafer-level process technologies for integration of focal plane arrays with readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Dorota S.; Vick, Erik P.; Lueck, Matthew R.; Malta, Dean; Skokan, Mark R.; Masterjohn, Christopher M.; Muzilla, Mark S.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the development of infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) has seen two trends: decreasing of the pixel size and increasing of signal-processing capability at the device level. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels can be achieved through the use of advanced wafer-level processes for the integration of FPAs with silicon (Si) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we review the development of these wafer-level integration technologies, highlighting approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with three-dimensional ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of Si circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias.

  6. A new active array MST radar system with enhanced capabilities for high resolution atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, T.; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Kmv, Prasad; Kamal Kumar, J.; Raghavendra, J.; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Thriveni, A.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A new version of the 53-MHz MST Radar, using the 1024 solid state Transmit-Receive Modules (TRM), necessary feeder network, multi-channel receiver and a modified radar controller has been established using the existing antenna array of 1024 crossed Yagis. The new system has been configured for steering the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis in all 360o azimuth and 20o zenith angle, providing enhanced capability to study the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere and Ionosphere. The multi channel receiver system has been designed for Spaced Antenna (SA) and Interferometry/ Iamging applications. The new system has also been configured for radiating in circular polarization for its application in the Ionosphere Incoherent Scatter mode. The new active array MST radar at Very-High-Frequency (53-MHz) located at Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), a tropical station in India, will be used to enhance the observations of winds, turbulence during the passage of convective events over the radar site as deep convection occurs very often at tropical latitudes. The new configuration with enhanced average power, beam agility with multi-channel experiments will be a potential source for studying middle atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present the system configuration, new capabilities and the first results obtained using the new version of the MST Radar.

  7. Single molecule detection using charge-coupled device array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, M.B.

    1992-07-29

    A technique for the detection of single fluorescent chromophores in a flowing stream is under development. This capability is an integral facet of a rapid DNA sequencing scheme currently being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. In previous investigations, the detection sensitivity was limited by the background Raman emission from the water solvent. A detection scheme based on a novel mode of operating a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) is being developed which should greatly enhance the discrimination between fluorescence from a single molecule and the background Raman scattering from the solvent. Register shifts between rows in the CCD are synchronized with the sample flow velocity so that fluorescence from a single molecule is collected in a single moving charge packet occupying an area approaching that of a single pixel while the background is spread evenly among a large number of pixels. Feasibility calculations indicate that single molecule detection should be achieved with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Large format focal plane array integration with precision alignment, metrology and accuracy capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jay; Parlato, Russell; Tracy, Gregory; Randolph, Max

    2015-09-01

    Focal plane alignment for large format arrays and faster optical systems require enhanced precision methodology and stability over temperature. The increase in focal plane array size continues to drive the alignment capability. Depending on the optical system, the focal plane flatness of less than 25μm (.001") is required over transition temperatures from ambient to cooled operating temperatures. The focal plane flatness requirement must also be maintained in airborne or launch vibration environments. This paper addresses the challenge of the detector integration into the focal plane module and housing assemblies, the methodology to reduce error terms during integration and the evaluation of thermal effects. The driving factors influencing the alignment accuracy include: datum transfers, material effects over temperature, alignment stability over test, adjustment precision and traceability to NIST standard. The FPA module design and alignment methodology reduces the error terms by minimizing the measurement transfers to the housing. In the design, the proper material selection requires matched coefficient of expansion materials minimizes both the physical shift over temperature as well as lowering the stress induced into the detector. When required, the co-registration of focal planes and filters can achieve submicron relative positioning by applying precision equipment, interferometry and piezoelectric positioning stages. All measurements and characterizations maintain traceability to NIST standards. The metrology characterizes the equipment's accuracy, repeatability and precision of the measurements.

  9. 76 FR 60870 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof... 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  10. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Enhancing power transfer capability through flexible AC transmission system devices:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadi M ALBATSH; Saad MEKHILEF; Shameem AHMAD; H MOKHLIS; M A HASSAN

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for power has significantly increased, but power generation and transmission capacities have not increased proportionally with this demand. As a result, power consumers suffer from various problems, such as voltage and frequency instability and power quality issues. To overcome these problems, the capacity for available power transfer of a transmission network should be enhanced. Researchers worldwide have addressed this issue by using flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices. We have conducted a comprehensive review of how FACTS controllers are used to enhance the avail-able transfer capability (ATC) and power transfer capability (PTC) of power system networks. This review includes a discussion of the classification of different FACTS devices according to different factors. The popularity and applications of these devices are discussed together with relevant statistics. The operating principles of six major FACTS devices and their application in increasing ATC and PTC are also presented. Finally, we evaluate the performance of FACTS devices in ATC and PTC im-provement with respect to different control algorithms.

  12. Enhanced out-coupling factor of microcavity organic light-emitting devices with irregular microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongsun; Oh, Seung Seok; Youp Kim, Doo; Cho, Sang Hee; Kim, In Tae; Han, S. H.; Takezoe, Hideo; Choi, Eun Ha; Cho, Guang Sup; Seo, Yoon Ho; Oun Kang, Seung; Park, Byoungchoo

    2006-07-01

    We studied microcavity organic light-emitting devices with a microlens system. A microcavity for organic light-emitting devices (OLED) was fabricated by stacks of SiO2 and SiNx layers and a metal cathode together with the microlens array. Electroluminescence of the devices showed that color variation under the viewing angle due to the microcavity is suppressed remarkably by microlens arrays, which makes the use of devices acceptable in many applications. It was also demonstrated that the external out-coupling factor of the devise increases by a factor of ~1.8 with wide viewing angles compared to conventional OLEDs.

  13. The air elimination capabilities of pressure infusion devices and fluid-warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, J; Macko, S; Weber, I; Rossaint, R

    2004-08-01

    Pressurised infusion devices may have only limited capability to detect and remove air during pressurised infusions. In order to assess pressure infusion systems with regard to their actual air elimination capabilities four disposable pressure infusion systems and fluid warmers were investigated: The Level 1 (L-1), Ranger (RA), Gymar (GY), and the Warmflo (WF). Different volumes of air were injected proximal to the heat exchanger and the remaining amount of air that was delivered at the end of the tubing was measured during pressurised infusions. Elimination of the injected air (100-200 ml) was superior by the RA system when compared to L-1 (p < 0.01). The GY and WF systems failed to eliminate the injected air. In conclusion, air elimination was best performed by the RA system. In terms of the risk of air embolism during pressurised infusions, improvements in air elimination of the investigated devices are still necessary. PMID:15270975

  14. Manganite-based three level memristive devices with self-healing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, W. Román; Rubi, D.; Lecourt, J.; Lüders, U.; Gomez-Marlasca, F.; Granell, P.; Golmar, F.; Levy, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report on non-volatile memory devices based on multifunctional manganites. The electric field induced resistive switching of Ti/La1/3Ca2/3MnO3/n-Si devices is explored using different measurement protocols. We show that using current as the electrical stimulus (instead of standard voltage-controlled protocols) improves the electrical performance of our devices and unveils an intermediate resistance state. We observe three discrete resistance levels (low, intermediate and high), which can be set either by the application of current-voltage ramps or by means of single pulses. These states exhibit retention and endurance capabilities exceeding 104 s and 70 cycles, respectively. We rationalize our experimental observations by proposing a mixed scenario were a metallic filament and a SiOx layer coexist, accounting for the observed resistive switching. Overall electrode area dependence and temperature dependent resistance measurements support our scenario. After device failure takes place, the system can be turned functional again by heating up to low temperature (120 °C), a feature that could be exploited for the design of memristive devices with self-healing functionality. These results give insight into the existence of multiple resistive switching mechanisms in manganite-based memristive systems and provide strategies for controlling them.

  15. Free surface height deformation upstream of an array of model marine hydrokinetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Krane, M.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in flow velocity and free surface height upstream of an array of model marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices are measured in small-scale flume. These models consist of a stationary perforated plate mounted to a cylinder. The perforated plates mimic the blockage ratio and head loss effects of rotating blades on the flow, and the cylinders represent typical support structures for MHK devices. Experimental results are used to for two purposes. First, they will be used validate numerical simulations being conducted in parallel. Second, they will be used to determine a spatial arrangement for a field testing array that optimizes energy extraction. The operating hypothesis is that the proper spatial arrangement of a MHK array can modify the incident flow so as to increase the fluid energy incident upon some of the MHK devices in the array, increasing the energy produced by the array. The testing is conducted in the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, and 1.25 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&HL) at Bucknell University. Within the facility a small-scale testing platform which consists of a nozzle insert is used to accelerate the flow into a test section (2 ft wide, 2.5 ft long, and 0.75 ft deep), where the cylinder arrays are located. The model MHK devices sizes are scaled using the test section floor turbulent boundary layer thickness. Flow field measurements are performed using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Mapping of the free surface is accomplished with an ultrasonic liquid level finder. Both devices are positioned using a programmable gantry system that has access to the entire test section. For each array configuration tested, both the free surface height and flow field upstream of the model MHK array are accurately mapped. These measurements are combined with the free surface height measurements to estimate the total fluid energy upstream of the array.

  16. Novel electrodeless-dielectrophoresis device for nanoparticle trapping using three-dimensional inverted-pyramid arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Chien-Lung Lin, Liang-Ju, Jr.; Kuo, Ju-Nan

    2016-05-01

    A novel electrodeless-dielectrophoresis (EDEP) device incorporating three-dimensional (3D) inverted-pyramid arrays is proposed for the trapping and separation of nanoparticles. The electrokinetic phenomena in the proposed device are investigated both numerically and experimentally. The results reveal that the pyramid structures induce a 3D squeezed electric field, which allows particle trapping with a lower driving voltage than that required in traditional two-dimensional (2D) EDEP devices. Overall, the proposed EDEP device provides a mass-producible solution for nanoparticle-trapping applications and overcomes the Poisson statistical limit inherent in 2D nanogap-based EDEP devices with smaller (pL) sample volumes.

  17. 78 FR 42107 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... certain wireless devices with 3G capabilities and components thereof imported by respondents Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. of Shenzhen, China; FutureWei Technologies, Inc. d/b/a Huawei, Technologies (USA) of Plano, Texas; Huawei Device USA, Inc. of Plano, Texas (``Huawei Device''); Nokia Corporation of...

  18. Kilopixel X-Ray Microcalorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics: Device Performance and Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Porst, J.-P.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing kilopixel arrays of TES microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution x-ray imaging spectrometers for future x-ray observatories and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Our current array design was targeted as a prototype for the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer proposed for the International X-ray Observatory, which calls for a 40×40-pixel core array of 300 micron devices with 2.5 eV energy resolution (at 6 keV). Here we present device characterization of our 32×32 arrays, including x-ray spectral performance of individual pixels within the array. We present our results in light of the understanding that our Mo/Au TESs act as weak superconducting links, causing the TES critical current (I(sub c)) and transition shape to oscillate with applied magnetic field (B). We show I(sub c)(B) measurements and discuss the uniformity of these measurements across the array, as well as implications regarding the uniformity of device noise and response. In addition, we are working to reduce pixel-to-pixel electrical and thermal crosstalk; we present recent test results from an array that has microstrip wiring and an angle-evaporated copper backside heatsinking layer, which provides copper coverage on the four sidewalls of the silicon wells beneath each pixel.

  19. Automatic Release of Silicon Nanowire Arrays with a High Integrity for Flexible Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Luo; Li, Shuxin; He, Weiwei; Teng, Dayong; Wang, Ke; Ye, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    Automatic release and vertical transferring of silicon/silicon oxide nanowire arrays with a high integrity are demonstrated by an Ag-assisted ammonia etching method. By adding a water steaming step between Ag-assisted HF/H2O2 and ammonia etching to form a SiOx protective layer sheathing Si nanowires, we can tune the composition of the nanowires from SiOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) to Si nanowires. Ag plays a key role to the neat and uniform release of Si/SiOx nanowire arrays from Si wafer in the ammonia etching process. The vertical Si nanowire array device, with both sides having high-quality Ohmic contact, can be transferred to arbitrary substrates, especially on a flexible substrate. The method developed here offers a facile method to realize flexible Si nanowire array functional devices. PMID:24487460

  20. Series-Parallel Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Arrays Using High-TC Ion Damage Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Travis; Mukhanov, Oleg

    2015-03-01

    We have fabricated several designs of three junction series-parallel DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (BiSQUID) arrays in YBa2Cu3O7-x using 104 ion damage Josephson Junctions on a single 1 cm2 chip. A high aspect ratio ion implantation mask (30:1 ratio) with 30 nm slits was fabricated using electron beam lithography and low pressure reactive ion etching. Samples were irradiated with 60 keV helium ions to achieve a highly uniform damaged region throughout the thickness of the YBCO thin film as confirmed with Monte Carlo ion implantation simulations. Low frequency measurements of four different BiSQUID series-parallel SQUID array devices will be presented to investigate the effect of the BiSQUID design parameters on the linearity of the SQUID array in response to magnetic fields. BiSQUID arrays could provide a promising architecture for improved linearity transimpedance amplifiers with high linearity.

  1. Least-Square Collaborative Beamforming Linear Array for Steering Capability in Green Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NikNoordini NikAbdMalik; Mazlina Esa; Nurul Mu’azzah Abdul Latiff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract-This paper presents a collaborative beamforming (CB) technique to organize the sensor node’s location in a linear array for green wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this method, only selected clusters and active CB nodes are needed each time to perform CB in WSNs. The proposed least-square linear array (LSLA) manages to select nodes to perform as a linear antenna array (LAA), which is similar to and as outstanding as the conventional uniform linear array (ULA). The LSLA technique is also able to solve positioning error problems that exist in the random nodes deployment. The beampattern fluctuations have been analyzed due to the random positions of sensor nodes. Performances in terms of normalized power gains are given. It is demonstrated by a simulation that the proposed technique gives similar performances to the conventional ULA and at the same time exhibits lower complexity.

  2. Scattering detection using a photonic-microfluidic integrated device with on-chip collection capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Benjamin R; Zhang, Zhiyi; Xu, Chang Qing; Cao, Xudong; Lin, Min

    2014-02-01

    SU-8-based photonic-microfluidic integrated devices with on-chip beam shaping and collection capabilities were demonstrated in a scattering detection and counting application. Through the proper deployment of the tailored beam geometries via the on-chip excitation optics, excellent CV values were measured for 1, 2, and 5 μm blank beads, 16.4, 11.0, and 12.5%, respectively, coupled with a simple free-space optical detection scheme. The performance of these devices was found dependent on the combination of on-chip, lens-shaped beam geometry and bead size. While very low CVs were obtained when the combination was ideal, a nonideal combination could still result in acceptable CVs for flow cytometry; the reliability was confirmed via devices being able to resolve separate populations of 2.0 and 5.0 μm beads from their mixture with low CV values of 15.9 and 18.5%, respectively. On-chip collection using integrated on-chip optical waveguides was shown to be very reliable in comparison with a free-space collection scheme, yielding a coincident rate of 94.2%. A CV as low as 19.2% was obtained from the on-chip excitation and collection of 5 μm beads when the on-chip lens-shaped beam had a 6.0-μm beam waist.

  3. Integrated array of 2-mum antimonide-based single-photon counting devices

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, M.A.; Greszik, M.; Duerr, E.K.; Zayhowski, J.J.; Manfra, M. J.; Bailey, R J; Donnelly, J. P.; Turner, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    A 32x32 Sb-based Geiger-mode (GM) avalanche photodiode array, operating at 2 mum with three-dimensional imaging capability, is presented. The array is interfaced with a ROIC (readout integrated circuit) in which each pixel can detect a photon and record the arrival time. The hybridized unit for the 1000-element focal plane array, when operated at 77K with 1 V overbias range, shows an average dark count rate of 1.5 kHz. Three-dimensional range images of objects were acquired.

  4. Integrated array of 2-μm antimonide-based single-photon counting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, M A; Greszik, M; Duerr, E K; Zayhowski, J J; Manfra, M J; Bailey, R J; Donnelly, J P; Turner, G W

    2011-02-28

    A 32x32 Sb-based Geiger-mode (GM) avalanche photodiode array, operating at 2 μm with three-dimensional imaging capability, is presented. The array is interfaced with a ROIC (readout integrated circuit) in which each pixel can detect a photon and record the arrival time. The hybridized unit for the 1000-element focal plane array, when operated at 77K with 1 V overbias range, shows an average dark count rate of 1.5 kHz. Three-dimensional range images of objects were acquired. PMID:21369250

  5. Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver. [Improving Electrical Power and Communication Capabilities in Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) project will leverage several existing and on-going efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the design, development, fabrication, and test of a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaics for power generation and antenna elements for communication, are embedded. Photovoltaics is a method for converting solar energy into electricity using semiconductor materials. The system will provide higher power generation with a lower mass, smaller stowage volume, and lower cost than the state of the art solar arrays, while simultaneously enabling deployable antenna concepts.

  6. Direct X-Ray Response Of Charge-Coupled Devices And Photodiode Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launspach, J.; Bourgade, J. L.; Cavailler, C.; de Mascureau, J.; Mens, A.; Sauneuf, R.

    1986-08-01

    For x-ray calibration of detectors used on laser created plasma experiments we have developed and characterized two kinds of sources : classical continuous x-ray sources operating at 1.8 keV and 5.4 keV and a pulsed source obtained by modifying a plasma Focus device. Calibration data for x-ray Charge - Coupled Devices (CCD) and photodiode linear array cameras are presented.

  7. A Novel CMOS Device Capable of Measuring Near-Field Thermal Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Chong; TANG Zhen-An; YU Jun

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design,fabrication,and characterization of a micro plane-plane geometry CMOS device,which has a heat emitter and a heat receiver,capable of studying the near-field radiative heat transfer at a 550nm gap.Under high vacuum conditions,the heat emitter is heated by supplying driving currents and heated again after removing the heat receiver.The heating power difference between the two kinds of heating experiments indicates the existence of a proximity effect in the heat transfer between the emitter and the receiver.Our experiments pave the way towards overcoming the construction difficulty of plane-plane geometry with a nanometer gap.

  8. MIEC (mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction)-based access devices for non-volatile crossbar memory arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Rohit S.; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Virwani, Kumar; Jackson, Bryan; Padilla, Alvaro; Narayanan, Pritish; Rettner, Charles T.; Shelby, Robert M.; Bethune, Donald S.; Raman, Karthik V.; BrightSky, Matthew; Joseph, Eric; Rice, Philip M.; Topuria, Teya; Kellock, Andrew J.; Kurdi, Bülent; Gopalakrishnan, Kailash

    2014-10-01

    Several attractive applications call for the organization of memristive devices (or other resistive non-volatile memory (NVM)) into large, densely-packed crossbar arrays. While resistive-NVM devices frequently possess some degree of inherent nonlinearity (typically 3-30× contrast), the operation of large (\\gt 1000×1000 device) arrays at low power tends to require quite large (\\gt 1e7) ON-to-OFF ratios (between the currents passed at high and at low voltages). One path to such large nonlinearities is the inclusion of a distinct access device (AD) together with each of the state-bearing resistive-NVM elements. While such an AD need not store data, its list of requirements is almost as challenging as the specifications demanded of the memory device. Several candidate ADs have been proposed, but obtaining high performance without requiring single-crystal silicon and/or the high processing temperatures of the front-end-of-the-line—which would eliminate any opportunity for 3D stacking—has been difficult. We review our work at IBM Research—Almaden on high-performance ADs based on Cu-containing mixed-ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) materials [1-7]. These devices require only the low processing temperatures of the back-end-of-the-line, making them highly suitable for implementing multi-layer cross-bar arrays. MIEC-based ADs offer large ON/OFF ratios (\\gt 1e7), a significant voltage margin {{V}m} (over which current \\lt 10 nA), and ultra-low leakage (\\lt 10 pA), while also offering the high current densities needed for phase-change memory and the fully bipolar operation needed for high-performance RRAM. Scalability to critical lateral dimensions \\lt 30 nm and thicknesses \\lt 15 nm, tight distributions and 100% yield in large (512 kBit) arrays, long-term stability of the ultra-low leakage states, and sub-50 ns turn-ON times have all been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of these MIEC-based ADs shows that their operation depends on C{{u}+} mediated hole

  9. A versatile method to grow localized arrays of nanowires for highly sensitive capacitive devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, A.; Yunus, S.;

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to increase the detection efficiency of the capacitive sensing devices, by growing vertically aligned nanowires arrays, localized and confined on small interdigited electrodes structures. The metallic tracks are made using optical lithography, and the nanowires are reali...... these considerations, a capacitive sensor structure with high active surface is sensitized with polyaniline, for pH detection. Reported data show that the sensitivity of the sensor is substantially improved by using nanowires arrays.......We propose a new approach to increase the detection efficiency of the capacitive sensing devices, by growing vertically aligned nanowires arrays, localized and confined on small interdigited electrodes structures. The metallic tracks are made using optical lithography, and the nanowires are...

  10. Optically pumped lasing and electroluminescence in ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, You-Liang; Wang, Peng; Chen, Kai; Zhao, Qing

    2015-11-01

    The preparation of a highly ordered ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array is introduced. Combining the merits of nanolaser and plasmonic Fabry-Perot nanolaser, we designed and fabricated an ultraviolet nanolaser with Ag-dielectric hybrid film-coated n-ZnO nanowires (NWs) array on p-GaN substrate. Ultraviolet random lasing behavior from the ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array has been demonstrated with both optical and electrical pumping, where the surface plasmon enhancement effect in the lasing process is discussed. The numerical simulation results show the surface plasmon at the Ag/SiO2/ZnO interface may be excited and strongly compress the wave-guided modes, which were found to optimize the lasing spectrum and increase the light intensity compared to the bare NWs array. With the electric pumping of the device, the electroluminescence parameters are characterized and the underlying mechanism is also discussed.

  11. Rapid laser fabrication of microlens array using colorless liquid photopolymer for AMOLED devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Jeong, Han-Wook; Lee, Kong-Soo; Yi, Junsin; Yoo, Jae-Chern; Cho, Myung-Woo; Cho, Sung-Hak; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2011-01-01

    Microlens array (MLA) is microfabricated using Ultra Violet (UV) laser for display device applications. A colorless liquid photopolymer, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) 60, is spin-coated and pre-cured via UV light for completing the laser process. The laser energy controlled by a galvano scanner is radiated on the surface of the NOA 60. A rapid thermal volume expansion inside the material creates microlens array when the Gaussian laser energy is absorbed. The fabrication process conditions for various shapes and densities of MLA using a non-contact surface profiler are investigated. Furthermore, we analyze the optical and display characteristics for the Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) devices. Optimized condition furnishes the OLED with the enhancement of light emission by 15%. We show that UV laser technique, which is installed with NOA 60 MLA layer, is eligible for improving the performance of the next generation display devices.

  12. A novel device based on a fluorescent cross-responsive sensor array for detecting pesticide residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Huo, Danqun; Luo, Xiaogang; Dong, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a novel, simple, rapid, and low-cost detection device for pesticide residue was constructed. A sensor array based on a cross-responsive mechanism was designed. The data collection and processing system was used to detect fluorescent signal of the sensor arrays, and to extract unique patterns of the tested pesticide residue. Four selected pesticides, carbendazim, diazine, fenvalerate, and pentachloronitrobenzene, were detected by the proposed device. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the methods could 100% discriminate the four pesticide residues. According to the standard regression linear curve of the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of pesticide, the quantitative value of the pesticide was detected, and the device obtained responses at concentrations below 8 ppb, and it has a good linear relationship in the range of 0.01-1 ppm. According to the results, the proposed detection device showed excellent selectivity and discrimination ability for the pesticide residues. However, our preliminary study demonstrated that the proposed detection device has excellent potential application for the safety inspection of food.

  13. Virtual 3D interactive system with embedded multiwavelength optical sensor array and sequential devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Yi-Pai; Hu, Kuo-Jui

    2012-06-01

    We proposed a virtual 3D-touch system by bare finger, which can detect the 3-axis (x, y, z) information of finger. This system has multi-wavelength optical sensor array embedded on the backplane of TFT panel and sequentail devices on the border of TFT panel. We had developed reflecting mode which can be worked by bare finger for the 3D interaction. A 4-inch mobile 3D-LCD with this proposed system was successfully been demonstrated already.

  14. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  15. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  16. Effective piezoelectric response of substrate-integrated ZnO nanowire array devices on galvanized steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, By Jesus M; Baskaran, Sivapalan; Gaikwad, Anil V; Ngo-Duc, Tam-Triet; He, Xiangtong; Oye, Michael M; Meyyappan, M; Rout, Tapan K; Fu, John Y; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2013-11-13

    Harvesting waste energy through electromechanical coupling in practical devices requires combining device design with the development of synthetic strategies for large-area controlled fabrication of active piezoelectric materials. Here, we show a facile route to the large-area fabrication of ZnO nanostructured arrays using commodity galvanized steel as the Zn precursor as well as the substrate. The ZnO nanowires are further integrated within a device construct and the effective piezoelectric response is deduced based on a novel experimental approach involving induction of stress in the nanowires through pressure wave propagation along with phase-selective lock-in detection of the induced current. The robust methodology for measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient developed here allows for interrogation of piezoelectric functionality for the entire substrate under bending-type deformation of the ZnO nanowires.

  17. Exploration of maximum count rate capabilities for large-area photon counting arrays based on polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua

    2016-03-01

    Pixelated photon counting detectors with energy discrimination capabilities are of increasing clinical interest for x-ray imaging. Such detectors, presently in clinical use for mammography and under development for breast tomosynthesis and spectral CT, usually employ in-pixel circuits based on crystalline silicon - a semiconductor material that is generally not well-suited for economic manufacture of large-area devices. One interesting alternative semiconductor is polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si), a thin-film technology capable of creating very large-area, monolithic devices. Similar to crystalline silicon, poly-Si allows implementation of the type of fast, complex, in-pixel circuitry required for photon counting - operating at processing speeds that are not possible with amorphous silicon (the material currently used for large-area, active matrix, flat-panel imagers). The pixel circuits of two-dimensional photon counting arrays are generally comprised of four stages: amplifier, comparator, clock generator and counter. The analog front-end (in particular, the amplifier) strongly influences performance and is therefore of interest to study. In this paper, the relationship between incident and output count rate of the analog front-end is explored under diagnostic imaging conditions for a promising poly-Si based design. The input to the amplifier is modeled in the time domain assuming a realistic input x-ray spectrum. Simulations of circuits based on poly-Si thin-film transistors are used to determine the resulting output count rate as a function of input count rate, energy discrimination threshold and operating conditions.

  18. The effect of array spacing on scour around a marine hydrokinetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, G.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the study was to analyze the scour hole dimensions and scour rates around a marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device for various upstream locations of perforated disks. The MHK device is a bottom mounted, two-bladed horizontal axis turbine. Perforated disks model the wake effects of turbines that would be located upstream of the MHK device. While it is known that a V-array configuration is advantageous for power extraction, the effects on scour are not fully understood. The analysis focuses on the effect of variable spacing between the upstream disks and vertex device on scour. Experiments are performed in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. Sediment size (d50 = 790 microns) and Reynolds number based on the support structure diameter (ReD = 10200) are held constant for all tests. For each case, bed form topology was measured after a three hour time interval using a two-dimensional bed profiler. Time based scour depth is observed using incremental markings at the base of the support structure. Results show that the dimensions of the scour hole around the support structure of the MHK device increase as the spacing between devices is decreased.

  19. Glad nanostructured arrays with enhanced carrier collection and light trapping for photoconductive and photovoltaic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansizoglu, Hilal

    Solar energy harvesting has been of great interest for researchers over the past 50 years. Main emphasis has been on developing high quality materials with low defect density and proper band gaps. However, high cost of bulk materials and insufficient light absorption in thin films led to utilization of semiconductor nanostructures in photovoltaics and photonics. Light trapping abilities of nanostructures can provide high optical absorption whereas core/shell nanostructured arrays can allow enhanced charge carrier collection. However, most of the nanofabrication methods that can produce uniform nanostructure geometries are limited in materials, dimensions, and not compatible with industrial production systems. Therefore, it is essential to develop innovative low-cost fabrication approaches that can address these issues. The primary goal of this project is to investigate light trapping and carrier collection properties of glancing angle deposited (GLAD) nanostructured arrays for high-efficiency, low-cost photoconductive and photovoltaic devices using characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and time resolved photocurrent measurements. Indium sulfide (In2S3) has been chosen as a model material system in this study. GLAD nanostructured arrays of vertical rods, screws, springs, zigzags and tilted rods were fabricated and characterized. A strong dependence of optical absorption on the shapes of nanostructures is observed from UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A simulation study using finite difference time domain (FDTD) shows that introducing 3D geometry results in diffuse scattering of light and leads to high optical absorption. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine a simple and scalable fabrication technique for conformal and uniform shell coatings. The results suggest that an atomic flux with angular distribution, which can be

  20. Heat transfer capability of a thermosyphon heat transport device with experimental and CFD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced nuclear reactor designs envisage use of passive means of heat transfer during normal operation and accidental conditions. Thermosyphon device is a passive device that can be used for heat exchange applications where heat source and heat sink are separated by some distance. Thermosyphon device operates on natural circulation principle in which the flow is driven by thermally generated density gradients without use of pumps. This paper deals with studies on thermal hydraulic behaviour of a thermosyphon device. Experiments are performed in the thermosyphon device using water as working fluid. CFD simulations with FLUENT are also carried out to simulate experimental conditions. The results obtained from CFD studies are compared with experimental data. (author)

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of an Ambient Noise Driven Array of Coupled Graphene Nanostructured Devices for Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Aroudi A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinearities have been shown to play an important role in increasing the extracted energy of energy harvesting devices at the macro and micro scales. Vibration-based energy harvesting on the nano scale has also received attention. In this paper, we characterize the nonlinear dynamical behavior of an array of three coupled strained nanostructured graphene for its potential use in energy harvesting applications. The array is formed by three compressed vibrating membrane graphene sheet subject to external vibrational noise excitation. We present the continuous time dynamical model of the system in the form of a double-well three degree of freedom system. Random vibrations are considered as the main ambient energy source for the system and its performances in terms of the probability density function, RMS or amplitude value of the position, FFT spectra and state plane trajectories are presented in the steady state non-equilibrium regime when the noise level is considered as a control parameter.

  2. Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide

  3. 2D array transducers for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of interventional devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Edward D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe catheter ring arrays for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of devices such as vascular grafts, heart valves and vena cava filters. We have constructed several prototypes operating at 5 MHz and consisting of 54 elements using the W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. micro-miniature ribbon cables. We have recently constructed a new transducer using a braided wiring technology from Precision Interconnect. This transducer consists of 54 elements at 4.8 MHz with pitch of 0.20 mm and typical -6 dB bandwidth of 22%. In all cases, the transducer and wiring assembly were integrated with an 11 French catheter of a Cook Medical deployment device for vena cava filters. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro testing is ongoing including simultaneous 3D ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy.

  4. Structure for Improving Short-Circuit Capability and the Method for Protecting the IGBT Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TILMATINE, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A short-circuit is a serious situation in a circuit. That is why the determination of the fault current during the operation of the IGBT requires suitable gestures in order to realise a better and reliable operation for the power converters. Thus, it is necessary to know the extreme operating limits for these devices since the use of the IGBT in power converters often subjects them to certain significant electric constraints such as, the short-circuit and the turn OFF on the inductive load. This paper presents then a means of protection for a safe and precise shutdown of the fault current in the device. This circuit allows the IGBT to operate without risks, and permits a reduction of the conduction losses in the device without compromising the characteristics of protection of the short-circuit.

  5. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors. PMID:22852677

  6. Wound healing with nonthermal microplasma jets generated in arrays of hourglass microcavity devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Park, Chan; Lee, Joong Seob; Heui Kim, Ji; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Cho, Jin Hoon; Kim, Min Hwan; Sun, Peter Peng; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, J. Gary

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies are reported in which artificial wounds in rat epidermal and dermal tissue have been treated by arrays of sub-500 µm diameter, low temperature plasma microjets. Fabricated in Al/nanoporous alumina (Al2O3) by wet chemical and microablation processes, each plasma jet device has a double parabolic (hourglass) structure, and arrays as large as 6  ×  6 devices with 500 µm diameter apertures have been tested to date. Treatment of 1 cm2 acute epidermal wounds for 20-40 s daily with an array of microplasma jets generated in He feedstock gas promoted wound recovery significantly, as evidenced by tissue histology and measured wound area. Seven days after wound formation, the wound area of the untreated control was 40  ±  2% of its initial value, whereas that for an identical wound treated twice daily for 20 s was 9  ±  2% of its original surface area. No histological distinctions were observed between wounds treated twice each day for 10 or 20 s - only the full recovery time differed. Spectra produced in the visible and ultraviolet by He jets in room air are dominated by atomic oxygen (3p 5P → 3s 5S) at 777 nm and violet fluorescence (391.4 nm) from N2+, a species produced when the He (2s 3S1) metastable is deactivated by Penning ionization of N2. Although the combined cross-sectional area of the jets in the array is only 7% of the wound area, the microplasma treatment results in spatially uniform, and accelerated, wound healing. Both effects are attributed to the increased surface area of the jet array (relative to a single jet having an equivalent diameter) and the concomitant enhancement in the generation of molecular radicals, and metastable atoms and molecules (such as {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft(A{}{}3 Σ \\text{u}+\\right) ).

  7. Cell motility regulation on a stepped micro pillar array device (SMPAD) with a discrete stiffness gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sujin; Hong, Juhee; Lee, Junghoon

    2016-02-28

    Our tissues consist of individual cells that respond to the elasticity of their environment, which varies between and within tissues. To better understand mechanically driven cell migration, it is necessary to manipulate the stiffness gradient across a substrate. Here, we have demonstrated a new variant of the microfabricated polymeric pillar array platform that can decouple the stiffness gradient from the ECM protein area. This goal is achieved via a "stepped" micro pillar array device (SMPAD) in which the contact area with the cell was kept constant while the diameter of the pillar bodies was altered to attain the proper mechanical stiffness. Using double-step SU-8 mold fabrication, the diameter of the top of every pillar was kept uniform, whereas that of the bottom was changed, to achieve the desired substrate rigidity. Fibronectin was immobilized on the pillar tops, providing a focal adhesion site for cells. C2C12, HeLa and NIH3T3 cells were cultured on the SMPAD, and the motion of the cells was observed by time-lapse microscopy. Using this simple platform, which produces a purely physical stimulus, we observed that various types of cell behavior are affected by the mechanical stimulus of the environment. We also demonstrated directed cell migration guided by a discrete rigidity gradient by varying stiffness. Interestingly, cell velocity was highest at the highest stiffness. Our approach enables the regulation of the mechanical properties of the polymeric pillar array device and eliminates the effects of the size of the contact area. This technique is a unique tool for studying cellular motion and behavior relative to various stiffness gradients in the environment. PMID:26787193

  8. Organic photovoltaic devices with concurrent solar energy harvesting and charge storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshi, Arash; Tevi, Tete; Rahimi, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    Due to large variation of the solar energy availability in a day, energy storage is required in many applications when solar cells are used. However, application of external energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, increases the cost of solar energy systems and requires additional charging circuitry. This combination is bulky and relatively expensive, which is not ideal for many applications. In this work, a novel idea is presented for making electrochemical devices with dual properties of solar energy harvesting and internal charge storage. The device is essentially a supercapacitor with a photoactive electrode. Energy harvesting occurs through light absorption at one of the electrodes made of a composite of a conducting polymer (i.e. PEDOT:PSS) and a Porphyrin dye. The energy storage takes place in the both photoactive and counter electrode (CE). We have studied the effect of the CE material on the device characteristics. Using Y-Carbon (a commercial available electrode), an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V was achieved in light across the cell with ~1 mF capacitance. The other two choices for CE were activated carbon and carbon nanotube based electrodes. The cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the Y Carbon electrode was a better match.

  9. Synthetic Receive Beamforming and Image Acquisition Capabilities Using an 8 x 128 1.75D Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Anna T.; Gammelmark, Kim; Dahl, Jeremy J.;

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging can be improved with higher order arrays through elevation dynamic focusing in future, higher channel count systems. However, modifications to current system hardware could yield increased imaging depth-of-field with 1.75D arrays (arrays with individually addressable elements, ...

  10. Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, E.; Postolache, O.; Girão, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a device that uses three cardiography signals to characterize several important parameters of a subject's circulatory system. Using electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram, three heart rate estimates are acquired from beat-to-beat time interval extraction. Furthermore, pre-ejection period, pulse transit time (PTT), and pulse arrival time (PAT) are computed, and their long-term evolution is analyzed. The system estimates heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) from the heart rate and PAT time series, to infer the activity of the cardiac autonomic system. The software component of the device evaluates the frequency content of HRV and BPV, and also their fractal dimension and entropy, thus providing a detailed analysis of the time series' regularity and complexity evolution, to allow personalized subject evaluation.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensing device based on a piezoelectric array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Abbi; Masamune, Ken; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Lamperth, Michael; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a widely used medical technique, one of the drawbacks of which is the loss of direct sense of touch during the operation. Palpation is the use of fingertips to explore and make fast assessments of tissue morphology. Although technologies are developed to equip minimally invasive surgery tools with haptic feedback capabilities, the majority focus on tissue stiffness profiling and tool-tissue interaction force measurement. For greatly increased diagnostic capability, a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensor design is proposed, which allows minimally invasive surgery to be performed under image guidance, combining the strong capability of magnetic resonance imaging soft tissue and intuitive palpation. The sensing unit is based on a piezoelectric sensor methodology, which conforms to the stringent mechanical and electrical design requirements imposed by the magnetic resonance environment The sensor mechanical design and the device integration to a 0.2 Tesla open magnetic resonance imaging scanner are described, together with the device's magnetic resonance compatibility testing. Its design limitations and potential future improvements are also discussed. A tactile sensing unit based on a piezoelectric sensor principle is proposed, which is designed for magnetic resonance imaging guided interventions. PMID:22913103

  12. A home sleep apnea screening device with time-domain signal processing and autonomous scoring capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiayi; Sánchez-Sinencio, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    Current solutions of sleep apnea diagnosis require the patient to undergo overnight studies at a specialized sleep laboratory. Due to such inconvenience and high cost, millions of sleep apnea patients remain undiagnosed and thus untreated. Based on a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensor and an effective apnea detection algorithm, we propose a low-cost single-channel apnea screening solution applicable in the comfort of patients' homes. A prototype device was designed and assembled including a MEMS sensor for measuring the patient's nasal air flows, and a time-domain signal processing IC for apnea detection and autonomous scoring. The IC chip was fabricated in standard 0.5- μm CMOS technology. The proposed device was tested for both respiratory rhythm detection and sleep apnea screening under clinical environment. Apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) were scored to indicate severity of sleep apnea conditions. Test results suggest that the proposed device can be a valuable screening solution for the broader public with undiagnosed apnea conditions.

  13. Feasibility study of using a Zener diode as the selection device for bipolar RRAM and WORM memory arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingtao; Fu, Liping; Tao, Chunlan; Jiang, Xinyu; Sun, Pengxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cross-bar arrays are usually used for the high density application of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. However, cross-talk interference limits an increase in the integration density. In this paper, the Zener diode is proposed as a selection device to suppress the sneak current in bipolar RRAM arrays. Measurement results show that the Zener diode can act as a good selection device, and the sneak current can be effectively suppressed. The readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without the selection device. Due to the improvement for the reading disturbance, the size of the cross-bar array can be enhanced to more than 103 × 103. Furthermore, the possibility of using a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) cross-bar array is also demonstrated by connecting the Zener diode and the bipolar RRAM in series. These results strongly suggest that using a Zener diode as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize high density bipolar RRAM arrays.

  14. Multichannel microchip electrophoresis device fabricated in polycarbonate with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Hupert, Mateusz L; Patterson, Donald; Liu, Changgeng; Galloway, Michelle; Stryjewski, Wieslaw; Goettert, Jost; Soper, Steven A

    2007-02-01

    A 16-channel microfluidic chip with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array is presented. The microfluidic network consisted of 16 separation channels that were hot-embossed into polycarbonate (PC) using a high-precision micromilled metal master. All channels were 40 microm deep and 60 microm wide with an effective separation length of 40 mm. A gold (Au) sensor array was lithographically patterned onto a PC cover plate and assembled to the fluidic chip via thermal bonding in such a way that a pair of Au microelectrodes (60 microm wide with a 5 microm spacing) was incorporated into each of the 16 channels and served as independent contact conductivity detectors. The spacing between the corresponding fluidic reservoirs for each separation channel was set to 9 mm, which allowed for loading samples and buffers to all 40 reservoirs situated on the microchip in only five pipetting steps using an 8-channel pipettor. A printed circuit board (PCB) with platinum (Pt) wires was used to distribute the electrophoresis high-voltage to all reservoirs situated on the fluidic chip. Another PCB was used for collecting the conductivity signals from the patterned Au microelectrodes. The device performance was evaluated using microchip capillary zone electrophoresis (mu-CZE) of amino acid, peptide, and protein mixtures as well as oligonucleotides that were separated via microchip capillary electrochromatography (mu-CEC). The separations were performed with an electric field (E) of 90 V/cm and were completed in less than 4 min in all cases. The conductivity detection was carried out using a bipolar pulse voltage waveform with a pulse amplitude of +/-0.6 V and a frequency of 6.0 kHz. The conductivity sensor array concentration limit of detection (SNR = 3) was determined to be 7.1 microM for alanine. The separation efficiency was found to be 6.4 x 10(4), 2.0 x 10(3), 4.8 x 10(3), and 3.4 x 10(2) plates for the mu-CEC of the oligonucleotides and mu-CZE of the amino acids, peptides

  15. In-situ device integration of large-area patterned organic nanowire arrays for high-performance optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Zhang, Xiujuan; Pan, Huanhuan; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiwei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystalline organic nanowires (NWs) are important building blocks for future low-cost and efficient nano-optoelectronic devices due to their extraordinary properties. However, it remains a critical challenge to achieve large-scale organic NW array assembly and device integration. Herein, we demonstrate a feasible one-step method for large-area patterned growth of cross-aligned single-crystalline organic NW arrays and their in-situ device integration for optical image sensors. The integrated image sensor circuitry contained a 10 × 10 pixel array in an area of 1.3 × 1.3 mm(2), showing high spatial resolution, excellent stability and reproducibility. More importantly, 100% of the pixels successfully operated at a high response speed and relatively small pixel-to-pixel variation. The high yield and high spatial resolution of the operational pixels, along with the high integration level of the device, clearly demonstrate the great potential of the one-step organic NW array growth and device construction approach for large-scale optoelectronic device integration. PMID:24287887

  16. A molecular keypad lock: a photochemical device capable of authorizing password entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, David; Felder, Clifford E; Melman, Galina; Shanzer, Abraham

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes a new concept in the way information can be protected at the molecular scale. By harnessing the principles of molecular Boolean logic, we have designed a molecular device that mimics the operation of an electronic keypad lock, e.g., a common security circuit used for numerous applications, in which access to an object or data is to be restricted to a limited number of persons. What distinguishes this lock from a simple molecular logic gate is the fact that its output signals are dependent not only on the proper combination of the inputs but also on the correct order by which these inputs are introduced. In other words, one needs to know the exact passwords that open this lock. The different password entries are coded by a combination of two chemical and one optical input signals, which can activate, separately, blue or green fluorescence output channels from pyrene or fluorescein fluorophores. The information in each channel is a single-bit light output signal that can be used to authorize a user, to verify authentication of a product, or to initiate a higher process. This development not only opens the way for a new class of molecular decision-making devices but also adds a new dimension of protection to existing defense technologies, such as cryptography and steganography, previously achieved with molecules.

  17. Thermal imager based on the array light sensor device of 128×128 CdHgTe-photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Reva V. P.; Golenkov A. G.; Zabudskiy V. V.; Korinets S. V.; Tsybriy Z. F.; Gumenjuk-Sichevska J. V.; Bunchuk S. G.; Apatskaya M. V.; Lysiuk I. А.; Smoliy М. I.

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigation of developed thermal imager for middle (3—5 µm) infrared region are presented and its applications features are discussed. The thermal imager consists of cooled to 80 K 128×128 diodes focal plane array on the base of cadmium–mercury–telluride compound and cryostat with temperature checking system. The photodiode array is bonded with readout device (silicon focal processor) via indium microcontacts. The measured average value of noise equivalent temperature differe...

  18. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kelley C.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Waites, Ken B.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Krause, Duncan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains. PMID:26121242

  19. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley C Henderson

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  20. Wireless electro-optic switching network for optical fiber sensor array using MEMS-IDT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1999-09-01

    Optical fiber arrays have been proposed for signal paths in various civilian and military controls as a means of offering advanced sensing functions not available in electronic systems. To implement optic fiber sensors on various control systems, a proper electro-optic architecture (EOA) with a bar- coded electro-optical switch needs to be studied. In this paper, a design of such EO switch is proposed which can be operated remotely. Lithium Niobate is chosen as the EO material. The MEMS-IDT device is designed with Lithium Niobate as a substrate with IDT and a set of floating reflectors. The reflectors can be programmable and thus a bar-coded switch can be fabricated. The electrostatic field between the reflectors and the Lithium Niobate serves as the fast acting switch in this application.

  1. Cancer Cell Analyses at the Single Cell-Level Using Electroactive Microwell Array Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs, shed from primary tumors and disseminated into peripheral blood, are playing a major role in metastasis. Even after isolation of CTCs from blood, the target cells are mixed with a population of other cell types. Here, we propose a new method for analyses of cell mixture at the single-cell level using a microfluidic device that contains arrayed electroactive microwells. Dielectrophoretic (DEP force, induced by the electrodes patterned on the bottom surface of the microwells, allows efficient trapping and stable positioning of single cells for high-throughput biochemical analyses. We demonstrated that various on-chip analyses including immunostaining, viability/apoptosis assay and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH at the single-cell level could be conducted just by applying specific reagents for each assay. Our simple method should greatly help discrimination and analysis of rare cancer cells among a population of blood cells.

  2. Distributed Read-out Imaging Device array for astronomical observations in UV/VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, Richard A.

    2009-12-01

    STJ (Superconducting Tunneling Junctions) are being developed as spectro-photometers in wavelengths ranging from the NIR to X-rays. 10x12 arrays of STJs have already been successfully used as optical imaging spectrometers with the S-Cam 3, on the William Hershel Telescope on La Palma and on the Optical Ground Station on Tenerife. To overcome the limited field of view which can be achieved with single STJ arrays, DROIDS (Distributed Read Out Imaging Devices) are being developed which produce next to energy and timing also produce positional information with each detector element. These DROIDS consist of a superconducting absorber strip with proximized STJs on either end. The STJs are a Ta/Al/AlOx/Al/Ta 100/30/1/30/100nm sandwich of which the bottom electrode Ta layer is one with the 100nm thick absorber layer. The ratio of the two signals from the STJs provides information on the absorption position and the sum signal is a measure for the energy of the absorbed photon. In this thesis we present different important processes which are involved with the detection of optical photons using DROIDs. This includes the spatial and spectral resolution, confinement of the quasiparticles in the proximized STJs to enhance tunnelling and quasiparticle creation resulting from absorption of a photon in the proximized STJ. We have combined our findings in the development of a 2D theoretical model which describes the diffusion of quasiparticles and imperfect confinement via exchange of quasiparticles between the absorber and STJ. Finally we will present some of the first results obtained with an array of 60 360x33.5 μm2 DROIDs in 3x20 format.

  3. Comparison of the analytical capabilities of the BAC Datamaster and Datamaster DMT forensic breath testing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinn, Michele; Adatsi, Felix; Curtis, Perry

    2011-11-01

    The State of Michigan uses the Datamaster as an evidential breath testing device. The newest version, the DMT, will replace current instruments in the field as they are retired from service. The Michigan State Police conducted comparison studies to test the analytical properties of the new instrument and to evaluate its response to conditions commonly cited in court defenses. The effects of mouth alcohol, objects in the mouth, and radiofrequency interference on paired samples from drinking subjects were assessed on the DMT. The effects of sample duration and chemical interferents were assessed on both instruments, using drinking subjects and wet-bath simulators, respectively. Our testing shows that Datamaster and DMT results are essentially identical; the DMT gave accurate readings as compared with measurements made using simulators containing standard ethanol solutions and that the DMT did not give falsely elevated breath alcohol results from any of the influences tested.

  4. Piezoelectric actuator-based cell microstretch device with real-time imaging capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Deguchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular response to physical stretch has been extensively studied as a regulator of various physiological functions. For live cell microscopy combined with stretch experiments, cells are typically seeded on an extensible elastomer sheet. In this case, the position of the cells of interest tends to shift out of the field of view upon stretch, making real-time imaging of identical cells difficult. To circumvent this situation, here we describe a robust methodology in which these cell shifts are minimized. Cells are plated in a custom-designed stretch chamber with an elastomer sheet of a small cell culture area. The cell-supporting chamber is stretched on an inverted microscope by using a piezoelectric actuator that provides small, but precisely controlled displacements. Even under this small displacement within the filed of view, our device allows the cells to undergo physiologically relevant levels of stretch. Identical cells can thus be continuously observed during stretching, thereby potentially enabling imaging of stretch-triggered fast dynamics.

  5. An approach to enhance self-compensation capability in paper-based devices for chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Jie; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a simple design for increasing the tolerance of reagent dislocation on a paper-based platform using a combination of wax-treated paper and a vortex mixer. To date, massive budgetary funds are required in the biotechnological industry to develop new applications; a large part of that cost is attributable to the screening of specific chemical compounds. Here, we propose using a liquid-handling robot to automatically deposit selected reagents on a paper-based platform. We also present a preliminary concept approach for developing a reagent placing device with simple and inexpensive features. A defect of inaccuracy was observed between droplet location and test well location after viewing the performance of the liquid-handling robot on our paper-based platform. Because of dislocation error resulting from robotic reagent placement, we decided to apply an external, rotational force following droplet placement in order to compensate for the distance of reagent dislocation. Note, the largest distance of reagent dislocation was determined by examining the results of altering applied reagent volume, but not concentration, in volumes from 5 µL to 30 µL in a series of experiments. As a result of these experiments, we observed that dislocation was positively affected by an increase in applied volume. A colorimetric assay for nitrite detection was also performed to confirm the feasibility of this method. This work, we believe, can minimize the cost of chemical compound screening for the biotechnological industry.

  6. Single-phase Multilevel Current Source Inverter with Reduced Device Count and Current Balancing Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOALLEMI KHIAVI, A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays power converters play an important role in power system and industrial centers. One of the most important and widely used types of conversion is DC to AC conversion that is also called inverters. Generally inverters are divided to voltage source inverter (VSI and current source inverter (CSI. From another view the inverters are divided to two-level and multilevel types. The multilevel inverters are attractive because of their good output waveform quality. However, there has been less attention to multilevel current source inverter (MLCSI when compared with multilevel VSI. In this paper, a new topology for MLCSI is proposed. The proposed topology employs reduced number of switches to generate desired multilevel output current. The proposed MLCSI is capable of balancing the currents of the inductors that are used in the MLCSI structure. A multicarrier PWM based switching strategy is also proposed for the MLCSI. The simulation results using PSCAD/EMTDC as well as the experimental results from a single-phase 5-level CSI laboratory prototype demonstrate its validity.

  7. Implementation of a multi-spectral color imaging device without color filter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A. F.; Zaraga, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the use of the Transverse Field Detector (TFD) as a device for multispectral image acquisition is proposed. The TFD is a color imaging pixel capable of color reconstruction without color filters. Its basic working principle is based on the generation of a suitable electric field configuration inside a Silicon depleted region by means of biasing voltages applied to surface contacts. With respect to previously proposed methods for performing multispectral capture, the TFD has a unique characteristic of electrically tunable spectral responses. This feature allows capturing an image with different sets of spectral responses (RGB, R'G'B', and so on) simply by tuning the device biasing voltages in multiple captures. In this way no hardware complexity (no external filter wheels or varying sources) is added with respect to a colorimetric device. The estimation of the spectral reflectance of the area imaged by a TFD pixel is based in this work on a linear combination of six eigenfunctions. It is shown that a spectral reconstruction can be obtained either (1) using two subsequent image captures that generate six TFD spectral responses or (2) using a new asymmetric biasing scheme, which allows the implementation of five spectral responses for each TFD pixel site in a single configuration, definitely allowing one-shot multispectral imaging.

  8. The vertical photoconductor: A novel device structure suitable for HgCdTe two-dimensional infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliquini, J. F.; Faraone, L.

    1997-06-01

    A novel photoconductive device structure is proposed and described that has been designed specifically as a sensing element for high density two-dimensional infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) applications. Although the design concept can be applied to a variety of epitaxially grown HgCdTe material, optimum performance can be achieved using n-type HgCdTe semiconductor material consisting of epitaxially grown heterostructure layers in which a two-dimensional mosaic of vertical design photoconductors are fabricated. The heterostructure layers provide high performance devices at greatly reduced power dissipation levels, while the vertical design allows for the high density integration of photoconductors in a two-dimensional array geometry with high fill factor. The salient feature of the proposed device structure is that the bias field is applied in the vertical direction such that it is parallel to the impinging infrared radiation. A comprehensive one-dimensional model is presented for the vertical design photoconductor, which is subsequently used to determine the optimum design parameters in order to achieve maximum responsivity at the lowest possible power dissipation level. It is found that the proposed device structure has the potential to be used in the fabrication of long wavelength IRFPAs approaching 10 6 pixels using 25 × 25 μm 2 detector elements. Furthermore, this is achieved with individual device detectivities that are background limited and for a total array power dissipation of less than 0.1 W using a pulsed biasing scheme. Performance issues such as response uniformity, pixel yield, fill factor, crosstalk, power dissipation, detector impedance, array architecture, and maximum array size are discussed in relation to the suitability of the proposed vertical photoconductor structure for use in IRFPA modules. When considering IRFPA operability, it is found that in many cases the proposed technology has the potential to deliver significant advantages, such

  9. Application of tomographic imaging to photodiode arrays in large helical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tamura, N.; Peterson, B. J.; Iwama, N.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-10-01

    Two 20-channel absolute x-ray ultraviolet photodiode (AXUVD) cameras are being used on the large helical device for measuring the two-dimensional radiation distribution. The local radiation emissivity is obtained by inverting the measured brightnesses with linear (Tikhonov-Phillips) or nonlinear (maximum entropy) regularization methods. The most important features of these improved methods are the capability of reconstructing radiation distributions without any symmetry assumptions, built-in smoothing, and useful reconstructions with relatively few detector channels. Together with improvements in the analysis method, the current AXUVD system makes it possible to obtain radiation emissivity images of various localized radiative phenomena, such as radiation collapse or transport of impurities injected into the plasma.

  10. Single molecule detection using charge-coupled device array technology. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, M.B.

    1992-07-29

    A technique for the detection of single fluorescent chromophores in a flowing stream is under development. This capability is an integral facet of a rapid DNA sequencing scheme currently being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. In previous investigations, the detection sensitivity was limited by the background Raman emission from the water solvent. A detection scheme based on a novel mode of operating a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) is being developed which should greatly enhance the discrimination between fluorescence from a single molecule and the background Raman scattering from the solvent. Register shifts between rows in the CCD are synchronized with the sample flow velocity so that fluorescence from a single molecule is collected in a single moving charge packet occupying an area approaching that of a single pixel while the background is spread evenly among a large number of pixels. Feasibility calculations indicate that single molecule detection should be achieved with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Sensor Array Devices Utilizing Nano-structured Metal-oxides for Hazardous Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andio, Mark A.

    Methane and carbon monoxide are two hazardous gases which require continuous monitoring by gas sensors in underground coal mines for explosion prevention and toxicity, respectively. This work explored implementing miniaturized gas sensors in this area to simultaneously detect both gases for benefits of increased portability and reduced power consumption of the chemiresistive gas sensor device. The focus of this research was to understand how the particle size, morphology, and microstructure of the metaloxide film affected the gas sensor performance to the two gases of interest on miniaturized gas sensor devices in the form of microhotplate platforms. This was done through three main research studies. The first was conducted by growing SnO2 nanowires from SnO 2 particles using an Au-catalyst. Growth conditions including temperature, time, and oxygen partial pressure were explored to determine the formation aspects of the SnO2 nanowires. Gas sensor studies were completed that provided evidence that the SnO2 nanowires increased detection to a fixed concentration of carbon monoxide compared to SnO2 particles without nano-structure formation. A second research study was performed to compare the gas sensor performance of SnO2 nanoparticles, hierarchical particles, and micron-size particles. The nanoparticles were developed into an ink and deposited via ink-jet printing on the microhotplate substrates to control the microstructure of the metal-oxide film. By preventing agglomeration of the nanoparticle film, the SnO2 nanoparticles displayed similar gas sensor performance to methane and carbon monoxide as the hierarchical particles. Both nano-structures had much higher gas sensor response than the micron-size particles which confirms the surface area of the metal-oxide film is critical for reaction of the analyte gas at the surface. The last research study presented in the dissertation describes an oxide nanoparticle array developed for detecting methane and carbon

  12. VLBI observations of bright AGN jets with KVN and VERA Array (KaVA): Evaluation of Imaging Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Kino, Motoki; Sohn, Bong Won; Akiyama, Kazunori; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Trippe, Sascha; Hada, Kazuhiro; Jung, Taehyun; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Dodson, Richard; Koyama, Shoko; Honma, Mareki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Chung, Aeree; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Han, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Joeng-Sook; Lee, Jeewon; Lee, Jeong Ae; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sorai, Kazuo; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Bae, Jaehan; Byun, Do-Young; Cho, Se-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Hyunsoo; Chung, Moon-Hee; Han, Seog-Tae; Hirota, Tomoya; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Je, Do-Heung; Jike, Takaaki; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Jiman; Kang, Yong-Woo; Kan-ya, Yukitoshi; Kanaguchi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Bong Gyu; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Jaeheon; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Mikyoung; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kono, Yusuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Sang Hyun; Minh, Young Chol; Matsumoto, Naoko; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Oh, Chung Sik; Oh, Se-Jin; Park, Sun-Youp; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Sasao, Tetsuo; Shibata, Katsunori M; Song, Min-Gyu; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Wi, Seog-Oh; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Yun, Young Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Korean very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) Array (KaVA) is the first international VLBI array dedicated to high-frequency (23 and 43 GHz bands) observations in East Asia. Here, we report the first imaging observations of three bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) known for their complex morphologies: 4C 39.25, 3C 273, and M 87. This is one of the initial result of KaVA early science. Our KaVA images reveal extended outflows with complex substructure such as knots and limb brightening, in agreement with previous Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations. Angular resolutions are better than 1.4 and 0.8 milliarcsecond at 23 GHz and 43 GHz, respectively. KaVA achieves a high dynamic range of ~1000, more than three times the value achieved by VERA. We conclude that KaVA is a powerful array with a great potential for the study of AGN outflows, at least comparable to the best existing radio interferometric arrays.

  13. Framework and limits on power density in wind and hydrokinetic device arrays using systematic flow manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Wind and hydrokinetic turbine array performance suffers because the wakes of upstream turbines diminish flow to downstream turbines. Here we analyze systematic deflection of the wakes to direct unimpeded flow onto the downstream turbines and increase the area power density. We examine the case of an abstract 1D turbine-deflector array aligned parallel to a 2D free stream flow, in which case the array presents negligible frontal area to the flow without deflection. Using the framework of inviscid fluid dynamics, the flow manipulation is decomposed into flow deflection due to bound vorticity in the array, and energy extraction resulting from free vorticity shed by the array. While this general framework is agnostic to the technological details, it captures the geometry of a vertical fence of turbines and deflectors along the centerline of a river, minimizing the array footprint. We find a localized array can direct significant kinetic energy through itself, while having a minimal impact on array efficiency; the...

  14. Shielding of Sensitive Electronic Devices in Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Using Arrays of Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirou, S. V.; Tsialios, P.; Loudos, G.

    2015-09-01

    In Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia (MNH) an externally applied electromagnetic field transfers energy to the magnetic nanoparticles in the body, which in turn convert this energy into heat, thus locally heating the tissue they are located in. This external electromagnetic field is sufficiently strong so as to cause interference and affect sensitive electronic equipment. Standard shielding of magnetic fields involves Faraday cages or coating with high-permeability shielding alloys; however, these techniques cannot be used with optically sensitive devices, such as those employed in Optical Coherence Tomography or radionuclide imaging. In this work we present a method to achieve magnetic shielding using an array of coils. The magnetic field generated by a single coil was calculated using the COMSOL physics simulation toolkit. Software was written in C/C++ to import the single-coil data, and then calculate the positions, number of turns and currents in the shielding coils in order to minimize the magnetic field strength at the desired location. Simulations and calculations have shown that just two shielding coils can reduce the magnetic field by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  15. Nonvolatile Resistance Random Access Memory Devices Based on ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM device based on ZnO nanorod arrays has been fabricated and characterized. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod layers (NRLs were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes using a hydrothermal process/ chemical bath deposition (CBD. It can be found the Ag/ZnO NRL/ITO capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching behavior may be related to the oxygen vacancies and/or zinc interstitials confined on the surface of the ZnO NRs, giving rise to the formation of straight and extensible conducting path along each ZnO NR. Furthermore, superior stability in resistive switching characteristics was also observed. Both growing times and annealing times were investigated and annealing was done in oxygen for 3, 6 and 9 minutes at different temperatures. For ZnO nanorods that had been annealed for 6 minutes the forming voltage was about 6.06V, the Set voltage was about 3.25V and the Reset voltage was -2.78V. The original resistance was 7×106Ω. The resistance in the low-resistance state was 108Ω and in the high-resistance state was 2016Ω, the resistance ratio was 18.7.

  16. Seismic Proofing Capability of the Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper as an Active Interaction Control Device with Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of natural disasters has increased recently, causing buildings’ damages which need to be reinforced to prevent their destruction. To improve the seismic proofing capability of Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper, it is converted to an Active Interaction Control device and synchronous control and predictive control methods are proposed. The full-scale shaking table test is used to test and verify the seismic proofing capability of the proposed AIC with these control methods. This study examines the shock absorption of test structure under excitation by external forces, influences of prediction time, stiffness of the auxiliary structure, synchronous switching, and asynchronous switching on the control effects, and the influence of control locations of test structure on the control effects of the proposed AIC. Test results show that, for the proposed AIC with synchronous control and predictive control of 0.10~0.13 seconds, the displacement reduction ratios are greater than 71%, the average acceleration reduction ratios are, respectively, 36.2% and 36.9%, at the 1st and 2nd floors, and the average base shear reduction ratio is 29.6%. The proposed AIC with suitable stiffeners for the auxiliary structure at each floor with synchronous control and predictive control provide high reliability and practicability for seismic proofing of buildings.

  17. Thermal imager based on the array light sensor device of 128×128 CdHgTe-photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva V. P.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of developed thermal imager for middle (3—5 µm infrared region are presented and its applications features are discussed. The thermal imager consists of cooled to 80 K 128×128 diodes focal plane array on the base of cadmium–mercury–telluride compound and cryostat with temperature checking system. The photodiode array is bonded with readout device (silicon focal processor via indium microcontacts. The measured average value of noise equivalent temperature difference was NETD= 20±4 mK (background radiation temperature T = 300 K, field of view 2θ = 180°, the cooled diaphragm was not used.

  18. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Vivien; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide.

  19. Degradation of saturation output of the COTS array charge-coupled devices induced by total dose radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments of total dose radiation effects on COTS array charge-coupled device (CCD) and annealing measurements are shown. Degradations of saturation output voltage at different bias conditions are analyzed, and their mechanisms induced by radiation are also demonstrated. Degradations of saturation output imaging at different total doses and the recovery after annealing are also compared. The phenomena of imaging degradation induced by total dose irradiation are analyzed. The camera imaging quality of resolution test card degraded by total dose irradiation is also analyzed. Finally, integration research from the irradiation-sensitive parameter degradation to the camera imaging degradation of the array CCD is achieved

  20. CdS nanorods/organic hybrid LED array and the piezo-phototronic effect of the device for pressure mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rongrong; Wang, Chunfeng; Dong, Lin; Shen, Changyu; Zhao, Kun; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-04-01

    As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PEDOT:PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility.As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PEDOT:PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00431h

  1. Recent modelling studies for analysing the partial‑defect detection capability of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong sources of radioactivity, such as spent nuclear fuel stored in water pools, give rise to Cherenkov light. This light originates from particles, in this case electrons released from gamma‑ray interactions, which travel faster than the speed of light in the water. In nuclear safeguards, detection of the Cherenkov light intensity is used as a means for verifying gross and partial defect of irradiated fuel assemblies in wet storage. For spent nuclear fuel, the magnitude of the Cherenkov light emission depends on the initial fuel enrichment (IE), the power history (in particular the total fuel burnup (BU)) and the cooling time (CT). This paper presents recent results on the expected Cherenkov light emission intensity obtained from modelling a full 8x8 BWR fuel assembly with varying values of IE, BU and CT. These results are part of a larger effort to also investigate the Cherenkov light emission for fuels with varying irradiation history and other fuel geometries in order to increase the capability to predict the light intensity and thus lower the detection limits for the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD). The results show that there is a strong dependence of the Cherenkov light intensity on BU and CT, in accordance with previous studies. However, the dependences demonstrated previously are not fully repeated; the current study indicates a less steep decrease of the intensity with increasing CT. Accordingly, it is suggested to perform dedicated experimental studies on fuel with different BU and CT to resolve the differences and to enhance future predictive capability. In addition to this, the dependence of the Cherenkov light intensity on the IE has been investigated. Furthermore, the modelling of the Cherenkov light emission has been extended to CTs shorter than one year. The results indicate that high‑accuracy predictions for short‑cooled fuel may require more detailed information on the irradiation history.

  2. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  3. High-Throughput DNA Array for SNP Detection of KRAS Gene Using a Centrifugal Microfluidic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in genomic DNA samples using a NanoBioArray (NBA) chip. Fast DNA hybridization is achieved in the chip when target DNAs are introduced to the surface-arrayed probes using centrifugal force. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used to assist SNP detection at room temperature. The parallel setting of sample introduction in the spiral channels of the NBA chip enables multiple analyses on many samples, resulting in a technique appropriate for high-throughput SNP detection. The experimental procedure, including chip fabrication, probe array printing, DNA amplification, hybridization, signal detection, and data analysis, is described in detail.

  4. An amorphous titanium dioxide metal insulator metal selector device for resistive random access memory crossbar arrays with tunable voltage margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Simone; Khiat, Ali; Carta, Daniela; Light, Mark E.; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) crossbar arrays have become one of the most promising candidates for next-generation non volatile memories. To become a mature technology, the sneak path current issue must be solved without compromising all the advantages that crossbars offer in terms of electrical performances and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a highly integrable access device based on nickel and sub-stoichiometric amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2-x), in a metal insulator metal crossbar structure. The high voltage margin of 3 V, amongst the highest reported for monolayer selector devices, and the good current density of 104 A/cm2 make it suitable to sustain ReRAM read and write operations, effectively tackling sneak currents in crossbars without compromising fabrication complexity in a 1 Selector 1 Resistor (1S1R) architecture. Furthermore, the voltage margin is found to be tunable by an annealing step without affecting the device's characteristics.

  5. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2009-11-24

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  6. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, M. A.; Lueker, M.; Padin, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Staniszewski, Z.; Vieira, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s–1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelengt...

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongfeng, Xu; Ming, Li; Liuling, Wang; Wenxian, Lin; Ming, Xiang; Xinghua, Zhang; Yunfeng, Wang; Shengxian, Wei

    2009-08-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system.

  8. Optical antenna arrays of carbon nanotubes and their fabrication on polyimide and transparent conducting oxides for direct device integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Kempa, K.; Kimball, B.; Ren, Z. F.

    2005-11-01

    Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes/nanofibers grown on various substrates by a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method have been shown experimentally to function as classical low-loss dipole antenna arrays at optical frequencies. Two fundamental antenna effects, e.g., the polarization effect and length matching effect, directly observed on large-scale CNT arrays in visible frequency range, hold them promising for industry-level fabrication of devices including linear/beam-splitting polarizers, solar energy converters, THz demodulators, etc., some of which will, however, require or prefer a flexible and/or transparent conducting substrate to be compatible for multi-level integration and low-cost manufacturing process. A low-energy dark discharge fabrication technique is therefore devised which successfully yields CNT antennas directly on polyimide films and transparent conducting oxides (ITO, ZnO) with the absence of a buffer layer.

  9. A backing device based on an embedded stiffener and retractable insertion tool for thin-film cochlear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Radheshyam

    Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PVP-b-PDLLA) copolymer-based biodegradable and water soluble adhesive, that will help to retract the PET insertion tool after implantation. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system one, a microfabrication process for patterning PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene has been developed. Conventional hot-embossing, mechanical micromachining, and standard cleanroom processes were integrated for patterning fully released and discrete stiffeners coated with parylene. The released embedded stiffeners were thermoformed to demonstrate that imparting perimodiolar shapes to stiffener-embedded arrays will be possible. The developed process when integrated with the array fabrication process will allow fabrication of stiffener-embedded arrays in a single process. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system two, the feasibility of the attaching and detaching mechanism was demonstrated by adhering 1x and 1.5x scale PET tube-based insertion tools and PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene using the copolymer adhesive. The attached devices survived qualitative adhesion tests, thermoforming, and flexing. The viability of the detaching mechanism was tested by aging the assemblies in-vitro in phosphate buffer solution. The average detachment times, 2.6 minutes and 10 minutes

  10. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Page, Michael R.; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R.; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  11. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Andrew J., E-mail: berger.156@osu.edu; Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Jacob, Jan [Werum Software and Systems CIS AG, Wulf-Werum-Straße 3, 21337 Lüneburg (Germany); Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  12. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J; Page, Michael R; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field. PMID:25554296

  13. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field

  14. Effects of free carriers on piezoelectric nanogenerators and piezotronic devices made of GaN nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Hung; Liao, Wei-Shun; Ku, Nai-Jen; Li, Yi-Chang; Chen, Yen-Chih; Tu, Li-Wei; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the role of carrier concentration in semiconducting piezoelectric single-nanowire nanogenerators (SNWNGs) and piezotronic devices. Unintentionally doped and Si-doped GaN nanowire arrays with various carrier concentrations, ranging from 10(17) (unintentionally doped) to 10(19) cm(-3) (heavily doped), are synthesized. For SNWNGs, the output current of individual nanowires starts from a negligible level and rises to the maximum of ≈50 nA at a doping concentration of 5.63 × 10(18) cm(-3) and then falls off with further increase in carrier concentration, due to the competition between the reduction of inner resistance and the screening effect on piezoelectric potential. For piezotronic applications, the force sensitivity based on the change of the Schottky barrier height works best for unintentionally doped nanowires, reaching 26.20 ± 1.82 meV nN(-1) and then decreasing with carrier concentration. Although both types of devices share the same Schottky diode, they involve different characteristics in that the slope of the current-voltage characteristics governs SNWNG devices, while the turn-on voltage determines piezotronic devices. It is demonstrated that free carriers in piezotronic materials can influence the slope and turn-on voltage of the diode characteristics concurrently when subjected to strain. This work offers a design guideline for the optimum doping concentration in semiconductors for obtaining the best performance in piezotronic devices and SNWNGs.

  15. Time delay and integration array (TDI) using charge transfer device technology. Phase 2, volume 1: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The 20x9 TDI array was developed to meet the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Requirements. This array is based upon a self-aligned, transparent gate, buried channel process. The process features: (1) buried channel, four phase, overlapping gate CCD's for high transfer efficiency without fat zero; (2) self-aligned transistors to minimize clock feedthrough and parasitic capacitance; and (3) transparent tin oxide electrode for high quantum efficiency with front surface irradiation. The requirements placed on the array and the performance achieved are summarized. This data is the result of flat field measurements only, no imaging or dynamic target measurements were made during this program. Measurements were performed with two different test stands. The bench test equipment fabricated for this program operated at the 8 micro sec line time and employed simple sampling of the gated MOSFET output video signal. The second stand employed Correlated Doubled Sampling (CDS) and operated at 79.2 micro sec line time.

  16. Automatic Release of Silicon Nanowire Arrays with a High Integrity for Flexible Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Wu; Shuxin Li; Weiwei He; Dayong Teng; Ke Wang; Changhui Ye

    2014-01-01

    Automatic release and vertical transferring of silicon/silicon oxide nanowire arrays with a high integrity are demonstrated by an Ag-assisted ammonia etching method. By adding a water steaming step between Ag-assisted HF/H2O2 and ammonia etching to form a SiOx protective layer sheathing Si nanowires, we can tune the composition of the nanowires from SiOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) to Si nanowires. Ag plays a key role to the neat and uniform release of Si/SiOx nanowire arrays from Si wafer in the ammonia etc...

  17. Arrays of microlenses with variable focal lengths fabricated by restructuring polymer surfaces with an ink-jet device

    OpenAIRE

    Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Best, Andreas; Nett, Sebastian K.; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    We report of a method for fabricating two-dimensional, regular arrays of polymer microlenses with focal lengths variable between 0.2 and 4.5 mm. We first make concave microlenses by ink-jetting solvent on a polymer substrate with a commercial drop-on-demand device. Solvent evaporation restructures the surface by a series of combined effects, which are discussed. In the second step we obtain convex elastomeric microlenses by casting the template made in the first step. We demonstrate the good ...

  18. Distributed Read-out Imaging Device array for astronomical observations in UV/VIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmering, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    STJ (Superconducting Tunneling Junctions) are being developed as spectro-photometers in wavelengths ranging from the NIR to X-rays. 10x12 arrays of STJs have already been successfully used as optical imaging spectrometers with the S-Cam 3, on the William Hershel Telescope on La Palma and on the Opti

  19. Excellent nonlinearity of a selection device based on anti-series connected Zener diodes for ultrahigh-density bipolar RRAM arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingtao; Li, Rongrong; Fu, Liping; Gao, Xiaoping; Wang, Yang; Tao, Chunlan

    2015-10-23

    A crossbar array is usually used for the high-density application of a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. However, the cross-talk interference limits the increase in the integration density. In this paper, anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device are proposed for bipolar RRAM arrays. Simulation results show that, by using the anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device, the readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without a selection device or with anti-parallel connected diodes as the selection device. The maximum size of the crossbar arrays with anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device over 1 TB is estimated by theoretical simulation. In addition, the feasibility of using the anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device for bipolar RRAM is demonstrated experimentally. These results indicate that anti-series connected Zener diodes as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize ultrahigh-density bipolar RRAM arrays.

  20. Controlling system for smart hyper-spectral imaging array based on liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Chen, Xin; Rong, Xin; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Xinyu; Ji, An; Xie, Changsheng

    2011-11-01

    A research for developing a kind of smart spectral imaging detection technique based on the electrically tunable liquidcrystal (LC) FP structure is launched. It has some advantages of low cost, highly compact integration, perfuming wavelength selection without moving any micro-mirror of FP device, and the higher reliability and stability. The controlling system for hyper-spectral imaging array based on LC-FP device includes mainly a MSP430F5438 as its core. Considering the characteristics of LC-FP device, the controlling system can provide a driving signal of 1-10 kHz and 0- 30Vrms for the device in a static driving mode. This paper introduces the hardware designing of the control system in detail. It presents an overall hardware solutions including: (1) the MSP430 controlling circuit, and (2) the operational amplifier circuit, and (3) the power supply circuit, and (4) the AD conversion circuit. The techniques for the realization of special high speed digital circuits, which is necessary for the PCB employed, is also discussed.

  1. Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mao-Kuo; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Lin, Hoang-Yan; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ciao-Ci; Wu, Chia-Fang; Lin, Hung-Yi; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Wu, Tung-Chuan

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze the influences of the fill factor and the sag of hexagon-based microlenses on the optical characteristics of an organic light-emitting device (OLED), such as spectral shift, CIE (abbreviation of the French 'Commission internationale de l'éclairage') coordinates, viewing angle dependence, luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency. Both the luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency of the OLED were found to increase linearly on increasing the fill factor of the microlenses. It is also found that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the OLED spectra and CIE coordinates decreased linearly on increasing the fill factor of the microlenses. Besides, the efficiency improvement of the OLED increased with the height ratio of attached microlenses. Compared to the OLED, the luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency of the device can be enhanced by 35% and 40%, respectively, by attaching a microlens array having a fill factor of 0.90 and a height ratio of 0.56. We also observed blue shifts at different viewing angles when microlens arrays were attached to the OLED, which is evidence that the waveguiding modes are being extracted. In our planar OLED, the peak wavelength blue shifted and the FWHM decreased on increasing the viewing angles, due to the microcavity effect.

  2. Microfabrication and Device Parameter Testing of the Focal Plane Arrays for the Spider and BICEP2/Keck CMB Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, J. A.; Turner, A. D.; Kenyon, M.; Orlando, A.; Brevik, J. A.; Trangsrud, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Leduc, H. G.; Nguyen, H. T.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Sayers, J.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    Spider and BICEP2/Keck are projects to study the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The focal planes for both require large format arrays of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES's). A major challenge for these projects is fabricating arrays with high uniformity in device parameters. A microfabrication process is described that meets this challenge. The results from device testing are discussed. Each focal plane is composed of 4 square wafers (tiles), and each wafer contains 128 membrane-isolated, polarization-sensitive, antenna-coupled TES's. After processing, selected wafers are pre-screened in a quick-turn-around, cryogen-free, 3He fridge. The pre-screening is performed with a commercial resistance bridge and measures transition temperatures (Tc) and normal state resistances (Rn). After pre-screening, 4 tiles at a time are fully characterized in a testbed employing a SQUID readout and SQUID mulitplexing. The tests demonstrate the values of Tc, Rn, thermal conductance, g, and the standard deviations of each, across a wafer and from wafer to wafer, are within design specifications.

  3. Array-type miniature interferometer as the core optical microsystem of an optical coherence tomography device for tissue inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passilly, Nicolas; Perrin, Stéphane; Lullin, Justine; Albero, Jorge; Bargiel, Sylwester; Froehly, Luc; Gorecki, Christophe; Krauter, Johann; Osten, Wolfgang; Wang, Wei-Shan; Wiemer, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Some of the critical limitations for widespread use in medical applications of optical devices, such as confocal or optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, are related to their cost and large size. Indeed, although quite efficient systems are available on the market, e.g. in dermatology, they equip only a few hospitals and hence, are far from being used as an early detection tool, for instance in screening of patients for early detection of cancers. In this framework, the VIAMOS project aims at proposing a concept of miniaturized, batch-fabricated and lower-cost, OCT system dedicated to non-invasive skin inspection. In order to image a large skin area, the system is based on a full-field approach. Moreover, since it relies on micro-fabricated devices whose fields of view are limited, 16 small interferometers are arranged in a dense array to perform multi-channel simultaneous imaging. Gaps between each channel are then filled by scanning of the system followed by stitching. This approach allows imaging a large area without the need of large optics. It also avoids the use of very fast and often expensive laser sources, since instead of a single point detector, almost 250 thousands pixels are used simultaneously. The architecture is then based on an array of Mirau interferometers which are interesting for their vertical arrangement compatible with vertical assembly at the wafer-level. Each array is consequently a local part of a stack of seven wafers. This stack includes a glass lens doublet, an out-of-plane actuated micro-mirror for phase shifting, a spacer and a planar beam-splitter. Consequently, different materials, such as silicon and glass, are bonded together and well-aligned thanks to lithographic-based fabrication processes.

  4. CCT-tunable LED device with excellent ACU by using micro-structure array film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu; Li, Zongtao; Chen, Kaihang; Tang, Yong; Ding, Xinrui; Yu, Binhai

    2016-07-25

    We apply a microstructure array (MSA) film to improve the angular color uniformity (ACU) of a correlated-color-temperature-tunable LED (CCT-tunable LED) with tunable CCT ranging from 2700 to 6500 K. The effects of the MSA film area and the height between the film and LED are investigated and optimized. The resulting ACU is greatly improved for all CCT ranges with little luminous flux loss. For a typical CCT range of 3000-4000 K, with a full-covering MSA film and height H = 5 mm, the CCT deviation is significantly reduced from 1090 K to 218 K, with only 1.8% luminous flux loss. PMID:27464123

  5. Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlford, Annika; Kjeldsen, Bastian; Reimers, Jakob;

    2010-01-01

    was carried out with freeze-dried reagents stored in reaction chambers fabricated by micromilling in a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate. The results reported in this study are a key step towards the development of an integrated microfluidic device for point-of-care DNA-based diagnostics....

  6. Proposed on Device Capability based Authentication using AES-GCM for Internet of Things (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Sachin D.; Mahalle, Parikshit N.; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2011-01-01

    Economics of scale in Internet of Things (IoT) presents new security challenges for ubiquitous devices in terms of authentication, addressing and embedded security. Currently available cryptographic techniques require further analysis to determine applicability to IoT. We introduce...... an authentication and encryption protocol which serves as a proof of concept for authenticating device using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) – Galois/ Counter Mode GCM as cryptographic primitive. Authenticated encryption is best suited concept for IoT that will provide both message encryption...

  7. 78 FR 8191 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and/or 4G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    .... Central Expressway, Suite 600, Richardson, TX 75080 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., Bantian, Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 518129, China ] Huawei Device USA, Inc., 5700 Tennyson Parkway, Suite 600, Plano, TX 75024 Future Wei Technologies, Inc., d/b/a Huawei Technologies (USA), 5700...

  8. Arrays of microlenses with variable focal lengths fabricated by restructuring polymer surfaces with an ink-jet device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Best, Andreas; Nett, Sebastian K.; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-07-01

    We report of a method for fabricating two-dimensional, regular arrays of polymer microlenses with focal lengths variable between 0.2 and 4.5 mm. We first make concave microlenses by ink-jetting solvent on a polymer substrate with a commercial drop-on-demand device. Solvent evaporation restructures the surface by a series of combined effects, which are discussed. In the second step we obtain convex elastomeric microlenses by casting the template made in the first step. We demonstrate the good optical quality of the microlenses by characterising their surfaces with atomic force microscopy and white light interferometry, and by directly measuring their focal lengths with ad-hoc confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  9. Low-Cost, Large-Area, Facile, and Rapid Fabrication of Aligned ZnO Nanowire Device Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadafalch Gazquez, Gerard; Lei, Sidong; George, Antony; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Boukamp, Bernard A; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2016-06-01

    Well aligned nanowires of ZnO have been made with an electrospinning technique using zinc acetate precursor solutions. Employment of two connected parallel collector plates with a separating gap of 4 cm resulted in a very high degree of nanowire alignment. By adjusting the process parameters, the deposition density of the wires could be controlled. Field effect transistors were prepared by depositing wires between two gold electrodes on top of a heavily doped Si substrate covered with a 300 nm oxide layer. These devices showed good FET characteristics and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The method provides a fast and scalable fabrication route for functional nanowire arrays with a high degree of alignment and control over nanowire spacing. PMID:27173007

  10. Fabrication of Si/ZnS radial nanowire heterojunction arrays for white light emitting devices on Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Ajit K; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Manna, Santanu; Ray, Samit K

    2014-09-10

    Well-separated Si/ZnS radial nanowire heterojunction-based light-emitting devices have been fabricated on large-area substrates by depositing n-ZnS film on p-type nanoporous Si nanowire templates. Vertically oriented porous Si nanowires on p-Si substrates have been grown by metal-assisted chemical etching catalyzed using Au nanoparticles. Isolated Si nanowires with needle-shaped arrays have been made by KOH treatment before ZnS deposition. Electrically driven efficient white light emission from radial heterojunction arrays has been achieved under a low forward bias condition. The observed white light emission is attributed to blue and green emission from the defect-related radiative transition of ZnS and Si/ZnS interface, respectively, while the red arises from the porous surface of the Si nanowire core. The observed white light emission from the Si/ZnS nanowire heterojunction could open up the new possibility to integrate Si-based optical sources on a large scale.

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Self-patterned aluminium interconnects and ring electrodes for arrays of microcavity plasma devices encapsulated in Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic formation of Al interconnects and ring electrodes, fully encapsulated by alumina, in planar arrays of Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices has been accomplished by electrochemical processing of Al foil. Following the fabrication of cylindrical microcavities (50-350 µm in diameter) in 127 µm thick Al foil, virtually complete anodization of the foil yields azimuthally symmetric Al electrodes surrounding each cavity and interconnects between adjacent microcavities that are produced and simultaneously buried within a transparent Al2O3 film without the need for conventional patterning techniques. The diameter and pitch of the microcavities prior to anodization, as well as the anodization process parameters, determine which of the microcavity plasma devices in a one- or two-dimensional array are connected electrically. Data presented for 200 µm diameter cavities with a pitch of 150-225 µm illustrate the patterning of the interconnects and electrode connectivity after 4-10 h of anodization in oxalic acid. Self-patterned, linear arrays comprising 25 dielectric barrier devices have been excited by a sinusoidal or bipolar pulse voltage waveform and operated in 400-700 Torr of rare gas. Owing to the electrochemical conversion of most of the Al foil into Al2O3, the self-formed arrays exhibit an areal capacitance ~82% lower than that characteristic of previous Al/Al2O3 device arrays (Park et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 99 026107).

  12. Planar Gallium arsenide nanowire arrays for nanoelectronics: Controlled growth, doping, characterization, and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Ryan Stewart

    The Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism is a bottom-up approach to produce onedimensional semiconductor structures, or nanowires. VLS nanowires are formed via a chemical or physical deposition process, where a metallic nanoparticle (seed) facilitates the growth. Nanowire growth diameter is strongly correlated to seed size, therefore top-down patterning can control site location and diameter of nanowire growth. Nanowires are sought after for their potential use as a manageable way produce small dimensioned semiconductor features without the need of expensive lithographic techniques. VLS nanowires commonly grow out-of-plane with respect to their growth substrate, resulting in difficulty with integrating VLS nanowires into existing device processing which is intended for planar geometries. Nanowires are typically removed from the substrate, which requires painstaking and uneconomical methods to pattern and align the nanowires. Planar nanowires are a potential solution to this issue; they grow in-plane on the substrate surface, epitaxially attached along its entire axis. Planar nanowires, as is, can be integrated into any preexisting planar semiconductor process, combining the advantages of nanowires with increased manufacturability. In this dissertation, planar GaAs nanowires are grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Au nanoparticles as the liquid metal seed. Growth occurs across multiple substrates to elucidate the mechanism behind planar nanowire growth direction. Knowledge gained by observing planar nanowire growth is used to precisely control nanowire growth direction. Subsequently the doping of planar nanowires is explored and unique phenomena related to the p-type doping of planar nanowires are investigated and discussed. The advantages of using planar nanowires are demonstrated through the controlled growth and doping of planar nanowires, and ultimately fabrication of electronic devices using conventional planar process techniques

  13. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  14. A ku-band dual-polarization connected array of dipoles with wide-scan capability for in-flight entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D.; Gerini, G.; Bolt, R.; Grooters, R.; Deurloo, D.; Zalk, B. van; Neto, A.; Toso, G.; Midthassel, R.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the development and performance of a doubly-polarized array of connected dipoles for in-flight entertainment. The array is designed to simultaneously operate in the uplink and the downlink bands, with an overall bandwidth of about 30%, from 10.7 to 14.5 GHz. The array prototype

  15. RF-Care: Device-Free Posture Recognition for Elderly People Using A Passive RFID Tag Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition is a fundamental research topic for a wide range of important applications such as fall detection for elderly people. Existing techniques mainly rely on wearable sensors, which may not be reliable and practical in real-world situations since people often forget to wear these sensors. For this reason, device-free activity recognition has gained the popularity in recent years. In this paper, we propose an RFID (radio frequency identification based, device-free posture recognition system. More specifically, we analyze Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI signal patterns from an RFID tag array, and systematically examine the impact of tag configuration on system performance. On top of selected optimal subset of tags, we study the challenges on posture recognition. Apart from exploring posture classification, we specially propose to infer posture transitions via Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM based Hidden Markov Model (HMM, which effectively captures the nature of uncertainty caused by signal strength varieties during posture transitions. We run a pilot study to evaluate our system with 12 orientation-sensitive postures and a series of posture change sequences. We conduct extensive experiments in both lab and real-life home environments. The results demonstrate that our system achieves high accuracy in both environments, which holds the potential to support assisted living of elderly people.

  16. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM): A Subsurface Penetration Device with Infrared Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopic Sensing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.; Lemke, L. G.; Hammer, P.; Dalton, J. B.; Glass, B.; Zent, A.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for evidence of life on Mars will probably require access to the subsurface. The Martian surface is bathed in ultraviolet radiation which decomposes organic compounds, destroying possible evidence for life. Also, experiments performed by the Viking Landers imply the presence of several strongly oxidizing compounds at the Martian surface that may also play a role in destroying organic compounds near the surface. While liquid water is unstable on the Martian surface, and ice is unstable at the surface at low latitudes, recent results from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer experiment indicate that water ice is widely distributed near the surface under a thin cover of dry soil. Organic compounds created by an ancient Martian biosphere might be preserved in such ice-rich layers. Furthermore, accessing the subsurface provides a way to identify unique stratigraphy such as small-scale layering associated with lacustrine sediments. Subsurface access might also provide new insights into the Mars climate record that may be preserved in the Polar Layered Deposits. Recognizing the importance of accessing the subsurface of Mars to the future scientific exploration of the planet, the Mars Surveyor 2007 Science Definition Team called for drilling beneath the surface soils. Subsurface measurements are also cited as high priority in by MEPAG. Recognizing the importance of accessing the Martian subsurface to search for life, the European Space Agency has incorporated a small automated burrowing device called a subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 lander planned for 2003 launch. This device, called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), is a pointed slender cylinder 2 cm wide and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device at the pointed end that collects samples and brings them to the surface for analysis. Drawing on the PLUTO design, we are developing a larger Mole carrying sensors for identifying mineralogy, organic compounds, and water.

  17. An Enhanced Version of the MCACC to Augment the Computing Capabilities of Mobile Devices Using Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Elgendy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently as smartphones have a wide range of capabilities a lot of heavy applications like gaming, video editing, and face recognition are now available. However, this kind of applications need intensive computational power, memory, and battery. A lot of researches solve this problem by offloading applications to run on the Cloud due to its intensive storage and computation resources. Later, some techniques chooses to offload part of the applications while leaving the rest to be processed on the smartphone based on one or two metrics like power and CPU consumption only without any consideration to other important metrics. Our previously proposed MCACC framework has introduced a new generation of offloading frameworks that handle this problem by smartly emerging a group of real-time metrics like total execution time, energy consumption, remaining battery, memory, and security into the offloading decision. In this paper, we introduce an enhanced version of the MCACC framework that can now smartly operate under low bandwidth network scenario in addition to its existing capabilities. In this framework, any mobile application is divided into a group of services, and then each of them is either executed locally on the mobile or remotely on the Cloud through a dynamic offloading decision model. The extensive simulation studies show that both heavy and light applications can benefit from the proposed framework while saving energy and improving performance compare to previous counterparts. The enhanced MCACC turns the smartphones to be smarter as the offloading decision is taken without any user interference.

  18. High performance piezoelectric devices based on aligned arrays of nanofibers of poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, Luana; Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Girardo, Salvatore; Pisignano, Dario; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional capability, flexible design, rugged lightweight construction and self-powered operation are desired attributes for electronics that directly interface with the human body or with advanced robotic systems. For these applications, piezoelectric materials, in forms that offer the ability to bend and stretch, are attractive for pressure/force sensors and mechanical energy harvesters. Here, we introduce a large area, flexible piezoelectric material that consists of sheets of electrospun fibres of the polymer poly[(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene]. The flow and mechanical conditions associated with the spinning process yield free-standing, three-dimensional architectures of aligned arrangements of such fibres, in which the polymer chains adopt strongly preferential orientations. The resulting material offers exceptional piezoelectric characteristics, to enable ultra-high sensitivity for measuring pressure, even at exceptionally small values (0.1 Pa). Quantitative analysis provides detailed insights into the pressure sensing mechanisms, and establishes engineering design rules. Potential applications range from self-powered micro-mechanical elements, to self-balancing robots and sensitive impact detectors.

  19. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon L; Gilbert, Rachel J; Mejia, Maximo; Shukla, Nishant; Haverstick, Doris M; Garner, Gavin T; Landers, James P

    2016-06-14

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability. PMID:27181638

  20. Development of an array system of soft X-ray detectors with large sensitive area on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 17-channel soft X-ray diagnostic system was developed for a study of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations and installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The Absolute X-ray Ultraviolet Photodiodes (AXUV diode) with a large sensitivity area 10 mm × 10 mm were adopted as the detectors. The sightlines were designed to cover the whole plasma with 3.8 cm space separation and the expected radial resolution was 7 cm at the equatorial plane of LHD. The toroidally elongated pin hole (25 mm × 7 mm) was used to increase the signal to noise ratio and a Be foil of 15 μm in thickness was used to shut the visible light. The detector array was placed inside the vertically elongated section of the LHD vacuum vessel, being shielded by an aluminum box. In the experimental campaign of LHD, this fiscal year 2011, various kinds of MHD fluctuations excited in core and edge plasma regions have clearly been detected by this newly installed diagnostic system. The characteristic behaviors of the ELM activity in H-mode plasmas and the “Fishbone”-like instabilities induced by the perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) were derived from the soft X-ray data. (author)

  1. Deformation T-Cup: A new Kawai-style deformation device capable of controlled strain-rate deformation at pressures in excess of 20 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S. A.; Dobson, D. P.; Santangeli, J. R.; McCormack, R.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M. L.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    A significant proportion of our understanding of the rheological properties of mantle minerals is gained by analysing the data from, both offline and synchrotron based, controlled strain-rate deformation experiments. However, controlled strain-rate deformation experiments at in-situ conditions have been limited by the current generation of deformation apparatus (the deformation-DIA and the Rotational Drickamer) to about 15 GPa. Being limited to 15 GPa means that in situ deformation experiments are limited to phases stable in the upper mantle and the upper parts of the transition-zone. Therefore, deformation experiments on mantle composition ringwoodite and majorite have not been performed in significant numbers and there are no measurements at controlled strain-rates of the lower-mantle perovskites. Here, we report the capabilities of a new device the DT-cup or deformation T-Cup, which is capable for deformation experiments at pressures in excess of 20 GPa, and with continued development in excess of 25 GPa. The two instances of the DT-Cup press at University College London and the X17B2 beamline at the NSLS, consist of 400 tonne, Paris-Edinburgh style, load frames into which split-cylinder 6-8 multi-anvil tooling is inserted, with the axis of the inner cube set aligned with the action of the press. The 'top' and 'bottom' anvils of the cube set are replaced by hexagonal rods, cut so the end of the rods are the same shape as the inner faces of the 10 (X17B2 device) or 14 mm (UCL device) edge length cubes they replace. Controlled strain-rate deformation of the sample is undertaken by differential pistons pushing on the two hexagonal rams and advancing the two anvils along the aligned axis of the inner cube set. As the pistons advance the main ram adjusts in order that the confining pressure exerted on the sample remains constant. The differences between the standard Kawai-style split cylinder devices and the DT-Cup are analogous to the differences between the cubic

  2. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon L; Gilbert, Rachel J; Mejia, Maximo; Shukla, Nishant; Haverstick, Doris M; Garner, Gavin T; Landers, James P

    2016-06-14

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing centrifugal force, only requiring a CD player motor as external hardware and, ultimately, a cell phone for detection. The sedimented volume from patient blood in the HCT Disc was analyzed using a conventional scanner/custom algorithm for analysis of the image to determine a hematocrit value, and these were compared to values generated in a clinical laboratory, which correlated well. To enhance portability and assure simplicity of the HCT measurement, values from image analysis by a cell phone using a custom application was compared to the scanner. Fifteen samples were analyzed with cell phone image analysis system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability.

  3. Image reconstruction with sub-diffraction resolution in radio vision devices of millimeter and terahertz range using receiving arrays and image scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavkin, Alexander N.; Pestryakov, Andrey V.; Bankov, Sergey E.; Chebotarev, Vladimir M.

    2009-09-01

    The method of image reconstruction with sub-diffraction resolution in radio vision devices (RVD) of shortwave millimeter and terahertz frequency range is proposed. The method is based on image scanning using two-dimensional receiving element array of RVD when array and image move circularly in common plane relatively each to other (rotating or not rotating) with small eccentricity between their centers. The results of scanning are signals reading out by detectors of array receiving elements. Each signal is proportional to the integral of two functions product. One function is a perfect image field distribution of the observed object received by RVD without diffraction distortion. Another one is RVD optical (quasioptical) transfer function comprising beams delivering incident radiation to detectors of array. The second function takes into account whole received radiation beam paths from RVD input to each detector including the effect of diffraction and reciprocal circular scanning of array and image. The image of observed object itself can be found solving inverse ill-posed problem determined by mentioned above integral relations. The estimation using computer simulation has shown that proposed method permits to increase resolution up to ten times in comparison with the case of diffraction restriction. The method is aimed at radioastronomy telescopes and RVD's for the security, medical diagnostics and other systems.

  4. The difference in the capability of delineation between convex and radial arrayed echoendoscope for pancreas and biliary tract; case reports from the standpoint of both convex and radial arrayed echoendoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanuma, Akio; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Osanai, Manabu; Takahashi, Kuniyuki

    2011-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is useful in obtaining not only high-resolution images of organs and surrounding tissue but also the tissue itself for histopathological diagnosis using fine needle aspiration. Currently, there are two types of EUS available for use: radial and convex arrayed EUS. Each type of EUS has its own advantages and disadvantages. Because radial arrayed EUS can obtain 360 degree images, it is easy to see surrounding organs and vessels. In addition, a single longitudinal image of the pancreas, gallbladder and bile duct is easy to obtain. For this reason, radial arrayed EUS is highly effective in diagnostic examinations. In contrast, while scanning range of convex arrayed EUS limited to 180 degrees, it has the advantage of being able to obtain tissue samples. Additionally while using convex arrayed EUS, the upper part of the bile duct and neck of the pancreas are easily seen beyond the portal vein. It is important to understand the characteristics of each EUS in order to select the most suitable EUS technique for diagnostic assessment. PMID:21535191

  5. Toward a Public Toxicogenomics Capability for Supporting Predictive Toxicology: Survey of Current Resources and Chemical Indexing of Experiments in GEO and ArrayExpress

    Science.gov (United States)

    A publicly available toxicogenomics capability for supporting predictive toxicology and meta-analysis depends on availability of gene expression data for chemical treatment scenarios, the ability to locate and aggregate such information by chemical, and broad data coverage within...

  6. Transport and collision dynamics in periodic asymmetric obstacle arrays: Rational design of microfluidic rare-cell immunocapture devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P.; Smith, James P.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2013-09-01

    Microfluidic obstacle arrays have been used in numerous applications, and their ability to sort particles or capture rare cells from complex samples has broad and impactful applications in biology and medicine. We have investigated the transport and collision dynamics of particles in periodic obstacle arrays to guide the design of convective, rather than diffusive, transport-based immunocapture microdevices. Ballistic and full computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to understand the collision modes that evolve in cylindrical obstacle arrays with various geometries. We identify previously unrecognized collision mode structures and differential size-based collision frequencies that emerge from these arrays. Previous descriptions of transverse displacements that assume unidirectional flow in these obstacle arrays cannot capture mode transitions properly as these descriptions fail to capture the dependence of the mode transitions on column spacing and the attendant change in the flow field. Using these analytical and computational simulations, we elucidate design parameters that induce high collision rates for all particles larger than a threshold size or selectively increase collision frequencies for a narrow range of particle sizes within a polydisperse population. Furthermore, we investigate how the particle Péclet number affects collision dynamics and mode transitions and demonstrate that experimental observations from various obstacle array geometries are well described by our computational model.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky-device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kin Mun; Grote, Fabian; Sun, Hui; Lei, Yong [Institute of Materials Physics, Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster (Germany); Wen, Liaoyong; Fang, Yaoguo [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highly ordered arrays of vertical zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) or nanopores were fabricated in our group by first thermal evaporating a thin film of gold on the ultrathin alumina membrane (UTAM). The UTAM was then utilized as a substrate for the growth of the ordered arrays using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. Alternatively, a modified CVD process was also used to fabricate ultra-long ZnO NWs with the length of the nanowire exceeding 100 micrometres. Subsequently, densely packed arrays of ZnO NWs Schottky diodes were synthesized by transferring the long NWs on a substrate using a dry contact printing method and the electrical contacts were made on the NWs with a photolithographic process. The interesting electrical properties of the ZnO NWs, diodes or other metal oxide NWs such as the field emission, electron transport and piezoelectric properties were characterized by current-voltage or by other appropriate measurements.

  8. Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level: A software simulation tool for evaluating the capabilities of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grape, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.grape@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Lindberg, Bo [Lens-Tech AB, Box 733, SE-93127 Skellefteå (Sweden)

    2013-01-11

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument that records the Cherenkov light emitted from irradiated nuclear fuels in wet storages. The presence, intensity and pattern of the Cherenkov light can be used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to verify that the fuel properties comply with declarations. The DCVD is since several years approved by the IAEA for gross defect verification, i.e. to control whether an item in a storage pool is a nuclear fuel assembly or a non-fuel item [1]. Recently, it has also been endorsed as a tool for partial defect verification, i.e. to identify if a fraction of the fuel rods in an assembly have been removed or replaced. The latter recognition was based on investigations of experimental studies on authentic fuel assemblies and of simulation studies on hypothetic cases of partial defects [2]. This paper describes the simulation methodology and software which was used in the partial defect capability evaluations. The developed simulation procedure uses three stand-alone software packages: the ORIGEN-ARP code [3] used to obtain the gamma-ray spectrum from the fission products in the fuel, the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 [4] for simulating the gamma-ray transport in and around the fuel and the emission of Cherenkov light, and the ray-tracing programme Zemax [5] used to model the light transport through the assembly geometry to the DCVD and to mimic the behaviour of its lens system. Furthermore, the software allows for detailed information from the plant operator on power and/or burnup distributions to be taken into account to enhance the authenticity of the simulated images. To demonstrate the results of the combined software packages, simulated and measured DCVD images are presented. A short discussion on the usefulness of the simulation tool is also included.

  9. Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level: A software simulation tool for evaluating the capabilities of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape, Sophie; Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan; Lindberg, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument that records the Cherenkov light emitted from irradiated nuclear fuels in wet storages. The presence, intensity and pattern of the Cherenkov light can be used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to verify that the fuel properties comply with declarations. The DCVD is since several years approved by the IAEA for gross defect verification, i.e. to control whether an item in a storage pool is a nuclear fuel assembly or a non-fuel item [1]. Recently, it has also been endorsed as a tool for partial defect verification, i.e. to identify if a fraction of the fuel rods in an assembly have been removed or replaced. The latter recognition was based on investigations of experimental studies on authentic fuel assemblies and of simulation studies on hypothetic cases of partial defects [2]. This paper describes the simulation methodology and software which was used in the partial defect capability evaluations. The developed simulation procedure uses three stand-alone software packages: the ORIGEN-ARP code [3] used to obtain the gamma-ray spectrum from the fission products in the fuel, the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 [4] for simulating the gamma-ray transport in and around the fuel and the emission of Cherenkov light, and the ray-tracing programme Zemax [5] used to model the light transport through the assembly geometry to the DCVD and to mimic the behaviour of its lens system. Furthermore, the software allows for detailed information from the plant operator on power and/or burnup distributions to be taken into account to enhance the authenticity of the simulated images. To demonstrate the results of the combined software packages, simulated and measured DCVD images are presented. A short discussion on the usefulness of the simulation tool is also included.

  10. Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, F B; Cloonan, T J; Lentine, A L; Sasian, J M; Morrison, R L; Beckman, M G; Walker, S L; Wojcik, M J; Hinterlong, S J; Crisci, R J; Novotny, R A; Hinton, H S

    1994-03-10

    The design, construction, and operational testing of a five-stage, fully interconnected 32 × 16 switching fabric by the use of smart-pixel (2, 1, 1) switching nodes are described. The arrays of switching nodes use monolithically integrated GaAs field-effect transistors, multiple-quantum-well p-i-n detectors, and self-electro-optic-device modulators. Each switching node incorporates 25 field-effect transistors and 17 p-i-n diodes to realize two differential optical receivers, the 2 × 1 node switching logic, a single-bit node control memory, and one differential optical transmitter. The five stages of node arrays are interconnected to form a two-dimensional banyan network by the use of Fourier-plane computer-generated holograms. System input and output are made by two-dimensional fiber-bundle matrices, and the system optical hardware design incorporates frequency-stabilized lasers, pupil-division beam combination, and a hybrid micro-macro lens for fiber-bundle imaging. Optomechanical packaging of the system ut lizes modular kinematic component positioning and active thermal control to enable simple rapid assembly. Two preliminary operational experiments are completed. In the first experiment, five stages are operated at 50 Mbits/s with 15 active inputs and outputs. The second experiment attempts to operate two stages of second-generation node arrays at 155 Mbits/s, with eight of the 15 active nodes functioning correctly along the straight switch-routing paths. PMID:20862186

  11. Programmable logic devices in experimental quantum optics

    OpenAIRE

    Stockton, J.; Armen, M.; Mabuchi, H.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the unique capabilities of programmable logic devices (PLD's) for experimental quantum optics and describe basic procedures of design and implementation. Examples of advanced applications include optical metrology and feedback control of quantum dynamical systems. As a tutorial illustration of the PLD implementation process, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller is used to stabilize the output of a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  12. Programmable Logic Devices in Experimental Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, J K; Mabuchi, H

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the unique capabilities of programmable logic devices (PLD's) for experimental quantum optics and describe basic procedures of design and implementation. Examples of advanced applications include optical metrology and feedback control of quantum dynamical systems. As a tutorial illustration of the PLD implementation process, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller is used to stabilize the output of a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  13. Linear array measurements of enhanced dynamic wedge and treatment planning system (TPS) calculation for 15 MV photon beam and comparison with electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Borislava; Grzadziel, Aleksandra; Rutonjski, Laza; Slosarek, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) are known to increase drastically the radiation therapy treatment efficiency. This paper has the aim to compare linear array measurements of EDW with the calculations of treatment planning system (TPS) and the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for 15 MV photon energy. Materials and methods. The range of different field sizes and wedge angles (for 15 MV photon beam) were measured by the linear chamber array CA 24 in Blue water phantom. The measurement conditions were applied to the calculations of the commercial treatment planning system XIO CMS v.4.2.0 using convolution algorithm. EPID measurements were done on EPID-focus distance of 100 cm, and beam parameters being the same as for CA24 measurements. Results Both depth doses and profiles were measured. EDW linear array measurements of profiles to XIO CMS TPS calculation differ around 0.5%. Profiles in non-wedged direction and open field profiles practically do not differ. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) for all EDW measurements show the difference of not more than 0.2%, while the open field PDD is almost the same as EDW PDD. Wedge factors for 60 deg wedge angle were also examined, and the difference is up to 4%. EPID to linear array differs up to 5%. Conclusions The implementation of EDW in radiation therapy treatments provides clinicians with an effective tool for the conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. If modelling of EDW beam in TPS is done correctly, a very good agreement between measurements and calculation is obtained, but EPID cannot be used for reference measurements. PMID:22933916

  14. Two-dimensional microchemical observation of mast cell biogenic amine release as monitored by a 128 × 128 array-type charge-coupled device ion image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Tamamura, Youichiro; Tokunaga, Kenta; Sakurai, Takashi; Kato, Ryo; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2014-05-01

    Available array-type, chemical-sensing image sensors generally only provide on/off responses to the sensed chemical and produce qualitative information. Therefore, there is a need for an array sensor design that can detect chemical concentration changes to produce quantitative, event-sensitive information. In this study, a 128 × 128 array-type image sensor was modified and applied to imaging of biogenic amines released from stimulated rat mast cells, providing recordable responses of the time course of their release and diffusion. The imaging tool was manufactured by an integrated circuit process, including complementary metal oxide semiconductor and charge-coupled device technology. It was fitted with an amine-sensitive membrane prepared from plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) including a hydrophobic anion, which allowed the sensor to detect amines, such as histamine and serotonin, in Tyrode's solution. As mast cells were larger in diameter than the pixel hollows, some pixels monitored amines released from single cells. The image from the array responses yielded sequential snapshots at a practical frame speed that followed amine concentration changes over time, after mast cell amine release was synchronized by chemical stimulation. This sensor was shown to be sensitive to amine release at very low stimulus concentrations and was able to detect localized spots of high amine release. The entire time course of the amine release was recorded, including maximum concentration at 4-6 s and signal disappearance at 30 s after stimulation. With further development, this sensor will increase opportunities to study a variety of biological systems, including neuronal chemical processes. PMID:24731060

  15. Linear array measurements of enhanced dynamic wedge and treatment planning system (TPS) calculation for 15 MV photon beam and comparison with electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) are known to increase drastically the radiation therapy treatment efficiency. This paper has the aim to compare linear array measurements of EDW with the calculations of treatment planning system (TPS) and the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for 15 MV photon energy. The range of different field sizes and wedge angles (for 15 MV photon beam) were measured by the linear chamber array CA 24 in Blue water phantom. The measurement conditions were applied to the calculations of the commercial treatment planning system XIO CMS v.4.2.0 using convolution algorithm. EPID measurements were done on EPID-focus distance of 100 cm, and beam parameters being the same as for CA24 measurements. Both depth doses and profiles were measured. EDW linear array measurements of profiles to XIO CMS TPS calculation differ around 0.5%. Profiles in non-wedged direction and open field profiles practically do not differ. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) for all EDW measurements show the difference of not more than 0.2%, while the open field PDD is almost the same as EDW PDD. Wedge factors for 60 deg wedge angle were also examined, and the difference is up to 4%. EPID to linear array differs up to 5%. The implementation of EDW in radiation therapy treatments provides clinicians with an effective tool for the conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. If modelling of EDW beam in TPS is done correctly, a very good agreement between measurements and calculation is obtained, but EPID cannot be used for reference measurements

  16. Fourteen x fourteen CCD array for optical intersatellite link tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutemy, J. C.; Boucharlat, G.; Dautriche, P.

    1988-06-01

    Optical intersatellite links and the SILEX program are generalized. The main constraints of the acquisition and tracking system are described. The specifications of a charge coupled device array devoted to the tracking, with the capability of high images rates (up to 20,000 im/s) are reviewed. It is shown that a low resolution and high image rate array allow the performances of the intersatellite laser acquisition system to be improved.

  17. UV-IR Science Prospects with TES Imaging Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, R. W.; Burney, J.; Brink, P.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, P; Kenny, T; Wang, E.; Young, B; Miller, A. J.; Nam, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing photon-counting cameras employing cryogenic arrays of energy-resolving TES (Transition Edge Sensor) pixels. These are being tested in ground-based instruments, but will have their greatest impact when employed on space platforms, where they can cover the 10micrometer-100nm range with high time- and moderate energy- resolution. Here we summarize briefly existing device performance, current directions in array camera development and anticipated capabilities.

  18. Capability Paternalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting c

  19. Observations of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation (FR) and Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR): Steps Towards Improving Space-Weather Forecasting Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Sobey, C.; Eftekhari, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Odstrcil, D.; Tokumaru, M.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather which describes the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such changes on the Earth's magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects which includes its forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather in the near-Earth environment is vitally important to protecting our modern-day reliance (militarily and commercially) on satellites, global-communication and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. Two ground-based radio-observing remote-sensing techniques that can aid our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a next-generation 'software' radio telescope centered in The Netherlands with international stations spread across central and northwest Europe. For several years, scientific observations of IPS on LOFAR have been undertaken on a campaign basis and the experiment is now well developed. More recently, LOFAR has been used to attempt scientific heliospheric FR observations aimed at remotely sensing the magnetic field of the plasma traversing the inner heliosphere. We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input

  20. Characterization of an Optical Device with an Array of Blue Light Emitting Diodes LEDS for Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbe, Priscilla Fróes; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. Balbin; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Barbosa, Ana Maria; Veissid, Nelson

    2008-04-01

    Phototherapy is a treatment that consists in irradiating a patient with light of high intensity, which promotes beneficial photochemical transformations in the irradiated area. The phototherapy for neonates is applied to break down the bilirubin, an organic pigment that is a sub product of the erythrocytes degradation, and to increase its excretion by the organism. Neonates should be irradiated with light of wavelength that the bilirubin can absorb, and with spectral irradiances between 4 and 16 μW/cm2/nm. The efficiency of the treatment depends on the irradiance and the area of the body that is irradiated. A convenient source of light for treatment of neonatal jaundice is the blue Light Emitter Diode (LED), emitting in the range of 400 to 500 nm, with power of the order of 10-150 mW. Some of the advantages for using LEDS are: low cost, operating long lifetime (over 100,000 hours), narrow emission linewith, low voltage power supply requirement and low heating. The aim of this work was to build and characterize a device for phototherapy treatment of neonatal jaundice. This consists of a blanket with 88 blue LEDs (emission peak at 472 nm), arranged in an 8×11 matrix, all connected in parallel and powered by a 5V-2A power supply. The device was characterized by using a spectroradiometer USB2000 (Ocean Optics Inc, USA), with a sensitivity range of 339-1019 nm. For determination of light spatial uniformity was used a calibrated photovoltaic sensor for measuring light intensity and mapping of the light intensity spatial distribution. Results indicate that our device shows a uniform spatial distribution for distances from the blanket larger than 10 cm, with a maximum of irradiance at such a distance. This device presenting a large and uniform area of irradiation, efficient wavelength emission and high irradiance seems to be promising for neonates' phototherapy treatment.

  1. Transistor memory devices with large memory windows, using multi-stacking of densely packed, hydrophobic charge trapping metal nanoparticle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-AuNPs) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-AuNP)n films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO2 gate dielectric layer. For a single AuNP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-AuNP)1) with a number density of 1.82 × 1012 cm−2, the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four AuNP layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔVth) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 106) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate. (paper)

  2. 78 FR 958 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and/or 4G Capabilities and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...; Nokia Corporation of Finland; Nokia Inc. of NY; ZTE Corporation of China; ZTE (USA) Inc. of TX; Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd of China; Huawei Device USA, Inc. of TX; and FutureWei Technologies, Inc....

  3. Nano-materials employment in energy harvesting and storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tamvakos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the development of a new generation of miniature electronic devices by employing nano-scale materials. Specifically, ZnO nanowire arrays were investigated to increase the conversion efficiency of energy harvesting devices and graphene nano-platelets employed to enhance supercapacitors' energy storage capability. The results obtained in this work pave the way to the possibility of conceiving novel autonomous devices integrating both energy units. The present thesi...

  4. Optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Comtois, John H.; Hetherington, Dale L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, layout, fabrication, and surface characterization of highly optimized surface micromachined micromirror devices. Design considerations and fabrication capabilities are presented. These devices are fabricated in the state-of-the-art, four-level, planarized, ultra-low-stress polysilicon process available at Sandia National Laboratories known as the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiT). This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near-ideal characteristics that have previously been unrealizable in standard three-layer polysilicon processes. The reduced 1 μm minimum feature sizes and 0.1 μm mask resolution make it possible to produce dense wiring patterns and irregularly shaped flexures. Likewise, mirror surfaces can be uniquely distributed and segmented in advanced patterns and often irregular shapes in order to minimize wavefront error across the pupil. The ultra-low-stress polysilicon and planarized upper layer allow designers to make larger and more complex micromirrors of varying shape and surface area within an array while maintaining uniform performance of optical surfaces. Powerful layout functions of the AutoCAD editor simplify the design of advanced micromirror arrays and make it possible to optimize devices according to the capabilities of the fabrication process. Micromirrors fabricated in this process have demonstrated a surface variance across the array from only 2-3 nm to a worst case of roughly 25 nm while boasting active surface areas of 98% or better. Combining the process planarization with a ``planarized-by-design'' approach will produce micromirror array surfaces that are limited in flatness only by the surface deposition roughness of the structural material. Ultimately, the combination of advanced process and layout capabilities have permitted the fabrication of highly optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics.

  5. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theor

  6. Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive...... relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability....

  7. A novel approach combining the Calgary Biofilm Device and Phenotype MicroArray for the characterization of the chemical sensitivity of bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santopolo, L; Marchi, E; Frediani, L; Decorosi, F; Viti, C; Giovannetti, L

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for screening the metabolic susceptibility of biofilms to toxic compounds was developed by combining the Calgary Biofilm Device (MBEC device) and Phenotype MicroArray (PM) technology. The method was developed using Pseudomonas alcaliphila 34, a Cr(VI)-hyper-resistant bacterium, as the test organism. P. alcaliphila produced a robust biofilm after incubation for 16 h, reaching the maximum value after incubation for 24 h (9.4 × 10(6) ± 3.3 × 10(6) CFU peg(-1)). In order to detect the metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm, dye E (5×) and menadione sodium bisulphate (100 μM) were selected for redox detection chemistry, because they produced a high colorimetric yield in response to bacterial metabolism (340.4 ± 6.9 Omnilog Arbitrary Units). This combined approach, which avoids the limitations of traditional plate counts, was validated by testing the susceptibility of P. alcaliphila biofilm to 22 toxic compounds. For each compound the concentration level that significantly lowered the metabolic activity of the biofilm was identified. Chemical sensitivity analysis of the planktonic culture was also performed, allowing comparison of the metabolic susceptibility patterns of biofilm and planktonic cultures.

  8. Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive relation......The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive...... relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability....

  9. Gossiping Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin; Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid;

    declare a high capability in order to augment their perceived quality without contributing accordingly. We evaluate HEAP in the context of a video streaming application on a 236 PlanetLab nodes testbed. Our results shows that HEAP improves the quality of the streaming by 25% over a standard gossip......Gossip-based protocols are now acknowledged as a sound basis to implement collaborative high-bandwidth content dissemination: content location is disseminated through gossip, the actual contents being subsequently pulled. In this paper, we present HEAP, HEterogeneity Aware gossip Protocol, where...... nodes dynamically adjust their contribution to gossip dissemination according to their capabilities. Using a continuous, itself gossip-based, approximation of relative capabilities, HEAP dynamically leverages the most capable nodes by (a) increasing their fanouts (while decreasing by the same proportion...

  10. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Appenzeller, J

    2015-12-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  11. Development and Demonstration of Measurement-Time Efficient Methods for Impedance Spectroscopy of Electrode and Sensor Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Johnson; Matthew Smith; Kevin R. Cooper

    2008-01-01

    The development of impedance-based array devices is hindered by a lack of robust platforms and methods upon which to evaluate and interrogate sensors. One aspect to be addressed is the development of measurement-time efficient techniques for broadband impedance spectroscopy of large electrode arrays. The objective of this work was to substantially increase the low frequency impedance measurement throughput capability of a large channel count array analyzer by developing true parallel measurem...

  12. Analysis of infinite arrays of arbitrarily shaped planar radiating elements using a Floquet mode based Method of Moments approach

    OpenAIRE

    LaPean, James William

    1996-01-01

    Large phased array antennas are theoretically capable of delivering the directive gain of similarly sized aperture antennas while offering electronic beam scanning capabilities and greater operational flexibility. Unfortunately, the high cost associated with large phased antenna arrays has limited their use to highly specialized applications where no other antenna system configuration is possible. The recent development of less expensive microwave active devices has led to a re...

  13. Circumferential lesion formation around the pulmonary veins in the left atrium with focused ultrasound using a 2D-array endoesophageal device: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room C713, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting humans. The electrical isolation by ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in the left atrium (LA) of the heart has been proven as an effective cure of AF. The ablation consists mainly in the formation of a localized circumferential thermal coagulation of the cardiac tissue surrounding the PVs. In the present numerical study, the feasibility of producing the required circumferential lesion with an endoesophageal ultrasound probe is investigated. The probe operates at 1 MHz and consists of a 2D array with enough elements (114 x 20) to steer the acoustic field electronically in a volume comparable to the LA. Realistic anatomical conditions of the thorax were considered from the segmentation of histological images of the thorax. The cardiac muscle and the blood-filled cavities in the heart were identified and considered in the sound propagation and thermal models. The influence of different conditions of the thermal sinking in the LA chamber was also studied. The circumferential ablation of the PVs was achieved by the sum of individual lesions induced with the proposed device. Different scenarios of lesion formation were considered where ultrasound exposures (1, 2, 5 and 10 s) were combined with maximal peak temperatures (60, 70 and 80 {sup 0}C). The results of this numerical study allowed identifying the limits and best conditions for controlled lesion formation in the LA using the proposed device. A controlled situation for the lesion formation surrounding the PVs was obtained when the targets were located within a distance from the device in the range of 26 {+-} 7 mm. When combined with a maximal temperature of 70 {sup 0}C and an exposure time between 5 and 10 s, this distance ensured preservation of the esophageal structures, controlled lesion formation and delivery of an acoustic intensity at the transducer surface that is compatible with existing materials. With a peak

  14. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  15. Assessment by Ames test and comet assay of toxicity potential of polymer used to develop field-capable rapid-detection device to analyze environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Amanda; Bishop, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Gleason, Karen; Torosian, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    There is need for devices that decrease detection time of food-borne pathogens from days to real-time. In this study, a rapid-detection device is being developed and assessed for potential cytotoxicity. The device is comprised of melt-spun polypropylene coupons coated via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) with 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), for conductivity and 3-Thiopheneethanol (3TE), allowing antibody attachment. The Ames test and comet assay have been used in this study to examine the toxicity potentials of EDOT, 3TE, and polymerized EDOT-co-3TE. For this study, Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 was used to assess the mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and the copolymer. The average mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and copolymer was calculated to be 0.86, 0.56, and 0.92, respectively. For mutagenic potential, on a scale from 0 to 1, close to 1 indicates low potential for toxicity, whereas a value of 0 indicates a high potential for toxicity. The comet assay is a single-cell gel electrophoresis technique that is widely used for this purpose. This assay measures toxicity based on the area or intensity of the comet-like shape that DNA fragments produce when DNA damage has occurred. Three cell lines were assessed; FRhK-4, BHK-21, and Vero cells. After averaging the results of all three strains, the tail intensity of the copolymer was 8.8 % and tail moment was 3.0, and is most similar to the untreated control, with average tail intensity of 5.7 % and tail moment of 1.7. The assays conducted in this study provide evidence that the copolymer is non-toxic to humans.

  16. The importance of chemistry in creating well-defined nanoscopic embedded therapeutics: devices capable of the dual functions of imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Andreas M; Wooley, Karen L

    2011-10-18

    Nanomedicine is a rapidly evolving field, for which polymer building blocks are proving useful for the construction of sophisticated devices that provide enhanced diagnostic imaging and treatment of disease, known as theranostics. These well-defined nanoscopic objects have high loading capacities, can protect embedded therapeutic cargo, and offer control over the conditions and rates of release. Theranostics also offer external surface area for the conjugation of ligands to impart stealth characteristics and/or direct their interactions with biological receptors and provide a framework for conjugation of imaging agents to track delivery to diseased site(s). The nanoscopic dimensions allow for extensive biological circulation. The incorporation of such multiple functions is complicated, requiring exquisite chemical control during production and rigorous characterization studies to confirm the compositions, structures, properties, and performance. We are particularly interested in the study of nanoscopic objects designed for treatment of lung infections and acute lung injury, urinary tract infections, and cancer. This Account highlights our work over several years to tune the assembly of unique nanostructures. We provide examples of how the composition, structure, dimensions, and morphology of theranostic devices can tune their performance as drug delivery agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. The evolution of nanostructured materials from relatively simple overall shapes and internal morphologies to those of increasing complexity is driving the development of synthetic methodologies for the preparation of increasingly complex nanomedicine devices. Our nanomedicine devices are derived from macromolecules that have well-defined compositions, structures, and topologies, which provide a framework for their programmed assembly into nanostructures with controlled sizes, shapes, and morphologies. The inclusion of functional units within selective

  17. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networks...

  18. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  19. Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.

  20. Vertical arrays of SiO2 micro/nanotubes templated from Si pillars by chemical oxidation for high loading capacity buoyant aquatic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Soo; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2013-12-26

    A simple and facile method to fabricate SiO2 micro- or nanotubes has been demonstrated based on room temperature wet chemical oxidation of a porous layer of Si pillar templates that have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE). Under typical conditions, Si pillars produced by the MaCE have been found to be covered with a thin nanoporous Si layer. The porous Si skin layer has been chemically oxidized by simple dipping in AgNO3 solution at room temperature, which has led to seamless SiO2 shell layer thanks to the accompanying volume expansion during the wet oxidation. Following wet removal of core Si by KOH yields the SiO2 micro- or nanotubes, either in test tube shape or in open shape at both ends, depending on processing method. The vertical arrays of the SiO2 tube on the Si substrate, after hydrophobic siloxane oligomer printing, has been found to have very large loading capacity on water, due to extremely high porosity (>90%) and good enough mechanical stability. The novel method to fabricate SiO2 tubes can shed new light in design of novel aquatic devices, other than simple mimicking the leg of a water strider. Also, the method may be very helpful in various applications of SiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24313459

  1. Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration-Assisted Drop Casting (SVADC) for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Solar Cell Arrays and Thin-Film Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost, versatile, and potentially scalable casting method is proposed for the fabrication of micro- and nano-thin films, herein termed as ultrasonic "substrate vibration-assisted drop casting" (SVADC). The impingement of a solution drop onto a substrate in a simple process called drop casting, usually results in spreading of the liquid solution and the formation of a non-uniform thin solid film after solvent evaporation. Our previous and current supporting results, as well as few similar reports by others, confirm that imposing ultrasonic vibration on the substrate can simply convert the uncontrollable drop casting method into a controllable coating technique. Therefore, the SVADC may be used to fabricate an array of emerging thin-film solar cells, such as polymer, perovskite, and quantum-dot solar cells, as well as other small thin-film devices, in a roll-to-roll and automated fabrication process. The preliminary results demonstrate a ten-fold increase in electrical conductivity of PEDOT: PSS made by SVADC compared with the film made by conventional drop casting. Also, simple planar perovskite solar cells made here using SVADC show promising performance with an efficiency of over 3 % for a simple structure without performing process optimization or using expensive materials and treatments.

  2. Micromechanical resonator array for an implantable bionic ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Mark; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Xu, Tao; Li, G-P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on a multi-resonant transducer that may be used to replace a traditional speech processor in cochlear implant applications. The transducer, made from an array of micro-machined polymer resonators, is capable of passively splitting sound into its frequency sub-bands without the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital processing. Since all bands are mechanically filtered in parallel, there is low latency in the output signals. The simplicity of the device, high channel capability, low power requirements, and small form factor (less than 1 cm) make it a good candidate for a completely implantable bionic ear device.

  3. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  4. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  5. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  6. Demonstration MTI/SAR capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F.P.P. de; Broek, A.C. van den; Otten, M.P.G.; Groot, J.S.; Steeghs, T.P.H.; Dekker, R.J.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate to the Dutch armed forces the capability of MTI (Moving Target Indicator) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar). This is done with the Dutch PHARUS sensor. The sensor is used to demonstrate how a phased array antenna can be used as an MTI/SAR sensor combination

  7. A CMOS-MEMS arrayed resonant-gate field effect transistor (RGFET) oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Hang; Li, Ming-Huang; Chen, Chao-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Li, Sheng-Shian

    2015-11-01

    A high-frequency CMOS-MEMS arrayed resonant-gate field effect transistor (RGFET) fabricated by a standard 0.35 μm 2-poly-4-metal CMOS-MEMS platform is implemented to enable a Pierce-type oscillator. The proposed arrayed RGFET exhibits low motional impedance of only 5 kΩ under a purely capacitive transduction and decent power handling capability. With such features, the implemented oscillator shows impressive phase noise of  -117 dBc Hz-1 at the far-from-carrier offset (1 MHz). In this work, we design a clamped-clamped beam (CCB) arrayed resonator utilizing a high-velocity mechanical coupling scheme to serve as the resonant-gate array. To achieve a functional arrayed RGFET, a corresponding FET array is directly placed underneath the resonant gate array to convert the motional current on the resonant-gate array into a voltage output with a tunable transconductance gain. To understand the behavior of the proposed device, an equivalent circuit model consisting of the resonant unit and FET is also provided. To verify the effects of the post-CMOS process on device performance, a conventional MOS I D current measurement is carried out. Finally, a CMOS-MEMS arrayed RGFET oscillator is realized by utilizing a Pierce oscillator architecture, showing decent phase noise performance that benefits from the array design to alleviate the nonlinear effect of the resonant gate.

  8. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  9. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  10. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  11. Analytical Devices Based on Direct Synthesis of DNA on Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Niu, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Güder, Firat; Cheng, Chao-Min; Liu, David; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a growing need in clinical diagnostics for parallel, multiplex analysis of biomarkers from small biological samples. It describes a new procedure for assembling arrays of ssDNA and proteins on paper. This method starts with the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides covalently linked to paper and proceeds to assemble microzones of DNA-conjugated paper into arrays capable of simultaneously capturing DNA, DNA-conjugated protein antigens, and DNA-conjugated antibodies. The synthesis of ssDNA oligonucleotides on paper is convenient and effective with 32% of the oligonucleotides cleaved and eluted from the paper substrate being full-length by HPLC for a 32-mer. These ssDNA arrays can be used to detect fluorophore-linked DNA oligonucleotides in solution, and as the basis for DNA-directed assembly of arrays of DNA-conjugated capture antibodies on paper, detect protein antigens by sandwich ELISAs. Paper-anchored ssDNA arrays with different sequences can be used to assemble paper-based devices capable of detecting DNA and antibodies in the same device and enable simple microfluidic paper-based devices.

  12. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4 array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

  13. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Boisen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes of samples. Currently available fabrication technology will allow the integration of electronic readout and sample introduction into a single unit, decreasing the device size, detection time, and cost. Biosensing technologies based on microfabricated cantilever arrays involving multiple cantilevers, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors.

  14. Optical MEMS-based arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2003-07-01

    Industrial Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) developers are rapidly bringing to demonstration inertial radio frequency, and optical MEMS devices and components. The Army has a requirement for compact, highly reliable, and inexpensive laser beam steering components for missile seekers and unmanned aerial vehicles remote sensing components to provide a fast scanning capability for pointing, acquisition, tracking, and data communication. The coupling of this requirement with recent developments in the micro-optics area, has led scientists and engineers at the Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) to consider optical MEMS-based phased arrays, which have potential applications in the commercial industry as well as in the military, as a replacement for gimbals. Laser beam steering in commercial applications such as free space communicataion, scanning display, bar-code reading, and gimbaled seekers; require relatively large monolithic micro-mirrors to accomplish the required optical resolution. The Army will benefit from phased arrays composed of relatively small micro-mirrors that can be actuated through large deflection angles with substantially reduced volume times. The AMCOM Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has initiated a research project to develop MEMS-based phased arrays for use in a small volume, inexpensive Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) seeker that is particularly attractive because of its ability to provide large field-of-regard and autonomous target acquisition for reconnaissance mission applications. The primary objective of the collaborative project with the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is to develop a rugged, MEMS-based phased arrays for incorporation into the 2-D scanner of a LADAR seeker. Design challenges and approach to achieving performance requirements will be discussed.

  15. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  16. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth; Kim, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  17. The feasibility of MRI-guided whole prostate ablation with a linear aperiodic intracavitary ultrasound phased array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokka, S.D. [MIT Harvard Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hynynen, K.H. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Over the past decade, numerous minimally invasive thermal procedures have been investigated to treat benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Of these methods, ultrasound has shown considerable promise due to its ability to produce more precise and deeper thermal foci. In this study, a linear, transrectal ultrasound phased array capable of ablating large tissue volumes was fabricated and evaluated. The device was designed to be compatible for use with MRI guidance and thermometry. The intracavitary applicator increases treatable tissue volume by using an ultrasonic motor to provide a mechanical rotation angle of up to 100 deg. to a 62-element 1D ultrasound array. An aperiodic array geometry was used to reduce grating lobes. In addition, a specially designed Kapton interconnect was used to reduce cable crosstalk and hence also improve the acoustic efficiency of the array. MRI-guided in vivo and ex vivo experiments were performed to verify the array's large-volume ablative capabilities. Ex vivo bovine experiments were performed to assess the focusing range of the applicator. The array generated foci in a 3 cm (2 to 5 cm from the array surface along the axis normal to the array) by 5.5 cm (along the long axis of the array) by 6 cm (along the transverse axis of the array at a depth of 4 cm) volume. In vivo rabbit thigh experiments were performed to evaluate the lesion-producing capabilities in perfused tissue. The array generated 3 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm lesions with 8 to 12 half-minute sonications equally spaced in the volume. The results indicate that transrectal ultrasound coagulation of the whole prostate is feasible with the developed device. (author)

  18. Manufacturing polymeric micro lenses and self-organised micro lens arrays by using microfluidic dispensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro lenses and micro lens arrays have been widely used in numerous areas. In recent years, direct deposition of micro lenses and micro lens arrays by using drop-on-demand dispensers has been studied. However, the traditional drop-on-demand methods have issues such as expensive facilities and appropriateness for low viscosity materials. In this paper, a novel droplet-based method for fabricating polymeric micro lenses and lens arrays is presented. This method utilises microfluidic devices as dispensers to generate micro- to meso-scale droplets, and uses interfacial forces to control the lens profiles. This new method can create lenses with aperture sizes from 130 μm to 2000 μm for both low and high viscosity materials. It is also capable of fabricating self-organised lens arrays with high fill factors. This technology can simplify the manufacturing process and lower the manufacturing costs of micro lenses and lens arrays. (paper)

  19. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....

  20. Ion manipulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  1. Energy harvesting from vertically aligned PZT nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Zhou, Zhi; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a nanostructured piezoelectric beam is fabricated using vertically aligned lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanowire arrays and its capability of continuous power generation is demonstrated through direct vibration tests. The lead zirconate titanate nanowires are grown on a PZT thin film coated titanium foil using a hydrothermal reaction. The PZT thin film serves as a nucleation site while the titanium foil is used as the bottom electrode. Electromechanical frequency response function (FRF) analysis is performed to evaluate the power harvesting efficiency of the fabricated device. Furthermore, the feasibility of the continuous power generation using the nanostructured beam is demonstrated through measuring output voltage from PZT nanowires when beam is subjected to a sinusoidal base excitation. The effect of tip mass on the voltage generation of the PZT nanowire arrays is evaluated experimentally. The final results show the great potential of synthesized piezoelectric nanowire arrays in a wide range of applications, specifically power generation at nanoscale.

  2. Non-specific sensor arrays for chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin; Minor, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Non-specific chemical sensor arrays have been the subject of considerable research efforts over the past thirty years with the idea that, by analogy to vertebrate olfaction, they are potentially capable of rendering complex chemical assessments with relatively modest logistical footprints. However, the actual implementation of such devices in challenging "real world" scenarios has arguably continued to fall short of these expectations. This work examines the inherent limitations of such devices for complex chemical sensing scenarios, placing them on a continuum between simple univariate sensors and complex multivariate analytical instrumentation and analyzing their utility in general-purpose chemical detection and accurate chemical sensing in the presence of unknown "unknowns." Results with simulated and acquired data sets are presented with discussion of the implications in development of chemical sensor arrays suitable for complex scenarios.

  3. Optimization of microfluidic microsphere-trap arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Sarder, Pinaki; Li, Zhenyu; Nehorai, Arye

    2013-01-01

    Microarray devices are powerful for detecting and analyzing biological targets. However, the potential of these devices may not be fully realized due to the lack of optimization of their design and implementation. In this work, we consider a microsphere-trap array device by employing microfluidic techniques and a hydrodynamic trapping mechanism. We design a novel geometric structure of the trap array in the device, and develop a comprehensive and robust framework to optimize the values of the...

  4. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  5. Review of nanostructured devices for thermoelectric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pennelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A big research effort is currently dedicated to the development of thermoelectric devices capable of a direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, aiming at efficiencies as high as possible. These devices are very attractive for many applications in the fields of energy recovery and green energy harvesting. In this paper, after a quick summary of the fundamental principles of thermoelectricity, the main characteristics of materials needed for high efficiency thermoelectric conversion will be discussed, and a quick review of the most promising materials currently under development will be given. This review paper will put a particular emphasis on nanostructured silicon, which represents a valid compromise between good thermoelectric properties on one side and material availability, sustainability, technological feasibility on the other side. The most important bottom-up and top-down nanofabrication techniques for large area silicon nanowire arrays, to be used for high efficiency thermoelectric devices, will be presented and discussed.

  6. Review of nanostructured devices for thermoelectric applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A big research effort is currently dedicated to the development of thermoelectric devices capable of a direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, aiming at efficiencies as high as possible. These devices are very attractive for many applications in the fields of energy recovery and green energy harvesting. In this paper, after a quick summary of the fundamental principles of thermoelectricity, the main characteristics of materials needed for high efficiency thermoelectric conversion will be discussed, and a quick review of the most promising materials currently under development will be given. This review paper will put a particular emphasis on nanostructured silicon, which represents a valid compromise between good thermoelectric properties on one side and material availability, sustainability, technological feasibility on the other side. The most important bottom-up and top-down nanofabrication techniques for large area silicon nanowire arrays, to be used for high efficiency thermoelectric devices, will be presented and discussed.

  7. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  8. A superconducting focal plane array for ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, Benjamin A; Meeker, Seth R; O'Brien, Kieran; McHugh, Sean; Langman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, have proven to be a powerful cryogenic detector technology due to their sensitivity and the ease with which they can be multiplexed into large arrays. A MKID is an energy sensor based on a photon-variable superconducting inductance in a lithographed microresonator, and is capable of functioning as a photon detector across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as a particle detector. Here we describe the first successful effort to create a photon-counting, energy-resolving ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared MKID focal plane array. These new Optical Lumped Element (OLE) MKID arrays have significant advantages over semiconductor detectors like charge coupled devices (CCDs). They can count individual photons with essentially no false counts and determine the energy and arrival time of every photon with good quantum efficiency. Their physical pixel size and maximum count rate is well matched with large telescopes. These capabilities enable powerful new astrophy...

  9. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  10. Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low-cost, high volume production of silane (step 1) and the pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon (step 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Cheung, H.; Farrier, E. G.; Morihara, H.

    1977-01-01

    A quartz fluid bed reactor capable of operating at temperatures of up to 1000 C was designed, constructed, and successfully operated. During a 30 minute experiment, silane was decomposed within the reactor with no pyrolysis occurring on the reactor wall or on the gas injection system. A hammer mill/roller-crusher system appeared to be the most practical method for producing seed material from bulk silicon. No measurable impurities were detected in the silicon powder produced by the free space reactor, using the cathode layer emission spectroscopic technique. Impurity concentration followed by emission spectroscopic examination of the residue indicated a total impurity level of 2 micrograms/gram. A pellet cast from this powder had an electrical resistivity of 35 to 45 ohm-cm and P-type conductivity.

  11. Precise Determination of Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Using a Virtually Imaged Phase Array (VIPA) Spectrometer and Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-08-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic properties of materials. The use of atomic-molecular absorption cells as ultra-narrow notch filters allows acquisition of Brillouin spectra from turbid samples despite their strong elastic scattering. However, such systems alter the shapes of the Brillouin lines, making the precise determination of the Brillouin shift difficult. In this report, we propose a simple method for analyzing the Brillouin spectrum using a customized least-square fitting algorithm. The absorption spectrum induced by the atomic-molecular cell was taken into consideration. The capability of the method is confirmed by processing experimental spectroscopic data from the pure water at different temperatures. The accuracy of the measurements of ±1 MHz spectral line shift is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:27296309

  12. Real-time beamforming using high-speed FPGAs at the Allen Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, William C.; Milgrome, Oren; Wright, Melvyn; MacMahon, David; Kilsdonk, Tom; Backus, Peter; Dexter, Matt

    2011-02-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO) is a wide-field panchromatic radio telescope currently consisting of 42 offset-Gregorian antennas each with a 6 m aperture, with plans to expand the array to 350 antennas. Through unique back-end hardware, the ATA performs real-time wideband beamforming with independent subarray capabilities and customizable beam shaping. The beamformers enable science observations requiring the full gain of the array, time domain (nonintegrated) output, and interference excision or orthogonal beamsets. In this paper we report on the design of this beamformer, including architecture and experimental results. Furthermore, we address some practical considerations in large-N wideband beamformers implemented on field programmable gate array platforms, including device utilization, methods of calibration and control, and interchip synchronization.

  13. Silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for photon-starved imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Brian F.

    2015-05-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs) are capable of detecting single photons. They can be operated to directly trigger all-digital circuits, so that detection events are digitally counted or time stamped in each pixel. An imager based on an array of GMAPDs therefore has zero readout noise, enabling quantum-limited sensitivity for photon-starved imaging applications. In this review, we discuss devices developed for 3D imaging, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  14. Synergistic Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Microsome/DNA Electrochemiluminescent Arrays and Nanoreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Sadagopan; Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Bajrami, Besnik; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Platforms based on thin enzyme/DNA films were used in two-tier screening of chemicals for reactive metabolites capable of producing toxicity. Microsomes were used for the first time as sources of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in these devices. Initial rapid screening involved electrochemiluminescent (ECL) arrays featuring spots containing ruthenium poly(vinylpyridine), DNA, and rat liver microsomes or bicistronically expressed human cyt P450 2E1 (h2E1). Cyt P450 enzymes were activated via the...

  15. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  16. Terahertz Plasmonic Structure With Enhanced Sensing Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahiaoui, Riad; Strikwerda, Andrew C.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally verified a highly sensitive plasmonic sensing device in the terahertz frequency range. For a proof of concept of the sensing phenomenon, we have chosen the so-called fishnet structure based on circular hole array insensitive to the polarization of ...

  17. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  18. LOFAR imaging capabilities and system sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Nijboer, R J; de Bruyn, A G

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the general astronomical capabilities of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR). The frequency range covered by LOFAR is split into two bands denoted as low band (LB, 10 - 80 MHz) and high band (HB, 120 - 240 MHz). LOFAR stations are spread over a 100 km sized region in the northern part of the Netherlands. In addition to the Dutch stations there will be European stations providing baselines between 200 km and 1000 km. Most of the results in this document, however, are limited to the Dutch array. In section 2 the LBA and HBA station configurations are reviewed. Section 3 reviews the imaging capabilities as station Full Width Half Maximum, station Field of View, and array resolution. In section 4 the system sensitivity is considered and thermal noise levels in LOFAR images are given. Finally, in section 5 some cautionary notes are collected. We advise you to read these notes carefully before using the numbers that are presented in this report.

  19. Comparison of quality on digital X-ray devices with 3D-capability for ENT-clinical objectives in imaging of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses; Qualitaetsvergleich digitaler 3D-faehiger Roentgenanlagen bei HNO-Fragestellungen am Schlaefenbein und den Nasennebenhoehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoergen, M.; Brandt, S.; Koesling, S. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Comparison of dosage and spatial resolution of digital X-Ray devices with 3D-capability in head and neck imaging. Materials and Methods: Three on-site X-Ray devices, a general purpose multi-slice CT (CT), a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) and the CT-mode of a device for digital angiography (DSA) of the same generation were compared using paranasal sinus (PNS) and temporal bone imaging protocols. The radiation exposure was measured with a puncture measuring chamber on a CTDI head phantom as well as with chip-strate-dosimeters on an Alderson head phantom in the regions of the eyes and thyroid gland. By using the Alderson head phantom, the specific dosage of the X-Ray device with regard to different protocols was read out. For the assessment of the high-contrast resolution of the devices, images of a self-made phantom were qualitatively analysed by six observers. Results: The three devices showed marked variations in the dosage and spatial resolution depending on the protocol and/or modus. In both parameters, CBCT was superior to CT and DSA using standard protocols, with the difference being less obvious for the investigation with PNS. Conclusion: For high-contrast investigations CBCT CT is a remarkable option in head and neck radiology. (orig.)

  20. Imaging charge-coupled devices for deep-space surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuber, D. W., Jr.; Bailis, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) system will employ a SIT vidicon camera to detect satellites. Imaging charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are being evaluated as a means to improve GEODSS capability. This paper presents performance models and uses them to evaluate currently available CCDs and to determine the characteristics of the ideal CCD array for GEODSS. The analysis includes an approach for determining the CCD pixel size which maximizes signal-to-noise ratio; this approach can be used in many applications. The impact of response nonuniformity and a simple compensation method are also discussed. The combination of a suitable CCD array, response nonuniformity compensation, and moving target indicator (MTI) processing is expected to substantially increase the detection and search rate capability of the GEODSS system.

  1. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated. PMID:21041399

  2. Array tomography: production of arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time consuming and require some practice to perfect. This protocol describes the sectioning of embedded tissues and the mounting of the serial arrays. The procedures require some familiarity with the techniques used for ultramicrotome sectioning for electron microscopy. PMID:21041397

  3. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    firms’ ability to absorb and leverage new knowledge. The third paper is an empirical study which conceptualizes top managers’ resource cognition as a managerial capability underlying firms’ resource adaptation; it empirically examines the performance implications of this capability and organizational......This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabilities...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...

  4. Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

    2013-01-01

    A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

  5. Laser micromachining of biofactory-on-a-chip devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Julian P.; Goater, Andrew D.; Hayden, Christopher J.; Tame, John A.

    2002-06-01

    Excimer laser micromachining provides a flexible means for the manufacture and rapid prototyping of miniaturized systems such as Biofactory-on-a-Chip devices. Biofactories are miniaturized diagnostic devices capable of characterizing, manipulating, separating and sorting suspension of particles such as biological cells. Such systems operate by exploiting the electrical properties of microparticles and controlling particle movement in AC non- uniform stationary and moving electric fields. Applications of Biofactory devices are diverse and include, among others, the healthcare, pharmaceutical, chemical processing, environmental monitoring and food diagnostic markets. To achieve such characterization and separation, Biofactory devices employ laboratory-on-a-chip type components such as complex multilayer microelectrode arrays, microfluidic channels, manifold systems and on-chip detection systems. Here we discuss the manufacturing requirements of Biofactory devices and describe the use of different excimer laser micromachined methods both in stand-alone processes and also in conjunction with conventional fabrication processes such as photolithography and thermal molding. Particular attention is given to the production of large area multilayer microelectrode arrays and the manufacture of complex cross-section microfluidic channel systems for use in simple distribution and device interfacing.

  6. Enhanced reflection from inverse tapered nanocone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando da [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Kangwanwatana, Chuan; Montelongo, Yunuen; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-04

    We computationally and experimentally demonstrate enhanced reflection effects displayed by silicon-based inverted nanocone arrays. A 3D finite element model is used to characterize the optical properties of the nanocone arrays with respect to the change in polarization and incident angles. The nanocone arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography in hexagonal and triangular geometries with a lattice constant of 300 nm. The fabricated devices show a two-fold increase in reflection compared with bare silicon surface, as well as a strong diffraction within the visible and near-infrared spectra. The nanocone arrays may find a variety of applications from optical devices to energy conservation technologies.

  7. ITER EDA design confinement capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckan, N. A.

    Major device parameters for ITER-EDA and CDA are given in this paper. Ignition capability of the EDA (and CDA) operational scenarios is evaluated using both the 1 1/2-D time-dependent transport simulations and 0-D global models under different confinement ((chi((gradient)(T)(sub e)(sub crit)), empirical global energy confinement scalings, chi(empirical), etc.) assumptions. Results from some of these transport simulations and confinement assessments are summarized in and compared with the ITER CDA results.

  8. ITER EDA design confinement capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1993-06-01

    Major device parameters for ITER-EDA and CDA are given in this paper. Ignition capability of the EDA (and CDA) operational scenarios is evaluated using both the 1-1/2-D time-dependent transport simulations and 0-D global models under different confinement [{chi}({triangledown}T{sub e}){sub crit}, empirical global energy confinement scalings, {chi}(empirical), etc.] assumptions. Results from some of these transport simulations and confinement assessments are summarized in and compared with the ITER CDA reference ignition scenario.

  9. ITER EDA design confinement capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Major device parameters for ITER-EDA and CDA are given in this paper. Ignition capability of the EDA (and CDA) operational scenarios is evaluated using both the 1-1/2-D time-dependent transport simulations and 0-D global models under different confinement [[chi]([triangledown]T[sub e])[sub crit], empirical global energy confinement scalings, [chi](empirical), etc.] assumptions. Results from some of these transport simulations and confinement assessments are summarized in and compared with the ITER CDA reference ignition scenario.

  10. Developing Alliance Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimeriks, Koen H.; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    This paper assesses the differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the development of alliance capabilities. Prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which specific intra-firm learning mechanisms are used to enhance a firm's alliance...... capability. However, empirical testing in this field is scarce and little is known as to what extent different learning mechanisms are indeed useful in advancing a firm's alliance capability. This paper analyzes to what extent intra-firm learning mechanisms help firms develop their alliance capability....... Differential learning may explain in what way firms yield superior returns from their alliances in comparison to competitors. The empirical results show that different learning mechanisms have different performance effects at different stages of the alliance capability development process. The main lesson from...

  11. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: System Architecture and Specifications of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hotan, A. W.; Bunton, J. D.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Humphreys, B.; Jeffs, B. D.; Shimwell, T.; Tuthill, J.; Voronkov, M.; G. Allen; Amy, S.; Ardern, K.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L; Bannister, K.; Barker, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope - the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, which is a prototype of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a 6-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least 9 dual-pola...

  12. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard;

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  13. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X; Datta, A; Traverso, L M; Pan, L; Xu, X; Moon, E E

    2015-11-03

    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy.

  14. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X.; Datta, A.; Traverso, L. M.; Pan, L.; Xu, X.; Moon, E. E.

    2015-11-01

    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy.

  15. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  16. Fabrication of Electrophoretic Display Driven by Membrane Switch Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Kazuo; Usui, Hiroaki

    2010-04-01

    Electrophoretic devices (EPDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have potential application in a large-area flexible displays, such as digital signage. For this purpose, a new backplane is capable of driving a large unit is required instead of thin-film transistors. In this paper we describe the fabrication of a membrane switch array suitable for driving large-scale flat-panel displays. An array of membrane switches was prepared using flexible printed circuit (FPC) technology of polyimide films, by combining low-temperature processes of lamination and copper electroplating methods. An array of 256 matrix switches with a pixel size of 7 mm2 was prepared to drive the EPD front panel. The switches were driven at a voltage of about 40 V and a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation characteristics agreed well with the result of the theoretical calculation. The calculation also suggested that driving voltage can be lowered by increasing pixel size. The contact resistance of the membrane switch was as low as 0.2 Ω, which implies the wide applicability of this device for driving a variety of elements.

  17. Performance of Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. B.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Arrays are characterized with a time division SQUID multiplexer such that greater than 10 devices from an array can be measured in the same cooldown. Designs include kilo pixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (-75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heatsinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  18. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  19. Field emitter arrays for plasma and microwave source applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. L.

    1999-05-01

    Field emitter arrays (FEAs) stand to strongly impact device performance when physical size, weight, power consumption, beam current, and/or high pulse repetition frequencies are an issue. FEAs are capable of instant ON/OFF performance, high brightness, high current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, and low voltage operation characteristics. Advanced microwave power tubes, and in particular, inductive output amplifiers, are by far the most technically challenging use to date. Other important uses include, e.g., electron sources for micropropulsion systems-Hall thrusters-and tethers for satellites, and (the most widely pursued application) field emission displays. The characteristics of field emitters that make them attractive to such applications shall be surveyed. A thorough analytical model of a field emitter array, beginning with a review of the nature of field emission and continuing with an analytical model of a single emitter and the operation of an array of emitters, shall be presented. In particular, attention shall be directed towards those features of FEAs that render them attractive as cold cathode candidates for electron beam generation. Tip characteristics, such as emission distribution, and array operation, such as space charge effects, will be analyzed in the context of the model. Finally, restricting attention to microwave applications, the performance of a tapered-helix inductive output amplifier to highlight the advantages of high frequency emission gating of the electron beam in a power tube shall be investigated.

  20. Failures in power-combining arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, David B.; Cheng, Nai-Shuo; York, Robert A.; Weikle, Robert M., II; De Lisio, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    We derive a simple formula for the change in output when a device fails in a power-combining structure with identical matched devices. The loss is written in terms of the scattering coefficient of the failed device and reflection coefficient of an input port in the combining network. We apply this formula to several power combiners, including arrays in free space and enclosed waveguide structures. Our simulations indicate the output power degrades gracefully as devices fail, which is in agree...

  1. Progress in high-power high-speed VCSEL arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard F.; Warren, Mial E.; Dacha, Preethi; Wilcox, Thomas; Maynard, John G.; Abell, David J.; Otis, Kirk J.; Lott, James A.

    2016-03-01

    Flip-chip bonding enables a unique architecture for two-dimensional arrays of VCSELs. Such arrays feature scalable power outputs and the capability to separately address sub-array regions while maintaining fast turn-on and turn-off response times. These substrate-emitting VCSEL arrays can also make use of integrated micro-lenses for beam shaping and directional control. Advances in the performance of these laser arrays will be reviewed and emerging applications are discussed.

  2. Multichannel Array Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing System Using Hall Devices%基于霍尔元件阵列的缺陷漏磁检测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫民; 杨旭; 王珏; 高乾鹏

    2011-01-01

    By using Hall devices with high sensitivity, multi-channel array magnetic flux leakage sensor and its signal processing circuit were designed and developed. The experiments of testing defects in ferromagnetic samples with different parameters and sizes were carried out. The developed magnetic flux leakage detection system realized the image display of defect signals under geomagnetic excitation and artificial weak magnetic excitation. The display method of subject defects based on signals from testing system was discussed. In addition, the nonlinear inversion between flaw parameters and tested signals could be mapped by using the technique of artificial neural network, that could be used to quantitatively analyze the subject flaw.%利用高灵敏度霍尔器件,设计研制了多通道阵列式漏磁检测传感器及信号处理电路.对不同几何参数的铁磁性试件缺陷进行了检测实验研究,该漏磁检测系统可实现地磁场激励和人工弱磁激励下的缺陷信号图像显示.探讨了基于多通道漏磁信号的缺陷表示方法,并利用人工神经网络技术对基于多通道传感器漏磁信号的缺陷反演问题进行了初步研究,表明利用霍尔元件阵列检测装置和人工智能信息处理方法,可以实现多通道漏磁信号与缺陷参数的非线性拟合,进而实现漏磁检测中的缺陷定量化分析.

  3. Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, Adrian; Fischer, Marco; Lo Conte, Roberto; Korenivski, Vladislav

    2012-01-01

    Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths.

  4. Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths.

  5. Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, Adrian; Fischer, Marco; Lo Conte, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths. PMID:23365801

  6. High density arrays of micromirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, J. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolman, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    We established and achieved our goal to (1) fabricate and evaluate test structures based on the micromirror design optimized for maskless lithography applications, (2) perform system analysis and code development for the maskless lithography concept, and (3) identify specifications for micromirror arrays (MMAs) for LLNL's adaptive optics (AO) applications and conceptualize new devices.

  7. Arc inhibitors for lower hybrid waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discontinuity at the mouth of a phased array between waveguide fields and plasma fields gives rise to strong, localized electric fields at the septa, especially if the array is excited asymetrically. Methods are suggested for modifying these fields to reduce the possibility of arcing. Probe measurements of the fields near the septa show that small but significant reductions of the local fields are possible and might raise the maximum power handling capability of an array

  8. Uncooled infrared sensors with digital focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles A.; Butler, Neal R.; Blackwell, Richard; Murphy, Robert; Breen, Thomas

    1996-06-01

    Loral Infrared & Imaging Systems is developing low cost, high performance, uncooled infrared imaging products for both military and commercial applications. These products are based on the microbolometer technology, a silicon micromachined sensor which combines the wafer level silicon processing with a device structure capable of yielding excellent infrared imaging performance. Here, we report on the development of an uncooled sensor, the LTC500, which incorporates an all digital focal plane array and has a measured NETD of less than 70 mK. The focal plane array and the electronics within the LTC500 have been designed as an integrated unit to meet a broad range of end user applications by providing features such as nonuniformity correction, autogain and level, NTSC video, and digital outputs. The 327 X 245 element focal plane array has a 46.25 micrometers pixel pitch and an on focal plane array 14 bit to analog to digital converter (ADC). The ADC has a measured instantaneous dynamic range of more than 76 dB at a 6.1 MHz output data rate and 60 Hz frame rate. The focal plane array consumes less than 500 mW of power, of which less than 250 mW is used in the ADC. An additional 36 dB of digital coarse offset correction in front of the ADC on the focal plane array results in a total electronic dynamic range of 112 dB. The MRT of the LTC500 camera has been measured at less 0.2 C at f(subscript o).

  9. picoArray Technology: The Tool's Story

    CERN Document Server

    Duller, Andrew; Panesar, Gajinder; Gray, Alan; Robbins, Will

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the picoArray? architecture, and in particular the deterministic internal communication fabric. The methods that have been developed for debugging and verifying systems using devices from the picoArray family are explained. In order to maximize the computational ability of these devices, hardware debugging support has been kept to a minimum and the methods and tools developed to take this into account.

  10. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  11. Capabilities for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Bamberger, Simon Grandjean;

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments combined with increasing levels of competition related to the ongoing globalization imply that firms find themselves in dynamic, changing environments that call for dynamic capabilities. This challenges the internal human and organizational resources of firms in general...... and in particular their ability to develop firm-specific innovative capabilities through employee participation and creation of innovative workplaces. In this article, we argue that national institutional conditions can play an enhancing or hampering role in this. Especially the norms and values governing relations...... between employers and employees are expected to be of vital importance. This article will follow a resource-based perspective on developing dynamic capabilities in order to test the importance of enhancing human and organizational capabilities for innovation in firms. In particular, the article will focus...

  12. Education and Innovative Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    A. Leiponen

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the role of capabilities, acquired through education and on the job learning, in innovation. It is argued that education enhances learning and innovation because it provides employees with communication and interaction skills, and, more importantly, with abilities to receive, understand and utilize relevant knowledge, and solve problems. These dynamic capabilities are one of the sources of innovation. A dataset of 333 Finnish manufacturing firms is used to estimat...

  13. Bolometric Arrays for Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, E.; Serrano, A.; Torres-Jácome, A.

    2009-11-01

    During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin films have been developed at INAOE, specifically boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible configurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit specifically designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  14. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Ord, S M; Emrich, D; Pallot, D; Wayth, R B; Clark, M A; Tremblay, S E; Arcus, W; Barnes, D; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, N D R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; deSouza, L; Ewell-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, H; Jacobs, D; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Pathikulangara, J; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Remillard, R A; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio--astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia (WA). The MWA consists of 4096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and others by Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 TFLOPS (Tera FLoating point Operations Per Second). The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB/day of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper we outline the correlator design, signal path, and proce...

  15. Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Jonathan; Grossmann, Peter J.; Busacker, David E.; Jordy, George J.; Duerr, Erik K.; McIntosh, K. Alexander; Oakley, Douglas C.; Bailey, Robert J.; Ruff, Albert C.; Brattain, Michael A.; Funk, Joseph E.; MacDonald, Jason G.; Verghese, Simon

    2012-06-01

    An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by a finite state machine that actively quenches an APD upon a photon detection event, and re-biases the device into Geiger mode after a programmable hold-off time. While an individual APD is in hold-off mode, other elements in the array are biased and available to detect photons. This approach enables high pixel refresh frequency (PRF), making the device suitable for applications including optical communications and frequency-agile ladar. A built-in electronic shutter that de-biases the whole array allows the detector to operate in a gated mode or allows for detection to be temporarily disabled. On-chip data reduction reduces the high bandwidth requirements of simultaneous detection and readout. Additional features include programmable single-pixel disable, region of interest processing, and programmable output data rates. State-based on-chip clock gating reduces overall power draw. ROIC operation has been demonstrated with hybridized InP APDs sensitive to 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm wavelength, and fully packaged focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been assembled and characterized.

  16. Structural Capability of an Organization toward Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. The innovation capability is associated with other organizational capabilities, and many organizations have focused on the need to identify innovation capabilities.This research focuses on recognition of the structural aspect...

  17. Combining nanoimprint lithography with dynamic templating for the fabrication of dense, large-area nanoparticle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golze, Spencer D.

    The study of nanomaterials is a developing science with potentially large benefits in the development of catalysts, optical and chemical sensors, and solid state memory devices. As several of these devices require large arrays of nanoparticles, one of the greatest obstacles in material characterization and device development is the reliable manufacture of nanopatterns over a large surface area. In addition, various applications require different nanoparticle size and density. High density arrays with small nanoparticle sizes are difficult to achieve over a large surface area using current manufacturing processes. Herein, Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) and Dynamic Templating are combined to create a new manufacturing process capable of developing high density arrays with small nanoparticle sizes. The NIL process involves the stamping of a polymer coated substrate by a silicon stamp with patterned nanofeatures. The stamp is then removed, leaving the pattern in the polymer, which is first etched and then coated with a thin layer of metal, filling the recessed regions of the pattern. The excess polymer is dissolved, leaving a pattern of nanoparticles on the substrate matching the pattern on the stamp. When Dynamic Templating is applied, a very thin layer of metal can be coated, which forms small nanoparticle sizes when dewetted. A custom NIL system has been developed to combine these two processes together, which has now proven to yield consistent large-area, dense arrays with a small nanoparticle size. An array spacing of 700 nm has been achieved, along with a nanoparticle size of 90 nm. Arrays have been created in gold and palladium, where there is now the potential to combine them with other solution-based syntheses which should lead to complex nanoparticle geometries suitable for sensor applications.

  18. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  19. Advanced capability RFID system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ronald W.; Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    2007-09-25

    A radio-frequency transponder device having an antenna circuit configured to receive radio-frequency signals and to return modulated radio-frequency signals via continuous wave backscatter, a modulation circuit coupled to the antenna circuit for generating the modulated radio-frequency signals, and a microprocessor coupled to the antenna circuit and the modulation circuit and configured to receive and extract operating power from the received radio-frequency signals and to monitor inputs on at least one input pin and to generate responsive signals to the modulation circuit for modulating the radio-frequency signals. The microprocessor can be configured to generate output signals on output pins to associated devices for controlling the operation thereof. Electrical energy can be extracted and stored in an optional electrical power storage device.

  20. Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. b.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (approximately 75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heat sinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  1. Building server capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...... of this project is to identify and explain trajectories of offshore subsidiary capability development. The domain of inquiry is defined as value chain capabilities. Given the nature of this objective the chief methodology is longitudinal, partly retrospective, partly real-time, case studies....

  2. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  3. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido;

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...... a quick overview of what is possible today by the state of the art, what the HiMicro consortium can do and what metrological requirements we have concerning the HiMicro industrial demonstrators....

  4. Management Innovation Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Mie

    , the paper introduces the concept of management innovation capabilities which refers to the ability of a firm to purposefully create, extend and modify its managerial resource base to address rapidly changing environments. Drawing upon behavioral theory of the firm and the dynamic capabilities framework......Management innovation is the implementation of a new management practice, process, technique or structure that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed. This paper presents a typology categorizing management innovation along two dimensions; radicalness and complexity. Then......, the paper proposes a model of the foundations of management innovation. Propositions and implications for future research are discussed....

  5. Tremor as observed by the Array of Arrays in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.; Creager, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    We are capturing the intimate details of tremor activity in Cascadia with 8 small-aperture seismic arrays in northwestern Washington. The Array of Arrays (AoA) focuses on the tremor-active megathrust, including the area we previously imaged with a solo seismic array in 2008 [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009, 2010]. Each array consists of 10 to 20 three-component sensors recording in continuous mode. Since it became operational in June 2009, the AoA has recorded several minor tremor episodes, and the recent episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event in August 2010. During the ETS event, each array was augmented by 10 additional single-channel, vertical-component sensors. We have already started to analyze seismic data for tremor episodes in July 2009, and March 2010. At each array, we apply a beamforming technique to stack the seismic energy at every 0.2 Hz from 2 to 15 Hz. During active tremor, the arrays show stable slowness, and azimuth over time, and up to 15 Hz energy on vertical channels, and 6 Hz on horizontals, with slowness consistent with the P and S waves respectively (Figure 1). Vidale et al. in this meeting provide a detailed description of a weeklong tremor episode in March 2010. The ETS started early second week of August about 60 km south of our arrays, and in a week or so, migrated along-strike to the north passing directly underneath the arrays. Strong tremor is still active about 50 km north of the arrays as we write this abstract. We will imminently analyze this data, and by the time of AGU, have preliminary results to present. Currently, we are developing an algorithm to focus as many arrays as possible to locate the tremor sources. With fine tremor detection capability and good azimuthal coverage, our AoA will better resolve the various confounding features of tremor spatiotemporal distribution (e.g., tremor patches, bands, streaks, rapid tremor reversals, low frequency earthquakes) that have been recently discovered in Cascadia. The AoA is poised to provide

  6. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  7. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  8. Future Imaging Sensor Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, K. R.; Ando, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced imaging sensor technologies that are being developed for future NASA earth observation missions are discussed. These include the multilinear array, the Shuttle imaging spectrometer, and the Shuttle imaging radar. The principal specifications and functional descriptions of the instruments are presented, and it is shown that the advanced technologies will enable a synergistic approach to the use of VIS/IR and microwave imaging sensors for remote sensing research and applications. The key problems posed by these future imaging sensor technologies are discussed, with particular attention given to data rates, power consumption, and data processing.

  9. Evaluation of Environmental Effects of Wave Energy Convertor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Stakeholders and regulators in the U.S. are generally uncertain as to the potential environmental impacts posed by deployments of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, and in particular wave energy conversion (WEC) devices, in coastal waters. The first pilot-scale WEC deployments in the U.S. have had to absorb unsustainable costs and delays associated with permitting to get devices in the water. As such, there is an urgent industry need to streamline the technical activities and processes used to assess potential environmental impacts. To enable regulators and stakeholders to become more comfortable and confident with developing effective MHK environmental assessments, a better understanding of the potential environmental effects induced by arrays of WEC devices is needed. A key challenge in developing this understanding is that the assessment of the WEC effects must come prior to deployment. A typical approach in similar environmental assessments is to use numerical models to simulate the WEC devices and array layouts so that the appropriate environmental stressors and receptors can be identified and assessed. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy are fulfilling the industry-wide need to develop "WEC-friendly" open-source numerical modeling tools capable of assessing potential changes to the physical environment caused by the operation of WEC arrays. Studies using these tools will advance the nation's general knowledge of the interrelationships among the number, size, efficiency, and configuration of MHK arrays and the subsequent effects these relationships may have on the deployment environment. By better understanding these relationships, industry, stakeholders, and regulators will be able to work together to optimize WEC deployments such that environmental impacts are minimized while power output is maximized. The present work outlines the initial effort in coupling the SNL WEC-friendly tools with the environmental assessment

  10. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  11. Exploration Medical Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  12. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  13. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.;

    1996-01-01

    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration ...

  14. An eigencurrent approach for the analysis of finite antenna arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekers, D.J.; Eijndhoven, S.J.L. van; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate description of typical finite-array behavior such as edge effects and array resonances is essential in the design of various types of antennas. The analysis approach proposed in this paper is essentially based on the concept of eigencurrents and is capable of describing finite-array beha

  15. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths. PMID:15202293

  16. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  17. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  18. Building Server Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...... of this project is to identify and explain trajectories of offshore subsidiary capability development. Given the nature of this objective the chief methodology is longitudinal, partly retrospective, partly real-time, case studies....

  19. Management Innovation Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Mie

    2011-01-01

    Management innovation is the implementation of a new management practice, process, technique or structure that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed. This paper presents a typology categorizing management innovation along two dimensions; radicalness and complexity. Then, the paper introduces the concept of management innovation capabilities which refers to the ability of a firm to purposefully create, extend and modify its managerial resource base to add...

  20. Knowledge Management Capabilities Rubrics

    OpenAIRE

    Azizah B.A. Rahman; Sara Hassani

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently researchers discerned the vitality and importance of Knowledge Management Capabilities (KMC) evaluation in organizations. In fact evaluation of KMC helps to prevent failure in Knowledge Management (KM) projects. Approach: One of the most popular methods in the phase of evaluating KMC is Fuzzy method which evaluates seven attributes of KMC. Fuzzy needs KM experts to give their opinion about these attributes as input data. However in some organizations these experts ...

  1. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  2. Group Capability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  3. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Seren, Huseyin R; Keiser, George R; Maddox, Scott J; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Bank, Seth R; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector, and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field induced intervalley scattering resulting in a reduced carrier mobility thereby damping the plasmonic response. We demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide f...

  4. An All-Digital, Time-gated 128x128 SPAD Array for On-chip, Filter-less Fluorescence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an on-chip, filter-less fluorescence detector using an all-digital, time-resolved imager based on a CMOS single-photon detector array with limited in situ processing. The device comprises an array of pixels capable of detecting single photons integrated with time gating circuitry and a 1-bit memory. The sensor allows on-chip, filter-less fluorescence detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for micro total analysis systems (μ-TAS) and point-of-care tes...

  5. Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi M. Doan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc. on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr, the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3–4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized.

  6. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  7. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  8. Highly tunable plasmonic nanoring arrays for nanoparticle manipulation and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergides, M.; Truong, V. G.; Chormaic, S. Nic

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of trapping and detection of nano-objects at very low laser powers in the near-infra-red region (NIR) is crucial for many applications. Singular visible-light nano-optics based on abrupt phase changes have recently demonstrated a significant improvement in molecule detection. Here, we propose and demonstrate tunable plasmonic nanodevices, which can improve both the trapping field enhancement and detection of nano-objects using singular phase drops in the NIR range. The plasmonic nanostructures, which consist of gaps with dimensions 50 nm × 50 nm connecting nanorings in arrays is discussed. These gaps act as individual detection and trapping sites. The tunability of the system is evident from extinction and reflection spectra while increasing the aperture size in the arrays. Additionally, in the region where the plasmonic nano-array exhibits topologically-protected, near-zero reflection behaviour, the phase displays a rapid change. Our experimental data predict that, using this abrupt phase changes, one can improve the detection sensitivity by 10 times compared to the extinction spectra method. We finally report experimental evidence of 100 nm polystyrene beads trapping using low incident power on these devices. The overall design demonstrates strong capability as an optical, label-free, non-destructive tool for single molecule manipulation where low trapping intensity, minimal photo bleaching and high sensitivity is required.

  9. Electrical device fabrication from nanotube formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Kim, Myung Jong; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2013-03-12

    A method for forming nanotube electrical devices, arrays of nanotube electrical devices, and device structures and arrays of device structures formed by the methods. Various methods of the present invention allow creation of semiconducting and/or conducting devices from readily grown SWNT carpets rather than requiring the preparation of a patterned growth channel and takes advantage of the self-controlling nature of these carpet heights to ensure a known and controlled channel length for reliable electronic properties as compared to the prior methods.

  10. Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue, E-mail: yue.cui@usu.edu

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report graphene-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for metabolites. • The device is able to detect multiple metabolites sensitively and rapidly. • The device fabrication process is simple and inexpensive. - Abstract: The development of a miniaturized and low-cost platform for the highly sensitive, selective and rapid detection of multiplexed metabolites is of great interest for healthcare, pharmaceuticals, food science, and environmental monitoring. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with extraordinary electrical sensing capability. Microfluidic paper with printing technique is a low cost matrix. Here, we demonstrated the development of graphene-ink based biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for the multiplexed detection of different metabolites, such as glucose, lactate, xanthine and cholesterol. Our results show that the graphene biosensor arrays can detect multiple metabolites on a microfluidic paper sensitively, rapidly and simultaneously. The device exhibits a fast measuring time of less than 2 min, a low detection limit of 0.3 μM, and a dynamic detection range of 0.3–15 μM. The process is simple and inexpensive to operate and requires a low consumption of sample volume. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for a variety of applications.

  11. Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report graphene-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for metabolites. • The device is able to detect multiple metabolites sensitively and rapidly. • The device fabrication process is simple and inexpensive. - Abstract: The development of a miniaturized and low-cost platform for the highly sensitive, selective and rapid detection of multiplexed metabolites is of great interest for healthcare, pharmaceuticals, food science, and environmental monitoring. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with extraordinary electrical sensing capability. Microfluidic paper with printing technique is a low cost matrix. Here, we demonstrated the development of graphene-ink based biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for the multiplexed detection of different metabolites, such as glucose, lactate, xanthine and cholesterol. Our results show that the graphene biosensor arrays can detect multiple metabolites on a microfluidic paper sensitively, rapidly and simultaneously. The device exhibits a fast measuring time of less than 2 min, a low detection limit of 0.3 μM, and a dynamic detection range of 0.3–15 μM. The process is simple and inexpensive to operate and requires a low consumption of sample volume. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for a variety of applications

  12. High Resolution Tracking Devices Based on Capillaries Filled with Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonekamper, D; Vassiltchenko, V; Wolff, T

    2002-01-01

    %RD46 %title\\\\ \\\\The aim of the project is to develop high resolution tracking devices based on thin glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator. This technique provides high hit densities and a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m. Further, their radiation hardness makes them superior to other types of tracking devices with comparable performance. Therefore, the technique is attractive for inner tracking in collider experiments, microvertex devices, or active targets for short-lived particle detection. High integration levels in the read-out based on the use of multi-pixel photon detectors and the possibility of optical multiplexing allow to reduce considerably the number of output channels, and, thus, the cost for the detector.\\\\ \\\\New optoelectronic devices have been developed and tested: the megapixel Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD), a high resolution image-detector having an outstanding capability of single photo-electron detection; the Vacuum Image Pipeline (VIP), a high-speed gateable pi...

  13. High-performance HfO x /AlO y -based resistive switching memory cross-point array fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Feifei; Chen, Bing; Zheng, Yang; Gao, Bin; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching memory cross-point arrays with TiN/HfO x /AlO y /Pt structure were fabricated. The bi-layered resistive switching films of 5-nm HfO x and 3-nm AlO y were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Excellent device performances such as low switching voltage, large resistance ratio, good cycle-to-cycle and device-to-device uniformity, and high yield were demonstrated in the fabricated 24 by 24 arrays. In addition, multi-level data storage capability and robust reliability characteristics were also presented. The achievements demonstrated the great potential of ALD-fabricated HfO x /AlO y bi-layers for the application of next-generation nonvolatile memory.

  14. Capabilities and Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    into international consideration in relation to the implementation of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. As for the theoretical basis, the research makes use of the sociological open-ended and relational concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the normative yardstick of the Capability Approach....... An approach that has been formulated by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, it introduces, discusses and finally analyses data with an emphasis on Martha Nussbaum’s central human functionings of practical reason and bodily health with a particular focus on the freedom to choose....

  15. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  16. Quantitative detection of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit-Binnun, Nava; Lindner, Ariel B; Zik, Ory; Eshhar, Zelig; Moses, Elisha

    2003-03-15

    We introduce a quantitative method that utilizes scanning electron microscopy for the analysis of protein chips (SEMPC). SEMPC is based upon counting target-coated gold particles interacting specifically with ligands or proteins arrayed on a derivative microscope glass slide by utilizing backscattering electron detection. As model systems, we quantified the interactions of biotin and streptavidin and of an antibody with its cognate hapten. Our method gives quantitative molecule-counting capabilities with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and demonstrates a broad dynamic range while retaining easy sample preparation and realistic automation capability. Increased sensitivity and dynamic range are achieved in comparison to currently used array detection methods such as fluorescence, with no signal bleaching, affording high reproducibility and compatibility with miniaturization. Thus, our approach facilitates the determination of the absolute number of molecules bound to the chip rather than their relative amounts, as well as the use of smaller samples.

  17. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  18. Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Chen, Yong

    2011-12-27

    The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

  19. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  20. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  1. ISO camera array development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, F.; Cesarsky, C.; Agnese, P.; Rouan, D.

    1989-01-01

    A short outline is given of the Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM), one of the 4 instruments onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), with the current status of its two 32x32 arrays, an InSb charge injection device (CID) and a Si:Ga direct read-out (DRO), and the results of the in orbit radiation simulation with gamma ray sources. A tentative technique for the evaluation of the flat fielding accuracy is also proposed.

  2. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  3. The capability conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: AMEC Nuclear recognises that a skilled workforce is essential to the success of its business. In the current global climate, the potential for new build in the UK, new build underway in Europe and across the world and the acceleration of Clean Up programmes, the competition for skilled staff is fierce. So how do companies develop and grow their Capability? What are the issues? There have been several initiatives undertaken in the UK to identify skills gaps. One example is an exercise undertaken by COGENT, the sector skills council for the Nuclear Sector, who undertook a comprehensive forward looking gap analysis for the industry in 2005 and who have now proposed a number of interventions to address the gaps identified, one of which is the creation of a Nuclear Skills Academy a second is the creation of Career Pathways. Some of the gaps identified cover shortages of skills that we face today but, more worryingly for the future, the projected down turn in the numbers of young people studying Science and Engineering subjects, both in schools and Universities and a shortage of apprenticeship places in the UK paints a gloomy picture. Where will our future capability come from? At AMEC Nuclear we recognise that we need to act now to protect our business and ensure we maintain, develop and grow our capability. We are working closely with COGENT to help to develop Career Pathways to encourage young people to the industry and we are delighted to have secured a place on the shadow board of the National Nuclear Skills Academy, an exciting project which will provide a focus for excellence in workforce skills development. Employers in the Nuclear industry have said that they want a Skills Academy that will provide national leadership in training provision and will move employers and employees from their current level of skills to those which will be needed to take these critical industries forward into a sustainable future in the UK. In order for us to assess what we

  4. A magnetic-spring-based, low-frequency-vibration energy harvester comprising a dual Halbach array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salauddin, M.; Halim, M. A.; Park, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Energy harvesting that uses low-frequency vibrations is attractive due to the availability of such vibrations throughout the ambient environment. Significant power generation at low-frequency vibrations, however, is challenging because the power flow decreases as the frequency decreases; moreover, designing a spring-mass system that is suitable for low-frequency-vibration energy harvesting is difficult. In this work, our proposed device overcomes both of these challenges by using a dual Halbach array and magnetic springs. Each Halbach array concentrates the magnetic-flux lines on one side of the array while suppressing the flux lines on the other side; therefore, a dual Halbach array allows for an interaction between the concentrated magnetic-flux lines and the same coil so that the maximum flux linkage occurs. During the experiment, vibration was applied in a horizontal direction to reduce the gravity effect on the Halbach-array structure. To achieve an increased power generation at low-amplitude and low-frequency vibrations, the magnetic structure of the dual Halbach array and the magnetic springs were optimized in terms of the operating frequency and the power density; subsequently, a prototype was fabricated and tested. The prototype device offers a normalized power density of 133.45 μW cm-3 g-2 that is much higher than those of recently reported electromagnetic energy harvesters; furthermore, it is capable of delivering a maximum average power of 1093 μW to a 44 Ω optimum load, at an 11 Hz resonant frequency and under a 0.5 g acceleration.

  5. Measurement capabilities of the Bendix Metrology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to communicate the measurement and calibration capabilities of the Metrology Organization of the Bendix Kansas City Division. Included is a listing of the measurement types and ranges available, and the accuracies normally attainable under conditions at the Kansas City Division. Also described are currently used standards and measurement devices. The manual is divided into four major sections, each describing a broad general area of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical; and optical and radiation

  6. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  7. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The technology developments required and a preliminary design of a lightweight 25 kW solar array for the solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) have been defined. The requirements for a 65 W/Kg SEPS solar array system requires significant component weight reductions over present state-of-the-art flexible solar arrays in both electrical and structural-mechanical designs. A requirement for operation from 0.3 au to 6.0 au presents a wide range of temperature environments as well as severe combined thermal/vacuum/UV radiation environments. Additional requirements are capability for partial array retraction operation, and capability for full retraction and automatic preloading for survival of the Shuttle reentry environment. An assessment of current lightweight flexible solar array technology is made against the SEPS solar array requirements and new technology requirements are defined. A preliminary design and the operating characteristics of a flat-fold solar array system meeting the SEPS requirements is presented. A full-width, 10-ft-tall functional array model, including representative welded electrical modules and a model astromast, was fabricated and tested.

  8. Infrared-Bolometer Arrays with Reflective Backshorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Abrahams, John; Allen, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated circuits that incorporate square arrays of superconducting-transition- edge bolometers with optically reflective backshorts are being developed for use in image sensors in the spectral range from far infrared to millimeter wavelengths. To maximize the optical efficiency (and, thus, sensitivity) of such a sensor at a specific wavelength, resonant optical structures are created by placing the backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometer plane. The bolometer and backshort arrays are fabricated separately, then integrated to form a single unit denoted a backshort-under-grid (BUG) bolometer array. In a subsequent fabrication step, the BUG bolometer array is connected, by use of single-sided indium bump bonding, to a readout device that comprises mostly a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer circuit. The resulting sensor unit comprising the BUG bolometer array and the readout device is operated at a temperature below 1 K. The concept of increasing optical efficiency by use of backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometers is not new. Instead, the novelty of the present development lies mainly in several features of the design of the BUG bolometer array and the fabrication sequence used to implement the design. Prior to joining with the backshort array, the bolometer array comprises, more specifically, a square grid of free-standing molybdenum/gold superconducting-transition-edge bolometer elements on a 1.4- m-thick top layer of silicon that is part of a silicon support frame made from a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The backshort array is fabricated separately as a frame structure that includes support beams and contains a correspond - ing grid of optically reflective patches on a single-crystal silicon substrate. The process used to fabricate the bolometer array includes standard patterning and etching steps that result in the formation of deep notches in the silicon support frame. These notches are designed to

  9. A TOUCH-SENSITIVE DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    propagating towards a specific point of the detector array is prevented from being incident upon the specific point of the detector array when an object contacts a touch-sensitive surface of the touch-sensitive waveguide at a corresponding specific contact point.......The present invention relates to an optical touch-sensitive device and a method of determining a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch sensitive device. In particular, the present invention relates to an optical touch pad and a method of determining...... a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch pad. A touch-sensitive device, according to the present invention may comprise a light source, a touch- sensitive waveguide, a detector array, and a first light redirecting member, wherein at least a part of the light...

  10. Solitons in optomechanical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-15

    We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261

  11. Initial steps toward the realization of large area arrays of single photon counting pixels based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2014-03-01

    The thin-film semiconductor processing methods that enabled creation of inexpensive liquid crystal displays based on amorphous silicon transistors for cell phones and televisions, as well as desktop, laptop and mobile computers, also facilitated the development of devices that have become ubiquitous in medical x-ray imaging environments. These devices, called active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), measure the integrated signal generated by incident X rays and offer detection areas as large as ~43×43 cm2. In recent years, there has been growing interest in medical x-ray imagers that record information from X ray photons on an individual basis. However, such photon counting devices have generally been based on crystalline silicon, a material not inherently suited to the cost-effective manufacture of monolithic devices of a size comparable to that of AMFPIs. Motivated by these considerations, we have developed an initial set of small area prototype arrays using thin-film processing methods and polycrystalline silicon transistors. These prototypes were developed in the spirit of exploring the possibility of creating large area arrays offering single photon counting capabilities and, to our knowledge, are the first photon counting arrays fabricated using thin film techniques. In this paper, the architecture of the prototype pixels is presented and considerations that influenced the design of the pixel circuits, including amplifier noise, TFT performance variations, and minimum feature size, are discussed.

  12. Knowledge Management Capabilities Rubrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah B.A. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently researchers discerned the vitality and importance of Knowledge Management Capabilities (KMC evaluation in organizations. In fact evaluation of KMC helps to prevent failure in Knowledge Management (KM projects. Approach: One of the most popular methods in the phase of evaluating KMC is Fuzzy method which evaluates seven attributes of KMC. Fuzzy needs KM experts to give their opinion about these attributes as input data. However in some organizations these experts are not available. Results: Therefore in this study a rubric matrix is developed as an assessment tool with ordered rank (very high, medium and very low of descriptive characteristics of criteria (seven attributes that organizations wish to evaluate. Conclusion: This rubric is applicable for members of an organization which are not familiar completely with KMC and also will be maintained by analyzing and surveying many different researches.

  13. PHOBOS physics capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-07-15

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, the authors outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, they then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that they plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{eta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays.

  14. General shape optimization capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  15. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: System Architecture and Specifications of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hotan, A W; Harvey-Smith, L; Humphreys, B; Jeffs, B D; Shimwell, T; Tuthill, J; Voronkov, M; Allen, G; Amy, S; Ardern, K; Axtens, P; Ball, L; Bannister, K; Barker, S; Bateman, T; Beresford, R; Bock, D; Bolton, R; Bowen, M; Boyle, B; Braun, R; Broadhurst, S; Brodrick, D; Brooks, K; Brothers, M; Brown, A; Cantrall, C; Carrad, G; Chapman, J; Cheng, W; Chippendale, A; Chung, Y; Cooray, F; Cornwell, T; Davis, E; de Souza, L; DeBoer, D; Diamond, P; Edwards, P; Ekers, R; Feain, I; Ferris, D; Forsyth, R; Gough, R; Grancea, A; Gupta, N; Guzman, JC; Hampson, G; Haskins, C; Hay, S; Hayman, D; Hoyle, S; Jacka, C; Jackson, C; Jackson, S; Jeganathan, K; Johnston, S; Joseph, J; Kendall, R; Kesteven, M; Kiraly, D; Koribalski, B; Leach, M; Lenc, E; Lensson, E; Li, L; Mackay, S; Macleod, A; Maher, T; Marquarding, M; McClure-Griffiths, N; McConnell, D; Mickle, S; Mirtschin, P; Norris, R; Neuhold, S; Ng, A; O'Sullivan, J; Pathikulangara, J; Pearce, S; Phillips, C; Qiao, RY; Reynolds, J E; Rispler, A; Roberts, P; Roxby, D; Schinckel, A; Shaw, R; Shields, M; Storey, M; Sweetnam, T; Troup, E; Turner, B; Tzioumis, A; Westmeier, T; Whiting, M; Wilson, C; Wilson, T; Wormnes, K; Wu, X

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope - the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, which is a prototype of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a 6-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least 9 dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.

  16. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2011-08-01

    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  17. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  18. Self-leveling 2D DPN probe arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaheim, Jason R.; Val, Vadim; Solheim, Ed; Bussan, John; Fragala, J.; Nelson, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is a direct write scanning probe-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement to advance nanoscale technology in commercial applications, and tailoring chemical composition and surface structure on the sub-100 nm scale benefits researchers in areas ranging from cell adhesion to cell-signaling and biomimetic membranes. These capabilities naturally suggest a "Desktop Nanofab" concept - a turnkey system that allows a non-expert user to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. In turn, this system is fundamentally supported by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray™, making DPN a high-throughput (>3×107 μm2 per hour), flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. However, cm2 arrays of nanoscopic tips introduce the nontrivial problem of getting them all evenly touching the surface to ensure homogeneous deposition; this requires extremely precise leveling of the array. Herein, we describe how we have made the process simple by way of a selfleveling gimbal attachment, coupled with semi-automated software leveling routines which bring the cm^2 chip to within 0.002 degrees of co-planarity. This excellent co-planarity yields highly homogeneous features across a square centimeter, with standard deviation. We have engineered the devices to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with both of our patterning tools: the DPN 5000, and the NLP 2000.

  19. Polymer/ZnO Micro-Nano Array Composites for Light-Emitting Layer of Flexible Optoelectronic Devices%柔性光电器件发光层用ZnO微纳阵列/聚合物复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继中; 贺英; 朱棣; 陈杰; 裴昌龙; 王均安

    2011-01-01

    采用简单的低温(温度未超过100℃)溶液法在具有较好柔韧度的基于聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)衬底的钢锡氧化物(ITO)导电膜(PET/ITO)上成功制备了聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)修饰的ZnO微纳阵列.用X射线衍射(XRD)仪和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对ZnO微纳阵列的晶体结构和表面形貌进行了表征,结果表明ZnO阵列的平均直径为150 nm.长度为3 μm,端面具有六边形结构,沿[0001]方向择优生长,较好地垂直在PET/ITO上:探讨了ZnO微纳阵列在PAM存在下的形成机理以及所制各的ZnO阵列在柔性光电器件方面的应用:ZnO微纳阵列的光致发光(PL)性能表明,在没有PAM的存在下,具有蓝光(457 nm)和绿光(530 nm)缺陷发射峰,这可能是电子分别从扩展态锌间隙(Zni)到价带和从导带到锌位氧(Ozn)的跃迁引起的,而在PAM存在下所制备的PAM/ZnO阵列仅仅在400 nm处有一个发射峰,这是由于电子从Zni到价带的跃迁引起的.基于PAM/ZnO的柔性器件具有较好的二极管特性,表明其在柔性光电器件方面的应用极具潜力.%We prepared PAM/ZnO micro-nano arrays on indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive films based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates (PET/ITO) by a low cost and low temperature chemical solution approach.The morphology and crystal structure of the nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that the ordered arrays of the ZnO and PAM/ZnO arrays grew vertically on the substrates and revealed that the nanorods grew along the [0001]direction of the ZnO crystallites.SEM images showed that most of the ZnO arrays had an average diameter of 150 nm and their typical length was about 3 μm.The optical properties of the ZnO and PAM/ZnO micro-nano arrays were characterized by photoluminescence at room temperature.The growth mechanism of the PAM/ZnO arrays and their possible application in flexible optoelectronic devices are

  20. Large Format Detector Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    Improvements in detector design and advances in fabrication techniques has resulted in devices which can reach fundamental sensitivity limits in many cases. Many pressing astrophysical questions require large arrays of such sensitive detectors. I will describe the state of far infrared through millimeter detector development at NASA/GSFC, the design and production of large format arrays, and the initial deployment of these powerful new tools.

  1. An MR-compliant phased-array HIFU transducer with augmented steering range, dedicated to abdominal thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auboiroux, Vincent [Inserm, U556, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Dumont, Erik [Image Guided Therapy, Pessac, Bordeaux (France); Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares [Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie, E-mail: vincent.auboiroux@unige.ch [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-06-21

    A novel architecture for a phased-array high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was investigated, aiming to increase the capabilities of electronic steering without reducing the size of the elementary emitters. The principal medical application expected to benefit from these developments is the time-effective sonication of large tumours in moving organs. The underlying principle consists of dividing the full array of transducers into multiple sub-arrays of different resonance frequencies, with the reorientation of these individual emitters, such that each sub-array can focus within a given spatial zone. To enable magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of the device and the number of output channels from the RF generator to be halved, a passive spectral multiplexing technique was used, consisting of parallel wiring of frequency-shifted paired piezoceramic emitters with intrinsic narrow-band response. Two families of 64 emitters (circular, 5 mm diameter) were mounted, with optimum efficiency at 0.96 and 1.03 MHz, respectively. Two different prototypes of the HIFU device were built and tested, each incorporating the same two families of emitters, but differing in the shape of the rapid prototyping plastic support that accommodated the transducers (spherical cap with radius of curvature/aperture of 130 mm/150 mm and, respectively, 80 mm/110 mm). Acoustic measurements, MR-acoustic radiation force imaging (ex vivo) and MR-thermometry (ex vivo and in vivo) were used for the characterization of the prototypes. Experimental results demonstrated an augmentation of the steering range by 80% along one preferentially chosen axis, compared to a classic spherical array of the same total number of elements. The electric power density provided to the piezoceramic transducers exceeded 50 W cm{sup -2} CW, without circulation of coolant water. Another important advantage of the current approach is the versatility of reshaping the array at low cost.

  2. Coincidence detection of spatially correlated photon pairs with a monolithic time-resolving detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Unternährer, Manuel; Gasparini, Leonardo; Stoppa, David; Stefanov, André

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate coincidence measurements of spatially entangled photons by means of a novel type of multi-pixel based detection array. The adopted sensor is a fully digital 8$\\times$16 silicon photomultiplier array allowing not only photon counting but also per-pixel time stamping of the arrived photons with a resolution of 65 ps. Together with a frame rate of 500 kfps, this property exceeds the capabilities of conventional charge-coupled device cameras which have become of growing interest for the detection of transversely correlated photon pairs. The sensor is used to measure a second-order correlation function for various non-collinear configurations of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The experimental results are compared to theory.

  3. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  4. Mobile systems capability plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered

  5. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate

  6. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Haller, Merrick C.; Ozkan-Haller, H. Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the

  7. Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Tyrrell, Brian M.; D'Onofrio, Richard; Bolstad, Andrew; Lin, Joseph; Little, Jeffrey W.; Blackwell, Megan; Renzi, Matthew; Kelly, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plane array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digitalpixel focal plane array (DFPA) devices for many years. In this work, we leverage legacy designs modified with new features to realize a computational imaging array (CIA) with advanced pixel-processing capabilities. We briefly review the use of DFPAs for on-chip background removal and image plane filtering. We focus on two digital readout integrated circuits (DROICS) as CIAs for two-dimensional (2D) transient target tracking and three-dimensional (3D) transient target estimation using per-pixel coded-apertures or flutter shutters. This paper describes two DROICs - a SWIR pixelprocessing imager (SWIR-PPI) and a Visible CIA (VISCIA). SWIR-PPI is a DROIC with a 1 kHz global frame rate with a maximum per-pixel shuttering rate of 100 MHz, such that each pixel can be modulated by a time-varying, pseudorandom, and duo-binary signal (+1,-1,0). Combining per-pixel time-domain coding and processing enables 3D (x,y,t) target estimation with limited loss of spatial resolution. We evaluate structured and pseudo-random encoding strategies and employ linear inversion and non-linear inversion using total-variation minimization to estimate a 3D data cube from a single 2D temporally-encoded measurement. The VISCIA DROIC, while low-resolution, has a 6 kHz global frame rate and simultaneously encodes eight periodic or aperiodic transient target signatures at a maximum rate of 50 MHz using eight 8-bit counters. By transferring pixel-based image plane coding to the DROIC and utilizing sophisticated processing, our CIAs enable on-chip temporal super-resolution.

  8. In-line X-slot element focal plane array of kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacono, A.; Freni, A.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors are very promising THz imaging devices to be used in Focal Plane Array configuration. In this work a new antenna feed element has been studied and optimized. Preliminary results on array configuration are also shown.

  9. Cryocooler operation of SNIS Josephson arrays for AC Voltage standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosso, A.; De Leo, N.; Fretto, M.; Monticone, E.; Roncaglione, L.; Rocci, R.; Lacquaniti, V.

    2014-05-01

    Avoiding liquid helium is now a worldwide issue, thus cryocooler operation is becoming mandatory for a wider use of superconductive electronics. Josephson voltage standards hold a peculiar position among superconducting devices, as they are in use in high precision voltage metrology since decades. Higher temperature operation would reduce the refrigerator size and complexity, however, arrays of Josephson junctions made with high temperature superconductors for voltage standard applications are not to date available. The SNIS (Superconductor-Normal metal-Insulator-Superconductor) junction technology developed at INRIM, based on low temperature superconductors, but capable of operation well above liquid helium temperature, is interesting for application to a compact cryocooled standard, allowing to set a compromise between device and refrigerator requirements. In this work, the behavior of SNIS devices cooled with a closed-cycle refrigerator has been investigated, both in DC and under RF irradiation. Issues related to thermal design of the apparatus to solve specific problems not faced with liquid coolants, like reduced cooling power and minimization of thermal gradients for uniform operation of the chip are discussed in detail.

  10. Nanocavity crossbar arrays for parallel electrochemical sensing on a chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno Kätelhön

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel device for the mapping of redox-active compounds at high spatial resolution based on a crossbar electrode architecture. The sensor array is formed by two sets of 16 parallel band electrodes that are arranged perpendicular to each other on the wafer surface. At each intersection, the crossing bars are separated by a ca. 65 nm high nanocavity, which is stabilized by the surrounding passivation layer. During operation, perpendicular bar electrodes are biased to potentials above and below the redox potential of species under investigation, thus, enabling repeated subsequent reactions at the two electrodes. By this means, a redox cycling current is formed across the gap that can be measured externally. As the nanocavity devices feature a very high current amplification in redox cycling mode, individual sensing spots can be addressed in parallel, enabling high-throughput electrochemical imaging. This paper introduces the design of the device, discusses the fabrication process and demonstrates its capabilities in sequential and parallel data acquisition mode by using a hexacyanoferrate probe.

  11. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  12. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2014-12-09

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  13. Cell Proliferation Tracking Using Graphene Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Daly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel label-free graphene sensor array is presented. Detection is based on modification of graphene FET devices and specifically monitoring the change in composition of the nutritive components in culturing medium. Micro-dispensing of Escherichia coli in medium shows feasibility of accurate positioning over each sensor while still allowing cell proliferation. Graphene FET device fabrication, sample dosing, and initial electrical characterisation have been completed and show a promising approach to reducing the sample size and lead time for diagnostic and drug development protocols through a label-free and reusable sensor array fabricated with standard and scalable microfabrication technologies.

  14. ParaSol - A Novel Deployable Approach for Very Large Ultra-lightweight Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power solar arrays with capabilities of >100kW are needed for projected NASA missions. Photovoltaic arrays using deployable membranes with thin cells have...

  15. Small rover exploration capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make the vehicles easier to handle, safer to use and more efficient in the field to cross an obstacle. The final recommendation is to use winches and ramps, which already are widely used by quad drivers. We report on the extension of the reachable areas if such tools were available. This work has been supported by ILEWG, EuroMoonMars and the Austrian Space Forum (OEWF).

  16. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  17. Capillary Array Waveguide Amplified Fluorescence Detector for mHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-09-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) analytical technologies are potentially useful for carrying out modern medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. Effective mHealth devices for underserved populations need to be simple, low cost, and portable. Although cell phone cameras have been used for biodetection, their sensitivity is a limiting factor because currently it is too low to be effective for many mHealth applications, which depend on detection of weak fluorescent signals. To improve the sensitivity of portable phones, a capillary tube array was developed to amplify fluorescence signals using their waveguide properties. An array configured with 36 capillary tubes was demonstrated to have a ~100X increase in sensitivity, lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of mobile phones from 1000 nM to 10 nM for fluorescein. To confirm that the amplification was due to waveguide behavior, we coated the external surfaces of the capillaries with silver. The silver coating interfered with the waveguide behavior and diminished the fluorescence signal, thereby proving that the waveguide behavior was the main mechanism for enhancing optical sensitivity. The optical configuration described here is novel in several ways. First, the use of capillaries waveguide properties to improve detection of weak florescence signal is new. Second we describe here a three dimensional illumination system, while conventional angular laser waveguide illumination is spot (or line), which is functionally one-dimensional illumination, can illuminate only a single capillary or a single column (when a line generator is used) of capillaries and thus inherently limits the multiplexing capability of detection. The planar illumination demonstrated in this work enables illumination of a two dimensional capillary array (e.g. x columns and y rows of capillaries). In addition, the waveguide light propagation via the capillary wall provides a third dimension for illumination along the axis of the capillaries. Such an

  18. A new IMS Seismic Array in Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, C. H.; Barrientos, S.; Bergsson, B. H.; Boureima, O. A.; Ebeling, C.; Hfaiedh, M.; Soumana, S.; Suarez, G.

    2006-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test- Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has built a sixteen element broadband seismic array in southwestern Niger near the town of Torodi. This is the first array to be built in West Africa. The array has a diameter of 6 km (three rings with a central element), contains twelve vertical and four 3-component broadband sensors, all with identical instrument responses (Guralp CMG-3TB broadband sensors, flat to velocity from 100 seconds to 20 Hz). All sensors are deployed at 50 meters depth in boreholes. Many elements have seismic noise characteristics at or below Peterson's Low Noise Model at frequencies higher than 0.5 Hz. The array is autonomous: it is powered entirely by solar power, and transmits data directly to Vienna via VSAT with about a 20 second delay from real time. Data availability is nearly 100% since January 2006. The array is entirely on 2 billion year old granodiorite/tonalite with all of the sensors emplaced within the crystalline rock. A receiver function performs on the data shows a very simple crustal structure with a Moho depth of 38 km. The array is capable of resolving and detecting events with magnitude (mb) less than 3.0 from events in Peru and Indonesia, showing that the array significantly adds to the IMS detection capabilities in the Africa region and world-wide.

  19. Methods and devices for protein assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil (San Jose, CA); Cintron, Jose M. (Indianapolis, IN); Shediac, Renee (Oakland, CA)

    2009-11-03

    Methods and devices for protein assays based on Edman degradation in microfluidic channels are disclosed herein. As disclosed, the cleaved amino acid residues may be immobilized in an array format and identified by detectable labels, such as antibodies, which specifically bind given amino acid residues. Alternatively, the antibodies are immobilized in an array format and the cleaved amino acids are labeled identified by being bound by the antibodies in the array.

  20. Impact of Personnel Capabilities on Organizational Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    One of the most dynamic capabilities that lead to the strongest competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. Analysing the development of a firm’s innovation capability is an important research project, and can help organizations to achieve competitive advantage in thi...

  1. A Photo-Multiplier Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhattacharya

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the design of a photo-multiplier testing device constructed to assess long term stability and suitability of 53 AVP photo-multipliers for use with singles counting, scintillation counter arrays and large plastic scintillation counter arrays (in coincidence in high energy physics experiments (with muons. The device can be used for routine checking of such phototubes in laboratory.

  2. Tunable Dielectric Materials and Devices for Broadband Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Dayton, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Wireless and satellite communications are a rapidly growing industries which are slated for explosive growth into emerging countries as well as countries with advanced economies. The dominant trend in wireless communication systems is towards broadband applications such as multimedia file transfer, video transmission and Internet access. These applications require much higher data transmission rates than those currently used for voice transmission applications. To achieve these higher data rates, substantially larger bandwidths and higher carrier frequencies are required. A key roadblock to implementing these systems at K-band (18-26.5 GHz) and Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) is the need to develop hardware which meets the requirements for high data rate transmission in a cost effective manner. In this chapter, we report on the status of tunable dielectric thin films for devices, such as resonators, filters, phased array antennas, and tunable oscillators, which utilize nonlinear tuning in the control elements. Paraelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate ((Ba, Sr)TiO3) have dielectric constants which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the electric field across the material. Therefore, these materials can be used to control the frequency and/or phase response of various devices such as electronically steerable phased array antennas, oscillators, and filters. Currently, tunable dielectric devices are being developed for applications which require high tunability, low loss, and good RF power-handling capabilities at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. These properties are strongly impacted by film microstructure and device design, and considerable developmental work is still required. However, in the last several years enormous progress has occurred in this field, validating the potential of tunable dielectric technology for broadband wireless communication applications. In this chapter we summarize how film processing techniques, microwave test

  3. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are characterized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs

  4. Design and fabrication of microlens and spatial filter array by self-alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren; Chan, Kin Foong; Feng, Zhiqiang; Mei, Wenhui

    2003-01-01

    For typically small volume production of MEMS, MOEMS, fine feature PCB, high density chip packaging and display panels, especially for lab tests, low cost and the capability to change the original design easily and quickly are very important for customers and researchers. BALL Semiconductor Inc.'s Maskless Lithography Systems (MLS) feature the Digital Mirror Device (DMD) as the pattern generator to replace photo-masks. This can remove masks from UV lithography, and dramatically reduce the running cost and save time for lab tests and small volume production. At Ball Semiconductor Inc, 1.5μm line/space, 10μm line/space, and 20μm line/space Maskless Lithography Systems were developed. In our MLS, an 848×600 microlens and spatial filter array (MLSFA) was used to focus the light and to filter the noise. In order to produce smaller line-space than 16μm the MLSFA was used to get smaller UV light pad (compared with the SVGA DMD"s micro-mirror: 17μm×17μm) and to filter the noise produced from the DMD, optical lens system, and micro lens array. This MLSFA is one of the key devices for our Maskless Lithography System, and determines the resolution and quality of maskless lithography. A novel design and fabrication process of a single-package MLSFA for our Maskless Lithography System will be introduced. To avoid problems produced by misalignment between a two-piece spatial filter and microlens array, MEMS processing is used to integrate the microlens array with the spatial filter array. In this paper, the self-alignment method used to fabricate exactly matched MLSFA will be presented.

  5. A superconducting focal plane array for ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Benjamin A; Bumble, Bruce; Meeker, Seth R; O'Brien, Kieran; McHugh, Sean; Langman, Eric

    2012-01-16

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, have proven to be a powerful cryogenic detector technology due to their sensitivity and the ease with which they can be multiplexed into large arrays. A MKID is an energy sensor based on a photon-variable superconducting inductance in a lithographed microresonator, and is capable of functioning as a photon detector across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as a particle detector. Here we describe the first successful effort to create a photon-counting, energy-resolving ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared MKID focal plane array. These new Optical Lumped Element (OLE) MKID arrays have significant advantages over semiconductor detectors like charge coupled devices (CCDs). They can count individual photons with essentially no false counts and determine the energy and arrival time of every photon with good quantum efficiency. Their physical pixel size and maximum count rate is well matched with large telescopes. These capabilities enable powerful new astrophysical instruments usable from the ground and space. MKIDs could eventually supplant semiconductor detectors for most astronomical instrumentation, and will be useful for other disciplines such as quantum optics and biological imaging.

  6. The development of capability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Paul; Hunter, Graham; Carter, Ian; Dowding, Keith; Guala, Francesco; Van Hees, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is motivated by sustained interest in the capabilities approach to welfare economics combined with the paucity of economic statistics that measure capabilities at the individual level. Specifically, it takes a much discussed account of the normatively desirable capabilities constitutive o

  7. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional implication

  8. Advanced MOSFET variability and reliability characterization array

    OpenAIRE

    Simicic, Marko; Putcha, Vamsi; Parvais, Bertrand; Weckx, Pieter; Kaczer, Ben; Groeseneken, Guido; Gielen, Georges; Linten, Dimitri; Thean, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Time-zero variability, bias temperature instability (BTI) and random telegraph noise (RTN) are issues that both analog and digital designers using scaled CMOS technologies have to face. In order to address them at design time, access to a sufficiently large number of individual devices is required for statistical technology characterization and modeling. In this paper we present a large MOSFET array designed and fabricated in an advanced 28nm technology, containing both nMOS and pMOS devices ...

  9. BOLOMETRIC ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin lms have been developed at INAOE, speci cally boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon lms. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible con gurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit speci cally designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  10. A versatile LabVIEW and FPGA-based scanned probe microscope for in-operando electronic device characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Andrew J; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In-operando characterization of such devices by scanned probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanned probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically-biased graphene FET device. The c...

  11. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  13. Diabetes Device Interoperability for Improved Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Alain D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and technological advancements have led to the increasing availability and use of sophisticated devices for diabetes management, with corresponding improvements in public health. These devices are often capable of sharing data with a few other specific devices but are generally not broadly interoperable; they cannot work together with a wide variety of other devices. As a result of limited interoperability, benefits of modern diabetes devices and potential for development of innova...

  14. Capability-based computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Capability-Based Computer Systems focuses on computer programs and their capabilities. The text first elaborates capability- and object-based system concepts, including capability-based systems, object-based approach, and summary. The book then describes early descriptor architectures and explains the Burroughs B5000, Rice University Computer, and Basic Language Machine. The text also focuses on early capability architectures. Dennis and Van Horn's Supervisor; CAL-TSS System; MIT PDP-1 Timesharing System; and Chicago Magic Number Machine are discussed. The book then describes Plessey System 25

  15. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the 58Ni + 56Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  16. Synergistic Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Microsome/DNA Electrochemiluminescent Arrays and Nanoreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sadagopan; Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Bajrami, Besnik; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Platforms based on thin enzyme/DNA films were used in two-tier screening of chemicals for reactive metabolites capable of producing toxicity. Microsomes were used for the first time as sources of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in these devices. Initial rapid screening involved electrochemiluminescent (ECL) arrays featuring spots containing ruthenium poly(vinylpyridine), DNA, and rat liver microsomes or bicistronically expressed human cyt P450 2E1 (h2E1). Cyt P450 enzymes were activated via the NADPH/reductase cycle. When bioactivation of substrates in the films gives reactive metabolites, they are trapped by covalent attachment to DNA bases. The rate of increase in ECL with enzyme reaction time reflects relative DNA damage rates. “Toxic hits” uncovered by the array were studied in structural detail by using enzyme/DNA films on silica nanospheres as “nanoreactors” to provide nucleobase adducts from reactive metabolites. The utility of this synergistic approach was demonstrated by estimating relative DNA damage rates of three mutagenic N-nitroso compounds and styrene. Relative enzyme turnover rates for these compounds using ECL arrays and LC-UV-MS correlated well with TD50 values for liver tumor formation in rats. Combining ECL array and nanoreactor/LC–MS technologies has the potential for rapid, high-throughput, cost-effective screening for reactive metabolites and provides chemical structure information that is complementary to conventional toxicity bioassays. PMID:18563913

  17. Compact Printed Arrays with Embedded Coupling Mitigation for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine G. Kakoyiannis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors emerged as narrowband, resource-constrained devices to provide monitoring services over a wide life span. Future applications of sensor networks are multimedia-driven and include sensor mobility. Thus, sensors must combine small size, large bandwidth, and diversity capabilities. Compact arrays, offering transmit/receive diversity, suffer from strong mutual coupling (MC, which causes lower antenna efficiency, loss of bandwidth, and signal correlation. An efficient technique to reduce coupling in compact arrays is described herein: a defect was inserted in the ground plane (GNDP area between each pair of elements. The defect disturbed the GNDP currents and offered multidecibel coupling suppression, bandwidth recovery, and reduction of in-band correlation. Minimal pattern distortion was estimated. Computational results were supported by measurements. The bandwidth of unloaded arrays degraded gracefully from 38% to 28% with decreasing interelement distance (0.25 to 0.10. Defect-loaded arrays exhibited active impedance bandwidths 37–45%, respectively. Measured coupling was reduced by 15–20 dB.

  18. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueyuek, Tayfun; Gadea, Andres; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Di Nitto, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Jaworski, Grzegorz; Javier Valiente-Dobon, Jose; De Angelis, Giacomo; Modamio, Victor; Triossi, Andrea [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Nyberg, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Palacz, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Soederstroem, Paer-Anders [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Aliaga-Varea, Ramon Jose [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Atac, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Collado, Javier; Egea, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez, Vicente; Sanchis, Enrique [University of Valencia, Department of Electronic Engineering, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Erduran, Nizamettin [Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey); Ertuerk, Sefa [University of Nigde, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde (Turkey); France, Gilles de [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, CEA/DSAM, Caen (France); Gadea, Rafael; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Kaskas, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Moszynski, Marek [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wadsworth, Robert [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the {sup 58}Ni + {sup 56}Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  19. Highly-Ordered 3D Vertical Resistive Switching Memory Arrays with Ultralow Power Consumption and Ultrahigh Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Chengliang; Qi, Haoyuan; Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Bernhard, Jörg; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Tarish, Samar; Nabi, Ghulam; Kaiser, Ute; Lei, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Resistive switching random access memories (RRAM) have attracted great scientific and industrial attention for next generation data storage because of their advantages of nonvolatile properties, high density, low power consumption, fast writing/erasing speed, good endurance, and simple and small operation system. Here, by using a template-assisted technique, we demonstrate a three-dimensional highly ordered vertical RRAM device array with density as high as that of the nanopores of the template (10(8)-10(9) cm(-2)), which can also be fabricated in large area. The high crystallinity of the materials, the large contact area and the intimate semiconductor/electrode interface (3 nm interfacial layer) make the ultralow voltage operation (millivolt magnitude) and ultralow power consumption (picowatt) possible. Our procedure for fabrication of the nanodevice arrays in large area can be used for producing many other different materials and such three-dimensional electronic device arrays with the capability to adjust the device densities can be extended to other applications of the next generation nanodevice technology. PMID:27525738

  20. Focal Plane Array Sensor for Imaging Infrared Seeker of Antitank Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.R. Warrier

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological issues and Processes for fabrication of mercury cadmium telluride detector arrays, charge coupled device readout arrays and integration of these into a focal plane array sensor have been discussed. Mini arrays of 16 X 16 size have been realised and tested to prove the technology and process schedule with a view to scaling up this for larger arrays to be used in the antitank guided missile.

  1. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  2. Laser beam steering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  3. Performance of ultra-high-density microelectrode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging the electrical output activity of biological cells is important to gain an understanding of how cell networks process information. This has implications for the understanding of brain processing, such as that performed by the retina in encoding the visual scene. The performance and electrical quality of a state-of-the-art high-density 519-microelectrode array, that recorded simultaneously from hundreds of live retinal output cells (ganglion cells) is reported on. The fabrication process for these devices has been optimised and their electrical characteristics examined. The electrode arrays typically exhibit an impedance of ∼200 kΩ at 1 kHz and the RMS noise of the whole recording system is 7 μV with a signal to noise ratio of 20:1. With a view to direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells, a low impedance Z=300 kΩ iridium oxide interface capable of delivering large currents Q cap=4 mC/cm2 to cells was also developed

  4. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) High Temperature Survival Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Ross, Ronald G.; Smith, Brian S.; Glenn, Gregory S.; Sharmit, Khaled S.

    1996-01-01

    The MGS mission is one of the first major palnetary missions conducted under the new NASA Faster, Better, Cheaper guidelines. This paper provides an overview of the array design and performance, the high temperature capable design and development.

  5. Capabilities and Incapabilities of the Capabilities Approach to Health Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity (which seems politically incorrect), sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether justice entitlements should pertain to the capability for health versus health achievements, challenging Venkatapuram's claims about the strength of health entitlements, and demonstrating that the capabilities approach is unnecessary to address social determinants of health.

  6. Manycore Performance-Portability: Kokkos Multidimensional Array Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carter Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, complex scientific and engineering application code have a significant investment in computational kernels to implement their mathematical models. Porting these computational kernels to the collection of modern manycore accelerator devices is a major challenge in that these devices have diverse programming models, application programming interfaces (APIs, and performance requirements. The Kokkos Array programming model provides library-based approach to implement computational kernels that are performance-portable to CPU-multicore and GPGPU accelerator devices. This programming model is based upon three fundamental concepts: (1 manycore compute devices each with its own memory space, (2 data parallel kernels and (3 multidimensional arrays. Kernel execution performance is, especially for NVIDIA® devices, extremely dependent on data access patterns. Optimal data access pattern can be different for different manycore devices – potentially leading to different implementations of computational kernels specialized for different devices. The Kokkos Array programming model supports performance-portable kernels by (1 separating data access patterns from computational kernels through a multidimensional array API and (2 introduce device-specific data access mappings when a kernel is compiled. An implementation of Kokkos Array is available through Trilinos [Trilinos website, http://trilinos.sandia.gov/, August 2011].

  7. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes...

  8. A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities. 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  10. Sentinel-3 Solar Array Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Y.; Reutenauer, X.; Mouret, G.; Guerrere, S.; Ergan, A.; Ferrando, E.; Riva, S.; Hodgetts, P.; Levesque, D.; D'Accolti, G.

    2011-10-01

    Sentinel-3 is primarily a mission to support services relating to the marine environment, with capability to serve numerous land-, atmospheric- and cryospheric- based application areas. The mission's main objective is to determine parameters, such as sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperatures, as well as ocean- and land-surface colours with high-end accuracy and reliability. For this mission, Thales Alenia Space has been selected as the spacecraft prime contractor and is also responsible for the solar array. In this frame, TAS leads a European industrial team, comprising Selex Galileo for the photovoltaic assembly and Patria for the panel substrate.

  11. Waveguide device and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2007-08-14

    A monolithic micromachined waveguide device or devices with low-loss, high-power handling, and near-optical frequency ranges is set forth. The waveguide and integrated devices are capable of transmitting near-optical frequencies due to optical-quality sidewall roughness. The device or devices are fabricated in parallel, may be mass produced using a LIGA manufacturing process, and may include a passive component such as a diplexer and/or an active capping layer capable of particularized signal processing of the waveforms propagated by the waveguide.

  12. Transactional capability: Innovation's missing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tello-Gamarra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of innovation as a source of competitive advantage for firms is consolidated in the literature. An innovation-based advantage is generally achieved by following a structured process, in which technological capability plays a key role. However, a question remains in studies into innovation, which is concerned with the reasons why not all firms that develop a technological capability are innovative. Where is the missing link? Great efforts have been made in attempts to answer to this question. However, the study of this link as a source of advantage for firms deserves further attention. This article aims to present a framework with two essential dimensions: (1 the technological capability and (2 the transactional capability. Technological capability is the ability of firms to make effective use of technical knowledge in order to improve production processes and develop new products and services. Transactional capability is defined as a repertoire of abilities, processes, experiences, skills, knowledge and routines that the firm uses to minimize its transaction costs (ex¿ante and ex¿post. Given that the present study is a theoretical paper, methodologically it is based on a literature review. The main finding of this study is the identification of transactional capability as the missing link in innovation. Accordingly, to be innovative, in addition to having a technological capability, a firm needs to develop its transactional capability.

  13. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Jan; Feldman, Maryann; Srholec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    for the sample as a whole between 1998 and 2008. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as well-developed public knowledge infrastructure, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety condition the growth of technological capabilities. Possible......This article analyzes factors shaping technological capabilities in USA and European countries, and shows that the differences between the two continents in this respect are much smaller than commonly assumed. The analysis demonstrates a tendency toward convergence in technological capabilities...

  14. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-04-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  15. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  16. Josephson arrays for dc and ac metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large series arrays of underdamped SIS tunnel junctions are the basic element of the primary dc voltage standards used at present. The development of versatile quantum voltmeters for dc and ac metrology requires the preparation of large and perfect series arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions. Overdamped junctions can be realized by externally shunted SIS junctions or by internally shunted SNS or SINIS junctions. Arrays of up to 8000 SINIS junctions or 30000 SNS junctions were successfully operated at the 1 V dc level. In addition to being used in large arrays for voltage metrology and oscillators, the described junction types may become very useful for the preparation of highly integrated single-flux-quantum digital devices. (author)

  17. Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).

  18. 30 CFR 56.6405 - Firing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firing devices. 56.6405 Section 56.6405 Mineral....6405 Firing devices. (a) Power sources shall be capable of delivering sufficient current to energize... electrical firing device....

  19. 30 CFR 57.6405 - Firing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firing devices. 57.6405 Section 57.6405 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6405 Firing devices. (a) Power sources shall be capable of delivering... or other control to an electrical firing device....

  20. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  1. Piezoresistive Foam Sensor Arrays for Marine Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dusek, Jeff E; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-dense pressure measurements are needed on curved surfaces in marine environments to provide marine vehicles with the detailed, real-time measurements of the near-field flow necessary to improve performance through flow control. To address this challenge, a waterproof and conformal pressure sensor array comprising carbon black-doped-silicone closed-cell foam (CBPDMS foam) was developed for use in marine applications. The response of the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays was characterized using periodic hydrodynamic pressure stimuli from vertical plunging, from which a piecewise polynomial calibration was developed to describe the sensor response. Inspired by the distributed pressure and velocity sensing capabilities of the fish lateral line, the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays have significant advantages over existing commercial sensors for distributed flow reconstruction and control. Experimental results have shown the sensor arrays to have sensitivity on the order of 5 Pascal, dynamic range of 50-500 Pascal; are...

  2. Modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing

    2012-09-21

    Recent advances in graphene nanoribbon (GNR) electronic devices provide a concrete context for developing simulation methods, comparing theories to experiments, and using simulations to explore device physics. We present a review on modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices, with an emphasis on electronic and magnetoresistive devices. Device modeling is reviewed in a synergistic perspective with GNR material properties, device characteristics, and circuit requirements. Similarity with and difference to carbon nanotube devices are discussed. Device modeling and simulation results are compared to experimental data, which underlines the importance of theory-experiment collaborations in this field. Importance of the GNR edges, which have a negative impact on the carrier mobility due to edge roughness but offer new possibilities of spintronic devices and edge doping, is emphasized. Advanced device modeling of GNRs needs to have the capability to describe GNR device physics, including three-dimensional electrostatics, quantum and atomistic scale effects, elastic and inelastic scattering processes, electron-electron interaction, edge chemistry, magnetic field modulation, and spintronic and thermoelectric device phenomena. PMID:22875475

  3. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  4. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  5. Experiments with Compact Antenna Arrays for MIMO Radio Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Browne, D W; Fitz, M P; Rahmat-Samii, Y

    2005-01-01

    The problem tackled in this study is one of MIMO transceiver implementation in which we consider how to design and test compact antenna arrays that have the ability to preserve the native information bearing capacity of a MIMO channel. Mutual coupling in antenna arrays is known to degrade the performance of a MIMO system. However, no tests involving compact arrays have been performed using a MIMO transceiver architecture that is capable of measuring the effect of mutual coupling on system performance. In this study, two novel compact MIMO antenna arrays were designed and integrated into a wideband MIMO radio testbed. These arrays are extremely compact yet have acceptable mutual coupling and radiation efficiency and resonate in three wide frequency bands. A measurement campaign was executed in which MIMO channel sounding measurements were taken using the compact arrays and dipole arrays in a variety of indoor environments. The MIMO transceiver used for channel sounding is able to measure the effect of mutual c...

  6. The Allen Telescope Array as Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2007-12-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a new radio interferometer that has begun scientific operations in 2007. Many of the technologies, techniques, and observing modes developed for the ATA are directly applicable to the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). The ATA is a pioneer of the LNSD, which refers to a large number (LN) of small diameter (SD) dishes to create the array. This concept underlies nearly all SKA designs. Other relevant technologies are the offset Gregorian ATA antenna, the ATA wideband log periodic feed, transport of broadband data over fiber optic cables, and flexible digital signal processing electronics. The small dishes of the ATA gives it extraordinary wide-field imaging and survey capability but also require new solutions for calibration and imaging. Real time imaging, rapid response to transients, and thinking telescope technology are also under development. Finally, the ATA is developing commensal observing modes, which enable multiple simultaneous science programs, such as SETI, transient surveys, and HI surveys. Opportunities exist for community members to perform scientific investigations as well as develop techniques and technology for the SKA through use of the ATA.

  7. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  8. A Multivariate Process Capability Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shaoxi; JIA Xinzhang; JIAO Huifang; BIAN Yingchao; SONG Ning; ZHAO Luyu; WEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Process capability indices have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, providing numerical measures on process precision, process accuracy, and process performance. Capability measures for processes with a single characteristic have been investigated extensively. However, capability measures for processes with multiple characteristics are comparatively neglected. In this paper, inspired by the approach and model of process capability index investigated by K.S.Chen et al.(2003) and A.B.Yeh et al.(1998), a note model of multivariate process capability index based on non-conformity is presented. As for this index, the data of each single characteristic don't require satisfying normal distribution, of which its computing is simple and particioners will not fell too theoretical. At last the application analysis is made.

  9. Developing Collaborative Product Development Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Tran, Yen

    2012-01-01

    innovation strategies’. Our analyses suggest that developing such collaboration capabilities benefits from the search for complementary practices, the combination of learning styles, and the development of weak and strong ties. Results also underscore the crucial importance of co-evolution of multi......Collaborative product development capabilities support a company’s product innovation activities. In the context of the fast fashion sector, this paper examines the development of the product development capabilities (PDC) that align product development capabilities in a dual innovation context......, one, slow paced, where the firm is well established and the other, fast paced, which represents a new competitive arena in which the company competes. To understand the process associated with collaborative capability development, we studied three Scandinavian fashion companies pursuing ‘dual...

  10. Multidirectional sorting modes in deterministic lateral displacement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, B.R.; Heller, Martin; Beech, J.P.;

    2008-01-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices separate micrometer-scale particles in solution based on their size using a laminar microfluidic flow in an array of obstacles. We investigate array geometries with rational row-shift fractions in DLD devices by use of a simple model including both...... advection and diffusion. Our model predicts multidirectional sorting modes that could be experimentally tested in high-throughput DLD devices containing obstacles that are much smaller than the separation between obstacles....

  11. A platform for analysis of nanoscale liquids with an integrated sensor array based on 2-d material

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, M; Neumann, R F; Giro, R; Feger, C; Avouris, P; Steiner, M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of nanoscale liquids, including wetting and flow phenomena, is a scientific challenge with far reaching implications for industrial technologies. We report the conception, development, and application of an integrated platform for the experimental characterization of liquids at the nanometer scale. The platform combines the sensing functionalities of an integrated, two-dimensional electronic device array with in situ application of highly sensitive optical micro-spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate the performance capabilities of the platform with an embodiment based on an array of integrated, optically transparent graphene sensors. The application of electronic and optical sensing in the platform allows for differentiating between liquids electronically, for determining a liquid's molecular fingerprint, and for monitoring surface wetting dynamics in real time. In order to explore the platform's sensitivity limits, we record topographies and optical spectra of individual, spatiall...

  12. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices.We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the

  13. Micro-fluidic (Lab-on the- Chip) PCR Array Cartridge for Biological Screening in a Hand Held Device: FInal Report for CRADA no 264. PNNL-T2-258-RU with CombiMatrix Corp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainina, Evguenia I.

    2010-10-31

    The worldwide emergence of both new and old diseases resulting from human expansion and also human and materials mobility has and will continue to place stress on both medical and clinical diagnostics. The classical approach to bioagents detection involves the use of differential metabolic assays to determine species type in the case of most bacteria, or the use of cell culture and electron microscopy to diagnose viruses and some bacteria that are intracellular parasites. The long-term goal in bioagent detection is to develop a hand-held instrument featuring disposable cartridges which contain all the necessary reagents, reaction chambers, waste chambers, and micro-fluidics to extract, concentrate, amplify, and analyze nucleic acids. This GIPP project began development of a sensory platform using nucleic-acid based probes. Although research was not completed, initial findings indicated that an advanced sensing device could theoretically be built on a DNA/RNA-based technology platform.

  14. Mobile device-to-device distributed computing using data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Remédios, Diogo; Teófilo, António; Paulino, Hervé; Lourenço, João

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing computing power, available storage and communication capabilities of mobile devices makes it possible to start processing and storing data locally, rather than offloading it to remote servers; allowing scenarios of mobile clouds without infrastructure dependency. We can now aim at connecting neighboring mobile devices, creating a local mobile cloud that provides storage and computing services on local generated data. In this paper, we describe an early overview of a dis...

  15. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  16. Optimized Optomechanical Micro-Cantilever Array for Uncooled Infrared Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Feng-Liang; ZHANG Qing-Chuan; CHEN Da-Peng; MIAO Zheng-Yu; XIONG Zhi-Ming; GUO Zhe-Ying; LI Chao-Bo; JIAO Bin-Bin; WU Xiao-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We present a new substrate-free bimaterial cantilever array made of SiNx and Au for an uncooled microoptomechanical infrared imaging device.Each cantilever element has an optimized deformation magnification structure.A 160×160 array with a 120μm×120μm pitch is fabricared and an optical readout is used to collectively measure deflections of all microcantilevers in the array.Tharmal images of room-temperature objects with higher spatial resolution have been obtained and the noise-equivalent temperature difference of the fabricated focal plane arrays is giyen statistically and is measured to be about 270mK.

  17. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  18. PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA AND BEAMFORMING SUBSYTEMS IN PHASEDARRAY RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr A. Jhansi rani,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phased array radars are essential for the future missions like Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV, human space mission, and space debris tracking. The capabilities of Phased Array Radar include multipletarget long range tracking in skin mode, elimination of mechanical errors and instantaneous beam positioning capability. This paper presents the design of a transmitter/receiver Digital Beam former (DBF based on the mathematical model of a far-field plane wave incident on a sensor array. Simulations of a DBF transmitter and receiver are performed to control the power pattern of a 4-element linear array. For the sensor array, two spatial filters were constructed with different pattern requirements to demonstrate theoperation of the Digital Beam Forming.

  19. Miniature Sensor Node with Conformal Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. De Raedt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and fabrication of a fully integrated antenna beam steering concept for wireless sensor nodes. The conformal array circumcises four cube faces with a silicon core mounted on each face. Every silicon core represents a 2 by 1 antenna array with an antenna element consisting of a dipole antenna, a balun, and a distributed MEMS phase shifter. All these components are based on a single wafer process and designed to work at 17.2 GHz. Simulations of the entire system and first results of individual devices are reported.

  20. The ROSPHERE γ-ray spectroscopy array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, I.; Ciocan, G.; Costache, C.; Deleanu, D.; Dima, R.; Filipescu, D.; Florea, N.; Ghiţă, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Ivaşcu, M.; Lică, R.; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Niţă, C. R.; Olăcel, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Şerban, A.; Şuvăilă, R.; Toma, S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Căta-Danil, G.; Gheorghe, I.; Mitu, I. O.; Suliman, G.; Ur, C. A.; Braunroth, T.; Dewald, A.; Fransen, C.; Bruce, A. M.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Roberts, O. J.

    2016-11-01

    The ROmanian array for SPectroscopy in HEavy ion REactions (ROSPHERE) has been designed as a multi-detector setup dedicated to γ-ray spectroscopy studies at the Bucharest 9 MV Tandem accelerator. Consisting of up to 25 detectors (either Compton suppressed HPGe detectors or fast LaBr3(Ce) scintillator detectors) together with a state of the art plunger device, ROSPHERE is a powerful tool for lifetime measurements using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) and the in-beam Fast Electronic Scintillation Timing (FEST) methods. The array's geometry, detectors, electronics and data acquisition system are described. Selected results from the first experimental campaigns are also presented.

  1. IBC arrays: Present and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Terry

    1994-01-01

    The development of arrays which operate at wavelengths longer than 8 micrometers has opened up new possibilities for imaging and spectroscopy but offers challenges not present at shorter wavelengths. Impurity Band Conduction (IBC) or Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors can meet these challenges and offer numerous advantages over standard photoconductors. We review some of the general operating principles of these devices and discuss the current state of technology. We then discuss the requirements placed on mid-infrared arrays by groundbased, airborne and spacebased astronomy.

  2. Transforming organizational capabilities in strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    reallocated over time thereby creating a growing need for new capabilities and transformed knowledge handling routines. IT emerged into an important resource to support more complex routines of product development as well as specific management and HRM processes assisting the transformation......Offshored and networked enterprises are becoming an important if not leading organizational form and this development seriously challenges their organizational capabilities. More specifically, over the last years, SMEs have commenced entering these kinds of arrangements. As the organizational...

  3. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  4. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.;

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...... over all of the tracking detector area and even extending over to the satellite station are identified as EAS. The recorded multiplicity spectrum of the events is in general agreement with CORSIKA EAS simulation and demonstrates the array's capability of EAS detection....

  5. The Murchison Widefield Array: Design Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Cappallo, Roger J.; Morales, Miguel F.; Briggs, Frank H.; Benkevitch, Leonid; Bowman, Judd D.; Bunton, John D.; Burns, Steven; Corey, Brian E.; deSouza, Ludi; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Derome, Mark; Deshpande, Avinash; Gopalakrishna, M. R.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.

    2009-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a dipole-based aperture array synthesis telescope designed to operate in the 80-300 MHz frequency range. It is capable of a wide range of science investigations, but is initially focused on three key science projects. These are detection and characterization of 3-dimensional brightness temperature fluctuations in the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) at redshifts from 6 to 10, solar imaging and remote sensing of the inn...

  6. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

    OpenAIRE

    Haarlem, M.P. van; Wise, M. W.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; McKean, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Nijboer, R.; Swinbank, J.; Fallows, R.

    2013-01-01

    LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed t...

  7. QALYs and the capability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2005-08-01

    This explores the applicability of Sen's capability approach to the economic evaluation of health care programmes. An individual's 'capability set' describes his freedom to choose valuable activities and states of being ('functionings'). Direct estimation and valuation of capability sets is not feasible at present. Standard preference-based methods such as willingness to pay are feasible, but problematic due to the adaptive and constructed nature of individual preferences over time and under uncertainty. An alternative is to re-interpret the QALY as a cardinal and interpersonally comparable index of the value of the individual's capability set. This approach has limitations, since the link between QALYs and capabilities is not straightforward. Nevertheless, the QALY approach is recognisable as an application of the capability approach since it pays close attention to functionings, through the use of survey-based multi-attribute health state valuation instruments, and permits conceptions of value other than the traditional utilitarian ones of choice, desire-fulfilment and happiness. Furthermore, suitably re-interpreted, it can account for (i) non-separability between health and non-health components of value; and suitably modified it can also account for (ii) process attributes of care, which may have a direct effect on non-health functionings such as comfort and dignity, and (iii) sub-group diversity in the value of the same health functionings. PMID:15693028

  8. Multi-Channel Detector Arrays for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey; Castracane, James; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Demers, Diane; Schatz, John

    1997-11-01

    InterScience, Inc. has developed a multiple slit detector array for use with heavy ion beam probes. The first array was a twenty element array installed on the TEXT tokamak. An initial set of data was obtained with this array prior to the shutdown on the TEXT tokamak in December of 1995. More recently, a smaller detector array has been developed for use in the CHS torsatron in Nagoya. This array is smaller than the TEXT array, with ten elements, but contains two prototype sets of detector plates to determine the beam position. The operating conditions in CHS are expected to be much harsher than in TEXT, with ECH and NBI plasmas. Trajectory simulations allowed for the design of a tilted detector array in the CHS vacuum vessel. First tests of the CHS array will begin in the late summer of 1997. Other candidate machines for detector arrays are the MST reversed field pinch, in which a beam probe is expected to be installed in late 1997 or early 1998 and the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is expected to be operational in 1998. Design issues, trajectory simulations and array test results will be presented. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant #DE-FG02-94ER81788

  9. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  10. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  11. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  12. Telescope Array Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, H.; Yoshida, S. [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshii, H. [Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, K. [Hiroshinma City University, 3-4-1 Ozuka-Higashi, Asa-Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 731-3194 (Japan); Cohen, F.; Fukushima, M.; Hayashida, N.; Hiyama, K.; Ikeda, D.; Kido, E.; Kondo, Y.; Nonaka, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Ozawa, S.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Takeda, M. [ICRR, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)] (and others)

    2008-01-15

    The TA observatory is a hybrid detector system consisting of both a surface detector array as well as a set of fluorescence detectors. The observatory will measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The surface detectors are being deployed and the array should be complete by the end of February, 2007. We will soon be collecting hybrid data at the Telecope Array.

  13. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  14. Integrated optical dual-cantilever arrays in silica on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter A; Carpenter, Lewis G; Mennea, Paolo L; Holmes, Christopher; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2014-12-29

    A dual cantilever device has been demonstrated which can operate as a force sensor or variable attenuator. The device is fabricated using physical micromachining techniques that do not require cleanroom class facilities. The response of the device to mechanical actuation is measured, and shown to be well described by conventional fiber optic angular misalignment theory. The device has the potential to be utilized within integrated optical components for sensors or attenuators. An array of devices was fabricated with potential for parallel operation. PMID:25607148

  15. Improved Radiometric Calibrations and Measurements for Evaluating Photovoltaic Devices; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Task has improved broadband and spectral measurement capabilities at NREL. These improved NREL's capabilities affect the Photovoltaic Module and Array Performance and Reliability and Photovoltaic Measurements and Characterization Projects. Recent improvements (during 2000) in broadband radiometer calibrations result in the removal of bias errors on the order of 20 watts per square meter (W/m(sup 2)) in the measurement of global-hemispherical solar radiation. The improvements described are partially due to technical interactions by members of the Measurements and Instrumentation Team with the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) Validation Program, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Baseline Surface Measurement Network (BSRN), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Solar Radiation Research Branch (SRRB). New equipment has been purchased and techniques have been developed to characterize pulsed solar simulator spectral distributions. New equipment has been purchased and will be installed in the redesigned Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Baseline Measurement System (BMS). Expanded measurement capability, including sky radiance mapping, extensive ultraviolet and infrared radiation measurements, and routine spectral sampling will provide a unique complement of data for investigating PV device, module, and system design and performance, model development and validation, and for evaluating new measurement systems

  16. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-05-01

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  17. Over the Air Testing of MIMO Capable Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei

    This thesis focuses on multi-probe anechoic chamber testing, which is a promising over the air (OTA) testing method to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. With MIMO technology being adopted by new wireless technologies, mobile manufacturers and cellular operators need...... standard test methods to evaluate MIMO device performance. Due to its capability to reproduce radio multipath environments in a shielded laboratory, the multi-probe anechoic chamber method has attracted great research attention. This thesis addresses various aspects related to OTA testing of MIMO capable...... devices, where the focus is on techniques to emulate radio channels in multi-probe setups with a limited number of probes. Several channel emulation techniques are proposed to create realistic 2D and 3D spatial channel models in the thesis. A novel method to calculate probe weights for the prefaded signal...

  18. Considerations in the sterile manufacture of polymeric microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Alkilani, Ahlam Zaid; Courtenay, Aaron J; McCrudden, Cian M; McCloskey, Bronagh; Walker, Christine; Alshraiedeh, Nida; Lutton, Rebecca E M; Gilmore, Brendan F; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-02-01

    We describe, for the first time, considerations in the sterile manufacture of polymeric microneedle arrays. Microneedles (MN) made from dissolving polymeric matrices and loaded with the model drugs ovalbumin (OVA) and ibuprofen sodium and hydrogel-forming MN composed of "super-swelling" polymers and their corresponding lyophilised wafer drug reservoirs loaded with OVA and ibuprofen sodium were prepared aseptically or sterilised using commonly employed sterilisation techniques. Moist and dry heat sterilisation, understandably, damaged all devices, leaving aseptic production and gamma sterilisation as the only viable options. No measureable bioburden was detected in any of the prepared devices, and endotoxin levels were always below the US Food & Drug Administration limits (20 endotoxin units/device). Hydrogel-forming MN were unaffected by gamma irradiation (25 kGy) in terms of their physical properties or capabilities in delivering OVA and ibuprofen sodium across excised neonatal porcine skin in vitro. However, OVA content in dissolving MN (down from approximately 101.1 % recovery to approximately 58.3 % recovery) and lyophilised wafer-type drug reservoirs (down from approximately 99.7 % recovery to approximately 60.1 % recovery) was significantly reduced by gamma irradiation, while the skin permeation profile of ibuprofen sodium from gamma-irradiated dissolving MN was markedly different from their non-irradiated counterparts. It is clear that MN poses a very low risk to human health when used appropriately, as evidenced here by low endotoxin levels and absence of microbial contamination. However, if guarantees of absolute sterility of MN products are ultimately required by regulatory authorities, it will be necessary to investigate the effect of lower gamma doses on dissolving MN loaded with active pharmaceutical ingredients and lyophilised wafers loaded with biomolecules in order to avoid the expense and inconvenience of aseptic processing. PMID:25787335

  19. Low-cost SWIR sensors: advancing the performance of ROIC-integrated colloidal quantum dot photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Ethan J. D.; Lewis, Jay; Gregory, Chris; Temple, Dorota; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Dhar, Nibir

    2014-06-01

    RTI has developed a novel photodiode technology based on solution-processed PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQD) capable of providing low-cost, high performance detection across the Vis-SWIR spectral range. The most significant advantages of the CQD technology are ease of fabrication, small pixel size, and extended wavelength range. The devices are fabricated directly onto the ROIC substrate at low temperatures compatible with CMOS, and arrays can be fabricated at wafer scale. We will discuss recent advances in device architecture and processing that result in measured dark currents of 15 nA/cm2 at room temperature and enhanced SWIR responsivity from the UV to ~1.7 μm, compare these results to InGaAs detectors, and present measurements of the CQD detectors temperature dependent dark current.

  20. A self-steering close-talking microphone array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ke; YANG Xinfeng; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    For communication in extremely noisy environments, close-talking microphone arrays are useful. Differential microphone array systems possessing excellent nearfield directivity and strong farfield-noise reduction capability are very suitable for close-talking situations. In order to improve the focusing effect at the desired bearing in the nearfield, we propose a novel self-steering system of closetalking arrays with the first-order differential sub-arrays in this paper. Calculations of directivity patterns and directivity factors show that when a kind of optimized beamforming technique is adopted even small arrays with a focusing configuration will exhibit a satisfactory nearfield directivity which is electronically steerable within a specific range. The superiority of the proposed array system is verified by experiments with real acoustic data.

  1. Improving The Performance Of 3-D Sensor Array By Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Naaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is proposed to improve the performance of 3-D array for DOA estimation. Cancellation of ground clutter received at the array (of sensors is an important problem to be considered. The approach being addressed to reduced the clutter is based on rotating the 3-D array (a cubical array by a fixed angle in all the three directions simultaneously. The computer simulations carried out showed that this method was capable of resolving closely spaced sources and also yielded optimum performance in achieving direction of arrivals. Compared to normal cubical array with the same number of elements, the rotated array provides a significant DOA accuracy. Further simulations were also carried out for various angles of rotation.

  2. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ralph L; Wipf, Mathias; Müller, Steffen; Bedner, Kristine; Wright, Iain A; Martin, Colin J; Constable, Edwin C; Fanget, Axel; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs) have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species. PMID:27164151

  3. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suji; Lee, Hyunjae; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics and optoelectronics configured in soft, water resistant formats uniquely address seminal challenges in biomedicine. Over the past decade, there has been enormous progress in the materials, designs, and manufacturing processes for flexible/stretchable system subcomponents, including transistors, amplifiers, bio-sensors, actuators, light emitting diodes, photodetector arrays, photovoltaics, energy storage elements, and bare die integrated circuits. Nanomaterials prepared using top-down processing approaches and synthesis-based bottom-up methods have helped resolve the intrinsic mechanical mismatch between rigid/planar devices and soft/curvilinear biological structures, thereby enabling a broad range of non-invasive, minimally invasive, and implantable systems to address challenges in biomedicine. Integration of therapeutic functional nanomaterials with soft bioelectronics demonstrates therapeutics in combination with unconventional diagnostics capabilities. Recent advances in soft materials, devices, and integrated systems are reviewes, with representative examples that highlight the utility of soft bioelectronics for advanced medical diagnostics and therapies. PMID:26779680

  4. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suji; Lee, Hyunjae; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics and optoelectronics configured in soft, water resistant formats uniquely address seminal challenges in biomedicine. Over the past decade, there has been enormous progress in the materials, designs, and manufacturing processes for flexible/stretchable system subcomponents, including transistors, amplifiers, bio-sensors, actuators, light emitting diodes, photodetector arrays, photovoltaics, energy storage elements, and bare die integrated circuits. Nanomaterials prepared using top-down processing approaches and synthesis-based bottom-up methods have helped resolve the intrinsic mechanical mismatch between rigid/planar devices and soft/curvilinear biological structures, thereby enabling a broad range of non-invasive, minimally invasive, and implantable systems to address challenges in biomedicine. Integration of therapeutic functional nanomaterials with soft bioelectronics demonstrates therapeutics in combination with unconventional diagnostics capabilities. Recent advances in soft materials, devices, and integrated systems are reviewes, with representative examples that highlight the utility of soft bioelectronics for advanced medical diagnostics and therapies.

  5. A unifying process capability metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jay Flaig

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new economic approach to process capability assessment is presented, which differs from the commonly used engineering metrics. The proposed metric consists of two economic capability measures – the expected profit and the variation in profit of the process. This dual economic metric offers a number of significant advantages over other engineering or economic metrics used in process capability analysis. First, it is easy to understand and communicate. Second, it is based on a measure of total system performance. Third, it unifies the fraction nonconforming approach and the expected loss approach. Fourth, it reflects the underlying interest of management in knowing the expected financial performance of a process and its potential variation.

  6. Fabrication and Performance of Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, James S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Busch, Sara E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Porter, Frederick S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heatsinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron pitch and smaller arrays of devices up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss the fabrication techniques used for each type of array focusing on unique aspects where processes vary to achieve the particular designs and required device parameters. For example, we evaluate various material combinations in the production of the thick metal heatsinking, including superconducting and normal metal adhesion layers. We also evaluate the impact of added heatsinking on the membrane isolated devices as it relates to basic device parameters. Arrays can be characterized with a time division SQUID multiplexer such that greater than 10 devices from an array can be measured in the same cooldown. Device parameters can be measured simultaneously so that environmental events such as thermal drifts or changes in magnetic fields can be controlled. For some designs, we will evaluate the uniformity of parameters impacting the intrinsic performance of the microcalorimeters under bias in these arrays and assess the level of thermal crosstalk.

  7. Tilted Microstrip Phased Arrays With Improved Electromagnetic Decoupling for Ultrahigh-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Daniel B Vigneron; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-...

  8. Laser-Based Directed Release of Array Elements for Efficient Collection into Targeted Microwells

    OpenAIRE

    Dobes, Nicholas C.; Dhopeshwarkar, Rahul; Henley, W. Hampton; Ramsey, J. Michael; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    A cell separation strategy capable of the systematic isolation and collection of moderate to large numbers (25–400) of single cells into a targeted microwell is demonstrated. An array of microfabricated, releasable, transparent micron-scale pedestals termed pallets and an array of microwells in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were mated to enable selective release and retrieval of individual cells. Cells cultured on a pallet array mounted on a custom designed stage permitted the array to be pos...

  9. NWCF maintenance features and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A New Waste Calcining Facility is being built at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to replace the existing Waste Calcining Facility which was built to demonstrate fluidized-bed solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes. The new facility is being designed to provide a higher waste throughput, more corrosion resistant materials of construction, more effective cleanup of effluent streams, and extensive remote maintenance and equipment replacement capability. The facility will also contain extensive decontamination capability should contact maintenance become necessary. The facility is presently in construction and is scheduled for hot operation in 1980

  10. Content Sharing for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturisation of computing devices has seen computing devices become increasingly pervasive in society. With this increased pervasiveness, the technologies of small computing devices have also improved. Mobile devices are now capable of capturing various forms of multimedia and able to communicate wirelessly using increasing numbers of communication techniques. The owners and creators of local content are motivated to share this content in ever increasing volume; the conclusion has been that social networks sites are seeing a revolution in the sharing of information between communities of people. As load on centralised systems increases, we present a novel decentralised peer-to-peer approach dubbed the Market Contact Protocol (MCP) to achieve cost effective, scalable and efficient content sharing using opportunistic networking (pocket switched networking), incentive, context-awareness, social contact and mobile devices. Within the report we describe how the MCP is simulated with a superimposed geographi...

  11. Pyrotechnic devices and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelblau, Harry

    2002-05-01

    Pyroshock is mechanical shock transmitted through structures from explosive devices, sometimes accompanied by structural impact. These devices are designed to cause the intentional separation of structures, or to cause the deployment of various mechanisms or subsystems required for mission operation. Separation devices usually fall into two categories: (a) line sources, such as linear shaped charges, and (b) point sources, such as explosive bolts, pin puller and pushers, and gas generators. The advantages of these devices are high reliability (especially when redundantly activated), low cost and weight, high activation speed, and low structural deformation a short distance from the source. The major limitation is pyroshock, a severe high-frequency transient capable of causing failure or malfunction to small nearby elements, especially electronic and optical components located close to the source. This pyroshock tutorial, which is intended to summarize recent improvements to the technology, is initiated with a review of explosive and companion devices.

  12. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  13. Color distribution from multicolor LED arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ivan; Contreras, Ulises

    2007-03-19

    We describe a fully-analytical, simple yet sufficiently accurate method to compute the color pattern of the light emitted from multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) assemblies. Spatial distributions for both color variation and correlated color temperature (CCT) as a function of typical parameters of influence, such as LED spectrum, spatial distribution of LED radiation, target distance, LED-to-LED spacing, and number of LEDs, are shown. To illustrate the method, we simulate and analyze the color patterns of linear, ring, and square RGB (red, green, and blue) arrays for Lambertian-type, batwing, and side emitting LEDs. Our theory may be useful to choose the optimal value for both the array configuration and the array-diffuser distance for lighting systems with color mixing devices.

  14. Infrared focal plane array crosstalk measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khoa V.; Kauffman, Christopher L.; Derzko, Zenon I.

    1992-07-01

    Crosstalk between two neighboring elements in a focal plane array (FPA) occurs when signal incident on one element in the array is seen on another. This undesired effect can occur due to both the electrical and optical properties of the FPA. An effort is underway at the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electro-Optics Directorate to develop a capability to measure crosstalk on both mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared FPAs. A single detector in an array is illuminated using a laser source coupled with a beam expander, collimating lens, and focusing lens. The relative response of that detector to that of its neighboring detectors is measured to calculate crosstalk. The various components of the test station, the methodology for implementing the crosstalk measurement, and a model of the laser spot size are discussed.

  15. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays--in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs--for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA's can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both ins...

  16. Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dana; Duncan, Walter M.; Slaughter, John

    2003-01-01

    For the past six years, Digital Light Processing technology from Texas Instruments has made significant inroads in the projection display market. With products enabling the world"s smallest data and video projectors, HDTVs, and digital cinema, DLP technology is extremely powerful and flexible. At the heart of these display solutions is Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), a semiconductor-based "light switch" array of thousands of individually addressable, tiltable, mirror-pixels. With success of the DMD as a spatial light modulator for projector applications, dozens of new applications are now being enabled by general-use DMD products that are recently available to developers. The same light switching speed and "on-off" (contrast) ratio that have resulted in superior projector performance, along with the capability of operation outside the visible spectrum, make the DMD very attractive for many applications, including volumetric display, holographic data storage, lithography, scientific instrumentation, and medical imaging. This paper presents an overview of past and future DMD performance in the context of new DMD applications, cites several examples of emerging products, and describes the DMD components and tools now available to developers.

  17. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  18. Micromachined electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  19. Computational Framework for Aerocapture Devices (Ballutes) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The individual software tools that make up the analytical capabilities for the design of entry vehicles using an aero-assist/aero-capture device have been fully...

  20. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, M. A. A.

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  1. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  2. Stretchable Hydrogel Electronics and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Zhang, Teng; Parada, German Alberto; Koo, Hyunwoo; Yu, Cunjiang; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-06-01

    Stretchable hydrogel electronics and devices are designed by integrating stretchable conductors, functional chips, drug-delivery channels, and reservoirs into stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Novel applications include a smart wound dressing capable of sensing the temperatures of various locations on the skin, delivering different drugs to these locations, and subsequently maintaining sustained release of drugs.

  3. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...

  4. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  5. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimriks, Koen H.;

    We discuss the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories of micro-level components underlying routines...

  6. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.;

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories ...

  7. ABOUT SOLIDWORKS SUSTAINABILITY MODULE CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the SolidWorks analysis steps to be taken in order to study sustainability of parts or assemblies designed. There are presented the software capabilities and the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown by software.

  8. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  9. A microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of metabolic biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhao, Martin M Thuo and Xinyu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as simple yet powerful platforms for performing low-cost analytical tests. This paper reports a microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of physiologically relevant metabolic biomarkers. Different from existing paper-based electrochemical devices, our device includes an array of eight electrochemical sensors and utilizes a handheld custom-made electrochemical reader (potentiostat) for signal readout. The b...

  10. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms of communication is, at an organizational level, a complex device that determines the mastering of certain techniques, procedures, and algorithms of encoding and decoding intricate messages transmitted through various channels.

  11. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haarlem, M. P.; Wise, M. W.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; McKean, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Swinbank, J.; Fallows, R.; Brentjens, M.; Nelles, A.; Beck, R.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Hörandel, J.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mann, G.; Miley, G.; Röttgering, H.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Zaroubi, S.; van den Akker, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, K.; van Ardenne, A.; Arts, M.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Bell, M. R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bennema, P.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Boonstra, A.-J.; Braun, R.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; van de Brink, R. H.; Broderick, J.; Broekema, P. C.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; van Cappellen, W.; Ciardi, B.; Coenen, T.; Conway, J.; Coolen, A.; Corstanje, A.; Damstra, S.; Davies, O.; Deller, A. T.; Dettmar, R.-J.; van Diepen, G.; Dijkstra, K.; Donker, P.; Doorduin, A.; Dromer, J.; Drost, M.; van Duin, A.; Eislöffel, J.; van Enst, J.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Gankema, H.; Garrett, M. A.; de Gasperin, F.; Gerbers, M.; de Geus, E.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Grit, T.; Gruppen, P.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T.; Hoeft, M.; Holties, H. A.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.; van Houwelingen, A.; Huijgen, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N.; Jelic, V.; de Jong, A.; Juette, E.; Kant, D.; Karastergiou, A.; Koers, A.; Kollen, H.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kooistra, E.; Koopman, Y.; Koster, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kramer, M.; Kuper, G.; Lambropoulos, P.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lemaitre, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Markoff, S.; Masters, J.; McFadden, R. A.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Meijering, H.; Meulman, H.; Mevius, M.; Middelberg, E.; Millenaar, R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Mohan, R. N.; Mol, J. D.; Morawietz, J.; Morganti, R.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Mulder, E.; Munk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; van Nieuwpoort, R.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M.; Noutsos, A.; Offringa, A. R.; Olofsson, H.; Omar, A.; Orrú, E.; Overeem, R.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Rafferty, D.; Rawlings, S.; Reich, W.; de Reijer, J.-P.; Reitsma, J.; Renting, G. A.; Riemers, P.; Rol, E.; Romein, J. W.; Roosjen, J.; Ruiter, M.; Scaife, A.; van der Schaaf, K.; Scheers, B.; Schellart, P.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schoonderbeek, G.; Serylak, M.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Spreeuw, H.; Steinmetz, M.; Sterks, C. G. M.; Stiepel, H.-J.; Stuurwold, K.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thomas, I.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; van der Tol, B.; Usov, O.; van Veelen, M.; van der Veen, A.-J.; ter Veen, S.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Vermeulen, R.; Vermaas, N.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; de Vos, M.; van der Wal, E.; van Weeren, R.; Weggemans, H.; Weltevrede, P.; White, S.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Wilhelmsson, T.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Zensus, A.; van Zwieten, J.

    2013-08-01

    LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.

  12. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  13. Dr TIM: Ray-tracer TIM, with additional specialist scientific capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Stephen; Tyc, Tomáš; Courtial, Johannes

    2014-03-01

    We describe several extensions to TIM, a raytracing program for ray-optics research. These include relativistic raytracing; simulation of the external appearance of Eaton lenses, Luneburg lenses and generalised focusing gradient-index lens (GGRIN) lenses, which are types of perfect imaging devices; raytracing through interfaces between spaces with different optical metrics; and refraction with generalised confocal lenslet arrays, which are particularly versatile METATOYs. Catalogue identifier: AEKY_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKY_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licencing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 106905 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6327715 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Any computer capable of running the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 1.6. Operating system: Any, developed under Mac OS X Version 10.6 and 10.8.3. RAM: Typically 130 MB (interactive version running under Mac OS X Version 10.8.3) Classification: 14, 18. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKY_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)711 External routines: JAMA [1] (source code included) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Visualisation of scenes that include scene objects that create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. Solution method: Ray tracing. Reasons for new version: Significant extension of the capabilities (see Summary of revisions), as demanded by our research. Summary of revisions: Added capabilities include the simulation of different types of camera moving at relativistic speeds relative to the scene; visualisation of the external appearance of generalised focusing gradient-index (GGRIN) lenses, including Maxwell fisheye, Eaton and Luneburg lenses; calculation of

  14. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  15. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  16. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  17. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  18. Microlens arrays with integrated pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Microlenses are important optical components that image, detect, and couple light. But most synthetic microlenses have fixed position and shape once they are fabricated, so their possible range of tunability and complexity is rather limited. By comparison, biology provides many varied, new paradigms for the development of adaptive optical networks. Here, we discuss inspirational examples of biological lenses and their synthetic analogs. We focus on the fabrication and characterization of biomimetic microlens arrays with integrated pores, whose appearance and function are similar to highly efficient optical elements formed by brittlestars. The complex design can be created by three-beam interference lithography. The synthetic lens has strong focusing ability for use as an adjustable lithographic mask and a tunable optical device coupled with the microfluidic system. Replacing rigid microlenses with soft hydrogels provides a way of changing the lens geometry and refractive index continuously in response to external stimuli, resulting in intelligent, multifunctional, tunable optics.

  19. Wide Tuning Capability for Spacecraft Transponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Mysoor, Narayan; Shah, Biren; Cook, Brian; Smith, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A document presents additional information on the means of implementing a capability for wide tuning of microwave receiver and transmitter frequencies in the development reported in the immediately preceding article, VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders (NPO- 42909). The reference frequency for a PLL-based frequency synthesizer is derived from a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) implemented in digital logic, such that almost any reference frequency can be derived from a fixed crystal reference oscillator with microhertz precision. The frequency of the NCO is adjusted to track the received signal, then used to create another NCO frequency used to synthesize the transmitted signal coherent with, and at a specified frequency ratio to, the received signal. The frequencies can be changed, even during operation, through suitable digital programming. The NCOs and the related tracking loops and coherent turnaround logic are implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The interface between the analog microwave receiver and transmitter circuits and the FPGA includes analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog converters, the sampling rates of which are chosen to minimize spurious signals and otherwise optimize performance. Several mixers and filters are used to properly route various signals.

  20. Electrical performance analysis of IC package for the high-end memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong H.; Han, Chan M.

    1997-08-01

    The developments of processing technology and design make it possible to increase the clock speed and the number of input outputs (I/Os) in memory devices. The interconnections of IC package are considered as an important factor to decide the performance of the memory devices. In order to overcome the limitations of the conventional package, new types of package such as Ball Grid Array (BGA), chip scale package or flip chip bonding are adopted by many IC manufacturers. The present work has compared the electrical performances of 3 different packages to provide deign guide for IC packages of the high performance memory devices in the future. Those packages are designed for the same memory devices to confront to the diversity of memory market demand. The conventional package using lead frame, wire bonded BGA using printed circuit board substrate and flip chip bonded BGA are analyzed. Their electrical performances are compared in the area of signal delay and coupling effect between signal interconnections. The electrical package modeling is built by extracting parasitic of interconnections in IC package through electro-magnetic simulations. The electrical package modeling is built by extracting parasitic of interconnections in IC package through electro-magnetic simulations. The analysis of electrical behavior is performed using SPICE model which is made to represent the real situation. The methodology presented is also capable of determining the most suitable memory package for a particular device based on the electrical performance.

  1. Image Monitoring of Pharmaceutical Blending Processes and the Determination of an End Point by Using a Portable Near-Infrared Imaging Device Based on a Polychromator-Type Near-Infrared Spectrometer with a High-speed and High-Resolution Photo Diode Array Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodai Murayama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have developed a new version (ND-NIRs of a polychromator-type near-infrared (NIR spectrometer with a high-resolution photo diode array detector, which we built before (D-NIRs. The new version has four 5 W halogen lamps compared with the three lamps for the older version. The new version also has a condenser lens with a shorter focal point length. The increase in the number of the lamps and the shortening of the focal point of the condenser lens realize high signal-to-noise ratio and high-speed NIR imaging measurement. By using the ND-NIRs we carried out the in-line monitoring of pharmaceutical blending and determined an end point of the blending process. Moreover, to determinate a more accurate end point, a NIR image of the blending sample was acquired by means of a portable NIR imaging device based on ND-NIRs. The imaging result has demonstrated that the mixing time of 8 min is enough for homogeneous mixing. In this way the present study has demonstrated that ND-NIRs and the imaging system based on a ND-NIRs hold considerable promise for process analysis.

  2. Photonic Routing Systems Using All-optical, Hybrid Integrated Wavelength Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontios Stampoulidis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a new generation of all-optical wavelength converters within European project ISTMUFINS has enabled the development of compact and multi-functional photonic processing systems. Here we present the realization of demanding functionalities required in high-capacity photonic routers using these highly integrated components including: Clock recovery, data/label recovery, wavelength routing and contention resolution; all implemented with multi-signal processing using a single photonic chip – a quadruple array of SOAMZI wavelength converters which occupies a chip area of only 15 x 58 mm2. In addition, we present the capability of the technology to build WDM signal processing systems with the simultaneous operation of four quad devices in a four wavelength burst-mode regenerator. Finally, the potential of the technology to provide photonic systems-onchip is demonstrated with the first hybrid integrated alloptical burst-mode receiver prototype.

  3. Sub-nanosecond Electron Emission from Electrically Gated Field Emitting Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Paraliev, M; Gough, C; Kirk, E; Ivkovic, S

    2011-01-01

    Field Emitting Arrays (FEAs) are a promising alternative to the conventional cathodes in different vacuum electronic devices such as traveling wave tubes, electron accelerators and etc. Electrical gating and modulation capabilities, together with the ability to produce stable and homogeneous electron beam in high electric field environment are the key requirements for their practical application. Due to relatively high gate capacitance, fast controlling of FEA emission is difficult. In order to achieve sub-nanosecond, electrically controlled, FEA based electron emission a special pulsed gate driver was developed. Bipolar high voltage (HV)pulses are used to rapidly inject and remove charge form FEA gate electrode controlling quickly electron extraction gate voltage. Short electron emission pulses (<600 ps FWHM) were observed in low and high gradient (up to 12 MV/m) environment. First attempts were made to combine FEA based electron emission with radio frequency acceleration structures (1.5 GHz) using pulsed...

  4. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  5. Development of microwave imaging reflectometry in large helical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Nagayama, Y; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Shi, Z B; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2008-10-01

    Three key devices of the microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) are under development in large helical device (LHD). The 2-D mixer array is developed by stacking the one-dimensional array of the planar Yagi-Uda antenna. The new type of the bandpass filter bank is modified to match the requirement of the MIR. The low-cost quadrature demodulator is also developed for the phase detection system. By using the low-price commercial wireless devices, the development cost becomes much lower than the expensive waveguide system. These devices enable the development of 2-D/3-D microwave imaging system for the plasma diagnostics and industrial applications. PMID:19044595

  6. Human-Centered Design Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  7. Improving the RPC rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Iuppa, R; Liberti, B; Paolozzi, L; Pastori, E; Santonico, R; Toppi, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the base of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.

  8. Development of multifunctional fiber reinforced polymer composites through ZnO nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Patterson, Brendan A.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric nanowires, in particular zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, have been vastly used in the fabrication of electromechanical devices to convert wasted mechanical energy into useful electrical energy. Over recent years, the growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on various structural fibers has led to the development of fiber-based nanostructured energy harvesting devices. However, the development of more realistic energy harvesters that are capable of continuous power generation requires a sufficient mechanical strength to withstand typical structural loading conditions. Yet, a durable, multifunctional material system has not been developed thoroughly enough to generate electrical power without deteriorating the mechanical performance. Here, a hybrid composite energy harvester is fabricated in a hierarchical design that provides both efficient power generating capabilities while enhancing the structural properties of the fiber reinforced polymer composite. Through a simple and low-cost process, a modified aramid fabric with vertically aligned ZnO nanowires grown on the fiber surface is embedded between woven carbon fabrics, which serve as the structural reinforcement as well as the top and the bottom electrodes of the nanowire arrays. The performance of the developed multifunctional composite is characterized through direct vibration excitation and tensile strength examination.

  9. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  10. P systems with array objects and array rewriting rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Subramanian; R. Saravanan; M. Geethalakshmi; P. Helen Chandra; M. Margenstern

    2007-01-01

    Array P systems were introduced by Pǎun Gh. which is linking the two areas of membrane computing and picture grammars. Puzzle grammars were introduced by us for generating connected picture arrays in the two-dimensional plane, motivated by the problem of tiling the plane. On the other hand, incorporating into arrays the developmental type of generation used in the well-known biologically motivated L systems, Siromoney and Siromoney proposed a very general rectangular array generating model, called extended controlled tabled L array system (ECTLAS). In this paper we introduce two variations of the array P system, called BPG array P system and parallel array P system. The former has in the regions array objects and basic puzzle grammar rules (BPG), which are a specific kind of puzzle grammar rules. In the latter, the regions have rectangular array objects and tables of context-free rules. We examine these two types of P systems for their array generative power.

  11. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  12. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on Liquid Interfacial Nanoparticle Arrays for Multiplex Detecting Drugs in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongmei; Liu, Honglin; Mao, Mei; Meng, Juan; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2016-08-16

    The design and application of liquid interfacial plasmonic platform is still in its infancy but is an exciting topic in tunable optical devices, sensors, and catalysis. Here, we developed an interfacial surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform through the large-scale self-assembly of gold nanoparticle (GNP) arrays at the cyclohexane (CYH)/water interface for detecting trace drug molecules in the urine of humans. The molecules extracted by the CYH phase from a urine sample were directly localized into the self-organized plasmonic hotspots, yielded excellent Raman enhancement, and realized the substrate-free interfacial SERS detection. Synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SR-SAXS) experiments reveals a good uniformity of approximately 2-3 nm interparticle distance in the GNP arrays. SERS colocalization experiments demonstrated that amphetamine molecules of different concentration levels could be loaded into the interfacial GNP arrays and realized the coassembly together with nanoparticles at the liquid/liquid interface. Interfacial GNP arrays with dynamic nanogaps in liquid interfacial structure can make surrounding molecules easily diffuse into the nanogaps. In contrast, the fixed GNP arrays on Si wafer were more irregular, such as multilayer stack, random aggregates, and voids, during the drying process. When the drugs directly participate in the self-assembly process, it becomes easier for analytes diffusing into the nanogaps of GNP arrays, produces a concentration effect, and amplified the SERS sensitivity. This feature also enables molecules to be adsorbed evenly in the arrays and makes a more uniform distribution of both the analytes and GNPs in the liquid interface and realizes the significant increase in signal reproducibility. Interfacial SERS produced a standard deviation of 12.5% at 1001 cm(-1) peak of methamphetamine (MAMP) molecules under the concentration of 1 ppm, implying a good reproducibility. Moreover, dual-analyte detection

  13. A Web Service Protocol Realizing Interoperable Internet of Things Tasking Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Hung

    2016-08-31

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an infrastructure that interconnects uniquely-identifiable devices using the Internet. By interconnecting everyday appliances, various monitoring, and physical mashup applications can be constructed to improve human's daily life. In general, IoT devices provide two main capabilities: sensing and tasking capabilities. While the sensing capability is similar to the World-Wide Sensor Web, this research focuses on the tasking capability. However, currently, IoT devices created by different manufacturers follow different proprietary protocols and are locked in many closed ecosystems. This heterogeneity issue impedes the interconnection between IoT devices and damages the potential of the IoT. To address this issue, this research aims at proposing an interoperable solution called tasking capability description that allows users to control different IoT devices using a uniform web service interface. This paper demonstrates the contribution of the proposed solution by interconnecting different IoT devices for different applications. In addition, the proposed solution is integrated with the OGC SensorThings API standard, which is a Web service standard defined for the IoT sensing capability. Consequently, the Extended SensorThings API can realize both IoT sensing and tasking capabilities in an integrated and interoperable manner.

  14. A Web Service Protocol Realizing Interoperable Internet of Things Tasking Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an infrastructure that interconnects uniquely-identifiable devices using the Internet. By interconnecting everyday appliances, various monitoring, and physical mashup applications can be constructed to improve human's daily life. In general, IoT devices provide two main capabilities: sensing and tasking capabilities. While the sensing capability is similar to the World-Wide Sensor Web, this research focuses on the tasking capability. However, currently, IoT devices created by different manufacturers follow different proprietary protocols and are locked in many closed ecosystems. This heterogeneity issue impedes the interconnection between IoT devices and damages the potential of the IoT. To address this issue, this research aims at proposing an interoperable solution called tasking capability description that allows users to control different IoT devices using a uniform web service interface. This paper demonstrates the contribution of the proposed solution by interconnecting different IoT devices for different applications. In addition, the proposed solution is integrated with the OGC SensorThings API standard, which is a Web service standard defined for the IoT sensing capability. Consequently, the Extended SensorThings API can realize both IoT sensing and tasking capabilities in an integrated and interoperable manner. PMID:27589759

  15. The rotating wall machine: a device to study ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability under variable boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C; Bergerson, W F; Brookhart, M I; Hannum, D A; Kendrick, R; Fiksel, G; Forest, C B

    2010-12-01

    The rotating wall machine, a basic plasma physics experimental facility, has been constructed to study the role of electromagnetic boundary conditions on current-driven ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, including differentially rotating conducting walls. The device, a screw pinch magnetic geometry with line-tied ends, is described. The plasma is generated by an array of 19 plasma guns that not only produce high density plasmas but can also be independently biased to allow spatial and temporal control of the current profile. The design and mechanical performance of the rotating wall as well as diagnostic capabilities and internal probes are discussed. Measurements from typical quiescent discharges show the plasma to be high β (≤p>2μ(0)/B(z)(2)), flowing, and well collimated. Internal probe measurements show that the plasma current profile can be controlled by the plasma gun array. PMID:21198019

  16. The rotating wall machine: a device to study ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability under variable boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, C; Bergerson, W F; Brookhart, M I; Hannum, D A; Kendrick, R; Fiksel, G; Forest, C B

    2010-12-01

    The rotating wall machine, a basic plasma physics experimental facility, has been constructed to study the role of electromagnetic boundary conditions on current-driven ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, including differentially rotating conducting walls. The device, a screw pinch magnetic geometry with line-tied ends, is described. The plasma is generated by an array of 19 plasma guns that not only produce high density plasmas but can also be independently biased to allow spatial and temporal control of the current profile. The design and mechanical performance of the rotating wall as well as diagnostic capabilities and internal probes are discussed. Measurements from typical quiescent discharges show the plasma to be high β (≤p>2μ(0)/B(z)(2)), flowing, and well collimated. Internal probe measurements show that the plasma current profile can be controlled by the plasma gun array.

  17. Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devicesdescribes state-of-the-art MEMS devices and introduces the latest technology in electrical and mechanical microsystems. The evolution of design in microfabrication, as well as emerging issues in nanomaterials, micromachining, micromanufacturing and microassembly are all discussed at length in this volume. Advanced Mechatronics also provides a reader with knowledge of MEMS sensors array, MEMS multidimensional accelerometer, artificial skin with imbedded tactile components, as well as other topics in MEMS sensors and transducers. The book also presents a number of topics in advanced robotics and an abundance of applications of MEMS in robotics, like reconfigurable modular snake robots, magnetic MEMS robots for drug delivery and flying robots with adjustable wings, to name a few. This book also: Covers the fundamentals of advanced mechatronics and MEMS devices while also presenting new state-of-the-art methodology and technology used in the application of these devices Prese...

  18. Survey of hydrogen monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are results of a survey of commercially available monitoring devices suitable for hydrogen detection in the secondary containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during the post postulated accident period. Available detectors were grouped into the following five classes: combustion, solid state, electrochemical, thermal conductivity, and absorption. The performance of most available sensors is likely to deteriorate when exposed to the postulated conditions which include moisture, which could be at high temperature, and radioactive noncondensibles. Of the commercial devices, those using metallic filament thermal conductivity detectors seem least susceptible to performance change. Absorption detectors are best suited for this monitoring task but the only available device is designed for pipeline corrosion assessment. Initiation of experimental study to assess apparent deficiencies of commercial detectors is recommended. Also recommended is an analytical/experimental effort to determine the optimum detector array for monitoring in the secondary containment vessels

  19. Theoretical analysis of short-circuit capability of SiC power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Soeno, Akitaka; Toguchi, Hiroaki; Aoi, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Tadano, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The short-circuit capability of Si power devices, defined in terms of critical energy density, is the product of the heat capacity in the heat generation region and the increase in temperature. However, for SiC power devices, the heat generation region is significantly smaller than that for Si power devices, because the drift-region thickness is about 10 times less in SiC power devices. Therefore, the formulae used for Si devices are not directly applicable to SiC devices. In this study, analytical formulae are derived for the short-circuit capability of a SiC power device and its dependence on the ambient temperature and the thickness of the n- drift region, on the basis of the thermal diffusion equation. The calculated results are found to be in good agreement with those of direct measurements.

  20. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  1. Performance of multiplexed SQUID readout for Cryogenic Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Grossman, E. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Martinis, John M.; Reintsema, C. D.; Allen, C. A.; Bergman, D. I.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R.

    2000-04-01

    We report on the implementation of a multiplexer that uses superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to read out low-impedance cryogenic detectors. Using prototype chips, a circuit was built which interfaces eight input SQUID channels with a close-packed array of eight transition-edge sensor (TES) infrared bolometers. Circuit elements were measured and crosstalk specifications are reported. Digital feedback is employed to flux-lock a single element in the array of SQUIDs.

  2. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  3. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  4. Flexible Transceiver Array for Ultrahigh Field Human MR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunsheng; Li, Ye; Pang, Yong; Lu, Jonathan; Xu, Duan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Nelson, Sarah J.; Daniel B Vigneron

    2012-01-01

    A flexible transceiver array, capable of multiple-purpose imaging applications in vivo at ultrahigh magnetic fields was designed, implemented and tested on a 7 T MR scanner. By alternately placing coil elements with primary and secondary harmonics, improved decoupling among coil elements was accomplished without requiring decoupling circuitry between resonant elements, which is commonly required in high frequency transceiver arrays in order to achieve sufficient element-isolation during RF ex...

  5. Over-the-Air Testing of MIMO-Capable Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Kyösti, Pekka;

    2015-01-01

    A new over-the-air (OTA) testing method is required for evaluating multiple-antenna systems in realistic multipath propagation environments. Antenna design and propagation channels are the two key parameters that ultimately determine the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) device performance. As...... antennas are inherently included in OTA testing, it is important to also consider realistic channel models for MIMO device-performance evaluation. This article shows that the multiprobe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup is capable of emulating realistic and accurate multipath environments, making it a suitable...

  6. Wireless communication capability of a reconfigurable plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30 cm long plasma column is excited by a surface wave, which acts as a plasma antenna. Using plasma properties (pattern formation/striations in plasmas) single plasma antenna can be transformed into array, helical, and spiral plasma antenna. Experiments are carried out to study the power patterns, directivity, and half power beam width of such different plasma antennas. Moreover, field properties of plasma and copper antenna are studied. Further, wireless communication and jamming capability of plasma antenna are tested. Findings of this study suggest that directivity and communication range can be increased by converting single plasma antenna in to array/helical/spiral plasma antenna. Field frequencies of plasma antenna determine the communication and jamming of radio frequency waves. Therefore, this study invokes applications of pattern formation or striations of plasmas in plasma antenna technology.

  7. High-frequency synthetic ultrasound array incorporating an actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Timothy A.; Shrout, Thomas R.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasound imaging at frequencies above 20 MHz relies almost exclusively on single-element transducers. IN order to apply array technology at these frequencies, several practical problems must be solved, including spatial scale and fabrication limitations, low device capacitance, and lack of a hardware beamformer. One method of circumventing these problems is to combine an array, an actuator, and a synthetic aperture software beamformer. The array can use relatively wide elements spaced on a coarse pitch. The actuator is used to move the array in short steps (less than the element pitch), and pulse-echo data is acquired at intermediate sample positions. The synthetic aperture beamformer reconstructs the image from the pulse-echo data. A 50 MHz example is analyzed in detail. Estimates of signal-to-noise reveal performance comparable to a standard phased array; furthermore, the actuated array requires half the number of elements, the elements are 8x wider, and only one channel is required. Simulated three-dimensional point spread functions demonstrate side lobe levels approaching - 40dB and main beam widths of 50 to 100 microns. A 50 MHz piezo-composite array design has been tested which displays experimental bandwidth of 70% while maintaining high sensitivity. Individual composite sub-elements are 18 microns wide. Once this array is integrated with a suitable actuator, it is anticipated that a tractable method of imaging with high frequency arrays will result.

  8. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries. PMID:26284489

  9. Singulation for imaging ring arrays of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singulation of MEMS is a critical step in the transition from wafer-level to die-level devices. As is the case for capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) ring arrays, an ideal singulation must protect the fragile membranes from the processing environment while maintaining a ring array geometry. The singulation process presented in this paper involves bonding a trench-patterned CMUT wafer onto a support wafer, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of the trenches, separating the CMUT wafer from the support wafer and de-tethering the CMUT device from the CMUT wafer. The CMUT arrays fabricated and singulated in this process were ring-shaped arrays, with inner and outer diameters of 5 mm and 10 mm, respectively. The fabricated CMUT ring arrays demonstrate the ability of this method to successfully and safely singulate the ring arrays and is applicable to any arbitrary 2D shaped MEMS device with uspended microstructures, taking advantage of the inherent planar attributes of DRIE. (technical note)

  10. Expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, F.; Bigongiari, C.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory is a world-wide project for the ground-based study of the sources of the highest energy photons. By adopting telescopes of three different size categories it will cover the wide energy range from tens of GeV up to hundreds of TeV, limited only by the source physical properties and the gamma absorption by the extragalactic background light. The full sky coverage will be assured by two arrays, one in each hemisphere. An array of small size telescopes (SSTs), covering the highest energy region (3-100 TeV), the region most flux limited for current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, is planned to be deployed at the southern CTA site in the first phase of the CTA project. The ASTRI collaboration has developed a prototype of a dual mirror SST equipped with a SiPM-based focal plane (ASTRI SST-2M) and has proposed to install a mini-array of nine of such telescopes at the CTA southern site (the ASTRI mini-array). In order to study the expected performance and the scientific capabilities of different telescope configurations, full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the shower development in the atmosphere for both gammas and hadronic background have been performed, followed by detailed simulations of the telescopes. In this work the expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in terms of sensitivity, angular and energy resolution are presented and discussed.

  11. AUTHENTICATED SENSOR INTERFACE DEVICE FOR JOINT USE SAFEGUARDS APPLICATIONS - CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poland, R.; Drayer, R.; Wilson, J.

    2013-08-12

    This paper will discuss the key features of the Authenticated Sensor Interface Device that collectively provide the ability to share data among a number of parties while ensuring the authentication of data and protecting both the operator’s and the IAEA’s interests. The paper will also discuss the development of the prototype, the initial testing with an accountancy scale, and future plans and challenges to implementation into the joint use and remote monitoring applications. As nuclear fuel cycle technology becomes more prevalent throughout the world and the capacity of plants increases, limited resources of the IAEA are being stretched near a breaking point. A strategy is to increase efficiency in safeguards monitoring using “joint use” equipment that will provide the facility operator process data while also providing the IAEA key safeguards data. The data, however, must be authenticated and validated to ensure the data have not been tampered with. The Authenticated Sensor Interface Device provides the capability to share data and can be a valuable component in the IAEA’s ability to collect accountancy data from scales in Uranium conversion and enrichment plants, as well as nuclear fuel fabrication plants. Likewise, the Authenticated Sensor Interface Device can be configured to accept a diverse array of input signals, ranging from analog voltage, to current, to digital interfaces and more. These modular capabilities provide the ability to collect authenticated, joint-use, data streams from various process monitoring sensors.

  12. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  13. Design of a 7kw power transfer solar array drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    With the availability of the Shuttle and the European launcher, Ariane, there will be a continuing trend towards large payload satellite missions requiring high-power, high-inertia, flexible solar arrays. The need arises for a solar array drive with a large power transfer capability which can rotate these solar arrays without disturbing the satellite body pointing. The modular design of such a Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) which is capable of transferring 7kW of power or more is described. Total design flexibility has been achieved, enabling different spacecraft power requirements to be accommodated within the SADM design.

  14. Transceiver array development for submillimeter-wave imaging radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore A.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose V.; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Decrossas, Emmanuel; Schlecht, Erich T.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-05-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing compact transceiver arrays housing discrete GaAs Schottky diodes with integrated waveguides in order to increase the frame rate and lower the cost of active submillimeter-wave imaging radar systems. As part of this effort, high performance diode frequency multiplier and mixer devices optimized for a 30 GHz bandwidth centered near 340 GHz have been fabricated using JPL's MoMeD process. A two-element array unit cell was designed using a layered architecture with three-dimensional waveguide routing for maximum scalability to multiple array elements. Prototype two-element arrays have been built using both conventionally machined metal blocks as well as gold-plated micromachined silicon substrates. Preliminary performance characterization has been accomplished in terms of transmit power, and conversion loss, and promising 3D radar images of concealed weapons have been acquired using the array.

  15. APRON: A Cellular Processor Array Simulation and Hardware Design Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. W. Barr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a software environment for the efficient simulation of cellular processor arrays (CPAs. This software (APRON is used to explore algorithms that are designed for massively parallel fine-grained processor arrays, topographic multilayer neural networks, vision chips with SIMD processor arrays, and related architectures. The software uses a highly optimised core combined with a flexible compiler to provide the user with tools for the design of new processor array hardware architectures and the emulation of existing devices. We present performance benchmarks for the software processor array implemented on standard commodity microprocessors. APRON can be configured to use additional processing hardware if necessary and can be used as a complete graphical user interface and development environment for new or existing CPA systems, allowing more users to develop algorithms for CPA systems.

  16. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  17. Determining your organization's 'risk capability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Bill; Hancock, Melinda

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of a provider's level of risk capability should focus on three key elements: Business intelligence, including sophisticated analytical models that can offer insight into the expected cost and quality of care for a given population. Clinical enterprise maturity, marked by the ability to improve health outcomes and to manage utilization and costs to drive change. Revenue transformation, emphasizing the need for a revenue cycle platform that allows for risk acceptance and management and that provides incentives for performance against defined objectives. PMID:24851456

  18. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  19. Production, innovation and service capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Wu, Dong;

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation and global dispersion are among the most prominent characteristics of contemporary operations. Not only routine transactional tasks, but also more knowledge-intensive proprietary tasks are subjected to this trend. As a result of this, complex configurations of assets and capabilities...... crossing both national and organisational borders emerge. The challenge of coordination in these configurations is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed so far. Therefore, by using explorative cases of Chinese and Danish companies, this paper seeks to develop a conceptual framework relating...

  20. Developing A/E Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, the methods used by EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS and INITEC to perform Architect-Engineering work in Spain for nuclear projects has undergone a process of significant change in project management and engineering approaches. Specific practical examples of management techniques and design practices which represent a good record of results will be discussed. They are identified as areas of special interest in developing A/E capabilities for nuclear projects . Command of these areas should produce major payoffs in local participation and contribute to achieving real nuclear engineering capabities in the country. (author)