WorldWideScience

Sample records for array device capable

  1. A microwell array device capable of measuring single-cell oxygen consumption rates

    OpenAIRE

    Molter, Timothy W.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Suchorolski, Martin T.; Strovas, Tim J.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to interest in cell population heterogeneity, the development of new technology and methodologies for studying single cells has dramatically increased in recent years. The ideal single cell measurement system would be high throughput for statistical relevance, would measure the most important cellular parameters, and minimize disruption of normal cell function. We have developed a microwell array device capable of measuring single cell oxygen consumption rates (OCR). This OCR device is ab...

  2. Microreactor Array Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Labaer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

  3. A Device with Learning Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotina, N. M.; Burlai, Yu. P.

    The invention involves a device with learning capacity which contains input, storage, arithmetic and output units. In order to increase the number of recognizable patterns, facilitate replacement of one pattern by another, and also increase the speed of the device, the memory unit for the input field is connected to memory units for storage of…

  4. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Anthony L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  5. Microfluidic device capable of sensing ultrafast chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Teck; Ko, Seok Oh; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2009-05-15

    Based on the principle of liquid core waveguide, a novel microfluidic device with micro-scale detection window capable of sensing flashlight emitted from rapid 1,1'-oxalyldi-4-methylimidazole (OD4MI) chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was fabricated. Light emitted from OD4MI CL reaction occurring in the micro-dimensional pentagonal detection window (length of each line segment: 900.0 microm, depth: 50.0 microm) of the microfluidic device with two inlets and one outlet was so bright that it was possible to take an image every 1/30 s at the optimal focusing distance (60 cm) using a commercial digital camera. Peaks obtained using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system with the micro-scale detection window and OD4MI CL detection show excellent resolution and reproducibility without any band-broadening observed in analytical devices having additional reaction channel(s) to measure light generated from slow CL reaction. Maximum height (H(max)) and area (A) of peak, reproducibility and sensitivity observed in the FIA system with the microfluidic device and OD4MI CL detection depends on (1) the mole ratio between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate and 4-methyl imidazole yielding OD4MI, (2) the flow rate to mix OD4MI, H(2)O(2) and 1-AP in the detection window of the microfluidic device, and (3) H(2)O(2) concentration. We obtained linear calibration curves with wide dynamic ranges using H(max) and A. The detection limit of 1-AP determined with H(max) and A was as low as 0.05 fmole/injection (signal/background=3.0). PMID:19269463

  6. Advanced Capabilities Medical Suction Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact microgravity and hypogravity compatible vacuum device is proposed to provide medical suction and containment of extracted fluids. The proposed aspirator...

  7. Imaging capabilities of weak-phase interferometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Andre

    1998-07-01

    The first imaging devices of optical interferometry are likely to be of weak phase, typically: a set of three- element arrays, coherent and stable, independently observing the same object. The study of their imaging capabilities essentially addresses the self-calibration problem and its stability. Like in VLBI, the principle of our self- calibration methods consists in preforming a series of alternate phase calibration operations and Fourier synthesis processes. Algebraic graph theory and algebraic number theory prove to be the key topics involved in the phase calibration operation. The latter can often be written in closed form. As expected, the relative expressions explicitly refer to a set of independent closure phases. To illustrate this essential point, we consider the special case of three-element arrays. The corresponding phase calibration formula, which is then particularly simple, provides all the elements for coping with the possible global instabilities. The Fourier synthesis process, which is also involved in the self-calibration cycles, is performed via WIPE, a methodology recently introduced in radio imaging and optical interferometry. The robustness of the image reconstruction process can then be well controlled.

  8. Nanotube Production Devices Expand Research Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In order for the Hubble Space Telescope to take incredible, never-seen-before shots of celestial bodies and then send them back to Earth, the spacecraft needs power. While in orbit, Hubble cannot plug into an electrical outlet or stop at a store for some batteries. One of the ways NASA supplies power aboard a spacecraft is by harnessing energy from the most powerful entity in the solar system: the Sun. Since the 1960s, photovoltaic technology, or technology that converts sunlight into electricity, has been instrumental in the exploration of space. To build upon existing photovoltaic technology, NASA s Glenn Research Center has worked on a variety of innovative designs and materials to incorporate into photovoltaic cells, the building blocks of solar power systems. One of these materials is the carbon nanotube - a tiny structure about 50,000 times finer than the average human hair, with notably high electrical and thermal conductivity and an extreme amount of mechanical strength. Such properties give carbon nanotubes great potential to enhance the reliability of power generation and storage devices in space and on Earth. Dennis J. Flood, the branch chief of the photovoltaic division at Glenn in the 1990s, was looking into using carbon nanotubes to improve the efficiency of solar cells when he ran into a major roadblock - high-quality carbon nanotubes were not readily available. To address this problem, one of the chemists in Flood s group came up with a process and system for growing them. A senior chemist at Glenn, Aloysius F. Hepp, devised an injection chemical vapor deposition process using a specific organometallic catalyst in a two-zone furnace. Hepp's group found the unique process produced high-quality carbon nanotubes with less than 5 percent metal impurity. In addition, the process was more efficient than existing techniques, as it eliminated pre-patterning of the substrate used for growing the nanotubes, a timely and cost-prohibitive step.

  9. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  10. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  11. Device Characteristics and Capabilities Discovery for Multimedia Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faisal Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of web and mobile technologies has allowed people to access multimedia content from a wide range of heterogeneous client devices that have different characteristics and capabilities. In order to deliver the best presentation of content requested, the web system must possess a mechanism that is able to accurately discover the characteristics and capabilities of a client’s device. Existing content negotiation techniques mainly focus on static profiling approach without considering the combination of static and dynamic approaches that are capable of overcoming the device scalability issues. In view of these issues, we propose a hybrid approach for recognizing devices and their capabilities using token-based method. By proposing such solution, we can provide flexible, extensible, and scalable method that provides more accurate information in resolving the content negotiation issues. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we construct a laboratory and field studies to investigate its performance and accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid approach has better performances in several aspects compared to the static profiling.

  12. Monolithic arrays of surface emitting laser NOR logic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Song, J.-I-; Lee, Y. H.; Yoo, J. Y.; Shin, J H; Scherer, A.; Leibenguth, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic, cascadable, laser-logic-device arrays have been realized and characterized. The monolithic surface-emitting laser logic (SELL) device consists of an AlGaAs superlattice lasing around 780 nm connected to a heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) in parallel and a resistor in series. Arrays up to 8×8 have been fabricated, and 2×2 arrays show uniform characteristics. The optical logic output is switched off with 40 μW incident optical input.

  13. Field-Capable Biodetection Devices for Homeland Security Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, G M; Clague, D S; Miles, R R

    2007-04-05

    Biodetection instrumentation that is capable of functioning effectively outside the controlled laboratory environment is critical for the detection of health threats, and is a crucial technology for Health Security. Experience in bringing technologies from the basic research laboratory to integrated fieldable instruments suggests lessons for the engineering of these systems. This overview will cover several classes of such devices, with examples from systems developed for homeland security missions by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Recent trends suggest that front-end sample processing is becoming a critical performance-determining factor for many classes of fieldable biodetection devices. This paper introduces some results of a recent study that was undertaken to assess the requirements and potential technologies for next-generation integrated sample processing.

  14. Device, array, and methods for disease detection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rupa S.; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2016-06-14

    A device and array coupled to capture molecules are provided. Specifically, the device and array can be used for detecting the presence and concentration of biomarkers in a sample from a subject. The device and array can also allow the use of a method for scoring a sample for, e.g., the purpose of diagnosing a disease. The method can also be advantageous to applications where there is a need to accurately determine the disease stage of a subject for the purpose of making therapeutic decisions.

  15. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method of forming an array of interconnected solar cells. A flexible substrate carrying semiconductor and conductive layers is divided into individual devices by slitting the substrate along the web length. The individual devices are then connected with one another in series by laminating the substrate onto an insulating backing and by depositing conducting interconnection layers which join the lower conductor of one device with the top conductor of the adjoining device.

  16. On the interference rejection capabilities of triangular antenna array for cellular base stations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of the triangular antenna arrays in terms of the interference rejection capability. In this context, we derive an expression to calculate the spatial interference suppression coefficient for the triangular antenna array with variable number of antenna elements. The performance of the triangular antenna array has been compared with the circular antenna array with respect to interference suppression performance, steering beam pattern, beamwidth and directivity. Simulation results show that the triangular array with large number of elements produces a sharper beamwidth and better interference suppression performance than the circular antenna array. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Dielectrophoresis device and method having nonuniform arrays for manipulating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Simmons, Blake A.

    2012-09-04

    Microfluidic devices according to embodiments of the present invention include an inlet port, an outlet port, and a channel or chamber having a non-uniform array of insulating features on one or more surfaces. Electrodes are provided for generation of a spatially non-uniform electric field across the array. A voltage source, which may be an A.C. and/or a D.C. voltage source may be coupled to the electrodes for the generation of the electric field.

  18. Half adder capabilities of a coupled quantum dot device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, P.; Hartmann, F.; Neri, I.; Schade, A.; Emmerling, M.; Kamp, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Höfling, S.; Worschech, L.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate two realizations of a half adder based on a voltage-rectifying mechanism involving two Coulomb-coupled quantum dots. First, we examine the ranges of operation of the half adder’s individual elements, the AND and XOR gates, for a single rectifying device. It allows a switching between the two gates by a control voltage and thus enables a clocked half adder operation. The logic gates are shown to be reliably operative in a broad noise amplitude range with negligible error probabilities. Subsequently, we study the implementation of the half adder in a combined double-device consisting of two individually tunable rectifiers. We show that this double device allows a simultaneous operation of both relevant gates at once. The presented devices draw their power solely from electronic fluctuations and are therefore an advancement in the field of energy efficient and autonomous electronics.

  19. Multiplexed charge-locking device for large arrays of quantum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method of forming and controlling large arrays of gate-defined quantum devices. The method uses an on-chip, multiplexed charge-locking system and helps to overcome the restraints imposed by the number of wires available in cryostat measurement systems. The device architecture that we describe here utilises a multiplexer-type scheme to lock charge onto gate electrodes. The design allows access to and control of gates whose total number exceeds that of the available electrical contacts and enables the formation, modulation and measurement of large arrays of quantum devices. We fabricate such devices on n-type GaAs/AlGaAs substrates and investigate the stability of the charge locked on to the gates. Proof-of-concept is shown by measurement of the Coulomb blockade peaks of a single quantum dot formed by a floating gate in the device. The floating gate is seen to drift by approximately one Coulomb oscillation per hour

  20. Multiplexed charge-locking device for large arrays of quantum devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puddy, R. K., E-mail: rkp27@cam.ac.uk; Smith, L. W; Chong, C. H.; Farrer, I.; Griffiths, J. P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Pepper, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-05

    We present a method of forming and controlling large arrays of gate-defined quantum devices. The method uses an on-chip, multiplexed charge-locking system and helps to overcome the restraints imposed by the number of wires available in cryostat measurement systems. The device architecture that we describe here utilises a multiplexer-type scheme to lock charge onto gate electrodes. The design allows access to and control of gates whose total number exceeds that of the available electrical contacts and enables the formation, modulation and measurement of large arrays of quantum devices. We fabricate such devices on n-type GaAs/AlGaAs substrates and investigate the stability of the charge locked on to the gates. Proof-of-concept is shown by measurement of the Coulomb blockade peaks of a single quantum dot formed by a floating gate in the device. The floating gate is seen to drift by approximately one Coulomb oscillation per hour.

  1. Development and evaluation of an ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC array detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kataoka, J.; Matsuda, H.; Kato, T.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a front-end ASIC for future PET scanners with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) capability to be coupled with 4×4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays. The ASIC is designed based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and realized in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 16-channel, low impedance current conveyors for effectively acquiring fast MPPC signals. For precise measurement of the coincidence timing of 511-keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was used to discriminate the signals. We first tested the time response of the ASIC by illuminating each channel of a MPPC array device 3×3 mm2 in size with a Pico-second Light Pulsar with a light emission peak of 655 nm and pulse duration of 54 ps (FWHM). We obtained 105 ps (FWHM) on average for each channel in time jitter measurements. Moreover, we compensated for the time lag of each channel with inner delay circuits and succeeded in suppressing about a 700-ps lag to only 15 ps. This paper reports TOF measurements using back-to-back 511-keV signals, and suggests that the ASIC can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners based on the MPPC array.

  2. Development and evaluation of an ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambe, T., E-mail: hiro-a-be.n@akane.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ikeda, H. [ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Matsuda, H.; Kato, T. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-21

    We developed a front-end ASIC for future PET scanners with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) capability to be coupled with 4×4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays. The ASIC is designed based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and realized in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 16-channel, low impedance current conveyors for effectively acquiring fast MPPC signals. For precise measurement of the coincidence timing of 511-keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was used to discriminate the signals. We first tested the time response of the ASIC by illuminating each channel of a MPPC array device 3×3 mm{sup 2} in size with a Pico-second Light Pulsar with a light emission peak of 655 nm and pulse duration of 54 ps (FWHM). We obtained 105 ps (FWHM) on average for each channel in time jitter measurements. Moreover, we compensated for the time lag of each channel with inner delay circuits and succeeded in suppressing about a 700-ps lag to only 15 ps. This paper reports TOF measurements using back-to-back 511-keV signals, and suggests that the ASIC can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners based on the MPPC array. - Highlights: • We developed a newly designed large-area monolithic MPPC array. • We obtained fine gain uniformity, and good energy and time resolutions when coupled to the LYSO scintillator. • We fabricated gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array and the submillimeter pixelized LYSO and GGAG scintillators. • In the flood images, each crystal of scintillator matrices was clearly resolved. • Good energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each LYSO and GGAG scintillator matrices were obtained.

  3. Development and evaluation of an ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a front-end ASIC for future PET scanners with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) capability to be coupled with 4×4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays. The ASIC is designed based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and realized in TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 16-channel, low impedance current conveyors for effectively acquiring fast MPPC signals. For precise measurement of the coincidence timing of 511-keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was used to discriminate the signals. We first tested the time response of the ASIC by illuminating each channel of a MPPC array device 3×3 mm2 in size with a Pico-second Light Pulsar with a light emission peak of 655 nm and pulse duration of 54 ps (FWHM). We obtained 105 ps (FWHM) on average for each channel in time jitter measurements. Moreover, we compensated for the time lag of each channel with inner delay circuits and succeeded in suppressing about a 700-ps lag to only 15 ps. This paper reports TOF measurements using back-to-back 511-keV signals, and suggests that the ASIC can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners based on the MPPC array. - Highlights: • We developed a newly designed large-area monolithic MPPC array. • We obtained fine gain uniformity, and good energy and time resolutions when coupled to the LYSO scintillator. • We fabricated gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array and the submillimeter pixelized LYSO and GGAG scintillators. • In the flood images, each crystal of scintillator matrices was clearly resolved. • Good energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each LYSO and GGAG scintillator matrices were obtained

  4. Plasmon enhanced broadband optical absorption in ultrathin silicon nanobowl array for photoactive devices applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui-Nan; Peng, Kui-Qing, E-mail: kq-peng@bnu.edu.cn; Hu, Bo; Hu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-Qiang [Department of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Lee, Shuit-Tong [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-07-06

    Both photonic and plasmonic nanostructures are key optical components of photoactive devices for light harvesting, enabling solar cells with significant thickness reduction, and light detectors capable of detecting photons with sub-band gap energies. In this work, we study the plasmon enhanced broadband light absorption and electrical properties of silicon nanobowl (SiNB) arrays. The SiNB-metal photonic-plasmonic nanostructure-based devices exhibited superior light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to the infrared regime well below the band edge of Si due to effective optical coupling between the SiNB array and incident sunlight, as well as electric field intensity enhancement around metal nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonance. The photonic-plasmonic nanostructure is expected to result in infrared-light detectors and high-efficiency solar cells by extending light-harvesting to infrared frequencies.

  5. MEMS Micro-Translation Device with Improved Linear Travel Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushagur, Mustafa A. G. (Inventor); Ferguson, Cynthia K. (Inventor); Nordin, Gregory P. (Inventor); English, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic translation device for a microelectromechanical system includes a pair of linear stator assemblies disposed in spaced relation to define an elongate channel. Each assembly is formed by a plurality of stators arranged in a row along the channel. A shuttle member is disposed between the stator assemblies for translating movement along the channel. The shuttle member includes a plurality of rotors extending outwardly from opposite sides. The shuttle is grounded through the stator assemblies and includes a mounting area for an object to be translated. Electrical lines are individually connected to alternate stators of a plurality of groups of the stators. A current supply sequentially supplies current through the electrical lines to the alternate stators so as to effect charging of the stators in a predetermined sequence. This produces a tangential capacitive force that causes translation of the shuttle.

  6. Location capability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory seismic array, northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The adequacy of the Los Alamos National Laboratory seismic array in northern New Mexico has been evaluated by a recently implemented least squares inversion program for seismic arrival time data. The condition number of the partial derivative matrix of travel times provides information for estimating the quality of hypocentral solutions. Spatial variation of the condition number combined with the results of inversion of synthetic arrival time data enables us to assess the capability of the seismic array in locating earthquakes occurring throughout the northern part of the state. The results define a large portion of north-central New Mexico over which earthquake epicenters can be detected and located by the Los Alamos array.

  7. Inkjet-printing of non-volatile organic resistive devices and crossbar array structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Stefan; Nau, Sebastian; Popovic, Karl; Bluemel, Alexander; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing demand for storage capacity in various electronic gadgets like mobile phones or tablets, new types of non-volatile memory devices have gained a lot of attention over the last few years. Especially multilevel conductance switching elements based on organic semiconductors are of great interest due to their relatively simple device architecture and their small feature size. Since organic semiconductors combine the electronic properties of inorganic materials with the mechanical characteristics of polymers, this class of materials is suitable for solution based large area device preparation techniques. Consequently, inkjet based deposition techniques are highly capable of facing preparation related challenges. By gradually replacing the evaporated electrodes with inkjet printed silver, the preparation related influence onto device performance parameters such as the ON/OFF ratio was investigated with IV measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Due to the electrode surface roughness the solvent load during the printing of the top electrode as well as organic layer inhomogeneity's the utilization in array applications is hampered. As a prototypical example a 1diode-1resistor element and a 2×2 subarray from 5×5 array matrix were fully characterized demonstrating the versatility of inkjet printing for device preparation.

  8. Ex vivo evaluation of a microneedle array device for transdermal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermun, Sunaina; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; van Vuuren, Sandy; Luttge, Regina; Pillay, Viness

    2015-12-30

    A new approach of transdermal drug delivery is the use of microneedles. This promising technique offers the potential to be broadly used for drug administration as it enables the dramatic increase in permeation of medicaments across the stratum corneum. The potential of microneedles has evolved to spawn a plethora of potential transdermal applications. In order to advance the microneedle capabilities and possibly revolutionize advanced drug delivery, this study introduces a novel transdermal electro-modulated hydrogel-microneedle array (EMH-MNA) device composed of a nano-porous, embeddable ceramic microneedle array as well as an optimized EMH for the electro-responsive delivery of indomethacin through the skin. The ex vivo permeation as well as drug release experiments were performed on porcine skin tissue to ascertain the electro-responsive capabilities of the device. In addition, the microbial permeation ability of the microneedles across the viable epidermis in both microneedle-punctured skin as well as hypodermic needle-punctured skin was determined. Ex vivo evaluation of the EMH-MNA device across porcine skin demonstrated that without electro-stimulation, significantly less drug release was obtained (±0.4540mg) as compared to electro-stimulation (±2.93mg). PMID:26453791

  9. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  10. Ocean Remote Sensing With A Charge Injection Device (CID) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. E.; Buntzen, R. R.

    1984-09-01

    Ocean optical data has been remotely collected using the Advanced Solidstate Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS). ASAS is a multispectral pushbroom scanner with 32 channels extending from 400 to 850 nm. It is built around a 32 by 512 element charge injection device (CID) array with enhanced sensitivity in the blue. Twelve-bit digital output with variable gain and offset in the pre-amp and low system noise give this scanner the ability to pick up low level subsurface upwelling light from the ocean. The scanner was built by General Electric and the NASA Johnson Space Center with optics from TRW under a Naval Ocean Systems Center program for ocean remote sensing. It was first flown with the detector uncooled in September of 1983 at the Naval Coastal Systems Center in Panama City, Florida. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 200 to 1. Subsequent image processing and refinements in the scanner hardware promise to improve this figure significantly. Details of the scanner design, calibration, and noise reduction will be presented. The scan-ner's potential for use in shallow water bottom mapping and chlorophyll determination will be discussed. Fi-nally, projected improvements in the scanner and its performance will be described.

  11. Further Development of a Conformable Phased Array Device for Inspection Over Irregular Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.; Cawley, P.

    2008-02-01

    Further development of a conformable phased array device that allows reliable ultrasonic inspection of components with irregular surfaces has been undertaken. The device uses a standard linear phased array transducer, which is coupled to the surface under test by a water path, encapsulated by a low loss, castable polyurethane rubber membrane. It is shown that the conformable membrane coupled phased array device provides a solution for ultrasonic inspection around the weld region of welded pipes.

  12. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels: advanced wafer-level process technologies for integration of focal plane arrays with readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Dorota S.; Vick, Erik P.; Lueck, Matthew R.; Malta, Dean; Skokan, Mark R.; Masterjohn, Christopher M.; Muzilla, Mark S.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decade, the development of infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) has seen two trends: decreasing of the pixel size and increasing of signal-processing capability at the device level. Enabling more capability within smaller pixels can be achieved through the use of advanced wafer-level processes for the integration of FPAs with silicon (Si) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we review the development of these wafer-level integration technologies, highlighting approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with three-dimensional ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of Si circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias.

  13. A new active array MST radar system with enhanced capabilities for high resolution atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, T.; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Kmv, Prasad; Kamal Kumar, J.; Raghavendra, J.; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Thriveni, A.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A new version of the 53-MHz MST Radar, using the 1024 solid state Transmit-Receive Modules (TRM), necessary feeder network, multi-channel receiver and a modified radar controller has been established using the existing antenna array of 1024 crossed Yagis. The new system has been configured for steering the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis in all 360o azimuth and 20o zenith angle, providing enhanced capability to study the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere and Ionosphere. The multi channel receiver system has been designed for Spaced Antenna (SA) and Interferometry/ Iamging applications. The new system has also been configured for radiating in circular polarization for its application in the Ionosphere Incoherent Scatter mode. The new active array MST radar at Very-High-Frequency (53-MHz) located at Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), a tropical station in India, will be used to enhance the observations of winds, turbulence during the passage of convective events over the radar site as deep convection occurs very often at tropical latitudes. The new configuration with enhanced average power, beam agility with multi-channel experiments will be a potential source for studying middle atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present the system configuration, new capabilities and the first results obtained using the new version of the MST Radar.

  14. Development of a Microphone Phased Array Capability for the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Bartram, Scott M.; Culliton, William G.; Becker, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    A new aeroacoustic measurement capability has been developed for use in open-jet testing in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14x22 tunnel). A suite of instruments has been developed to characterize noise source strengths, locations, and directivity for both semi-span and full-span test articles in the facility. The primary instrument of the suite is a fully traversable microphone phased array for identification of noise source locations and strengths on models. The array can be mounted in the ceiling or on either side of the facility test section to accommodate various test article configurations. Complementing the phased array is an ensemble of streamwise traversing microphones that can be placed around the test section at defined locations to conduct noise source directivity studies along both flyover and sideline axes. A customized data acquisition system has been developed for the instrumentation suite that allows for command and control of all aspects of the array and microphone hardware, and is coupled with a comprehensive data reduction system to generate information in near real time. This information includes such items as time histories and spectral data for individual microphones and groups of microphones, contour presentations of noise source locations and strengths, and hemispherical directivity data. The data acquisition system integrates with the 14x22 tunnel data system to allow real time capture of facility parameters during acquisition of microphone data. The design of the phased array system has been vetted via a theoretical performance analysis based on conventional monopole beamforming and DAMAS deconvolution. The performance analysis provides the ability to compute figures of merit for the array as well as characterize factors such as beamwidths, sidelobe levels, and source discrimination for the types of noise sources anticipated in the 14x22 tunnel. The full paper will summarize in detail the design of the instrumentation

  15. Single molecule detection using charge-coupled device array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, M.B.

    1992-07-29

    A technique for the detection of single fluorescent chromophores in a flowing stream is under development. This capability is an integral facet of a rapid DNA sequencing scheme currently being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. In previous investigations, the detection sensitivity was limited by the background Raman emission from the water solvent. A detection scheme based on a novel mode of operating a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) is being developed which should greatly enhance the discrimination between fluorescence from a single molecule and the background Raman scattering from the solvent. Register shifts between rows in the CCD are synchronized with the sample flow velocity so that fluorescence from a single molecule is collected in a single moving charge packet occupying an area approaching that of a single pixel while the background is spread evenly among a large number of pixels. Feasibility calculations indicate that single molecule detection should be achieved with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. An optical device capable of providing a structural color, and a corresponding method of manufacturing such a device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical device having a nano-structured surface capable of providing a structural color to a normal human viewer, the device made being manufactured in one single material. A plurality of nano- structured protrusions (5) is further arranged with a first...... respect to the average surface positions. The position, size, and randomness of the protrusions are arranged so as to provide, at least up to a maximum angle of incidence (A_in) with respect to a normal to the surface, an angle-independent substantially homogeneous structural color perception for a normal...

  17. 76 FR 60870 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof... 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  18. Large format focal plane array integration with precision alignment, metrology and accuracy capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jay; Parlato, Russell; Tracy, Gregory; Randolph, Max

    2015-09-01

    Focal plane alignment for large format arrays and faster optical systems require enhanced precision methodology and stability over temperature. The increase in focal plane array size continues to drive the alignment capability. Depending on the optical system, the focal plane flatness of less than 25μm (.001") is required over transition temperatures from ambient to cooled operating temperatures. The focal plane flatness requirement must also be maintained in airborne or launch vibration environments. This paper addresses the challenge of the detector integration into the focal plane module and housing assemblies, the methodology to reduce error terms during integration and the evaluation of thermal effects. The driving factors influencing the alignment accuracy include: datum transfers, material effects over temperature, alignment stability over test, adjustment precision and traceability to NIST standard. The FPA module design and alignment methodology reduces the error terms by minimizing the measurement transfers to the housing. In the design, the proper material selection requires matched coefficient of expansion materials minimizes both the physical shift over temperature as well as lowering the stress induced into the detector. When required, the co-registration of focal planes and filters can achieve submicron relative positioning by applying precision equipment, interferometry and piezoelectric positioning stages. All measurements and characterizations maintain traceability to NIST standards. The metrology characterizes the equipment's accuracy, repeatability and precision of the measurements.

  19. Enhancing power transfer capability through flexible AC transmission system devices:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadi M ALBATSH; Saad MEKHILEF; Shameem AHMAD; H MOKHLIS; M A HASSAN

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for power has significantly increased, but power generation and transmission capacities have not increased proportionally with this demand. As a result, power consumers suffer from various problems, such as voltage and frequency instability and power quality issues. To overcome these problems, the capacity for available power transfer of a transmission network should be enhanced. Researchers worldwide have addressed this issue by using flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices. We have conducted a comprehensive review of how FACTS controllers are used to enhance the avail-able transfer capability (ATC) and power transfer capability (PTC) of power system networks. This review includes a discussion of the classification of different FACTS devices according to different factors. The popularity and applications of these devices are discussed together with relevant statistics. The operating principles of six major FACTS devices and their application in increasing ATC and PTC are also presented. Finally, we evaluate the performance of FACTS devices in ATC and PTC im-provement with respect to different control algorithms.

  20. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Enhanced out-coupling factor of microcavity organic light-emitting devices with irregular microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongsun; Oh, Seung Seok; Youp Kim, Doo; Cho, Sang Hee; Kim, In Tae; Han, S. H.; Takezoe, Hideo; Choi, Eun Ha; Cho, Guang Sup; Seo, Yoon Ho; Oun Kang, Seung; Park, Byoungchoo

    2006-07-01

    We studied microcavity organic light-emitting devices with a microlens system. A microcavity for organic light-emitting devices (OLED) was fabricated by stacks of SiO2 and SiNx layers and a metal cathode together with the microlens array. Electroluminescence of the devices showed that color variation under the viewing angle due to the microcavity is suppressed remarkably by microlens arrays, which makes the use of devices acceptable in many applications. It was also demonstrated that the external out-coupling factor of the devise increases by a factor of ~1.8 with wide viewing angles compared to conventional OLEDs.

  2. Free surface height deformation upstream of an array of model marine hydrokinetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. R.; Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Krane, M.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in flow velocity and free surface height upstream of an array of model marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices are measured in small-scale flume. These models consist of a stationary perforated plate mounted to a cylinder. The perforated plates mimic the blockage ratio and head loss effects of rotating blades on the flow, and the cylinders represent typical support structures for MHK devices. Experimental results are used to for two purposes. First, they will be used validate numerical simulations being conducted in parallel. Second, they will be used to determine a spatial arrangement for a field testing array that optimizes energy extraction. The operating hypothesis is that the proper spatial arrangement of a MHK array can modify the incident flow so as to increase the fluid energy incident upon some of the MHK devices in the array, increasing the energy produced by the array. The testing is conducted in the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, and 1.25 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&HL) at Bucknell University. Within the facility a small-scale testing platform which consists of a nozzle insert is used to accelerate the flow into a test section (2 ft wide, 2.5 ft long, and 0.75 ft deep), where the cylinder arrays are located. The model MHK devices sizes are scaled using the test section floor turbulent boundary layer thickness. Flow field measurements are performed using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Mapping of the free surface is accomplished with an ultrasonic liquid level finder. Both devices are positioned using a programmable gantry system that has access to the entire test section. For each array configuration tested, both the free surface height and flow field upstream of the model MHK array are accurately mapped. These measurements are combined with the free surface height measurements to estimate the total fluid energy upstream of the array.

  3. Novel electrodeless-dielectrophoresis device for nanoparticle trapping using three-dimensional inverted-pyramid arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Chien-Lung Lin, Liang-Ju, Jr.; Kuo, Ju-Nan

    2016-05-01

    A novel electrodeless-dielectrophoresis (EDEP) device incorporating three-dimensional (3D) inverted-pyramid arrays is proposed for the trapping and separation of nanoparticles. The electrokinetic phenomena in the proposed device are investigated both numerically and experimentally. The results reveal that the pyramid structures induce a 3D squeezed electric field, which allows particle trapping with a lower driving voltage than that required in traditional two-dimensional (2D) EDEP devices. Overall, the proposed EDEP device provides a mass-producible solution for nanoparticle-trapping applications and overcomes the Poisson statistical limit inherent in 2D nanogap-based EDEP devices with smaller (pL) sample volumes.

  4. Kilopixel X-Ray Microcalorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics: Device Performance and Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Porst, J.-P.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing kilopixel arrays of TES microcalorimeters to enable high-resolution x-ray imaging spectrometers for future x-ray observatories and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Our current array design was targeted as a prototype for the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer proposed for the International X-ray Observatory, which calls for a 40×40-pixel core array of 300 micron devices with 2.5 eV energy resolution (at 6 keV). Here we present device characterization of our 32×32 arrays, including x-ray spectral performance of individual pixels within the array. We present our results in light of the understanding that our Mo/Au TESs act as weak superconducting links, causing the TES critical current (I(sub c)) and transition shape to oscillate with applied magnetic field (B). We show I(sub c)(B) measurements and discuss the uniformity of these measurements across the array, as well as implications regarding the uniformity of device noise and response. In addition, we are working to reduce pixel-to-pixel electrical and thermal crosstalk; we present recent test results from an array that has microstrip wiring and an angle-evaporated copper backside heatsinking layer, which provides copper coverage on the four sidewalls of the silicon wells beneath each pixel.

  5. Least-Square Collaborative Beamforming Linear Array for Steering Capability in Green Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NikNoordini NikAbdMalik; Mazlina Esa; Nurul Mu’azzah Abdul Latiff

    2016-01-01

    Abstract-This paper presents a collaborative beamforming (CB) technique to organize the sensor node’s location in a linear array for green wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this method, only selected clusters and active CB nodes are needed each time to perform CB in WSNs. The proposed least-square linear array (LSLA) manages to select nodes to perform as a linear antenna array (LAA), which is similar to and as outstanding as the conventional uniform linear array (ULA). The LSLA technique is also able to solve positioning error problems that exist in the random nodes deployment. The beampattern fluctuations have been analyzed due to the random positions of sensor nodes. Performances in terms of normalized power gains are given. It is demonstrated by a simulation that the proposed technique gives similar performances to the conventional ULA and at the same time exhibits lower complexity.

  6. Device and packaging considerations for MMIC-based millimeter-wave quasi-optical amplifier arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolias, Nicholas J.; Kazior, Thomas E.; Chen, Yan; Wright, Warren

    1999-11-01

    Practical implementation of millimeter-wave quasi-optical amplifier arrays will require high device uniformity across the array, efficient coupling to and from each gain device, good device-to-device isolation, and efficient heat removal. This paper presents techniques that address these issues for a 44 GHz MMIC-based design. To improve device uniformity, a double selective gate recess approach is introduced which results in a demonstrated 3 - 5X improvement in uniformity when compared to Raytheon's standard production pHEMT process. For packaging, direct backside interconnect technology (DBIT) is introduced as a bondwire-free scheme for connecting each amplifier to the array. This approach significantly reduces interconnect loss by reducing interconnect inductance. Measured insertion loss at 44 GHz for the DBIt transition is 0.35 dB compared to 2.3 dB for a typical bondwire transition produced on a manufacturing automated bonding machine. By eliminating bondwires which tend to radiate at millimeter wave frequencies, the DBIT approach also significantly improves the device-to-device isolation, thereby improving the array stability. The DBIT approach would not be viable if it could not effectively dissipate heat (a typical 25 watt array generates greater than 100 watts of heat). Finite element thermal analysis results are presented which show that the DBIT approach adds a tolerable 15.5 degree(s)C temperature rise over a standard solder-based MMIC die-attach to a heatsink. Thus, the DBIT approach, along with the double selective gate recess process, provides an attractive, low-loss, bondwire-free approach for producing uniform amplifier arrays.

  7. Automatic Release of Silicon Nanowire Arrays with a High Integrity for Flexible Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Luo; Li, Shuxin; He, Weiwei; Teng, Dayong; Wang, Ke; Ye, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    Automatic release and vertical transferring of silicon/silicon oxide nanowire arrays with a high integrity are demonstrated by an Ag-assisted ammonia etching method. By adding a water steaming step between Ag-assisted HF/H2O2 and ammonia etching to form a SiOx protective layer sheathing Si nanowires, we can tune the composition of the nanowires from SiOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) to Si nanowires. Ag plays a key role to the neat and uniform release of Si/SiOx nanowire arrays from Si wafer in the ammonia etching process. The vertical Si nanowire array device, with both sides having high-quality Ohmic contact, can be transferred to arbitrary substrates, especially on a flexible substrate. The method developed here offers a facile method to realize flexible Si nanowire array functional devices. PMID:24487460

  8. Automatic release of silicon nanowire arrays with a high integrity for flexible electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Luo; Li, Shuxin; He, Weiwei; Teng, Dayong; Wang, Ke; Ye, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    Automatic release and vertical transferring of silicon/silicon oxide nanowire arrays with a high integrity are demonstrated by an Ag-assisted ammonia etching method. By adding a water steaming step between Ag-assisted HF/H2O2 and ammonia etching to form a SiOx protective layer sheathing Si nanowires, we can tune the composition of the nanowires from SiOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) to Si nanowires. Ag plays a key role to the neat and uniform release of Si/SiOx nanowire arrays from Si wafer in the ammonia etching process. The vertical Si nanowire array device, with both sides having high-quality Ohmic contact, can be transferred to arbitrary substrates, especially on a flexible substrate. The method developed here offers a facile method to realize flexible Si nanowire array functional devices. PMID:24487460

  9. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koetse, M.M.; Rensing, P.A.; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Allard, B.A.M.; Meulendijks, N.N.M.M.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.; Zwart, R.M. de; Houben, R.J.; Enting, E.; Veen, S.J.J.F. van; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semi...

  10. Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate a compact integrated nanohole array-based surface plasmon resonance sensing device. The unit includes a LED light source, driving circuitry, CCD detector, microfluidic network and computer interface, all assembled from readily available commercial components. A dual-wavelength LED scheme was implemented to increase spectral diversity and isolate intensity variations to be expected in the field. The prototype shows bulk sensitivity of 266 pixel intensity units/RIU and a limit of detection of 6 × 10−4 RIU. Surface binding tests were performed, demonstrating functionality as a surface-based sensing system. This work is particularly relevant for low-cost point-of-care applications, especially those involving multiple tests and field studies. While nanohole arrays have been applied to many sensing applications, and their suitability to device integration is well established, this is the first demonstration of a fully integrated nanohole array-based sensing device.

  11. Dielectrophoresis device and method having non-uniform arrays for manipulating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Simmons, Blake

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic devices according to embodiments of the present invention include an inlet port, an outlet port, and a channel or chamber having a non-uniform array of insulating features on one or more surfaces. Electrodes are provided for generation of a spatially non-uniform electric field across the array. A voltage source, which may be an A.C. and/or a D.C. voltage source may be coupled to the electrodes for the generation of the electric field.

  12. Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver. [Improving Electrical Power and Communication Capabilities in Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) project will leverage several existing and on-going efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the design, development, fabrication, and test of a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaics for power generation and antenna elements for communication, are embedded. Photovoltaics is a method for converting solar energy into electricity using semiconductor materials. The system will provide higher power generation with a lower mass, smaller stowage volume, and lower cost than the state of the art solar arrays, while simultaneously enabling deployable antenna concepts.

  13. Integrated array of 2-mum antimonide-based single-photon counting devices

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, M.A.; Greszik, M.; Duerr, E.K.; Zayhowski, J.J.; Manfra, M. J.; Bailey, R J; Donnelly, J. P.; Turner, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    A 32x32 Sb-based Geiger-mode (GM) avalanche photodiode array, operating at 2 mum with three-dimensional imaging capability, is presented. The array is interfaced with a ROIC (readout integrated circuit) in which each pixel can detect a photon and record the arrival time. The hybridized unit for the 1000-element focal plane array, when operated at 77K with 1 V overbias range, shows an average dark count rate of 1.5 kHz. Three-dimensional range images of objects were acquired.

  14. Integrated array of 2-μm antimonide-based single-photon counting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, M A; Greszik, M; Duerr, E K; Zayhowski, J J; Manfra, M J; Bailey, R J; Donnelly, J P; Turner, G W

    2011-02-28

    A 32x32 Sb-based Geiger-mode (GM) avalanche photodiode array, operating at 2 μm with three-dimensional imaging capability, is presented. The array is interfaced with a ROIC (readout integrated circuit) in which each pixel can detect a photon and record the arrival time. The hybridized unit for the 1000-element focal plane array, when operated at 77K with 1 V overbias range, shows an average dark count rate of 1.5 kHz. Three-dimensional range images of objects were acquired. PMID:21369250

  15. A Novel CMOS Device Capable of Measuring Near-Field Thermal Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Chong; TANG Zhen-An; YU Jun

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design,fabrication,and characterization of a micro plane-plane geometry CMOS device,which has a heat emitter and a heat receiver,capable of studying the near-field radiative heat transfer at a 550nm gap.Under high vacuum conditions,the heat emitter is heated by supplying driving currents and heated again after removing the heat receiver.The heating power difference between the two kinds of heating experiments indicates the existence of a proximity effect in the heat transfer between the emitter and the receiver.Our experiments pave the way towards overcoming the construction difficulty of plane-plane geometry with a nanometer gap.

  16. MIEC (mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction)-based access devices for non-volatile crossbar memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several attractive applications call for the organization of memristive devices (or other resistive non-volatile memory (NVM)) into large, densely-packed crossbar arrays. While resistive-NVM devices frequently possess some degree of inherent nonlinearity (typically 3–30× contrast), the operation of large (> 1000×1000 device) arrays at low power tends to require quite large (> 1e7) ON-to-OFF ratios (between the currents passed at high and at low voltages). One path to such large nonlinearities is the inclusion of a distinct access device (AD) together with each of the state-bearing resistive-NVM elements. While such an AD need not store data, its list of requirements is almost as challenging as the specifications demanded of the memory device. Several candidate ADs have been proposed, but obtaining high performance without requiring single-crystal silicon and/or the high processing temperatures of the front-end-of-the-line—which would eliminate any opportunity for 3D stacking—has been difficult. We review our work at IBM Research—Almaden on high-performance ADs based on Cu-containing mixed-ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) materials [1–7]. These devices require only the low processing temperatures of the back-end-of-the-line, making them highly suitable for implementing multi-layer cross-bar arrays. MIEC-based ADs offer large ON/OFF ratios (>1e7), a significant voltage margin Vm (over which current <10 nA), and ultra-low leakage (< 10 pA), while also offering the high current densities needed for phase-change memory and the fully bipolar operation needed for high-performance RRAM. Scalability to critical lateral dimensions < 30 nm and thicknesses < 15 nm, tight distributions and 100% yield in large (512 kBit) arrays, long-term stability of the ultra-low leakage states, and sub-50 ns turn-ON times have all been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of these MIEC-based ADs shows that their operation depends on Cu+ mediated hole conduction. Circuit simulations

  17. A versatile method to grow localized arrays of nanowires for highly sensitive capacitive devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, A.; Yunus, S.;

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to increase the detection efficiency of the capacitive sensing devices, by growing vertically aligned nanowires arrays, localized and confined on small interdigited electrodes structures. The metallic tracks are made using optical lithography, and the nanowires are reali...... these considerations, a capacitive sensor structure with high active surface is sensitized with polyaniline, for pH detection. Reported data show that the sensitivity of the sensor is substantially improved by using nanowires arrays.......We propose a new approach to increase the detection efficiency of the capacitive sensing devices, by growing vertically aligned nanowires arrays, localized and confined on small interdigited electrodes structures. The metallic tracks are made using optical lithography, and the nanowires are...

  18. Optically pumped lasing and electroluminescence in ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, You-Liang; Wang, Peng; Chen, Kai; Zhao, Qing

    2015-11-01

    The preparation of a highly ordered ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array is introduced. Combining the merits of nanolaser and plasmonic Fabry-Perot nanolaser, we designed and fabricated an ultraviolet nanolaser with Ag-dielectric hybrid film-coated n-ZnO nanowires (NWs) array on p-GaN substrate. Ultraviolet random lasing behavior from the ZnO/GaN nano-heterojunction array has been demonstrated with both optical and electrical pumping, where the surface plasmon enhancement effect in the lasing process is discussed. The numerical simulation results show the surface plasmon at the Ag/SiO2/ZnO interface may be excited and strongly compress the wave-guided modes, which were found to optimize the lasing spectrum and increase the light intensity compared to the bare NWs array. With the electric pumping of the device, the electroluminescence parameters are characterized and the underlying mechanism is also discussed.

  19. Rapid laser fabrication of microlens array using colorless liquid photopolymer for AMOLED devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Jeong, Han-Wook; Lee, Kong-Soo; Yi, Junsin; Yoo, Jae-Chern; Cho, Myung-Woo; Cho, Sung-Hak; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2011-01-01

    Microlens array (MLA) is microfabricated using Ultra Violet (UV) laser for display device applications. A colorless liquid photopolymer, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) 60, is spin-coated and pre-cured via UV light for completing the laser process. The laser energy controlled by a galvano scanner is radiated on the surface of the NOA 60. A rapid thermal volume expansion inside the material creates microlens array when the Gaussian laser energy is absorbed. The fabrication process conditions for various shapes and densities of MLA using a non-contact surface profiler are investigated. Furthermore, we analyze the optical and display characteristics for the Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) devices. Optimized condition furnishes the OLED with the enhancement of light emission by 15%. We show that UV laser technique, which is installed with NOA 60 MLA layer, is eligible for improving the performance of the next generation display devices.

  20. Ultra Wide Wavelength Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Conventional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG Devices for Multi Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed new materials based conventional arrayed waveguide grating (AWG devices such as pure silica glass (SiO2, Lithium niobate (LiNbO3 , and gallium aluminum arsenide (Ga(1-xAl(xAs materials for multiplexing and demultiplexing applications in interval of 1.45 μm to 1.65 μm wavelength band, which including the short, conventional, long, and ultra long wavelength band. Moreover we have taken into account a comparison between these new materials within operating design parameters of conventional AWG devices such as diffraction order, length difference of adjacent waveguides, focal path length, free spectral range or region, maximum number of input/output wavelength channels, and maximum number of arrayed waveguides. As well as we have employed these materials based AWG to include Multi band applications under the effect of ambient temperature variations.

  1. Processing of vertical-aligned Si-nanowire-arrays for next generation CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Silicon nanowires experience a considerable increase in attention, as the number of publications in this field doubles about every two years. A variety of applications has been demonstrated, for example sensor-, optical-, and electronic devices. We demonstrate a fabrication scheme for Si-nanowire-arrays in a top-down-process by means of reactive-ion-etching down to 20 nm diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:20 for novel electronic device architectures. Furthermore, we show the applicability of atomic layer deposition to coat such structures with high-k oxides and metal-gate layers. (author)

  2. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  3. Virtual 3D interactive system with embedded multiwavelength optical sensor array and sequential devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Yi-Pai; Hu, Kuo-Jui

    2012-06-01

    We proposed a virtual 3D-touch system by bare finger, which can detect the 3-axis (x, y, z) information of finger. This system has multi-wavelength optical sensor array embedded on the backplane of TFT panel and sequentail devices on the border of TFT panel. We had developed reflecting mode which can be worked by bare finger for the 3D interaction. A 4-inch mobile 3D-LCD with this proposed system was successfully been demonstrated already.

  4. Nonvolatile Resistance Random Access Memory Devices Based on ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Liang-Wen Ji; Zhi-Pei Jiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM) device based on ZnO nanorod arrays has been fabricated and characterized. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod layers (NRLs) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes using a hydrothermal process/ chemical bath deposition (CBD). It can be found the Ag/ZnO NRL/ITO capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching behavior may be related to the oxygen vacancies and/or zinc interstitials confin...

  5. Exploration of maximum count rate capabilities for large-area photon counting arrays based on polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua

    2016-03-01

    Pixelated photon counting detectors with energy discrimination capabilities are of increasing clinical interest for x-ray imaging. Such detectors, presently in clinical use for mammography and under development for breast tomosynthesis and spectral CT, usually employ in-pixel circuits based on crystalline silicon - a semiconductor material that is generally not well-suited for economic manufacture of large-area devices. One interesting alternative semiconductor is polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si), a thin-film technology capable of creating very large-area, monolithic devices. Similar to crystalline silicon, poly-Si allows implementation of the type of fast, complex, in-pixel circuitry required for photon counting - operating at processing speeds that are not possible with amorphous silicon (the material currently used for large-area, active matrix, flat-panel imagers). The pixel circuits of two-dimensional photon counting arrays are generally comprised of four stages: amplifier, comparator, clock generator and counter. The analog front-end (in particular, the amplifier) strongly influences performance and is therefore of interest to study. In this paper, the relationship between incident and output count rate of the analog front-end is explored under diagnostic imaging conditions for a promising poly-Si based design. The input to the amplifier is modeled in the time domain assuming a realistic input x-ray spectrum. Simulations of circuits based on poly-Si thin-film transistors are used to determine the resulting output count rate as a function of input count rate, energy discrimination threshold and operating conditions.

  6. Heat transfer capability of a thermosyphon heat transport device with experimental and CFD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced nuclear reactor designs envisage use of passive means of heat transfer during normal operation and accidental conditions. Thermosyphon device is a passive device that can be used for heat exchange applications where heat source and heat sink are separated by some distance. Thermosyphon device operates on natural circulation principle in which the flow is driven by thermally generated density gradients without use of pumps. This paper deals with studies on thermal hydraulic behaviour of a thermosyphon device. Experiments are performed in the thermosyphon device using water as working fluid. CFD simulations with FLUENT are also carried out to simulate experimental conditions. The results obtained from CFD studies are compared with experimental data. (author)

  7. The effect of array spacing on scour around a marine hydrokinetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, G.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the study was to analyze the scour hole dimensions and scour rates around a marine hydrokinetic (MHK) device for various upstream locations of perforated disks. The MHK device is a bottom mounted, two-bladed horizontal axis turbine. Perforated disks model the wake effects of turbines that would be located upstream of the MHK device. While it is known that a V-array configuration is advantageous for power extraction, the effects on scour are not fully understood. The analysis focuses on the effect of variable spacing between the upstream disks and vertex device on scour. Experiments are performed in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. Sediment size (d50 = 790 microns) and Reynolds number based on the support structure diameter (ReD = 10200) are held constant for all tests. For each case, bed form topology was measured after a three hour time interval using a two-dimensional bed profiler. Time based scour depth is observed using incremental markings at the base of the support structure. Results show that the dimensions of the scour hole around the support structure of the MHK device increase as the spacing between devices is decreased.

  8. Glad nanostructured arrays with enhanced carrier collection and light trapping for photoconductive and photovoltaic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansizoglu, Hilal

    Solar energy harvesting has been of great interest for researchers over the past 50 years. Main emphasis has been on developing high quality materials with low defect density and proper band gaps. However, high cost of bulk materials and insufficient light absorption in thin films led to utilization of semiconductor nanostructures in photovoltaics and photonics. Light trapping abilities of nanostructures can provide high optical absorption whereas core/shell nanostructured arrays can allow enhanced charge carrier collection. However, most of the nanofabrication methods that can produce uniform nanostructure geometries are limited in materials, dimensions, and not compatible with industrial production systems. Therefore, it is essential to develop innovative low-cost fabrication approaches that can address these issues. The primary goal of this project is to investigate light trapping and carrier collection properties of glancing angle deposited (GLAD) nanostructured arrays for high-efficiency, low-cost photoconductive and photovoltaic devices using characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and time resolved photocurrent measurements. Indium sulfide (In2S3) has been chosen as a model material system in this study. GLAD nanostructured arrays of vertical rods, screws, springs, zigzags and tilted rods were fabricated and characterized. A strong dependence of optical absorption on the shapes of nanostructures is observed from UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A simulation study using finite difference time domain (FDTD) shows that introducing 3D geometry results in diffuse scattering of light and leads to high optical absorption. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine a simple and scalable fabrication technique for conformal and uniform shell coatings. The results suggest that an atomic flux with angular distribution, which can be

  9. Vertically Aligned Nanostructured Arrays of Inorganic Materials: Synthesis, Distinctive Physical Phenomena, and Device Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Jesus Manuel

    The manifestation of novel physical phenomena upon scaling materials to finite size has inspired new device concepts that take advantage of the distinctive electrical, mechanical, and optical, properties of nanostructures. The development of fabrication approaches for the preparation of their 1D nanostructured form, such as nanowires and nanotubes, has contributed greatly to advancing fundamental understanding of these systems, and has spurred the integration of these materials in novel electronics, photonic devices, power sources, and energy scavenging constructs. Significant progress has been achieved over the last decade in the preparation of ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes, II---VI and III---V semiconductors, and some binary oxides such as ZnO. In contrast, relatively less attention has been focused on layered materials with potential for electrochemical energy storage. Here, we describe the catalyzed vapor transport growth of vertical arrays of orthorhombic V2O 5 nanowires. In addition, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to precisely probe the alignment, uniformity in crystal growth direction, and electronic structure of single-crystalline V2O5 nanowire arrays prepared by a cobalt-catalyzed vapor transport process. The dipole selection rules operational for core-level electron spectroscopy enable angle-dependant NEXAFS spectroscopy to be used as a sensitive probe of the anisotropy of these systems and provides detailed insight into bond orientation and the symmetry of the frontier orbital states. The experimental spectra are matched to previous theoretical predictions and allow experimental verification of features such as the origin of the split-off conduction band responsible for the n-type conductivity of V2O5 and the strongly anisotropic nature of vanadyl-oxygen-derived (V=O) states thought to be involved in catalysis. We have also invested substantial effort in obtaining shape and size control of metal oxide

  10. Structure for Improving Short-Circuit Capability and the Method for Protecting the IGBT Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TILMATINE, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A short-circuit is a serious situation in a circuit. That is why the determination of the fault current during the operation of the IGBT requires suitable gestures in order to realise a better and reliable operation for the power converters. Thus, it is necessary to know the extreme operating limits for these devices since the use of the IGBT in power converters often subjects them to certain significant electric constraints such as, the short-circuit and the turn OFF on the inductive load. This paper presents then a means of protection for a safe and precise shutdown of the fault current in the device. This circuit allows the IGBT to operate without risks, and permits a reduction of the conduction losses in the device without compromising the characteristics of protection of the short-circuit.

  11. Methods for separating a fluid, and devices capable of separating a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-05-14

    Methods and apparatus for separating fluids are disclosed. We have discovered that, surprisingly, providing an open pore structure between a wick and an open flow channel resulted in superior separation performance. A novel and compact integrated device components for conducting separations are also described.

  12. Organic photovoltaic devices with concurrent solar energy harvesting and charge storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshi, Arash; Tevi, Tete; Rahimi, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    Due to large variation of the solar energy availability in a day, energy storage is required in many applications when solar cells are used. However, application of external energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, increases the cost of solar energy systems and requires additional charging circuitry. This combination is bulky and relatively expensive, which is not ideal for many applications. In this work, a novel idea is presented for making electrochemical devices with dual properties of solar energy harvesting and internal charge storage. The device is essentially a supercapacitor with a photoactive electrode. Energy harvesting occurs through light absorption at one of the electrodes made of a composite of a conducting polymer (i.e. PEDOT:PSS) and a Porphyrin dye. The energy storage takes place in the both photoactive and counter electrode (CE). We have studied the effect of the CE material on the device characteristics. Using Y-Carbon (a commercial available electrode), an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V was achieved in light across the cell with ~1 mF capacitance. The other two choices for CE were activated carbon and carbon nanotube based electrodes. The cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the Y Carbon electrode was a better match.

  13. Non-Intrusive Device for Real-Time Circulatory System Assessment with Advanced Signal Processing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, E.; Postolache, O.; Girão, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a device that uses three cardiography signals to characterize several important parameters of a subject's circulatory system. Using electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram, three heart rate estimates are acquired from beat-to-beat time interval extraction. Furthermore, pre-ejection period, pulse transit time (PTT), and pulse arrival time (PAT) are computed, and their long-term evolution is analyzed. The system estimates heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) from the heart rate and PAT time series, to infer the activity of the cardiac autonomic system. The software component of the device evaluates the frequency content of HRV and BPV, and also their fractal dimension and entropy, thus providing a detailed analysis of the time series' regularity and complexity evolution, to allow personalized subject evaluation.

  14. Synthetic Receive Beamforming and Image Acquisition Capabilities Using an 8 x 128 1.75D Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Anna T.; Gammelmark, Kim; Dahl, Jeremy J.;

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging can be improved with higher order arrays through elevation dynamic focusing in future, higher channel count systems. However, modifications to current system hardware could yield increased imaging depth-of-field with 1.75D arrays (arrays with individually addressable elements...

  15. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors. PMID:22852677

  16. Wound healing with nonthermal microplasma jets generated in arrays of hourglass microcavity devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Park, Chan; Lee, Joong Seob; Heui Kim, Ji; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Cho, Jin Hoon; Kim, Min Hwan; Sun, Peter Peng; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, J. Gary

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies are reported in which artificial wounds in rat epidermal and dermal tissue have been treated by arrays of sub-500 µm diameter, low temperature plasma microjets. Fabricated in Al/nanoporous alumina (Al2O3) by wet chemical and microablation processes, each plasma jet device has a double parabolic (hourglass) structure, and arrays as large as 6  ×  6 devices with 500 µm diameter apertures have been tested to date. Treatment of 1 cm2 acute epidermal wounds for 20-40 s daily with an array of microplasma jets generated in He feedstock gas promoted wound recovery significantly, as evidenced by tissue histology and measured wound area. Seven days after wound formation, the wound area of the untreated control was 40  ±  2% of its initial value, whereas that for an identical wound treated twice daily for 20 s was 9  ±  2% of its original surface area. No histological distinctions were observed between wounds treated twice each day for 10 or 20 s - only the full recovery time differed. Spectra produced in the visible and ultraviolet by He jets in room air are dominated by atomic oxygen (3p 5P → 3s 5S) at 777 nm and violet fluorescence (391.4 nm) from N2+, a species produced when the He (2s 3S1) metastable is deactivated by Penning ionization of N2. Although the combined cross-sectional area of the jets in the array is only 7% of the wound area, the microplasma treatment results in spatially uniform, and accelerated, wound healing. Both effects are attributed to the increased surface area of the jet array (relative to a single jet having an equivalent diameter) and the concomitant enhancement in the generation of molecular radicals, and metastable atoms and molecules (such as {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft(A{}{}3 Σ \\text{u}+\\right) ).

  17. Cell motility regulation on a stepped micro pillar array device (SMPAD) with a discrete stiffness gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sujin; Hong, Juhee; Lee, Junghoon

    2016-02-28

    Our tissues consist of individual cells that respond to the elasticity of their environment, which varies between and within tissues. To better understand mechanically driven cell migration, it is necessary to manipulate the stiffness gradient across a substrate. Here, we have demonstrated a new variant of the microfabricated polymeric pillar array platform that can decouple the stiffness gradient from the ECM protein area. This goal is achieved via a "stepped" micro pillar array device (SMPAD) in which the contact area with the cell was kept constant while the diameter of the pillar bodies was altered to attain the proper mechanical stiffness. Using double-step SU-8 mold fabrication, the diameter of the top of every pillar was kept uniform, whereas that of the bottom was changed, to achieve the desired substrate rigidity. Fibronectin was immobilized on the pillar tops, providing a focal adhesion site for cells. C2C12, HeLa and NIH3T3 cells were cultured on the SMPAD, and the motion of the cells was observed by time-lapse microscopy. Using this simple platform, which produces a purely physical stimulus, we observed that various types of cell behavior are affected by the mechanical stimulus of the environment. We also demonstrated directed cell migration guided by a discrete rigidity gradient by varying stiffness. Interestingly, cell velocity was highest at the highest stiffness. Our approach enables the regulation of the mechanical properties of the polymeric pillar array device and eliminates the effects of the size of the contact area. This technique is a unique tool for studying cellular motion and behavior relative to various stiffness gradients in the environment. PMID:26787193

  18. A molecular keypad lock: a photochemical device capable of authorizing password entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, David; Felder, Clifford E; Melman, Galina; Shanzer, Abraham

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes a new concept in the way information can be protected at the molecular scale. By harnessing the principles of molecular Boolean logic, we have designed a molecular device that mimics the operation of an electronic keypad lock, e.g., a common security circuit used for numerous applications, in which access to an object or data is to be restricted to a limited number of persons. What distinguishes this lock from a simple molecular logic gate is the fact that its output signals are dependent not only on the proper combination of the inputs but also on the correct order by which these inputs are introduced. In other words, one needs to know the exact passwords that open this lock. The different password entries are coded by a combination of two chemical and one optical input signals, which can activate, separately, blue or green fluorescence output channels from pyrene or fluorescein fluorophores. The information in each channel is a single-bit light output signal that can be used to authorize a user, to verify authentication of a product, or to initiate a higher process. This development not only opens the way for a new class of molecular decision-making devices but also adds a new dimension of protection to existing defense technologies, such as cryptography and steganography, previously achieved with molecules. PMID:17212414

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensing device based on a piezoelectric array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Abbi; Masamune, Ken; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Lamperth, Michael; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a widely used medical technique, one of the drawbacks of which is the loss of direct sense of touch during the operation. Palpation is the use of fingertips to explore and make fast assessments of tissue morphology. Although technologies are developed to equip minimally invasive surgery tools with haptic feedback capabilities, the majority focus on tissue stiffness profiling and tool-tissue interaction force measurement. For greatly increased diagnostic capability, a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensor design is proposed, which allows minimally invasive surgery to be performed under image guidance, combining the strong capability of magnetic resonance imaging soft tissue and intuitive palpation. The sensing unit is based on a piezoelectric sensor methodology, which conforms to the stringent mechanical and electrical design requirements imposed by the magnetic resonance environment The sensor mechanical design and the device integration to a 0.2 Tesla open magnetic resonance imaging scanner are described, together with the device's magnetic resonance compatibility testing. Its design limitations and potential future improvements are also discussed. A tactile sensing unit based on a piezoelectric sensor principle is proposed, which is designed for magnetic resonance imaging guided interventions. PMID:22913103

  20. Feasibility study of using a Zener diode as the selection device for bipolar RRAM and WORM memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-bar arrays are usually used for the high density application of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. However, cross-talk interference limits an increase in the integration density. In this paper, the Zener diode is proposed as a selection device to suppress the sneak current in bipolar RRAM arrays. Measurement results show that the Zener diode can act as a good selection device, and the sneak current can be effectively suppressed. The readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without the selection device. Due to the improvement for the reading disturbance, the size of the cross-bar array can be enhanced to more than 103 × 103. Furthermore, the possibility of using a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) cross-bar array is also demonstrated by connecting the Zener diode and the bipolar RRAM in series. These results strongly suggest that using a Zener diode as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize high density bipolar RRAM arrays. (paper)

  1. Multichannel microchip electrophoresis device fabricated in polycarbonate with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Hupert, Mateusz L; Patterson, Donald; Liu, Changgeng; Galloway, Michelle; Stryjewski, Wieslaw; Goettert, Jost; Soper, Steven A

    2007-02-01

    A 16-channel microfluidic chip with an integrated contact conductivity sensor array is presented. The microfluidic network consisted of 16 separation channels that were hot-embossed into polycarbonate (PC) using a high-precision micromilled metal master. All channels were 40 microm deep and 60 microm wide with an effective separation length of 40 mm. A gold (Au) sensor array was lithographically patterned onto a PC cover plate and assembled to the fluidic chip via thermal bonding in such a way that a pair of Au microelectrodes (60 microm wide with a 5 microm spacing) was incorporated into each of the 16 channels and served as independent contact conductivity detectors. The spacing between the corresponding fluidic reservoirs for each separation channel was set to 9 mm, which allowed for loading samples and buffers to all 40 reservoirs situated on the microchip in only five pipetting steps using an 8-channel pipettor. A printed circuit board (PCB) with platinum (Pt) wires was used to distribute the electrophoresis high-voltage to all reservoirs situated on the fluidic chip. Another PCB was used for collecting the conductivity signals from the patterned Au microelectrodes. The device performance was evaluated using microchip capillary zone electrophoresis (mu-CZE) of amino acid, peptide, and protein mixtures as well as oligonucleotides that were separated via microchip capillary electrochromatography (mu-CEC). The separations were performed with an electric field (E) of 90 V/cm and were completed in less than 4 min in all cases. The conductivity detection was carried out using a bipolar pulse voltage waveform with a pulse amplitude of +/-0.6 V and a frequency of 6.0 kHz. The conductivity sensor array concentration limit of detection (SNR = 3) was determined to be 7.1 microM for alanine. The separation efficiency was found to be 6.4 x 10(4), 2.0 x 10(3), 4.8 x 10(3), and 3.4 x 10(2) plates for the mu-CEC of the oligonucleotides and mu-CZE of the amino acids, peptides

  2. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley C Henderson

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  3. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kelley C.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Ratliff, Amy E.; Crabb, Donna M.; Sheppard, Edward S.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Waites, Ken B.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Krause, Duncan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS) biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl) and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA) of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains. PMID:26121242

  4. In-situ device integration of large-area patterned organic nanowire arrays for high-performance optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Zhang, Xiujuan; Pan, Huanhuan; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiwei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2013-01-01

    Single-crystalline organic nanowires (NWs) are important building blocks for future low-cost and efficient nano-optoelectronic devices due to their extraordinary properties. However, it remains a critical challenge to achieve large-scale organic NW array assembly and device integration. Herein, we demonstrate a feasible one-step method for large-area patterned growth of cross-aligned single-crystalline organic NW arrays and their in-situ device integration for optical image sensors. The integrated image sensor circuitry contained a 10 × 10 pixel array in an area of 1.3 × 1.3 mm(2), showing high spatial resolution, excellent stability and reproducibility. More importantly, 100% of the pixels successfully operated at a high response speed and relatively small pixel-to-pixel variation. The high yield and high spatial resolution of the operational pixels, along with the high integration level of the device, clearly demonstrate the great potential of the one-step organic NW array growth and device construction approach for large-scale optoelectronic device integration. PMID:24287887

  5. Characterization of the harvesting capabilities of an ionic polymer metal composite device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvesting systems capable of transforming dusty environmental energy into electrical energy have aroused considerable interest in the last two decades. Several research works have focused on the transformation of mechanical environmental vibrations into electrical energy. Most of the research activity refers to classic piezoelectric ceramic materials, but more recently piezoelectric polymer materials have been considered. In this paper, a novel point of view regarding harvesting systems is proposed: using ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) as generating materials. The goal of this paper is the development of a model able to predict the energy harvesting capabilities of an IPMC material working in air. The model is developed by using the vibration transmission theory of an Euler–Bernoulli cantilever IPMC beam. The IPMC is considered to work in its linear elastic region with a viscous damping contribution ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz. An identification process based on experimental measurements performed on a Nafion® 117 membrane is used to estimate the material parameters. The model validation shows a good agreement between simulated and experimental results. The model is used to predict the optimal working region and the optimal geometrical parameters for the maximum power generation capacity of a specific membrane. The model takes into account two restrictions. The first is due to the beam theory, which imposes a maximum ratio of 0.5 between the cantilever width and length. The second restriction is to force the cantilever to oscillate with a specific strain; in this paper a 0.3% strain is considered. By considering these two assumptions as constraints on the model, it is seen that IPMC materials could be used as low-power generators in a low-frequency region. The optimal dimensions for the Nafion® 117 membrane are length = 12 cm and width = 6.2 cm, and the electric power generation is 3 nW at a vibrating frequency of 7.09 rad s−1. IPMC materials can

  6. Piezoelectric actuator-based cell microstretch device with real-time imaging capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Deguchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular response to physical stretch has been extensively studied as a regulator of various physiological functions. For live cell microscopy combined with stretch experiments, cells are typically seeded on an extensible elastomer sheet. In this case, the position of the cells of interest tends to shift out of the field of view upon stretch, making real-time imaging of identical cells difficult. To circumvent this situation, here we describe a robust methodology in which these cell shifts are minimized. Cells are plated in a custom-designed stretch chamber with an elastomer sheet of a small cell culture area. The cell-supporting chamber is stretched on an inverted microscope by using a piezoelectric actuator that provides small, but precisely controlled displacements. Even under this small displacement within the filed of view, our device allows the cells to undergo physiologically relevant levels of stretch. Identical cells can thus be continuously observed during stretching, thereby potentially enabling imaging of stretch-triggered fast dynamics.

  7. Thermal imager based on the array light sensor device of 128×128 CdHgTe-photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Reva V. P.; Golenkov A. G.; Zabudskiy V. V.; Korinets S. V.; Tsybriy Z. F.; Gumenjuk-Sichevska J. V.; Bunchuk S. G.; Apatskaya M. V.; Lysiuk I. А.; Smoliy М. I.

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigation of developed thermal imager for middle (3—5 µm) infrared region are presented and its applications features are discussed. The thermal imager consists of cooled to 80 K 128×128 diodes focal plane array on the base of cadmium–mercury–telluride compound and cryostat with temperature checking system. The photodiode array is bonded with readout device (silicon focal processor) via indium microcontacts. The measured average value of noise equivalent temperature differe...

  8. Wireless electro-optic switching network for optical fiber sensor array using MEMS-IDT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1999-09-01

    Optical fiber arrays have been proposed for signal paths in various civilian and military controls as a means of offering advanced sensing functions not available in electronic systems. To implement optic fiber sensors on various control systems, a proper electro-optic architecture (EOA) with a bar- coded electro-optical switch needs to be studied. In this paper, a design of such EO switch is proposed which can be operated remotely. Lithium Niobate is chosen as the EO material. The MEMS-IDT device is designed with Lithium Niobate as a substrate with IDT and a set of floating reflectors. The reflectors can be programmable and thus a bar-coded switch can be fabricated. The electrostatic field between the reflectors and the Lithium Niobate serves as the fast acting switch in this application.

  9. Cancer Cell Analyses at the Single Cell-Level Using Electroactive Microwell Array Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs, shed from primary tumors and disseminated into peripheral blood, are playing a major role in metastasis. Even after isolation of CTCs from blood, the target cells are mixed with a population of other cell types. Here, we propose a new method for analyses of cell mixture at the single-cell level using a microfluidic device that contains arrayed electroactive microwells. Dielectrophoretic (DEP force, induced by the electrodes patterned on the bottom surface of the microwells, allows efficient trapping and stable positioning of single cells for high-throughput biochemical analyses. We demonstrated that various on-chip analyses including immunostaining, viability/apoptosis assay and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH at the single-cell level could be conducted just by applying specific reagents for each assay. Our simple method should greatly help discrimination and analysis of rare cancer cells among a population of blood cells.

  10. Implementation of a multi-spectral color imaging device without color filter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A. F.; Zaraga, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the use of the Transverse Field Detector (TFD) as a device for multispectral image acquisition is proposed. The TFD is a color imaging pixel capable of color reconstruction without color filters. Its basic working principle is based on the generation of a suitable electric field configuration inside a Silicon depleted region by means of biasing voltages applied to surface contacts. With respect to previously proposed methods for performing multispectral capture, the TFD has a unique characteristic of electrically tunable spectral responses. This feature allows capturing an image with different sets of spectral responses (RGB, R'G'B', and so on) simply by tuning the device biasing voltages in multiple captures. In this way no hardware complexity (no external filter wheels or varying sources) is added with respect to a colorimetric device. The estimation of the spectral reflectance of the area imaged by a TFD pixel is based in this work on a linear combination of six eigenfunctions. It is shown that a spectral reconstruction can be obtained either (1) using two subsequent image captures that generate six TFD spectral responses or (2) using a new asymmetric biasing scheme, which allows the implementation of five spectral responses for each TFD pixel site in a single configuration, definitely allowing one-shot multispectral imaging.

  11. The vertical photoconductor: A novel device structure suitable for HgCdTe two-dimensional infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliquini, J. F.; Faraone, L.

    1997-06-01

    A novel photoconductive device structure is proposed and described that has been designed specifically as a sensing element for high density two-dimensional infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) applications. Although the design concept can be applied to a variety of epitaxially grown HgCdTe material, optimum performance can be achieved using n-type HgCdTe semiconductor material consisting of epitaxially grown heterostructure layers in which a two-dimensional mosaic of vertical design photoconductors are fabricated. The heterostructure layers provide high performance devices at greatly reduced power dissipation levels, while the vertical design allows for the high density integration of photoconductors in a two-dimensional array geometry with high fill factor. The salient feature of the proposed device structure is that the bias field is applied in the vertical direction such that it is parallel to the impinging infrared radiation. A comprehensive one-dimensional model is presented for the vertical design photoconductor, which is subsequently used to determine the optimum design parameters in order to achieve maximum responsivity at the lowest possible power dissipation level. It is found that the proposed device structure has the potential to be used in the fabrication of long wavelength IRFPAs approaching 10 6 pixels using 25 × 25 μm 2 detector elements. Furthermore, this is achieved with individual device detectivities that are background limited and for a total array power dissipation of less than 0.1 W using a pulsed biasing scheme. Performance issues such as response uniformity, pixel yield, fill factor, crosstalk, power dissipation, detector impedance, array architecture, and maximum array size are discussed in relation to the suitability of the proposed vertical photoconductor structure for use in IRFPA modules. When considering IRFPA operability, it is found that in many cases the proposed technology has the potential to deliver significant advantages, such

  12. Phase control and beam steering of semiconductor laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    The operational principles and a possible device configuration of one dimensional monolithically integrated semiconductor laser arrays are described. The output beam of the array can be electronically steered. Devices of the type can find applications in optical communication systems where the power levels needed are above the capability of a single laser device.

  13. VLBI observations of bright AGN jets with KVN and VERA Array (KaVA): Evaluation of Imaging Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Kino, Motoki; Sohn, Bong Won; Akiyama, Kazunori; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Trippe, Sascha; Hada, Kazuhiro; Jung, Taehyun; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Dodson, Richard; Koyama, Shoko; Honma, Mareki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Chung, Aeree; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Han, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Joeng-Sook; Lee, Jeewon; Lee, Jeong Ae; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sorai, Kazuo; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Bae, Jaehan; Byun, Do-Young; Cho, Se-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Hyunsoo; Chung, Moon-Hee; Han, Seog-Tae; Hirota, Tomoya; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Je, Do-Heung; Jike, Takaaki; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Jiman; Kang, Yong-Woo; Kan-ya, Yukitoshi; Kanaguchi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Bong Gyu; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Jaeheon; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Mikyoung; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kono, Yusuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Sang Hyun; Minh, Young Chol; Matsumoto, Naoko; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Oh, Chung Sik; Oh, Se-Jin; Park, Sun-Youp; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Sasao, Tetsuo; Shibata, Katsunori M; Song, Min-Gyu; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Wi, Seog-Oh; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Yun, Young Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Korean very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) Array (KaVA) is the first international VLBI array dedicated to high-frequency (23 and 43 GHz bands) observations in East Asia. Here, we report the first imaging observations of three bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) known for their complex morphologies: 4C 39.25, 3C 273, and M 87. This is one of the initial result of KaVA early science. Our KaVA images reveal extended outflows with complex substructure such as knots and limb brightening, in agreement with previous Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations. Angular resolutions are better than 1.4 and 0.8 milliarcsecond at 23 GHz and 43 GHz, respectively. KaVA achieves a high dynamic range of ~1000, more than three times the value achieved by VERA. We conclude that KaVA is a powerful array with a great potential for the study of AGN outflows, at least comparable to the best existing radio interferometric arrays.

  14. Single molecule detection using charge-coupled device array technology. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, M.B.

    1992-07-29

    A technique for the detection of single fluorescent chromophores in a flowing stream is under development. This capability is an integral facet of a rapid DNA sequencing scheme currently being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. In previous investigations, the detection sensitivity was limited by the background Raman emission from the water solvent. A detection scheme based on a novel mode of operating a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) is being developed which should greatly enhance the discrimination between fluorescence from a single molecule and the background Raman scattering from the solvent. Register shifts between rows in the CCD are synchronized with the sample flow velocity so that fluorescence from a single molecule is collected in a single moving charge packet occupying an area approaching that of a single pixel while the background is spread evenly among a large number of pixels. Feasibility calculations indicate that single molecule detection should be achieved with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Sensor Array Devices Utilizing Nano-structured Metal-oxides for Hazardous Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andio, Mark A.

    Methane and carbon monoxide are two hazardous gases which require continuous monitoring by gas sensors in underground coal mines for explosion prevention and toxicity, respectively. This work explored implementing miniaturized gas sensors in this area to simultaneously detect both gases for benefits of increased portability and reduced power consumption of the chemiresistive gas sensor device. The focus of this research was to understand how the particle size, morphology, and microstructure of the metaloxide film affected the gas sensor performance to the two gases of interest on miniaturized gas sensor devices in the form of microhotplate platforms. This was done through three main research studies. The first was conducted by growing SnO2 nanowires from SnO 2 particles using an Au-catalyst. Growth conditions including temperature, time, and oxygen partial pressure were explored to determine the formation aspects of the SnO2 nanowires. Gas sensor studies were completed that provided evidence that the SnO2 nanowires increased detection to a fixed concentration of carbon monoxide compared to SnO2 particles without nano-structure formation. A second research study was performed to compare the gas sensor performance of SnO2 nanoparticles, hierarchical particles, and micron-size particles. The nanoparticles were developed into an ink and deposited via ink-jet printing on the microhotplate substrates to control the microstructure of the metal-oxide film. By preventing agglomeration of the nanoparticle film, the SnO2 nanoparticles displayed similar gas sensor performance to methane and carbon monoxide as the hierarchical particles. Both nano-structures had much higher gas sensor response than the micron-size particles which confirms the surface area of the metal-oxide film is critical for reaction of the analyte gas at the surface. The last research study presented in the dissertation describes an oxide nanoparticle array developed for detecting methane and carbon

  16. Seismic Proofing Capability of the Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper as an Active Interaction Control Device with Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of natural disasters has increased recently, causing buildings’ damages which need to be reinforced to prevent their destruction. To improve the seismic proofing capability of Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper, it is converted to an Active Interaction Control device and synchronous control and predictive control methods are proposed. The full-scale shaking table test is used to test and verify the seismic proofing capability of the proposed AIC with these control methods. This study examines the shock absorption of test structure under excitation by external forces, influences of prediction time, stiffness of the auxiliary structure, synchronous switching, and asynchronous switching on the control effects, and the influence of control locations of test structure on the control effects of the proposed AIC. Test results show that, for the proposed AIC with synchronous control and predictive control of 0.10~0.13 seconds, the displacement reduction ratios are greater than 71%, the average acceleration reduction ratios are, respectively, 36.2% and 36.9%, at the 1st and 2nd floors, and the average base shear reduction ratio is 29.6%. The proposed AIC with suitable stiffeners for the auxiliary structure at each floor with synchronous control and predictive control provide high reliability and practicability for seismic proofing of buildings.

  17. Framework and limits on power density in wind and hydrokinetic device arrays using systematic flow manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Wind and hydrokinetic turbine array performance suffers because the wakes of upstream turbines diminish flow to downstream turbines. Here we analyze systematic deflection of the wakes to direct unimpeded flow onto the downstream turbines and increase the area power density. We examine the case of an abstract 1D turbine-deflector array aligned parallel to a 2D free stream flow, in which case the array presents negligible frontal area to the flow without deflection. Using the framework of inviscid fluid dynamics, the flow manipulation is decomposed into flow deflection due to bound vorticity in the array, and energy extraction resulting from free vorticity shed by the array. While this general framework is agnostic to the technological details, it captures the geometry of a vertical fence of turbines and deflectors along the centerline of a river, minimizing the array footprint. We find a localized array can direct significant kinetic energy through itself, while having a minimal impact on array efficiency; the...

  18. Shielding of Sensitive Electronic Devices in Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Using Arrays of Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirou, S. V.; Tsialios, P.; Loudos, G.

    2015-09-01

    In Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia (MNH) an externally applied electromagnetic field transfers energy to the magnetic nanoparticles in the body, which in turn convert this energy into heat, thus locally heating the tissue they are located in. This external electromagnetic field is sufficiently strong so as to cause interference and affect sensitive electronic equipment. Standard shielding of magnetic fields involves Faraday cages or coating with high-permeability shielding alloys; however, these techniques cannot be used with optically sensitive devices, such as those employed in Optical Coherence Tomography or radionuclide imaging. In this work we present a method to achieve magnetic shielding using an array of coils. The magnetic field generated by a single coil was calculated using the COMSOL physics simulation toolkit. Software was written in C/C++ to import the single-coil data, and then calculate the positions, number of turns and currents in the shielding coils in order to minimize the magnetic field strength at the desired location. Simulations and calculations have shown that just two shielding coils can reduce the magnetic field by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  19. Characteristics of NaI detector in positron imaging device HEADTOME employing circular ring array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In positron emission computed tomographs employing circular ring arrays of detectors, the performance of the imaging device has been specified ultimately by the characteristics of the detector. The responses of NaI detector were studied when detecting positron annihilation photon (511 keV). The study was mainly by using the NaI detector used in hybrid emission computed tomography (CT) ''HEADTOME'' we had developed. A series of measurements were carried out positioning two detectors with 40 cm distance and scanning 22Na point source in water. Both detectors was inclined from 00 through 300 to change incident angle of positron annihilation toward crystal face. Energy window was set from 100 to 700 keV. The results were presented as follows; 1 Shortening the crystal length from 7 to 5 cm made sensitivity decrease about 10% and resolution deteriorate about 1 mm (FWHM). 2 As the results of varying the width of the crystal, 20 mm width was optimal at any incident angle. 3 The lead septum between the detectors was the thickness of 4 mm enough to reject multiple detector interactions (crosstalk). 4 Beam mask which was made of lead in order to improve spatial resolution and placed on crystal face worked effectively for incident angles from 00 to 150 but degraded uniformity of spatial resolution from 00 to through 300. (author)

  20. Nonvolatile Resistance Random Access Memory Devices Based on ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM device based on ZnO nanorod arrays has been fabricated and characterized. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod layers (NRLs were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes using a hydrothermal process/ chemical bath deposition (CBD. It can be found the Ag/ZnO NRL/ITO capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching behavior may be related to the oxygen vacancies and/or zinc interstitials confined on the surface of the ZnO NRs, giving rise to the formation of straight and extensible conducting path along each ZnO NR. Furthermore, superior stability in resistive switching characteristics was also observed. Both growing times and annealing times were investigated and annealing was done in oxygen for 3, 6 and 9 minutes at different temperatures. For ZnO nanorods that had been annealed for 6 minutes the forming voltage was about 6.06V, the Set voltage was about 3.25V and the Reset voltage was -2.78V. The original resistance was 7×106Ω. The resistance in the low-resistance state was 108Ω and in the high-resistance state was 2016Ω, the resistance ratio was 18.7.

  1. Electrochemical fabrication of lanthanum-doped TiO2 nanotube array electrode and investigation of its photoelectrochemical capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► La-doped TiO2 nanotube array electrode was successfully fabricated by electrochemical method. ► The doped electrode showed high photoelectrocatalytic activity for degradation of PNP. ► Effective separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. -- Abstract: Highly ordered lanthanum-doped (La-doped) TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by electrochemical anodization process on a Ti sheet, followed by cathodic electrochemical process using lanthanum nitrate solution as the La source, and at last were analyzed by SEM, XPS, FTIR, XRD, and DRS characterization techniques. The analytical results demonstrated that the La doping could promoted phase transformation of TiO2 from the anatase to rutile. Red shifted and enhanced absorption intensities of certain peaks in both UV and visible light regions were also observed. Moreover, a new state of Ti3+ was founded after calcinations. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that La doping can significantly enhance the photoconversion efficiency of the TiO2 nanotube array electrode. The maximum photoconversion efficiency was 0.598%, which was obviously more than 2-fold higher than the undoped one (0.257%) under the same supporting electrolyte solution. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation result of p-nitrophenol (PNP) was used to investigate the PEC activities of the as-prepared electrode. The La-doped TiO2 nanotube array electrode showed much higher degradation efficiencies (99.33%) than the undoped TiO2 nanotube array electrode (70.16%) under the same condition

  2. Pneumatic servo-controlled material testing device capable of operating at high temperature water and irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    device) and based on test results crack growth rates for Inconel weld metal and AISI 316 have been calculated. During the tests, accuracy with very slow constant displacement rates of 1.2 10-5 mm/min and 1.2 10-6 mm/min and long term stability of the pneumatic material testing system under high temperature water environment, has been verified. Furthermore, the crack growth rate for Inconel 182 weld metal as a function of sulphate content (10, 20, 30 ppb) of BWR coolant has been determined. These results shows that the crack growth rate of Inconel 182 weld material is strongly affected by the sulphate content of BWR coolant. Furthermore, prototypes of pneumatically powered fatigue (PSCFAT-device), controlled distance electrode (PSCCDE-device) and tensile (PSCINCORE-device) devices have been designed and tested. The units, which were based on proven technology, operated well and gave reliable test results for the material design parameters. The PSCFAT device was tested at room temperature and the degree of specimen bending and general system performance were measured. A strain controlled axial fatigue test in a 12 MPa autoclave at 100 deg C was also performed. The test material was AISI 316 stainless steel and the specimen failed in its midsection due to fatigue after 15600 cycles. The preliminary tests with pneumatically powered controlled distance electrode arrangement equipment (PSCCDE) is presented. The equipment was tested in air at room temperature and in typical BWR environments. The test material was pure nickel and its oxide film properties were tested in BWR environment as a function of potential. The design work for the pneumatic tensile testing device which is capable of working in a real reactor core is introduced. Prototype design, load calibrations, load frame for thin specimen tensile testing, and reactor installation with 30 m gas lines is presented. Furthermore, the PSCINCORE device was used to determine stress and strain curves for pure Cu specimen in

  3. Thermal imager based on the array light sensor device of 128×128 CdHgTe-photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva V. P.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of developed thermal imager for middle (3—5 µm infrared region are presented and its applications features are discussed. The thermal imager consists of cooled to 80 K 128×128 diodes focal plane array on the base of cadmium–mercury–telluride compound and cryostat with temperature checking system. The photodiode array is bonded with readout device (silicon focal processor via indium microcontacts. The measured average value of noise equivalent temperature difference was NETD= 20±4 mK (background radiation temperature T = 300 K, field of view 2θ = 180°, the cooled diaphragm was not used.

  4. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Vivien; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide.

  5. Degradation of saturation output of the COTS array charge-coupled devices induced by total dose radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments of total dose radiation effects on COTS array charge-coupled device (CCD) and annealing measurements are shown. Degradations of saturation output voltage at different bias conditions are analyzed, and their mechanisms induced by radiation are also demonstrated. Degradations of saturation output imaging at different total doses and the recovery after annealing are also compared. The phenomena of imaging degradation induced by total dose irradiation are analyzed. The camera imaging quality of resolution test card degraded by total dose irradiation is also analyzed. Finally, integration research from the irradiation-sensitive parameter degradation to the camera imaging degradation of the array CCD is achieved

  6. A laser-assisted process to produce patterned growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays for monolithic microwave integrated devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoven, Vivien Van; Piraux, Luc; Huynen, Isabelle

    2016-06-10

    An experimental process for the fabrication of microwave devices made of nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric template is presented. A pulse laser process is used to produce a patterned surface mask on alumina templates, defining precisely the wire growing areas during electroplating. This technique makes it possible to finely position multiple nanowire arrays in the template, as well as produce large areas and complex structures, combining transmission line sections with various nanowire heights. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated through the realisation of a microstrip electromagnetic band-gap filter and a substrate-integrated waveguide. PMID:27138863

  7. Novel insight toward engineering of arrayed Cu@Sn nanoelectrodes: Rational microstructure refinement and its remarkable "harvesting effect" on lithium storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shichao; Qi, Tao; Fang, Hua; Liu, Guanrao; Xing, Yalan

    2016-03-01

    The impact of morphological and compositional evolutions of arrayed Cu@Sn nanoelectrodes on their lithium storage capability is investigated in this work. Strikingly, it is found that the diameter of Cu nanowire-core, inter-wire spacing, as well as Sn/Cu ratio of such nanohybrids could be directly adjusted through a synchronous electrochemical dissolution/deposition strategy in a single bath. In line with expectation, nanoarchitecture tailoring of the array-type electrode brings in expanded space available and enhanced interfacial adhesion, which can not only effectively enable high loading of conformal Sn nanolayers on per unit footprint area but also help in suppressing capacity fading, and thus harvesting outstanding areal capacity (∼1.46 mAh cm-2 at 0.2 mA cm-2) and rate capability. It is envisioned that such work will shed light on ways to facilely tune the characteristic parameters of a series of Cu-cored hybrid nanowire arrays with desired functionalities for nanodevice applications.

  8. Investigation of the electroactive capability for the supercapacitor electrode with cobalt oxide rhombus nanopillar and nanobrush arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Lin, Lu-Yin; Huang, Ying-Yu; Tu, Chao-Chi

    2016-05-01

    Well-defined nanostructures of the cobalt oxide are designed intensively to pursue large surface area and high conductivity as the electroactive material for supercapacitors (SCs). Instead of merely fabricating effective electroactive materials, two kinds of the cobalt oxide nanostructures synthesized directly on nickel foam to achieve good contact between the material and the substrate are compared to clarify the growth mechanism and the structure-dependent SC performance. The nanobrushes are completely composed of nanoparticles while the rhombus nanopillars present integrated structure by the recrystallization of single nanopillars. A higher specific capacitance (CF) of 509 F/g is obtained for the SC electrode with CoO rhombus nanopillar array at a scan rate of 10 mV/s, comparing to that of 169 F/g for the CoO nanobrush array-based SC electrode, due to the larger electroactive surface area and less recombination sites for the former case. The CF value is enhanced by 38% as compared with the initial value after 3000 cycles of repeated charge/discharge process for the CoO rhombus nanopillar array-based SC electrode due to the activation of the material. The results provide a blue print for achieving highly efficient SC electrode by carefully designing the well-established electroactive material to attain facile and long-lasting faradic reactions.

  9. Recent modelling studies for analysing the partial‑defect detection capability of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong sources of radioactivity, such as spent nuclear fuel stored in water pools, give rise to Cherenkov light. This light originates from particles, in this case electrons released from gamma‑ray interactions, which travel faster than the speed of light in the water. In nuclear safeguards, detection of the Cherenkov light intensity is used as a means for verifying gross and partial defect of irradiated fuel assemblies in wet storage. For spent nuclear fuel, the magnitude of the Cherenkov light emission depends on the initial fuel enrichment (IE), the power history (in particular the total fuel burnup (BU)) and the cooling time (CT). This paper presents recent results on the expected Cherenkov light emission intensity obtained from modelling a full 8x8 BWR fuel assembly with varying values of IE, BU and CT. These results are part of a larger effort to also investigate the Cherenkov light emission for fuels with varying irradiation history and other fuel geometries in order to increase the capability to predict the light intensity and thus lower the detection limits for the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD). The results show that there is a strong dependence of the Cherenkov light intensity on BU and CT, in accordance with previous studies. However, the dependences demonstrated previously are not fully repeated; the current study indicates a less steep decrease of the intensity with increasing CT. Accordingly, it is suggested to perform dedicated experimental studies on fuel with different BU and CT to resolve the differences and to enhance future predictive capability. In addition to this, the dependence of the Cherenkov light intensity on the IE has been investigated. Furthermore, the modelling of the Cherenkov light emission has been extended to CTs shorter than one year. The results indicate that high‑accuracy predictions for short‑cooled fuel may require more detailed information on the irradiation history.

  10. CdS nanorods/organic hybrid LED array and the piezo-phototronic effect of the device for pressure mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rongrong; Wang, Chunfeng; Dong, Lin; Shen, Changyu; Zhao, Kun; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-04-01

    As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PEDOT:PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility.As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PEDOT:PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00431h

  11. Flexible Near-Infrared Photovoltaic Devices Based on Plasmonic Hot-Electron Injection into Silicon Nanowire Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Dong; Gao, Yang; Ma, Jun; Long, Ran; Wang, Chengming; Xiong, Yujie

    2016-03-24

    The development of flexible near-infrared (NIR) photovoltaic (PV) devices containing silicon meets the strong demands for solar utilization, portability, and sustainable manufacture; however, improvements in the NIR light absorption and conversion efficiencies in ultrathin crystalline Si are required. We have developed an approach to improve the quantum efficiency of flexible PV devices in the NIR spectral region by integrating Si nanowire arrays with plasmonic Ag nanoplates. The Ag nanoplates can directly harvest and convert NIR light into plasmonic hot electrons for injection into Si, while the Si nanowire arrays offer light trapping. Taking the wavelength of 800 nm as an example, the external quantum efficiency has been improved by 59 % by the integration Ag nanoplates. This work provides an alternative strategy for the design and fabrication of flexible NIR PVs. PMID:26929103

  12. Conceptual design of a high resolution Ge array with tracking and imaging capabilities for the DESPEC (FAIR) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations for the conceptual design of the high-resolution DESPEC Germanium Array Spectrometer (DEGAS) proposed for the Facility for Ion and Antiproton Research (FAIR) under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. The project is carried out in three phases, although only results for the two first phases will be addressed in this work. The first phase will consist of a re-arrangement of the EUROBALL cluster detectors previously used in the RISING campaign at GSI. The second phase is based on coupling AGATA-type triple-cluster detectors with EUROBALL cluster detectors in a compact geometry around the active ion implantation target of DESPEC

  13. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  14. Resolution enhancement using pulse width modulation in digital micromirror device-based point-array scanning pattern exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Fei; Huang, Yi-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Digital-mask lithography systems, with a digital micromirror device (DMD) as their central piece, have been widely used for defining patterns on printed circuit board (PCB). This study designed optical module parameters for point-array projection lithography based on field tracing technique to improve the quality of the aerial image on the exposure plane. In the realized optical module for the point-array projection lithography, a DMD was used as the dynamic digital-mask, and a 405-nm-wavelength laser was used to illuminate the DMD. The laser was then focused through the micro-lens array in the optical module to form a point array and was projected onto a dynamic scanning stage. By calculating the beam-overlapping rate, stage velocity, spot diameter, and DMD frame rate and programming them into the stage- and DMD-synchronized controller, the point array formed line patterns on the photoresist. Furthermore, using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique to operate the activation periods of the DMD mirrors effectively controlled the exposure and achieved a feature linewidth of less than 10 μm.

  15. An amorphous titanium dioxide metal insulator metal selector device for resistive random access memory crossbar arrays with tunable voltage margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Simone; Khiat, Ali; Carta, Daniela; Light, Mark E.; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) crossbar arrays have become one of the most promising candidates for next-generation non volatile memories. To become a mature technology, the sneak path current issue must be solved without compromising all the advantages that crossbars offer in terms of electrical performances and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a highly integrable access device based on nickel and sub-stoichiometric amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2-x), in a metal insulator metal crossbar structure. The high voltage margin of 3 V, amongst the highest reported for monolayer selector devices, and the good current density of 104 A/cm2 make it suitable to sustain ReRAM read and write operations, effectively tackling sneak currents in crossbars without compromising fabrication complexity in a 1 Selector 1 Resistor (1S1R) architecture. Furthermore, the voltage margin is found to be tunable by an annealing step without affecting the device's characteristics.

  16. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  17. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, M. A.; Lueker, M.; Padin, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Staniszewski, Z.; Vieira, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s–1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelengt...

  18. Infrared thermal detector array using Eu(TTA)3-based temperature sensitive paint for optical readable thermal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of an infrared (IR) thermal detector array made of Eu(TTA)3-based temperature sensitive paint (TSP). The TSP emits 610 nm visible luminescence depending on temperature, and works as an IR-to-visible converter. An optical readout system was designed to excite and observe the detector array using a 355 nm light-emitting diode (LED) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, respectively. The temperature coefficient of the TSP was measured to be −1.58% K−1, and thermal images of a 400 °C object were successfully obtained. The noise analysis showed that the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of the imaging system was about 4.5 K. (paper)

  19. Optical antenna arrays of carbon nanotubes and their fabrication on polyimide and transparent conducting oxides for direct device integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Kempa, K.; Kimball, B.; Ren, Z. F.

    2005-11-01

    Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes/nanofibers grown on various substrates by a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method have been shown experimentally to function as classical low-loss dipole antenna arrays at optical frequencies. Two fundamental antenna effects, e.g., the polarization effect and length matching effect, directly observed on large-scale CNT arrays in visible frequency range, hold them promising for industry-level fabrication of devices including linear/beam-splitting polarizers, solar energy converters, THz demodulators, etc., some of which will, however, require or prefer a flexible and/or transparent conducting substrate to be compatible for multi-level integration and low-cost manufacturing process. A low-energy dark discharge fabrication technique is therefore devised which successfully yields CNT antennas directly on polyimide films and transparent conducting oxides (ITO, ZnO) with the absence of a buffer layer.

  20. A backing device based on an embedded stiffener and retractable insertion tool for thin-film cochlear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Radheshyam

    Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PVP-b-PDLLA) copolymer-based biodegradable and water soluble adhesive, that will help to retract the PET insertion tool after implantation. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system one, a microfabrication process for patterning PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene has been developed. Conventional hot-embossing, mechanical micromachining, and standard cleanroom processes were integrated for patterning fully released and discrete stiffeners coated with parylene. The released embedded stiffeners were thermoformed to demonstrate that imparting perimodiolar shapes to stiffener-embedded arrays will be possible. The developed process when integrated with the array fabrication process will allow fabrication of stiffener-embedded arrays in a single process. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system two, the feasibility of the attaching and detaching mechanism was demonstrated by adhering 1x and 1.5x scale PET tube-based insertion tools and PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene using the copolymer adhesive. The attached devices survived qualitative adhesion tests, thermoforming, and flexing. The viability of the detaching mechanism was tested by aging the assemblies in-vitro in phosphate buffer solution. The average detachment times, 2.6 minutes and 10 minutes

  1. Detection/classification/quantification of chemical agents using an array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, G. Martin

    2005-05-01

    ChemSentry is a portable system used to detect, identify, and quantify chemical warfare (CW) agents. Electro chemical (EC) cell sensor technology is used for blood agents and an array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is used for nerve and blister agents. The combination of the EC cell and the SAW array provides sufficient sensor information to detect, classify and quantify all CW agents of concern using smaller, lighter, lower cost units. Initial development of the SAW array and processing was a key challenge for ChemSentry requiring several years of fundamental testing of polymers and coating methods to finalize the sensor array design in 2001. Following the finalization of the SAW array, nearly three (3) years of intensive testing in both laboratory and field environments were required in order to gather sufficient data to fully understand the response characteristics. Virtually unbounded permutations of agent characteristics and environmental characteristics must be considered in order to operate against all agents and all environments of interest to the U.S. military and other potential users of ChemSentry. The resulting signal processing design matched to this extensive body of measured data (over 8,000 agent challenges and 10,000 hours of ambient data) is considered to be a significant advance in state-of-the-art for CW agent detection.

  2. Tuning of structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ultrathin and thin ZnO nanowire arrays for nano device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrama, Satinder K.; Saurakhiya, Neelam; Barthwal, Sumit; Kumar, Rudra; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2014-03-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) ultrathin (15 nm) and thin (100 nm) aligned 1-D (0001) and ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated on copper substrates by one-step electrochemical deposition inside the pores of polycarbonate membranes. The aspect ratio dependence of the compressive stress because of the lattice mismatch between NW array/substrate interface and crystallite size variations is investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the polycrystalline ZnO NWs have a wurtzite structure with a = 3.24 Å, c = 5.20 Å, and [002] elongation. HRTEM and SAED pattern confirmed the polycrystalline nature of ultrathin ZnO NWs and lattice spacing of 0.58 nm. The crystallite size and compressive stress in as-grown 15- and 100-nm wires are 12.8 nm and 0.2248 GPa and 22.8 nm and 0.1359 GPa, which changed to 16.1 nm and 1.0307 GPa and 47.5 nm and 1.1677 GPa after annealing at 873 K in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), respectively. Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed that the increase in E2 (high) phonon frequency corresponds to much higher compressive stresses in ultrathin NW arrays. The minimum-maximum magnetization magnitude for the as-grown ultrathin and thin NW arrays are approximately 8.45 × 10-3 to 8.10 × 10-3 emu/g and approximately 2.22 × 10-7 to 2.190 × 10-7 emu/g, respectively. The magnetization in 15-nm NW arrays is about 4 orders of magnitude higher than that in the 100 nm arrays but can be reduced greatly by the UHV annealing. The origin of ultrathin and thin NW array ferromagnetism may be the exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from oxygen vacancies at the surfaces of ZnO NWs. The n-type conductivity of 15-nm NW array is higher by about a factor of 2 compared to that of the 100-nm ZnO NWs, and both can be greatly enhanced by UHV annealing. The ability to tune the stresses and the structural and relative occupancies of ZnO NWs in a wide range by annealing has important

  3. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Page, Michael R.; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R.; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  4. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Andrew J., E-mail: berger.156@osu.edu; Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Jacob, Jan [Werum Software and Systems CIS AG, Wulf-Werum-Straße 3, 21337 Lüneburg (Germany); Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  5. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J; Page, Michael R; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field. PMID:25554296

  6. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field

  7. Automatic Release of Silicon Nanowire Arrays with a High Integrity for Flexible Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Wu; Shuxin Li; Weiwei He; Dayong Teng; Ke Wang; Changhui Ye

    2014-01-01

    Automatic release and vertical transferring of silicon/silicon oxide nanowire arrays with a high integrity are demonstrated by an Ag-assisted ammonia etching method. By adding a water steaming step between Ag-assisted HF/H2O2 and ammonia etching to form a SiOx protective layer sheathing Si nanowires, we can tune the composition of the nanowires from SiOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) to Si nanowires. Ag plays a key role to the neat and uniform release of Si/SiOx nanowire arrays from Si wafer in the ammonia etc...

  8. Arrays of microlenses with variable focal lengths fabricated by restructuring polymer surfaces with an ink-jet device

    OpenAIRE

    Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Best, Andreas; Nett, Sebastian K.; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    We report of a method for fabricating two-dimensional, regular arrays of polymer microlenses with focal lengths variable between 0.2 and 4.5 mm. We first make concave microlenses by ink-jetting solvent on a polymer substrate with a commercial drop-on-demand device. Solvent evaporation restructures the surface by a series of combined effects, which are discussed. In the second step we obtain convex elastomeric microlenses by casting the template made in the first step. We demonstrate the good ...

  9. A random phased array device for delivery of high intensity focused ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, J W [Radiological Sciences Unit, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0HS (United Kingdom); Shaw, A; Sadhoo, N; Rajagopal, S [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Dickinson, R J [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gavrilov, L R [N.N. Andreev Acoustics Institute, 117036 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: j.hand@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-10-07

    Randomized phased arrays can offer electronic steering of a single focus and simultaneous multiple foci concomitant with low levels of secondary maxima and are potentially useful as sources of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This work describes laboratory testing of a 1 MHz random phased array consisting of 254 elements on a spherical shell of radius of curvature 130 mm and diameter 170 mm. Acoustic output power and efficiency are measured for a range of input electrical powers, and field distributions for various single- and multiple-focus conditions are evaluated by a novel technique using an infrared camera to provide rapid imaging of temperature changes on the surface of an absorbing target. Experimental results show that the array can steer a single focus laterally to at least {+-}15 mm off axis and axially to more than {+-}15 mm from the centre of curvature of the array and patterns of four and five simultaneous foci {+-}10 mm laterally and axially whilst maintaining low intensity levels in secondary maxima away from the targeted area in good agreement with linear theoretical predictions. Experiments in which pork meat was thermally ablated indicate that contiguous lesions several cm{sup 3} in volume can be produced using the patterns of multiple foci.

  10. A wafer-scale backplane-assisted resonating nanoantenna array SERS device created by tunable thermal dewetting nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tunable lithography-less nanofabrication process using a metal thin-film thermal dewetting technique has been developed to fabricate wafer-scale and uniform plasmonic substrates at low cost for optimal performance in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. The relationship between the tunable parameters of this process and the corresponding optical and plasmonic characteristic is investigated both experimentally and theoretically to understand the deterministic design of an optimal SERS device with a three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantenna structure. The enhancement of SERS using various nanoplasmonic particle sizes, structure lengths, lateral hot spot spacings and resonating effects are examined and demonstrated. We achieve a uniform optimal enhancement factor of 1.38 × 108 on a 4 in wafer-scale SERS substrate with a backplane-assisted resonating nanoantenna array design. Sensitive environmental nitrate sensing, vitamin detection and oligonucleotide identification are demonstrated on the high-performance SERS device. (paper)

  11. Floating Droplet Array: An Ultrahigh-Throughput Device for Droplet Trapping, Real-time Analysisand Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louai Labanieh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design, fabrication and use of a dual-layered microfluidic device for ultrahigh-throughput droplet trapping, analysis, and recovery using droplet buoyancy. To demonstrate the utility of this device for digital quantification of analytes, we quantify the number of droplets, which contain a β-galactosidase-conjugated bead among more than 100,000 immobilized droplets. In addition, we demonstrate that this device can be used for droplet clustering and real-time analysis by clustering several droplets together into microwells and monitoring diffusion of fluorescein, a product of the enzymatic reaction of β-galactosidase and its fluorogenic substrate FDG, between droplets.

  12. Android Hypovisors: Securing Mobile Devices through High-Performance, Light-Weight, Subsystem Isolation with Integrity Checking and Auditing Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    The cellphone turned 40 years old in 2013, and its evolution has been phenomenal in these 40 years. Its name has evolved from "cellphone" to "mobile phone" and "smartphone" to "mobile device."] Its transformation has been multi-dimensional in size, functionality, application, and the like. This transformation has allowed the mobile device to be utilized for casual use, personal use, and enterprise use. Usage is further driven by the availability of an enormous number of useful applications fo...

  13. Controlling system for smart hyper-spectral imaging array based on liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Chen, Xin; Rong, Xin; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Xinyu; Ji, An; Xie, Changsheng

    2011-11-01

    A research for developing a kind of smart spectral imaging detection technique based on the electrically tunable liquidcrystal (LC) FP structure is launched. It has some advantages of low cost, highly compact integration, perfuming wavelength selection without moving any micro-mirror of FP device, and the higher reliability and stability. The controlling system for hyper-spectral imaging array based on LC-FP device includes mainly a MSP430F5438 as its core. Considering the characteristics of LC-FP device, the controlling system can provide a driving signal of 1-10 kHz and 0- 30Vrms for the device in a static driving mode. This paper introduces the hardware designing of the control system in detail. It presents an overall hardware solutions including: (1) the MSP430 controlling circuit, and (2) the operational amplifier circuit, and (3) the power supply circuit, and (4) the AD conversion circuit. The techniques for the realization of special high speed digital circuits, which is necessary for the PCB employed, is also discussed.

  14. Microfabrication and Device Parameter Testing of the Focal Plane Arrays for the Spider and BICEP2/Keck CMB Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, J. A.; Turner, A. D.; Kenyon, M.; Orlando, A.; Brevik, J. A.; Trangsrud, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Leduc, H. G.; Nguyen, H. T.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Sayers, J.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    Spider and BICEP2/Keck are projects to study the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The focal planes for both require large format arrays of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES's). A major challenge for these projects is fabricating arrays with high uniformity in device parameters. A microfabrication process is described that meets this challenge. The results from device testing are discussed. Each focal plane is composed of 4 square wafers (tiles), and each wafer contains 128 membrane-isolated, polarization-sensitive, antenna-coupled TES's. After processing, selected wafers are pre-screened in a quick-turn-around, cryogen-free, 3He fridge. The pre-screening is performed with a commercial resistance bridge and measures transition temperatures (Tc) and normal state resistances (Rn). After pre-screening, 4 tiles at a time are fully characterized in a testbed employing a SQUID readout and SQUID mulitplexing. The tests demonstrate the values of Tc, Rn, thermal conductance, g, and the standard deviations of each, across a wafer and from wafer to wafer, are within design specifications.

  15. Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mao-Kuo; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Lin, Hoang-Yan; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ciao-Ci; Wu, Chia-Fang; Lin, Hung-Yi; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Wu, Tung-Chuan

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze the influences of the fill factor and the sag of hexagon-based microlenses on the optical characteristics of an organic light-emitting device (OLED), such as spectral shift, CIE (abbreviation of the French 'Commission internationale de l'éclairage') coordinates, viewing angle dependence, luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency. Both the luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency of the OLED were found to increase linearly on increasing the fill factor of the microlenses. It is also found that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the OLED spectra and CIE coordinates decreased linearly on increasing the fill factor of the microlenses. Besides, the efficiency improvement of the OLED increased with the height ratio of attached microlenses. Compared to the OLED, the luminous current efficiency and luminous power efficiency of the device can be enhanced by 35% and 40%, respectively, by attaching a microlens array having a fill factor of 0.90 and a height ratio of 0.56. We also observed blue shifts at different viewing angles when microlens arrays were attached to the OLED, which is evidence that the waveguiding modes are being extracted. In our planar OLED, the peak wavelength blue shifted and the FWHM decreased on increasing the viewing angles, due to the microcavity effect.

  16. Proposed on Device Capability based Authentication using AES-GCM for Internet of Things (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Sachin D.; Mahalle, Parikshit N.; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2011-01-01

    Economics of scale in Internet of Things (IoT) presents new security challenges for ubiquitous devices in terms of authentication, addressing and embedded security. Currently available cryptographic techniques require further analysis to determine applicability to IoT. We introduce...

  17. Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlford, Annika; Kjeldsen, Bastian; Reimers, Jakob; Lundmark, Anders; Romani, Massimo; Wolff, Anders; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Brivio, Monica

    2010-01-01

    We present an optimized procedure for freeze-drying and storing reagents for multiplex PCR followed by genotyping using a tag-array minisequencing assay with four color fluorescence detection which is suitable for microfluidic assay formats. A test panel was established for five cancer mutations in...... three codons (175, 248 and 273) of the tumor protein gene (TP53) and for 13 common single ucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TP53 gene. The activity of DNA polymerase was preserved for six months of storage after freeze-drying, and the half-life of activities of exonuclease I and shrimp alkaline...

  18. Device combined with an array of a group of radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging device for computer tomography of the humn brain allows fast quantification with high sensitivity as well as three-dimensional determination of the brain radioactivity in the cross-section. Early diagnosis of pathological changes is possible. The mechanical realization provides for e.g. highly focussing collimators of short focal length. Therefore the equipment can be installed on an area of 5 x 5 m. Computer control of the scanning processes is described. (DG)

  19. High performance piezoelectric devices based on aligned arrays of nanofibers of poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene)

    OpenAIRE

    Persano, Luana; Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Girardo, Salvatore; Pisignano, Dario; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional capability, flexible design, rugged lightweight construction, and self-powered operation are desired attributes for electronics that directly interface with the human body or with advanced robotic systems. For these and related applications, piezoelectric materials, in forms that offer the ability to bend and stretch, are attractive for pressure/force sensors and mechanical energy harvesters. In this paper we introduce a large area, flexible piezoelectric material that consist...

  20. Extending a Mobile Device with Low-Cost 3d Modeling and Building-Scale Mapping Capabilities, for Application in Architecture and Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, M.; Clini, P.; Dellacasa, A.; Falzone, P.; La Camera, A.; Quattrini, R.; Sommariva, E.; Stephens, J.

    2015-02-01

    One of the most challenging problem in architecture is the automated construction of 3D (and 4D) digital models of cultural objects with the aim of implementing open data repositories, scientifically authenticated and responding to well accepted standards of validation, evaluation, preservation, publication, updating and dissemination. The realization of such an ambitious objective requires the adoption of special technological instruments. In this paper we plan to use portable devices (i.e. smartphones, tablets or PDAs eventually extended to wearable ones), extended with a small plug-in, for automatically extracting 3D models of single objects and building-scale mapping of the surrounding environment. At the same time, the device will provide the capability of inserting notes and observations. Where the instrument cannot be directly applied, for example for exploring the top of a complex building, we consider mounting our device, or using equivalent existing equipment, on a drone, in a modular approach for obtaining data de-facto interchangeable. The approach based on the expansion packs has the advantage of anticipating (or even promoting) future extensions of new mobile devices, when the spectrum of possible applications justify the corresponding increased costs. In order to experiment and verify this approach we plan to test it in two specific scenarios of the cultural heritage domain in which such devices seem particularly promising: Strada Nuova in Genoa and Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, both located in Italy.

  1. Improved semi-conductor laser device, operating, at room temperature, with an array of three lasers in the spatially coherent, free running mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The peak pulse power was increased by operating an array of three homostructure Ga As lasers in the laser device. A spatial filter in the laser device selects the spatially coherent, free running, mode. The optical peak power is 5 watts, which is three times the peak power of a single laser in the array. The far-field distribution of the three laser array is a single Gaussian beam of spatial coherence without sidelobes or grating lobes. The length of the optical pulses of spatial coherence was increased to 200 ns by improved heat transfer from the p-n junctions of the lasers to the metal housing of the pulse transformer, and by doubling the core area and increasing the turns of the primary windings of the pulse transformer. The mechanical stability of the laser device was improved and the transition from mechanical alignment to electro-mechanical alignment control, was facilitated.

  2. Design and fabrication of AlGaInP-based micro-light-emitting-diode array devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xingzhen; Liang, Jingqiu; Liang, Zhongzhu; Wang, Weibiao; Tian, Chao; Qin, Yuxin; Lü, Jinguang

    2016-04-01

    An integrated high-resolution (individual pixel size 80 μm×80 μm) solid-state self-emissive active matrix programmed with 320×240 micro-light-emitting-diode arrays structure was designed and fabricated on an AlGaInP semiconductor chip using micro electro-mechanical systems, microstructure and semiconductor fabricating techniques. Row pixels share a p-electrode and line pixels share an n-electrode. We experimentally investigated GaAs substrate thickness affects the electrical and optical characteristics of the pixels. For a 150-μm-thick GaAs substrate, the single pixel output power was 167.4 μW at 5 mA, and increased to 326.4 μW when current increase to 10 mA. The device investigated potentially plays an important role in many fields.

  3. Arrays of microlenses with variable focal lengths fabricated by restructuring polymer surfaces with an ink-jet device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Best, Andreas; Nett, Sebastian K.; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2007-07-01

    We report of a method for fabricating two-dimensional, regular arrays of polymer microlenses with focal lengths variable between 0.2 and 4.5 mm. We first make concave microlenses by ink-jetting solvent on a polymer substrate with a commercial drop-on-demand device. Solvent evaporation restructures the surface by a series of combined effects, which are discussed. In the second step we obtain convex elastomeric microlenses by casting the template made in the first step. We demonstrate the good optical quality of the microlenses by characterising their surfaces with atomic force microscopy and white light interferometry, and by directly measuring their focal lengths with ad-hoc confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  4. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM): A Subsurface Penetration Device with Infrared Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopic Sensing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.; Lemke, L. G.; Hammer, P.; Dalton, J. B.; Glass, B.; Zent, A.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for evidence of life on Mars will probably require access to the subsurface. The Martian surface is bathed in ultraviolet radiation which decomposes organic compounds, destroying possible evidence for life. Also, experiments performed by the Viking Landers imply the presence of several strongly oxidizing compounds at the Martian surface that may also play a role in destroying organic compounds near the surface. While liquid water is unstable on the Martian surface, and ice is unstable at the surface at low latitudes, recent results from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer experiment indicate that water ice is widely distributed near the surface under a thin cover of dry soil. Organic compounds created by an ancient Martian biosphere might be preserved in such ice-rich layers. Furthermore, accessing the subsurface provides a way to identify unique stratigraphy such as small-scale layering associated with lacustrine sediments. Subsurface access might also provide new insights into the Mars climate record that may be preserved in the Polar Layered Deposits. Recognizing the importance of accessing the subsurface of Mars to the future scientific exploration of the planet, the Mars Surveyor 2007 Science Definition Team called for drilling beneath the surface soils. Subsurface measurements are also cited as high priority in by MEPAG. Recognizing the importance of accessing the Martian subsurface to search for life, the European Space Agency has incorporated a small automated burrowing device called a subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 lander planned for 2003 launch. This device, called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), is a pointed slender cylinder 2 cm wide and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device at the pointed end that collects samples and brings them to the surface for analysis. Drawing on the PLUTO design, we are developing a larger Mole carrying sensors for identifying mineralogy, organic compounds, and water.

  5. Grass-like Co3O4 nanowire arrays anode with high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass-like Co3O4 nanowire arrays (NWAs) directly grown on Ti foil were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-prepared Co3O4 NWAs are constructed by numerous randomly oriented nanowires. The diameters of the nanowires are in the range of 70 to 100 nm, with lengths of several micrometers. Notably, as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the grass-like Co3O4 NWAs exhibit excellent electrochemical performance including outstanding rate capability and long cycle life. A remarkable capacity of 662 mAh g−1 is achieved even at a high current density of 5000 mA g−1. The specific capacity of grass-like Co3O4 NWAs could also maintain 1031 mAh g−1 at a current density of 500 mA g−1 after 100 cycles without capacity decay. The excellent performance is attributed to efficient electron transport from the Co3O4 nanowires to the current collector, good solid contact with the substrate and stable cross-linked structure formed after repeated charge-discharge cycles

  6. A ku-band dual-polarization connected array of dipoles with wide-scan capability for in-flight entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D.; Gerini, G.; Bolt, R.; Grooters, R.; Deurloo, D.; Zalk, B. van; Neto, A.; Toso, G.; Midthassel, R.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the development and performance of a doubly-polarized array of connected dipoles for in-flight entertainment. The array is designed to simultaneously operate in the uplink and the downlink bands, with an overall bandwidth of about 30%, from 10.7 to 14.5 GHz. The array prototype

  7. An Enhanced Version of the MCACC to Augment the Computing Capabilities of Mobile Devices Using Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Elgendy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently as smartphones have a wide range of capabilities a lot of heavy applications like gaming, video editing, and face recognition are now available. However, this kind of applications need intensive computational power, memory, and battery. A lot of researches solve this problem by offloading applications to run on the Cloud due to its intensive storage and computation resources. Later, some techniques chooses to offload part of the applications while leaving the rest to be processed on the smartphone based on one or two metrics like power and CPU consumption only without any consideration to other important metrics. Our previously proposed MCACC framework has introduced a new generation of offloading frameworks that handle this problem by smartly emerging a group of real-time metrics like total execution time, energy consumption, remaining battery, memory, and security into the offloading decision. In this paper, we introduce an enhanced version of the MCACC framework that can now smartly operate under low bandwidth network scenario in addition to its existing capabilities. In this framework, any mobile application is divided into a group of services, and then each of them is either executed locally on the mobile or remotely on the Cloud through a dynamic offloading decision model. The extensive simulation studies show that both heavy and light applications can benefit from the proposed framework while saving energy and improving performance compare to previous counterparts. The enhanced MCACC turns the smartphones to be smarter as the offloading decision is taken without any user interference.

  8. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  9. The effect of device fabrication on quasi-static elastic behaviour of silicon nanocantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Peter; Lin, Kevin; Potie, Alexis; Pawashe, Chytra; de Silva, Johann P.; Cross, Graham L. W.; Boland, John J.

    2015-12-01

    As CMOS technology scaling continues, leakage current is increasingly degrading energy efficiency. The leakage problem can potentially be addressed by nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) relay technology, where the off state leakage current is virtually zero. These devices incorporate a suspended nanobeam which is drawn across a gap to make contact in similar fashion to a traditional relay. The properties of this nanobeam must be carefully engineered to minimise stiffness (hence operating voltage), while simultaneously maintaining sufficient restoring force to overcome the adhesion forces at the contact surface which are significant at the nanoscale. To engineer the beam stiffness, detailed understanding of the beam composition and geometry, combined with accurate modelling is required. Simple analytical models over-estimate the stiffness of the cantilever beam along its length, and both analytical and FEA models which account for the manufacturing induced geometrical complexity are required. In this work, spatial force mapping of fabricated beams was used to experimentally validate analytical and FEA models incorporating detailed beam dimensions. An excellent fit was achieved, and this provides a method for targeting beam properties in a NEMS device.

  10. RF-Care: Device-Free Posture Recognition for Elderly People Using A Passive RFID Tag Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition is a fundamental research topic for a wide range of important applications such as fall detection for elderly people. Existing techniques mainly rely on wearable sensors, which may not be reliable and practical in real-world situations since people often forget to wear these sensors. For this reason, device-free activity recognition has gained the popularity in recent years. In this paper, we propose an RFID (radio frequency identification based, device-free posture recognition system. More specifically, we analyze Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI signal patterns from an RFID tag array, and systematically examine the impact of tag configuration on system performance. On top of selected optimal subset of tags, we study the challenges on posture recognition. Apart from exploring posture classification, we specially propose to infer posture transitions via Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM based Hidden Markov Model (HMM, which effectively captures the nature of uncertainty caused by signal strength varieties during posture transitions. We run a pilot study to evaluate our system with 12 orientation-sensitive postures and a series of posture change sequences. We conduct extensive experiments in both lab and real-life home environments. The results demonstrate that our system achieves high accuracy in both environments, which holds the potential to support assisted living of elderly people.

  11. Integration of polymer-based optical waveguide arrays and micro/nano-photonic devices for optical printed circuit board (O-PCB) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, El-Hang; Lee, Seung Gol; O, Beom Hoan; Park, Se-Geun; Kim, Kyong Heon; Kang, Jin Ku; Choi, Young Wan

    2005-03-01

    We report, in the form of review, on the results of our study on the fabrication and assembly of polymer-based optical waveguide arrays and micro/nano-photonic devices for optical printed circuit boards (O-PCBs) application. The O-PCBs are designed to perform the functions of transporting, switching, routing and distributing optical signals on flat modular boards, substrates or chips. We have assembled and constructed O-PCBs using optical waveguide arrays and circuits made of polymer materials and have examined their information handling performances. We also designed power beam splitters and waveguide filters using nano-scale photonic band-gap crystals. We discuss scientific and technological issues concerning the processes of miniaturization, interconnection and integration of polymer optical waveguide devices and arrays for the O-PCBs as applicable to board-to-board, chip-to-chip, and intra-chip integration for computers, telecommunications, and transportation systems.

  12. Design and construction of wall-less nano-electrophoretic and nano in micro array high throughput devices for single cell ‘omics' single molecule detection analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misevic, Gradimir N.; BenAssayag, Gerard; Rasser, Bernard; Sales, Philippe; Simic-Krstic, Jovana; Misevic, Nikola J.; Popescu, Octavian

    2014-09-01

    Single cell ‘omics' requires a technological platform with reliable and high throughput single cell analyses with single molecular detection and quantification. Presently available options are to either to detect many different macromolecules and metabolites extracted from many cells, thus obtaining partial ‘omics' of an average cell or to study only few single cells and be limited to semi-quantitative analyses and detection of a few abundant molecules. Here we present a new design and prototype proof of concept construction of high throughput nano-electrophoretic separation (NEA) device and nano in micro array (NiMA) affinity probe device for a complete single cell ‘omics' single bio-molecule polymers detection and quantification analyses. Prototype devices were constructed using gallium ion Focus Ion Beam (FIB), Gas Injection System (GIS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) crossbeam instruments. The NEA device accommodates 100 different cell samplings per 1 cm2 chip with arrays of open nano-electrophoretic guides. The NiMA bio-sensor device on 1 cm2 can accommodate 2500 cells in a micro-well array which consists of 250,000 probe markers in nano-well array located in each micro-well. Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) we have demonstrated the direct detection of a single protein molecule and proved the feasibility of single bio-molecular detection and quantification concept for NEA and NIMA. Our concept validates high throughput and complete and quantitative single cell ‘omics' with single molecular detection analyses without labeling. Thus, it is superior to commonly used microfluidics, capillary electrophoresis and micro-arrays using mass spectrometry and fluorescent labeling for molecular detection.

  13. Development of an array system of soft X-ray detectors with large sensitive area on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 17-channel soft X-ray diagnostic system was developed for a study of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations and installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The Absolute X-ray Ultraviolet Photodiodes (AXUV diode) with a large sensitivity area 10 mm × 10 mm were adopted as the detectors. The sightlines were designed to cover the whole plasma with 3.8 cm space separation and the expected radial resolution was 7 cm at the equatorial plane of LHD. The toroidally elongated pin hole (25 mm × 7 mm) was used to increase the signal to noise ratio and a Be foil of 15 μm in thickness was used to shut the visible light. The detector array was placed inside the vertically elongated section of the LHD vacuum vessel, being shielded by an aluminum box. In the experimental campaign of LHD, this fiscal year 2011, various kinds of MHD fluctuations excited in core and edge plasma regions have clearly been detected by this newly installed diagnostic system. The characteristic behaviors of the ELM activity in H-mode plasmas and the “Fishbone”-like instabilities induced by the perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) were derived from the soft X-ray data. (author)

  14. Deformation T-Cup: A new Kawai-style deformation device capable of controlled strain-rate deformation at pressures in excess of 20 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S. A.; Dobson, D. P.; Santangeli, J. R.; McCormack, R.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M. L.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    A significant proportion of our understanding of the rheological properties of mantle minerals is gained by analysing the data from, both offline and synchrotron based, controlled strain-rate deformation experiments. However, controlled strain-rate deformation experiments at in-situ conditions have been limited by the current generation of deformation apparatus (the deformation-DIA and the Rotational Drickamer) to about 15 GPa. Being limited to 15 GPa means that in situ deformation experiments are limited to phases stable in the upper mantle and the upper parts of the transition-zone. Therefore, deformation experiments on mantle composition ringwoodite and majorite have not been performed in significant numbers and there are no measurements at controlled strain-rates of the lower-mantle perovskites. Here, we report the capabilities of a new device the DT-cup or deformation T-Cup, which is capable for deformation experiments at pressures in excess of 20 GPa, and with continued development in excess of 25 GPa. The two instances of the DT-Cup press at University College London and the X17B2 beamline at the NSLS, consist of 400 tonne, Paris-Edinburgh style, load frames into which split-cylinder 6-8 multi-anvil tooling is inserted, with the axis of the inner cube set aligned with the action of the press. The 'top' and 'bottom' anvils of the cube set are replaced by hexagonal rods, cut so the end of the rods are the same shape as the inner faces of the 10 (X17B2 device) or 14 mm (UCL device) edge length cubes they replace. Controlled strain-rate deformation of the sample is undertaken by differential pistons pushing on the two hexagonal rams and advancing the two anvils along the aligned axis of the inner cube set. As the pistons advance the main ram adjusts in order that the confining pressure exerted on the sample remains constant. The differences between the standard Kawai-style split cylinder devices and the DT-Cup are analogous to the differences between the cubic

  15. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon L; Gilbert, Rachel J; Mejia, Maximo; Shukla, Nishant; Haverstick, Doris M; Garner, Gavin T; Landers, James P

    2016-06-14

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing cell sedimentation are controlled by centrifugal force, only requiring a CD player motor as external hardware and, ultimately, a cell phone for detection. The sedimented volume from patient blood in the HCT Disc was analyzed using a conventional scanner/custom algorithm for analysis of the image to determine a hematocrit value, and these were compared to values generated in a clinical laboratory, which correlated well. To enhance portability and assure simplicity of the HCT measurement, values from image analysis by a cell phone using a custom application was compared to the scanner. Fifteen samples were analyzed with cell phone image analysis system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability. PMID:27181638

  16. The difference in the capability of delineation between convex and radial arrayed echoendoscope for pancreas and biliary tract; case reports from the standpoint of both convex and radial arrayed echoendoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanuma, Akio; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Osanai, Manabu; Takahashi, Kuniyuki

    2011-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is useful in obtaining not only high-resolution images of organs and surrounding tissue but also the tissue itself for histopathological diagnosis using fine needle aspiration. Currently, there are two types of EUS available for use: radial and convex arrayed EUS. Each type of EUS has its own advantages and disadvantages. Because radial arrayed EUS can obtain 360 degree images, it is easy to see surrounding organs and vessels. In addition, a single longitudinal image of the pancreas, gallbladder and bile duct is easy to obtain. For this reason, radial arrayed EUS is highly effective in diagnostic examinations. In contrast, while scanning range of convex arrayed EUS limited to 180 degrees, it has the advantage of being able to obtain tissue samples. Additionally while using convex arrayed EUS, the upper part of the bile duct and neck of the pancreas are easily seen beyond the portal vein. It is important to understand the characteristics of each EUS in order to select the most suitable EUS technique for diagnostic assessment. PMID:21535191

  17. Toward a Public Toxicogenomics Capability for Supporting Predictive Toxicology: Survey of Current Resources and Chemical Indexing of Experiments in GEO and ArrayExpress

    Science.gov (United States)

    A publicly available toxicogenomics capability for supporting predictive toxicology and meta-analysis depends on availability of gene expression data for chemical treatment scenarios, the ability to locate and aggregate such information by chemical, and broad data coverage within...

  18. Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level: A software simulation tool for evaluating the capabilities of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grape, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.grape@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Lindberg, Bo [Lens-Tech AB, Box 733, SE-93127 Skellefteå (Sweden)

    2013-01-11

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument that records the Cherenkov light emitted from irradiated nuclear fuels in wet storages. The presence, intensity and pattern of the Cherenkov light can be used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to verify that the fuel properties comply with declarations. The DCVD is since several years approved by the IAEA for gross defect verification, i.e. to control whether an item in a storage pool is a nuclear fuel assembly or a non-fuel item [1]. Recently, it has also been endorsed as a tool for partial defect verification, i.e. to identify if a fraction of the fuel rods in an assembly have been removed or replaced. The latter recognition was based on investigations of experimental studies on authentic fuel assemblies and of simulation studies on hypothetic cases of partial defects [2]. This paper describes the simulation methodology and software which was used in the partial defect capability evaluations. The developed simulation procedure uses three stand-alone software packages: the ORIGEN-ARP code [3] used to obtain the gamma-ray spectrum from the fission products in the fuel, the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 [4] for simulating the gamma-ray transport in and around the fuel and the emission of Cherenkov light, and the ray-tracing programme Zemax [5] used to model the light transport through the assembly geometry to the DCVD and to mimic the behaviour of its lens system. Furthermore, the software allows for detailed information from the plant operator on power and/or burnup distributions to be taken into account to enhance the authenticity of the simulated images. To demonstrate the results of the combined software packages, simulated and measured DCVD images are presented. A short discussion on the usefulness of the simulation tool is also included.

  19. Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level: A software simulation tool for evaluating the capabilities of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape, Sophie; Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan; Lindberg, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument that records the Cherenkov light emitted from irradiated nuclear fuels in wet storages. The presence, intensity and pattern of the Cherenkov light can be used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to verify that the fuel properties comply with declarations. The DCVD is since several years approved by the IAEA for gross defect verification, i.e. to control whether an item in a storage pool is a nuclear fuel assembly or a non-fuel item [1]. Recently, it has also been endorsed as a tool for partial defect verification, i.e. to identify if a fraction of the fuel rods in an assembly have been removed or replaced. The latter recognition was based on investigations of experimental studies on authentic fuel assemblies and of simulation studies on hypothetic cases of partial defects [2]. This paper describes the simulation methodology and software which was used in the partial defect capability evaluations. The developed simulation procedure uses three stand-alone software packages: the ORIGEN-ARP code [3] used to obtain the gamma-ray spectrum from the fission products in the fuel, the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 [4] for simulating the gamma-ray transport in and around the fuel and the emission of Cherenkov light, and the ray-tracing programme Zemax [5] used to model the light transport through the assembly geometry to the DCVD and to mimic the behaviour of its lens system. Furthermore, the software allows for detailed information from the plant operator on power and/or burnup distributions to be taken into account to enhance the authenticity of the simulated images. To demonstrate the results of the combined software packages, simulated and measured DCVD images are presented. A short discussion on the usefulness of the simulation tool is also included.

  20. Tuning of structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ultrathin and thin ZnO nanowire arrays for nano device applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shrama, Satinder K; Saurakhiya, Neelam; Barthwal, Sumit; Kumar, Rudra; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) ultrathin (15 nm) and thin (100 nm) aligned 1-D (0001) and ( 000 1 ¯ ) oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated on copper substrates by one-step electrochemical deposition inside the pores of polycarbonate membranes. The aspect ratio dependence of the compressive stress because of the lattice mismatch between NW array/substrate interface and crystallite size variations is investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the polycrystalline ZnO NWs ...

  1. Design of a prototype device to calibrate the Large Size Telescope camera of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, M; De Persio, F; Chatterjee, A; Ferrarotto, F; Nagesh, B K; Saha, L; Singh, B B

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is a project that aims to exploring the highest energy region of electromagnetic spectrum. Two arrays, one for each hemisphere, will cover the full sky in a range from few tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV improving the sensitivity and angular resolution of the present operating arrays. A prototype of the Large Size Telescope (LST) for the study of gamma ray astronomy above some tens of GeV will be installed at the Canary Island of La Palma in 2016. The LST camera, made by an array of photomultipliers (PMTs), requires an accurate and systematic calibration over a wide dynamic range. In this contribution, we present an optical calibration system made by a 355 nm wavelength laser with 400 ps pulse width, 1 muJ output energy, up to 4k Hz repetition rate and a set of neutral density filters to obtain a wide range of photon intensities, up to 1000 photoelectrons/PMT, to be sent to the camera plane 28 m away. The number of photons after the diffuser of the calibration box, located in the ...

  2. Programmable logic devices in experimental quantum optics

    OpenAIRE

    Stockton, J.; Armen, M.; Mabuchi, H.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the unique capabilities of programmable logic devices (PLD's) for experimental quantum optics and describe basic procedures of design and implementation. Examples of advanced applications include optical metrology and feedback control of quantum dynamical systems. As a tutorial illustration of the PLD implementation process, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller is used to stabilize the output of a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  3. Programmable Logic Devices in Experimental Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, J K; Mabuchi, H

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the unique capabilities of programmable logic devices (PLD's) for experimental quantum optics and describe basic procedures of design and implementation. Examples of advanced applications include optical metrology and feedback control of quantum dynamical systems. As a tutorial illustration of the PLD implementation process, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) controller is used to stabilize the output of a Fabry-Perot cavity.

  4. Two-dimensional microchemical observation of mast cell biogenic amine release as monitored by a 128 × 128 array-type charge-coupled device ion image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Tamamura, Youichiro; Tokunaga, Kenta; Sakurai, Takashi; Kato, Ryo; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2014-05-01

    Available array-type, chemical-sensing image sensors generally only provide on/off responses to the sensed chemical and produce qualitative information. Therefore, there is a need for an array sensor design that can detect chemical concentration changes to produce quantitative, event-sensitive information. In this study, a 128 × 128 array-type image sensor was modified and applied to imaging of biogenic amines released from stimulated rat mast cells, providing recordable responses of the time course of their release and diffusion. The imaging tool was manufactured by an integrated circuit process, including complementary metal oxide semiconductor and charge-coupled device technology. It was fitted with an amine-sensitive membrane prepared from plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) including a hydrophobic anion, which allowed the sensor to detect amines, such as histamine and serotonin, in Tyrode's solution. As mast cells were larger in diameter than the pixel hollows, some pixels monitored amines released from single cells. The image from the array responses yielded sequential snapshots at a practical frame speed that followed amine concentration changes over time, after mast cell amine release was synchronized by chemical stimulation. This sensor was shown to be sensitive to amine release at very low stimulus concentrations and was able to detect localized spots of high amine release. The entire time course of the amine release was recorded, including maximum concentration at 4-6 s and signal disappearance at 30 s after stimulation. With further development, this sensor will increase opportunities to study a variety of biological systems, including neuronal chemical processes. PMID:24731060

  5. Linear array measurements of enhanced dynamic wedge and treatment planning system (TPS) calculation for 15 MV photon beam and comparison with electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) are known to increase drastically the radiation therapy treatment efficiency. This paper has the aim to compare linear array measurements of EDW with the calculations of treatment planning system (TPS) and the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for 15 MV photon energy. The range of different field sizes and wedge angles (for 15 MV photon beam) were measured by the linear chamber array CA 24 in Blue water phantom. The measurement conditions were applied to the calculations of the commercial treatment planning system XIO CMS v.4.2.0 using convolution algorithm. EPID measurements were done on EPID-focus distance of 100 cm, and beam parameters being the same as for CA24 measurements. Both depth doses and profiles were measured. EDW linear array measurements of profiles to XIO CMS TPS calculation differ around 0.5%. Profiles in non-wedged direction and open field profiles practically do not differ. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) for all EDW measurements show the difference of not more than 0.2%, while the open field PDD is almost the same as EDW PDD. Wedge factors for 60 deg wedge angle were also examined, and the difference is up to 4%. EPID to linear array differs up to 5%. The implementation of EDW in radiation therapy treatments provides clinicians with an effective tool for the conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. If modelling of EDW beam in TPS is done correctly, a very good agreement between measurements and calculation is obtained, but EPID cannot be used for reference measurements

  6. UV-IR Science Prospects with TES Imaging Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, R. W.; Burney, J.; Brink, P.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, P; Kenny, T; Wang, E.; Young, B; Miller, A. J.; Nam, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing photon-counting cameras employing cryogenic arrays of energy-resolving TES (Transition Edge Sensor) pixels. These are being tested in ground-based instruments, but will have their greatest impact when employed on space platforms, where they can cover the 10micrometer-100nm range with high time- and moderate energy- resolution. Here we summarize briefly existing device performance, current directions in array camera development and anticipated capabilities.

  7. Gossiping Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin; Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid;

    nodes dynamically adjust their contribution to gossip dissemination according to their capabilities. Using a continuous, itself gossip-based, approximation of relative capabilities, HEAP dynamically leverages the most capable nodes by (a) increasing their fanouts (while decreasing by the same proportion...... declare a high capability in order to augment their perceived quality without contributing accordingly. We evaluate HEAP in the context of a video streaming application on a 236 PlanetLab nodes testbed. Our results shows that HEAP improves the quality of the streaming by 25% over a standard gossip...

  8. 78 FR 958 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and/or 4G Capabilities and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    .../or 4g capabilities and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of NJ; Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of...

  9. Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive...... relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability....

  10. Dynamic capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of dynamic capabilities (i.e. innovation performance and profitability) is an under researched area in the growing body of literature on dynamic capabilities and innovation management. This study aims to examine the relationship between dynamic capabilities, innovation performance...... and profitability of small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises operating in volatile environments. A multi-case study design was adopted as research strategy. The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case companies, as we would...... expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability. The main contribution of this study is a better understanding of the realm of small and...

  11. Characterization of an Optical Device with an Array of Blue Light Emitting Diodes LEDS for Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbe, Priscilla Fróes; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. Balbin; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Barbosa, Ana Maria; Veissid, Nelson

    2008-04-01

    Phototherapy is a treatment that consists in irradiating a patient with light of high intensity, which promotes beneficial photochemical transformations in the irradiated area. The phototherapy for neonates is applied to break down the bilirubin, an organic pigment that is a sub product of the erythrocytes degradation, and to increase its excretion by the organism. Neonates should be irradiated with light of wavelength that the bilirubin can absorb, and with spectral irradiances between 4 and 16 μW/cm2/nm. The efficiency of the treatment depends on the irradiance and the area of the body that is irradiated. A convenient source of light for treatment of neonatal jaundice is the blue Light Emitter Diode (LED), emitting in the range of 400 to 500 nm, with power of the order of 10-150 mW. Some of the advantages for using LEDS are: low cost, operating long lifetime (over 100,000 hours), narrow emission linewith, low voltage power supply requirement and low heating. The aim of this work was to build and characterize a device for phototherapy treatment of neonatal jaundice. This consists of a blanket with 88 blue LEDs (emission peak at 472 nm), arranged in an 8×11 matrix, all connected in parallel and powered by a 5V-2A power supply. The device was characterized by using a spectroradiometer USB2000 (Ocean Optics Inc, USA), with a sensitivity range of 339-1019 nm. For determination of light spatial uniformity was used a calibrated photovoltaic sensor for measuring light intensity and mapping of the light intensity spatial distribution. Results indicate that our device shows a uniform spatial distribution for distances from the blanket larger than 10 cm, with a maximum of irradiance at such a distance. This device presenting a large and uniform area of irradiation, efficient wavelength emission and high irradiance seems to be promising for neonates' phototherapy treatment.

  12. Transistor memory devices with large memory windows, using multi-stacking of densely packed, hydrophobic charge trapping metal nanoparticle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-AuNPs) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-AuNP)n films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO2 gate dielectric layer. For a single AuNP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-AuNP)1) with a number density of 1.82 × 1012 cm−2, the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four AuNP layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔVth) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 106) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate. (paper)

  13. Nano-materials employment in energy harvesting and storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tamvakos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the development of a new generation of miniature electronic devices by employing nano-scale materials. Specifically, ZnO nanowire arrays were investigated to increase the conversion efficiency of energy harvesting devices and graphene nano-platelets employed to enhance supercapacitors' energy storage capability. The results obtained in this work pave the way to the possibility of conceiving novel autonomous devices integrating both energy units. The present thesi...

  14. Optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Comtois, John H.; Hetherington, Dale L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, layout, fabrication, and surface characterization of highly optimized surface micromachined micromirror devices. Design considerations and fabrication capabilities are presented. These devices are fabricated in the state-of-the-art, four-level, planarized, ultra-low-stress polysilicon process available at Sandia National Laboratories known as the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiT). This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near-ideal characteristics that have previously been unrealizable in standard three-layer polysilicon processes. The reduced 1 μm minimum feature sizes and 0.1 μm mask resolution make it possible to produce dense wiring patterns and irregularly shaped flexures. Likewise, mirror surfaces can be uniquely distributed and segmented in advanced patterns and often irregular shapes in order to minimize wavefront error across the pupil. The ultra-low-stress polysilicon and planarized upper layer allow designers to make larger and more complex micromirrors of varying shape and surface area within an array while maintaining uniform performance of optical surfaces. Powerful layout functions of the AutoCAD editor simplify the design of advanced micromirror arrays and make it possible to optimize devices according to the capabilities of the fabrication process. Micromirrors fabricated in this process have demonstrated a surface variance across the array from only 2-3 nm to a worst case of roughly 25 nm while boasting active surface areas of 98% or better. Combining the process planarization with a ``planarized-by-design'' approach will produce micromirror array surfaces that are limited in flatness only by the surface deposition roughness of the structural material. Ultimately, the combination of advanced process and layout capabilities have permitted the fabrication of highly optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics.

  15. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networks...

  16. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networ...

  17. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  18. Assessment by Ames test and comet assay of toxicity potential of polymer used to develop field-capable rapid-detection device to analyze environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Amanda; Bishop, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Gleason, Karen; Torosian, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    There is need for devices that decrease detection time of food-borne pathogens from days to real-time. In this study, a rapid-detection device is being developed and assessed for potential cytotoxicity. The device is comprised of melt-spun polypropylene coupons coated via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) with 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), for conductivity and 3-Thiopheneethanol (3TE), allowing antibody attachment. The Ames test and comet assay have been used in this study to examine the toxicity potentials of EDOT, 3TE, and polymerized EDOT-co-3TE. For this study, Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 was used to assess the mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and the copolymer. The average mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and copolymer was calculated to be 0.86, 0.56, and 0.92, respectively. For mutagenic potential, on a scale from 0 to 1, close to 1 indicates low potential for toxicity, whereas a value of 0 indicates a high potential for toxicity. The comet assay is a single-cell gel electrophoresis technique that is widely used for this purpose. This assay measures toxicity based on the area or intensity of the comet-like shape that DNA fragments produce when DNA damage has occurred. Three cell lines were assessed; FRhK-4, BHK-21, and Vero cells. After averaging the results of all three strains, the tail intensity of the copolymer was 8.8 % and tail moment was 3.0, and is most similar to the untreated control, with average tail intensity of 5.7 % and tail moment of 1.7. The assays conducted in this study provide evidence that the copolymer is non-toxic to humans.

  19. The importance of chemistry in creating well-defined nanoscopic embedded therapeutics: devices capable of the dual functions of imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Andreas M; Wooley, Karen L

    2011-10-18

    Nanomedicine is a rapidly evolving field, for which polymer building blocks are proving useful for the construction of sophisticated devices that provide enhanced diagnostic imaging and treatment of disease, known as theranostics. These well-defined nanoscopic objects have high loading capacities, can protect embedded therapeutic cargo, and offer control over the conditions and rates of release. Theranostics also offer external surface area for the conjugation of ligands to impart stealth characteristics and/or direct their interactions with biological receptors and provide a framework for conjugation of imaging agents to track delivery to diseased site(s). The nanoscopic dimensions allow for extensive biological circulation. The incorporation of such multiple functions is complicated, requiring exquisite chemical control during production and rigorous characterization studies to confirm the compositions, structures, properties, and performance. We are particularly interested in the study of nanoscopic objects designed for treatment of lung infections and acute lung injury, urinary tract infections, and cancer. This Account highlights our work over several years to tune the assembly of unique nanostructures. We provide examples of how the composition, structure, dimensions, and morphology of theranostic devices can tune their performance as drug delivery agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. The evolution of nanostructured materials from relatively simple overall shapes and internal morphologies to those of increasing complexity is driving the development of synthetic methodologies for the preparation of increasingly complex nanomedicine devices. Our nanomedicine devices are derived from macromolecules that have well-defined compositions, structures, and topologies, which provide a framework for their programmed assembly into nanostructures with controlled sizes, shapes, and morphologies. The inclusion of functional units within selective

  20. Swarm Intelligent Selection and Optimization of Machining System Parameters for Microchannel Fabrication in Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Lepe, Elisa; Ciurana, Quim de; Rodríguez González, Ciro Ángel; Thepsonthi, Thanongsak; Özel, Tuǧrul

    2011-01-01

    Current technology trends in medical device industry calls for fabrication of massive arrays of microfeatures such as microchannels on to nonsilicon material substrates with high accuracy, superior precision, and high throughput. Microchannels are typical features used in medical devices for medication dosing into the human body, analyzing DNA arrays or cell cultures. In this study, the capabilities of machining systems for micro-end milling have been evaluated by conducting experiments, regr...

  1. Analysis of infinite arrays of arbitrarily shaped planar radiating elements using a Floquet mode based Method of Moments approach

    OpenAIRE

    LaPean, James William

    1996-01-01

    Large phased array antennas are theoretically capable of delivering the directive gain of similarly sized aperture antennas while offering electronic beam scanning capabilities and greater operational flexibility. Unfortunately, the high cost associated with large phased antenna arrays has limited their use to highly specialized applications where no other antenna system configuration is possible. The recent development of less expensive microwave active devices has led to a re...

  2. Circumferential lesion formation around the pulmonary veins in the left atrium with focused ultrasound using a 2D-array endoesophageal device: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room C713, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting humans. The electrical isolation by ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in the left atrium (LA) of the heart has been proven as an effective cure of AF. The ablation consists mainly in the formation of a localized circumferential thermal coagulation of the cardiac tissue surrounding the PVs. In the present numerical study, the feasibility of producing the required circumferential lesion with an endoesophageal ultrasound probe is investigated. The probe operates at 1 MHz and consists of a 2D array with enough elements (114 x 20) to steer the acoustic field electronically in a volume comparable to the LA. Realistic anatomical conditions of the thorax were considered from the segmentation of histological images of the thorax. The cardiac muscle and the blood-filled cavities in the heart were identified and considered in the sound propagation and thermal models. The influence of different conditions of the thermal sinking in the LA chamber was also studied. The circumferential ablation of the PVs was achieved by the sum of individual lesions induced with the proposed device. Different scenarios of lesion formation were considered where ultrasound exposures (1, 2, 5 and 10 s) were combined with maximal peak temperatures (60, 70 and 80 {sup 0}C). The results of this numerical study allowed identifying the limits and best conditions for controlled lesion formation in the LA using the proposed device. A controlled situation for the lesion formation surrounding the PVs was obtained when the targets were located within a distance from the device in the range of 26 {+-} 7 mm. When combined with a maximal temperature of 70 {sup 0}C and an exposure time between 5 and 10 s, this distance ensured preservation of the esophageal structures, controlled lesion formation and delivery of an acoustic intensity at the transducer surface that is compatible with existing materials. With a peak

  3. Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.

  4. Vertical arrays of SiO2 micro/nanotubes templated from Si pillars by chemical oxidation for high loading capacity buoyant aquatic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Soo; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2013-12-26

    A simple and facile method to fabricate SiO2 micro- or nanotubes has been demonstrated based on room temperature wet chemical oxidation of a porous layer of Si pillar templates that have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE). Under typical conditions, Si pillars produced by the MaCE have been found to be covered with a thin nanoporous Si layer. The porous Si skin layer has been chemically oxidized by simple dipping in AgNO3 solution at room temperature, which has led to seamless SiO2 shell layer thanks to the accompanying volume expansion during the wet oxidation. Following wet removal of core Si by KOH yields the SiO2 micro- or nanotubes, either in test tube shape or in open shape at both ends, depending on processing method. The vertical arrays of the SiO2 tube on the Si substrate, after hydrophobic siloxane oligomer printing, has been found to have very large loading capacity on water, due to extremely high porosity (>90%) and good enough mechanical stability. The novel method to fabricate SiO2 tubes can shed new light in design of novel aquatic devices, other than simple mimicking the leg of a water strider. Also, the method may be very helpful in various applications of SiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24313459

  5. Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration-Assisted Drop Casting (SVADC) for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Solar Cell Arrays and Thin-Film Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost, versatile, and potentially scalable casting method is proposed for the fabrication of micro- and nano-thin films, herein termed as ultrasonic "substrate vibration-assisted drop casting" (SVADC). The impingement of a solution drop onto a substrate in a simple process called drop casting, usually results in spreading of the liquid solution and the formation of a non-uniform thin solid film after solvent evaporation. Our previous and current supporting results, as well as few similar reports by others, confirm that imposing ultrasonic vibration on the substrate can simply convert the uncontrollable drop casting method into a controllable coating technique. Therefore, the SVADC may be used to fabricate an array of emerging thin-film solar cells, such as polymer, perovskite, and quantum-dot solar cells, as well as other small thin-film devices, in a roll-to-roll and automated fabrication process. The preliminary results demonstrate a ten-fold increase in electrical conductivity of PEDOT: PSS made by SVADC compared with the film made by conventional drop casting. Also, simple planar perovskite solar cells made here using SVADC show promising performance with an efficiency of over 3 % for a simple structure without performing process optimization or using expensive materials and treatments.

  6. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  7. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  8. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  9. Demonstration MTI/SAR capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F.P.P. de; Broek, A.C. van den; Otten, M.P.G.; Groot, J.S.; Steeghs, T.P.H.; Dekker, R.J.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate to the Dutch armed forces the capability of MTI (Moving Target Indicator) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar). This is done with the Dutch PHARUS sensor. The sensor is used to demonstrate how a phased array antenna can be used as an MTI/SAR sensor combination

  10. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  11. Construction of a Piezoresistive Neural Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.; Pilgrim, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a piezoresistive - piezoelectric sensor (or actuator) array is proposed using 'neural' connectivity for signal recognition and possible actuation functions. A closer integration of the sensor and decision functions is necessary in order to achieve intrinsic identification within the sensor. A neural sensor is the next logical step in development of truly 'intelligent' arrays. This proposal will integrate 1-3 polymer piezoresistors and MLC electroceramic devices for applications involving acoustic identification. The 'intelligent' piezoresistor -piezoelectric system incorporates printed resistors, composite resistors, and a feedback for the resetting of resistances. A model of a design is proposed in order to simulate electromechanical resistor interactions. The goal of optimizing a sensor geometry for improving device reliability, training, & signal identification capabilities is the goal of this work. At present, studies predict performance of a 'smart' device with a significant control of 'effective' compliance over a narrow pressure range due to a piezoresistor percolation threshold. An interesting possibility may be to use an array of control elements to shift the threshold function in order to change the level of resistance in a neural sensor array for identification, or, actuation applications. The proposed design employs elements of: (1) conductor loaded polymers for a 'fast' RC time constant response; and (2) multilayer ceramics for actuation or sensing and shifting of resistance in the polymer. Other material possibilities also exist using magnetoresistive layered systems for shifting the resistance. It is proposed to use a neural net configuration to test and to help study the possible changes required in the materials design of these devices. Numerical design models utilize electromechanical elements, in conjunction with structural elements in order to simulate piezoresistively controlled actuators and changes in resistance of sensors

  12. A CMOS-MEMS arrayed resonant-gate field effect transistor (RGFET) oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Hang; Li, Ming-Huang; Chen, Chao-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Li, Sheng-Shian

    2015-11-01

    A high-frequency CMOS-MEMS arrayed resonant-gate field effect transistor (RGFET) fabricated by a standard 0.35 μm 2-poly-4-metal CMOS-MEMS platform is implemented to enable a Pierce-type oscillator. The proposed arrayed RGFET exhibits low motional impedance of only 5 kΩ under a purely capacitive transduction and decent power handling capability. With such features, the implemented oscillator shows impressive phase noise of  -117 dBc Hz-1 at the far-from-carrier offset (1 MHz). In this work, we design a clamped-clamped beam (CCB) arrayed resonator utilizing a high-velocity mechanical coupling scheme to serve as the resonant-gate array. To achieve a functional arrayed RGFET, a corresponding FET array is directly placed underneath the resonant gate array to convert the motional current on the resonant-gate array into a voltage output with a tunable transconductance gain. To understand the behavior of the proposed device, an equivalent circuit model consisting of the resonant unit and FET is also provided. To verify the effects of the post-CMOS process on device performance, a conventional MOS I D current measurement is carried out. Finally, a CMOS-MEMS arrayed RGFET oscillator is realized by utilizing a Pierce oscillator architecture, showing decent phase noise performance that benefits from the array design to alleviate the nonlinear effect of the resonant gate.

  13. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  14. Advanced Power System Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    As a continuing effort to assist in the design and characterization of space power systems, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power and Propulsion Office developed a powerful computerized analysis tool called System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE). This year, SPACE was used extensively in analyzing detailed operational timelines for the International Space Station (ISS) program. SPACE was developed to analyze the performance of space-based photovoltaic power systems such as that being developed for the ISS. It is a highly integrated tool that combines numerous factors in a single analysis, providing a comprehensive assessment of the power system's capability. Factors particularly critical to the ISS include the orientation of the solar arrays toward the Sun and the shadowing of the arrays by other portions of the station.

  15. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  16. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  17. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4 array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

  18. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth; Kim, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  19. Optical MEMS-based arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2003-07-01

    Industrial Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) developers are rapidly bringing to demonstration inertial radio frequency, and optical MEMS devices and components. The Army has a requirement for compact, highly reliable, and inexpensive laser beam steering components for missile seekers and unmanned aerial vehicles remote sensing components to provide a fast scanning capability for pointing, acquisition, tracking, and data communication. The coupling of this requirement with recent developments in the micro-optics area, has led scientists and engineers at the Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) to consider optical MEMS-based phased arrays, which have potential applications in the commercial industry as well as in the military, as a replacement for gimbals. Laser beam steering in commercial applications such as free space communicataion, scanning display, bar-code reading, and gimbaled seekers; require relatively large monolithic micro-mirrors to accomplish the required optical resolution. The Army will benefit from phased arrays composed of relatively small micro-mirrors that can be actuated through large deflection angles with substantially reduced volume times. The AMCOM Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has initiated a research project to develop MEMS-based phased arrays for use in a small volume, inexpensive Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) seeker that is particularly attractive because of its ability to provide large field-of-regard and autonomous target acquisition for reconnaissance mission applications. The primary objective of the collaborative project with the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is to develop a rugged, MEMS-based phased arrays for incorporation into the 2-D scanner of a LADAR seeker. Design challenges and approach to achieving performance requirements will be discussed.

  20. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  1. Manufacturing polymeric micro lenses and self-organised micro lens arrays by using microfluidic dispensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro lenses and micro lens arrays have been widely used in numerous areas. In recent years, direct deposition of micro lenses and micro lens arrays by using drop-on-demand dispensers has been studied. However, the traditional drop-on-demand methods have issues such as expensive facilities and appropriateness for low viscosity materials. In this paper, a novel droplet-based method for fabricating polymeric micro lenses and lens arrays is presented. This method utilises microfluidic devices as dispensers to generate micro- to meso-scale droplets, and uses interfacial forces to control the lens profiles. This new method can create lenses with aperture sizes from 130 μm to 2000 μm for both low and high viscosity materials. It is also capable of fabricating self-organised lens arrays with high fill factors. This technology can simplify the manufacturing process and lower the manufacturing costs of micro lenses and lens arrays. (paper)

  2. Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Nhi M.; Liangliang Qiang; Zhe Li; Santhisagar Vaddiraju; Bishop, Gregory W.; Rusling, James F.; Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al) films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc.) on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, p...

  3. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  4. Architecture and data processing alternatives for the TSE computer. Volume 3: Execution of a parallel counting algorithm using array logic (Tse) devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, A. G.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A parallel algorithm for counting the number of logic-l elements in a binary array or image developed during preliminary investigation of the Tse concept is described. The counting algorithm is implemented using a basic combinational structure. Modifications which improve the efficiency of the basic structure are also presented. A programmable Tse computer structure is proposed, along with a hardware control unit, Tse instruction set, and software program for execution of the counting algorithm. Finally, a comparison is made between the different structures in terms of their more important characteristics.

  5. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  6. Optimization of microfluidic microsphere-trap arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Sarder, Pinaki; Li, Zhenyu; Nehorai, Arye

    2013-01-01

    Microarray devices are powerful for detecting and analyzing biological targets. However, the potential of these devices may not be fully realized due to the lack of optimization of their design and implementation. In this work, we consider a microsphere-trap array device by employing microfluidic techniques and a hydrodynamic trapping mechanism. We design a novel geometric structure of the trap array in the device, and develop a comprehensive and robust framework to optimize the values of the...

  7. Improvements in TREAT hodoscope fuel-motion capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast-neutron detection system of the hadoscope has been a major ingredient in the success of the hodoscope as a fuel-motion monitoring device. While the original Hornyak-button detector system has met most of the current fuel-motion needs, the more stringent requirements of improved reactor-safety codes, and of new experimental test facilities necessitate improved detection capabilities. Development efforts have centered on three areas: the construction of an array of proton-recoil proportional counters to be used in conjunction with the Hornyak-button detectors, the upgrading of the Hornyak-button detectors to increase linearity and signal-to-background ratio, and the intercalibration of detectors using a modified horizontal and a new vertical scan system

  8. Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low-cost, high volume production of silane (step 1) and the pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon (step 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Cheung, H.; Farrier, E. G.; Morihara, H.

    1977-01-01

    A quartz fluid bed reactor capable of operating at temperatures of up to 1000 C was designed, constructed, and successfully operated. During a 30 minute experiment, silane was decomposed within the reactor with no pyrolysis occurring on the reactor wall or on the gas injection system. A hammer mill/roller-crusher system appeared to be the most practical method for producing seed material from bulk silicon. No measurable impurities were detected in the silicon powder produced by the free space reactor, using the cathode layer emission spectroscopic technique. Impurity concentration followed by emission spectroscopic examination of the residue indicated a total impurity level of 2 micrograms/gram. A pellet cast from this powder had an electrical resistivity of 35 to 45 ohm-cm and P-type conductivity.

  9. A superconducting focal plane array for ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, Benjamin A; Meeker, Seth R; O'Brien, Kieran; McHugh, Sean; Langman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, have proven to be a powerful cryogenic detector technology due to their sensitivity and the ease with which they can be multiplexed into large arrays. A MKID is an energy sensor based on a photon-variable superconducting inductance in a lithographed microresonator, and is capable of functioning as a photon detector across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as a particle detector. Here we describe the first successful effort to create a photon-counting, energy-resolving ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared MKID focal plane array. These new Optical Lumped Element (OLE) MKID arrays have significant advantages over semiconductor detectors like charge coupled devices (CCDs). They can count individual photons with essentially no false counts and determine the energy and arrival time of every photon with good quantum efficiency. Their physical pixel size and maximum count rate is well matched with large telescopes. These capabilities enable powerful new astrophy...

  10. GaP/Si wire array solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Malhotra, Manav; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Si wire arrays have recently demonstrated their potential as photovoltaic devices [1-3]. Using these arrays as a base, we consider a next generation, multijunction wire array architecture consisting of Si wire arrays with a conformal GaN_xP_(1-x-y)As_y coating. Optical absorption and device physics simulations provide insight into the design of such devices. In particular, the simulations show that much of the solar spectrum can be absorbed as the angle of illumination...

  11. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  12. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Masao; Inatani, Junji; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high...

  13. Precise Determination of Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Using a Virtually Imaged Phase Array (VIPA) Spectrometer and Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-08-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is an emerging tool for microscopic optical imaging as it allows noninvasive assessment of viscoelastic properties of materials. The use of atomic-molecular absorption cells as ultra-narrow notch filters allows acquisition of Brillouin spectra from turbid samples despite their strong elastic scattering. However, such systems alter the shapes of the Brillouin lines, making the precise determination of the Brillouin shift difficult. In this report, we propose a simple method for analyzing the Brillouin spectrum using a customized least-square fitting algorithm. The absorption spectrum induced by the atomic-molecular cell was taken into consideration. The capability of the method is confirmed by processing experimental spectroscopic data from the pure water at different temperatures. The accuracy of the measurements of ±1 MHz spectral line shift is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:27296309

  14. Superconducting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a superconducting device to be used in a thermonuclear device and capable of unifying a current distribution in a parallel superconducting main line without consumption of liquid helium caused by Joule loss. That is, the device has a paired coils comprising a coil comprising one of plurality of superconducting wires and another coil comprising the other of plurality of superconducting wires and having a reverse winding or negative mutual inductance relative to the coil. A circuit comprising a portion of a main line is disposed to the one coil of the paired coils, and a circuit comprising the remainder of the main line is connected to the other coil each in series. The circuit has a parallel constitution. Such a constitution can provide an effect of unifying the current distribution in the main line without consumption of liquid helium due to Joule loss. (I.S.)

  15. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  16. Silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for photon-starved imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Brian F.

    2015-05-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs) are capable of detecting single photons. They can be operated to directly trigger all-digital circuits, so that detection events are digitally counted or time stamped in each pixel. An imager based on an array of GMAPDs therefore has zero readout noise, enabling quantum-limited sensitivity for photon-starved imaging applications. In this review, we discuss devices developed for 3D imaging, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  17. Synergistic Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Microsome/DNA Electrochemiluminescent Arrays and Nanoreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Sadagopan; Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Bajrami, Besnik; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Platforms based on thin enzyme/DNA films were used in two-tier screening of chemicals for reactive metabolites capable of producing toxicity. Microsomes were used for the first time as sources of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in these devices. Initial rapid screening involved electrochemiluminescent (ECL) arrays featuring spots containing ruthenium poly(vinylpyridine), DNA, and rat liver microsomes or bicistronically expressed human cyt P450 2E1 (h2E1). Cyt P450 enzymes were activated via the...

  18. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  19. Titania nanotube arrays as potential interfaces for neurological prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Jonathan Andrew

    Neural prostheses can make a dramatic improvement for those suffering from visual and auditory, cognitive, and motor control disabilities, allowing them regained functionality by the use of stimulating or recording electrical signaling. However, the longevity of these devices is limited due to the neural tissue response to the implanted device. In response to the implant penetrating the blood brain barrier and causing trauma to the tissue, the body forms a to scar to isolate the implant in order to protect the nearby tissue. The scar tissue is a result of reactive gliosis and produces an insulated sheath, encapsulating the implant. The glial sheath limits the stimulating or recording capabilities of the implant, reducing its effectiveness over the long term. A favorable interaction with this tissue would be the direct adhesion of neurons onto the contacts of the implant, and the prevention of glial encapsulation. With direct neuronal adhesion the effectiveness and longevity of the device would be significantly improved. Titania nanotube arrays, fabricated using electrochemical anodization, provide a conductive architecture capable of altering cellular response. This work focuses on the fabrication of different titania nanotube array architectures to determine how their structures and properties influence the response of neural tissue, modeled using the C17.2 murine neural stem cell subclone, and if glial encapsulation can be reduced while neuronal adhesion is promoted.

  20. Design, fabrication and characterization of a polarization-sensitive focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of polarization is a powerful yet underutilized technique, with potential applications in remote sensing, astronomy, biomedical imaging and optical metrology. We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a CCD-based polarization-sensitive focal plane array (FPA). These devices are compact permanently aligned detectors capable of determining the degree and angle of linear polarization in a scene, with a single exposure, over a broad spectral range. To derive the polarization properties, we employ a variation of the division-of-focal plane modulation strategy. The devices are fabricated by hybridizing a micropolarizer array (MPA) with a CCD. The result is a "general-purpose" polarization-sensitive imaging sensor, which can be placed at the focal plane of a wide number of imaging systems (and even spectrographs). We present our efforts to date in developing this technology and examine the factors that fundamentally limit the performance of these devices.

  1. Phased array antennas with optimized element patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Skobelev, Sergei P

    2011-01-01

    This authoritative resource provides you with a detailed description of ideal array element characteristics that help you estimate the quality of development of real-world phased array antennas. You find several approaches to optimum phased array design, allowing you to provide specified array gain in a specific region of scan, using a minimum number of expensive, controlled devices. Moreover, this practical book presents important numerical methods that you can use to model and optimize phased array structure to obtain the best array characteristics that the chosen structure can provide.From

  2. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masao; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high performance of the ACA antenna has been extensively evaluated at the Site Erection Facility area at an altitude of about 2900 meters. Test results of pointing performance, surface performance, and fast motion capability are demonstrated.

  3. Development of impedance matching technologies for ICRF antenna arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All high power ICRF heating systems include devices for matching the input impedance of the antenna array to the generator output impedance. For most types of antennas used, the input impedance is strongly time-dependent on timescales as rapid as 10-4 s, while the rf generators used are capable of producing full power only into a stationary load impedance. Hence, the dynamic response of the matching method is of great practical importance. In this paper, world-wide developments in this field over the past decade are reviewed. These techniques may be divided into several classes. The edge plasma parameters that determine the antenna array's input impedance may be controlled to maintain a fixed load impedance. The frequency of the rf source can be feedback controlled to compensate for changes in the edge plasma conditions, or fast variable tuning elements in the transmission line between the generator output and the antenna input connections can provide the necessary time-varying impedance transformation. In lossy passive schemes, reflected power due to the time-varying impedance of the antenna array is diverted to a dummy load. Each of these techniques can be applied to a pre-existing antenna system. If a new antenna is to be designed, recent advances allow the antenna array to have the intrinsic property of presenting a constant load to the feeding transmission lines despite the varying load seen by each antenna in the array

  4. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  5. Microphone array proccesing

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Contreras, Héctor Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Microphone arrays consist of multiple microphones functioning as a single directional input device: essentially, an acoustic antenna. Using sound propagation principles, the principal sound sources in an environment can be spatially located. Distinguishing sounds based on the spatial location of their source is achieved by filtering and combining the individual microphone signals. The location of the principal sounds sources may be determined dynamically by analyzing peaks i...

  6. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  7. ITER EDA design confinement capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckan, N. A.

    Major device parameters for ITER-EDA and CDA are given in this paper. Ignition capability of the EDA (and CDA) operational scenarios is evaluated using both the 1 1/2-D time-dependent transport simulations and 0-D global models under different confinement ((chi((gradient)(T)(sub e)(sub crit)), empirical global energy confinement scalings, chi(empirical), etc.) assumptions. Results from some of these transport simulations and confinement assessments are summarized in and compared with the ITER CDA results.

  8. ITER EDA design confinement capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1993-06-01

    Major device parameters for ITER-EDA and CDA are given in this paper. Ignition capability of the EDA (and CDA) operational scenarios is evaluated using both the 1-1/2-D time-dependent transport simulations and 0-D global models under different confinement [{chi}({triangledown}T{sub e}){sub crit}, empirical global energy confinement scalings, {chi}(empirical), etc.] assumptions. Results from some of these transport simulations and confinement assessments are summarized in and compared with the ITER CDA reference ignition scenario.

  9. ITER EDA design confinement capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Major device parameters for ITER-EDA and CDA are given in this paper. Ignition capability of the EDA (and CDA) operational scenarios is evaluated using both the 1-1/2-D time-dependent transport simulations and 0-D global models under different confinement [[chi]([triangledown]T[sub e])[sub crit], empirical global energy confinement scalings, [chi](empirical), etc.] assumptions. Results from some of these transport simulations and confinement assessments are summarized in and compared with the ITER CDA reference ignition scenario.

  10. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process of the...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  11. Developing Alliance Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimeriks, Koen H.; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    This paper assesses the differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the development of alliance capabilities. Prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which specific intra-firm learning mechanisms are used to enhance a firm's alliance...... capability. However, empirical testing in this field is scarce and little is known as to what extent different learning mechanisms are indeed useful in advancing a firm's alliance capability. This paper analyzes to what extent intra-firm learning mechanisms help firms develop their alliance capability....... Differential learning may explain in what way firms yield superior returns from their alliances in comparison to competitors. The empirical results show that different learning mechanisms have different performance effects at different stages of the alliance capability development process. The main lesson from...

  12. MOVES’ Visualization Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 7: Computer Gaming and Web-Delivered Simulation; Moderator: Perry McDowell; MOVES’ Visualization Capabilities; speaker: Erik Johnson

  13. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  14. Laser micromachining of biofactory-on-a-chip devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Julian P.; Goater, Andrew D.; Hayden, Christopher J.; Tame, John A.

    2002-06-01

    Excimer laser micromachining provides a flexible means for the manufacture and rapid prototyping of miniaturized systems such as Biofactory-on-a-Chip devices. Biofactories are miniaturized diagnostic devices capable of characterizing, manipulating, separating and sorting suspension of particles such as biological cells. Such systems operate by exploiting the electrical properties of microparticles and controlling particle movement in AC non- uniform stationary and moving electric fields. Applications of Biofactory devices are diverse and include, among others, the healthcare, pharmaceutical, chemical processing, environmental monitoring and food diagnostic markets. To achieve such characterization and separation, Biofactory devices employ laboratory-on-a-chip type components such as complex multilayer microelectrode arrays, microfluidic channels, manifold systems and on-chip detection systems. Here we discuss the manufacturing requirements of Biofactory devices and describe the use of different excimer laser micromachined methods both in stand-alone processes and also in conjunction with conventional fabrication processes such as photolithography and thermal molding. Particular attention is given to the production of large area multilayer microelectrode arrays and the manufacture of complex cross-section microfluidic channel systems for use in simple distribution and device interfacing.

  15. Coherent magnetic semiconductor nanodot arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Faxian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In searching appropriate candidates of magnetic semiconductors compatible with mainstream Si technology for future spintronic devices, extensive attention has been focused on Mn-doped Ge magnetic semiconductors. Up to now, lack of reliable methods to obtain high-quality MnGe nanostructures with a desired shape and a good controllability has been a barrier to make these materials practically applicable for spintronic devices. Here, we report, for the first time, an innovative growth approach to produce self-assembled and coherent magnetic MnGe nanodot arrays with an excellent reproducibility. Magnetotransport experiments reveal that the nanodot arrays possess giant magneto-resistance associated with geometrical effects. The discovery of the MnGe nanodot arrays paves the way towards next-generation high-density magnetic memories and spintronic devices with low-power dissipation.

  16. Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

    2013-01-01

    A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

  17. Array tomography: imaging stained arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. In this protocol, tissue arrays are imaged using conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Images can be captured manually or, with the appropriate software and hardware, the process can be automated. PMID:21041399

  18. Array tomography: production of arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time consuming and require some practice to perfect. This protocol describes the sectioning of embedded tissues and the mounting of the serial arrays. The procedures require some familiarity with the techniques used for ultramicrotome sectioning for electron microscopy. PMID:21041397

  19. Enhanced reflection from inverse tapered nanocone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando da [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Kangwanwatana, Chuan; Montelongo, Yunuen; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-04

    We computationally and experimentally demonstrate enhanced reflection effects displayed by silicon-based inverted nanocone arrays. A 3D finite element model is used to characterize the optical properties of the nanocone arrays with respect to the change in polarization and incident angles. The nanocone arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography in hexagonal and triangular geometries with a lattice constant of 300 nm. The fabricated devices show a two-fold increase in reflection compared with bare silicon surface, as well as a strong diffraction within the visible and near-infrared spectra. The nanocone arrays may find a variety of applications from optical devices to energy conservation technologies.

  20. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard;

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... intensity in the market. Results from partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analyses indicate that organic organizational structures facilitate the impact of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance. Furthermore, we find that the performance effects of dynamic capabilities...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  1. Radiation detection from phase-locked serial dc SQUID arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Ustinov, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    We report on synchronous operation of series arrays of inductively coupled superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). Each array consisted of N=3 or 11 dc SQUIDs with common inductances providing a strong interaction between neighboring cells. Externally shunted (betac...

  2. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  3. Solar imaging capabilities of the Brazilian Decimetric Array

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Mucheroni; C. E. Moron; Gonzalez, W. D.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Swarup, G.; Rosa, R. R.; J. R. Cecatto; Fernandes, F. C. R.; K. R. Subramanian; H. S. Sawant; E. Lüdke

    2000-01-01

    In collaboration with the Department of Physics at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSC), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), and the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) efforts are made to develop solar tomography using solar images obtained at various wavelengths from different observatories, in particular radio images, in order to predict occurrences of solar disturbances and related solar terrestrial and space weather effects. It is suggested that decimetr...

  4. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: System Architecture and Specifications of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hotan, A. W.; Bunton, J. D.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Humphreys, B.; Jeffs, B. D.; Shimwell, T.; Tuthill, J.; Voronkov, M.; G. Allen; Amy, S.; Ardern, K.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L; Bannister, K.; Barker, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope - the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, which is a prototype of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a 6-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least 9 dual-pola...

  5. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X.; Datta, A.; Traverso, L. M.; Pan, L.; Xu, X.; Moon, E. E.

    2015-11-01

    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy.

  6. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  7. Fabrication of Electrophoretic Display Driven by Membrane Switch Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Kazuo; Usui, Hiroaki

    2010-04-01

    Electrophoretic devices (EPDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have potential application in a large-area flexible displays, such as digital signage. For this purpose, a new backplane is capable of driving a large unit is required instead of thin-film transistors. In this paper we describe the fabrication of a membrane switch array suitable for driving large-scale flat-panel displays. An array of membrane switches was prepared using flexible printed circuit (FPC) technology of polyimide films, by combining low-temperature processes of lamination and copper electroplating methods. An array of 256 matrix switches with a pixel size of 7 mm2 was prepared to drive the EPD front panel. The switches were driven at a voltage of about 40 V and a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation characteristics agreed well with the result of the theoretical calculation. The calculation also suggested that driving voltage can be lowered by increasing pixel size. The contact resistance of the membrane switch was as low as 0.2 Ω, which implies the wide applicability of this device for driving a variety of elements.

  8. Reusable, adhesiveless and arrayed in-plane microfluidic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reusable, arrayed interconnect capable of providing multiple simultaneous connections to and from a microfluidic device in an in-plane manner without the use of adhesives is presented. This method uses a 'pin-and-socket' design in which an SU-8 anchor houses multiple polydimethysiloxane septa (the socket) that each receive a syringe needle (the pin). A needle array containing multiple commercially available 33G (203 µm outer diameter) needles (up to eight) spaced either 2.54 or 1 mm (center-to-center) pierces the septa to access the microfluidic device interior. Finite element modeling and photoelastic stress experiments were used to determine the stress distribution during needle insertion; these results guided the SU-8 septa housing and septa design. The impact of needle diameter, needle tip style, insertion rate and number of needles on pre-puncture, post-puncture and removal forces was characterized. Pressurized connections to SU-8 channel systems withstood up to 62 kPa of pressurized water and maintained 25 kPa of pressurized water for over 24 h. The successful integration and functionality of the interconnect design with surface micromachined Parylene C microchannels was verified using Rhodamine B dye. Dual septa systems to access a single microchannel were demonstrated. Arrayed interconnects were compatible with integrated microfluidic systems featuring electrochemical sensors and actuators

  9. A sensor array is the solution to the CBRNE problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, James A.

    2004-11-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear/Explosives (CBRNE) is a threat to all forces that deploy to any part of the globe. Lightweight expeditionary forces are especially vulnerable because they operate with minimum force structure in or near enemy forces and may become indirect targets due to the proximity of opposing forces. There is currently no integrated tactical, agile CBRNE detect-to-warn and detect-to-treat detection system suitable for lightweight expeditionary forces. The current solutions are often outside the deployment and support constraints of expeditionary forces. Expeditionary forces, typically, require a 30-day capability without re-supply and must maximize resources. Situational awareness is limited with little or no automation. Due to the limitations in existing detectors, no detector has been found to be the magic bullet for all types of agents. An array of sensors that are redundant and overlap the capabilities of each and the limitations of each technology, on the other hand, would provide a level of security that is progressively more acceptable to the warfighter. Initially, the array will be composed of integrated commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and government-off-the-shelf (GOTS) CBRNE samplers, identification devices, tamper sensors, and communications and alert equipment. The sensor array will plug-and-play new technologies as they become available.

  10. Performance of Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. B.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Arrays are characterized with a time division SQUID multiplexer such that greater than 10 devices from an array can be measured in the same cooldown. Designs include kilo pixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (-75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heatsinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  11. Capabilities for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Bamberger, Simon Grandjean;

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments combined with increasing levels of competition related to the ongoing globalization imply that firms find themselves in dynamic, changing environments that call for dynamic capabilities. This challenges the internal human and organizational resources of firms in general...... and in particular their ability to develop firm-specific innovative capabilities through employee participation and creation of innovative workplaces. In this article, we argue that national institutional conditions can play an enhancing or hampering role in this. Especially the norms and values...... governing relations between employers and employees are expected to be of vital importance. This article will follow a resource-based perspective on developing dynamic capabilities in order to test the importance of enhancing human and organizational capabilities for innovation in firms. In particular, the...

  12. Education and Innovative Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    A. Leiponen

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the role of capabilities, acquired through education and on the job learning, in innovation. It is argued that education enhances learning and innovation because it provides employees with communication and interaction skills, and, more importantly, with abilities to receive, understand and utilize relevant knowledge, and solve problems. These dynamic capabilities are one of the sources of innovation. A dataset of 333 Finnish manufacturing firms is used to estimat...

  13. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  14. Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths.

  15. A Polymer-Based Capacitive Sensing Array for Normal and Shear Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the development of a polymer-based capacitive sensing array. The proposed device is capable of measuring normal and shear forces, and can be easily realized by using micromachining techniques and flexible printed circuit board (FPCB technologies. The sensing array consists of a polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS structure and a FPCB. Each shear sensing element comprises four capacitive sensing cells arranged in a 2 × 2 array, and each capacitive sensing cell has two sensing electrodes and a common floating electrode. The sensing electrodes as well as the metal interconnect for signal scanning are implemented on the FPCB, while the floating electrodes are patterned on the PDMS structure. This design can effectively reduce the complexity of the capacitive structures, and thus makes the device highly manufacturable. The characteristics of the devices with different dimensions were measured and discussed. A scanning circuit was also designed and implemented. The measured maximum sensitivity is 1.67%/mN. The minimum resolvable force is 26 mN measured by the scanning circuit. The capacitance distributions induced by normal and shear forces were also successfully captured by the sensing array.

  16. Microcontrollers Generate Timing Signals For CCD Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Marilyn K.; Mccloskey, John C.; Reed, Kenneth V.

    1992-01-01

    Microcontrollers generate timing signals for charge-coupled-device array detectors in electronic system developed to test such detectors. With microcontroller, one changes timing signals via software, without changes in wiring. Approach more flexible, timing signals changed easier and quicker.

  17. Failures in power-combining arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, David B.; Cheng, Nai-Shuo; York, Robert A.; Weikle, Robert M., II; De Lisio, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    We derive a simple formula for the change in output when a device fails in a power-combining structure with identical matched devices. The loss is written in terms of the scattering coefficient of the failed device and reflection coefficient of an input port in the combining network. We apply this formula to several power combiners, including arrays in free space and enclosed waveguide structures. Our simulations indicate the output power degrades gracefully as devices fail, which is in agree...

  18. Development and characterization of a TES optical imaging array for astrophysics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, J. E-mail: burney@stanford.edu; Bay, T.J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.; Nam, S.W.; Miller, A.J.; Martinis, J.; Wang, E.; Kenny, T.; Young, B.A

    2004-03-11

    Our research group has successfully developed photon detectors capable of both time-stamping and energy-resolving individual photons at very high rates in a wide band from the near-IR through optical and into the near-UV. We have fabricated 32-pixel arrays of these Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) devices and have mounted them in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We have characterized single pixel behavior; we have also begun operating multiple pixels simultaneously, starting the scaling process towards use of the full array. We emphasize the development of a metalized mask for our array that blocks photons from hitting the inter-pixel areas and reflects them onto the TESs. We also present calibration data on detector resolution, electronics noise, and optical alignment.

  19. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  20. Advanced capability RFID system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ronald W.; Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    2007-09-25

    A radio-frequency transponder device having an antenna circuit configured to receive radio-frequency signals and to return modulated radio-frequency signals via continuous wave backscatter, a modulation circuit coupled to the antenna circuit for generating the modulated radio-frequency signals, and a microprocessor coupled to the antenna circuit and the modulation circuit and configured to receive and extract operating power from the received radio-frequency signals and to monitor inputs on at least one input pin and to generate responsive signals to the modulation circuit for modulating the radio-frequency signals. The microprocessor can be configured to generate output signals on output pins to associated devices for controlling the operation thereof. Electrical energy can be extracted and stored in an optional electrical power storage device.

  1. Arc inhibitors for lower hybrid waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discontinuity at the mouth of a phased array between waveguide fields and plasma fields gives rise to strong, localized electric fields at the septa, especially if the array is excited asymetrically. Methods are suggested for modifying these fields to reduce the possibility of arcing. Probe measurements of the fields near the septa show that small but significant reductions of the local fields are possible and might raise the maximum power handling capability of an array

  2. Hybrid Beamforming and Steering With Reconfigurable Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Fong Ming; Thomenius, Kai E.; Fisher, Rayette; Carson, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable arrays offer an advantage over traditional ultrasound arrays because of their flexibility in channel selection. To improve ultrasound beamforming and coverage through beam steering, we propose a hybrid beamforming technique to elongate the depth of focus of transmit beams and a method of element selection that improves steering capabilities that take advantage of array reconfigurability using annular rings. A local minimization technique to optimize the hybrid aperture is discu...

  3. Direction of arrival estimation with sensor arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Czapska, J. M.; Yashchyshyn, Y.

    2009-01-01

    With recent increase of hardware capabilities, the application of sensor arrays in the Direction-Of-Arrival estimation is gaining more and more popularity. The behaviour of the array is the complex function of the geometry, sensor characteristic, signal and noise properties and other different factors. Before building the array it is essential to simulate its performance in different conditions with different algorithms.Most of the time the simulations are performed using custom ad-hoc create...

  4. Uncooled infrared sensors with digital focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles A.; Butler, Neal R.; Blackwell, Richard; Murphy, Robert; Breen, Thomas

    1996-06-01

    Loral Infrared & Imaging Systems is developing low cost, high performance, uncooled infrared imaging products for both military and commercial applications. These products are based on the microbolometer technology, a silicon micromachined sensor which combines the wafer level silicon processing with a device structure capable of yielding excellent infrared imaging performance. Here, we report on the development of an uncooled sensor, the LTC500, which incorporates an all digital focal plane array and has a measured NETD of less than 70 mK. The focal plane array and the electronics within the LTC500 have been designed as an integrated unit to meet a broad range of end user applications by providing features such as nonuniformity correction, autogain and level, NTSC video, and digital outputs. The 327 X 245 element focal plane array has a 46.25 micrometers pixel pitch and an on focal plane array 14 bit to analog to digital converter (ADC). The ADC has a measured instantaneous dynamic range of more than 76 dB at a 6.1 MHz output data rate and 60 Hz frame rate. The focal plane array consumes less than 500 mW of power, of which less than 250 mW is used in the ADC. An additional 36 dB of digital coarse offset correction in front of the ADC on the focal plane array results in a total electronic dynamic range of 112 dB. The MRT of the LTC500 camera has been measured at less 0.2 C at f(subscript o).

  5. picoArray Technology: The Tool's Story

    OpenAIRE

    Duller, Andrew; Towner, Daniel; Panesar, Gajinder; Gray, Alan; Robbins, Will

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the picoArray? architecture, and in particular the deterministic internal communication fabric. The methods that have been developed for debugging and verifying systems using devices from the picoArray family are explained. In order to maximize the computational ability of these devices, hardware debugging support has been kept to a minimum and the methods and tools developed to take this into account.

  6. Management Innovation Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Mie

    , the paper introduces the concept of management innovation capabilities which refers to the ability of a firm to purposefully create, extend and modify its managerial resource base to address rapidly changing environments. Drawing upon behavioral theory of the firm and the dynamic capabilities......Management innovation is the implementation of a new management practice, process, technique or structure that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed. This paper presents a typology categorizing management innovation along two dimensions; radicalness and complexity. Then...... framework, the paper proposes a model of the foundations of management innovation. Propositions and implications for future research are discussed....

  7. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido;

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provide...... a quick overview of what is possible today by the state of the art, what the HiMicro consortium can do and what metrological requirements we have concerning the HiMicro industrial demonstrators....

  8. Benefits of Managing Organizational Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the concepts of capability management and organizational capability. Capability management signifies the full utilization of capabilities in an organization, while organizational capability is the formation of individual capabilities into a larger group of capabilities which add value to organizational performance. There are numerous other elements significant to organizational development which are also related to capability management. Whe...

  9. Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Jonathan; Grossmann, Peter J.; Busacker, David E.; Jordy, George J.; Duerr, Erik K.; McIntosh, K. Alexander; Oakley, Douglas C.; Bailey, Robert J.; Ruff, Albert C.; Brattain, Michael A.; Funk, Joseph E.; MacDonald, Jason G.; Verghese, Simon

    2012-06-01

    An asynchronous readout integrated circuit (ROIC) has been developed for hybridization to a 32x32 array of single-photon sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The asynchronous ROIC is capable of simultaneous detection and readout of photon times of arrival, with no array blind time. Each pixel in the array is independently operated by a finite state machine that actively quenches an APD upon a photon detection event, and re-biases the device into Geiger mode after a programmable hold-off time. While an individual APD is in hold-off mode, other elements in the array are biased and available to detect photons. This approach enables high pixel refresh frequency (PRF), making the device suitable for applications including optical communications and frequency-agile ladar. A built-in electronic shutter that de-biases the whole array allows the detector to operate in a gated mode or allows for detection to be temporarily disabled. On-chip data reduction reduces the high bandwidth requirements of simultaneous detection and readout. Additional features include programmable single-pixel disable, region of interest processing, and programmable output data rates. State-based on-chip clock gating reduces overall power draw. ROIC operation has been demonstrated with hybridized InP APDs sensitive to 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm wavelength, and fully packaged focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been assembled and characterized.

  10. Future Imaging Sensor Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, K. R.; Ando, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced imaging sensor technologies that are being developed for future NASA earth observation missions are discussed. These include the multilinear array, the Shuttle imaging spectrometer, and the Shuttle imaging radar. The principal specifications and functional descriptions of the instruments are presented, and it is shown that the advanced technologies will enable a synergistic approach to the use of VIS/IR and microwave imaging sensors for remote sensing research and applications. The key problems posed by these future imaging sensor technologies are discussed, with particular attention given to data rates, power consumption, and data processing.

  11. The Murchison Widefield Array Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Ord, S M; Emrich, D; Pallot, D; Wayth, R B; Clark, M A; Tremblay, S E; Arcus, W; Barnes, D; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, N D R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; deSouza, L; Ewell-Wice, A; Feng, L; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, H; Jacobs, D; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Pathikulangara, J; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Remillard, R A; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio--astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia (WA). The MWA consists of 4096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and others by Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 TFLOPS (Tera FLoating point Operations Per Second). The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB/day of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper we outline the correlator design, signal path, and proce...

  12. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  13. Exploration Medical Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  14. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths. PMID:15202293

  15. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  16. Combining nanoimprint lithography with dynamic templating for the fabrication of dense, large-area nanoparticle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golze, Spencer D.

    The study of nanomaterials is a developing science with potentially large benefits in the development of catalysts, optical and chemical sensors, and solid state memory devices. As several of these devices require large arrays of nanoparticles, one of the greatest obstacles in material characterization and device development is the reliable manufacture of nanopatterns over a large surface area. In addition, various applications require different nanoparticle size and density. High density arrays with small nanoparticle sizes are difficult to achieve over a large surface area using current manufacturing processes. Herein, Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) and Dynamic Templating are combined to create a new manufacturing process capable of developing high density arrays with small nanoparticle sizes. The NIL process involves the stamping of a polymer coated substrate by a silicon stamp with patterned nanofeatures. The stamp is then removed, leaving the pattern in the polymer, which is first etched and then coated with a thin layer of metal, filling the recessed regions of the pattern. The excess polymer is dissolved, leaving a pattern of nanoparticles on the substrate matching the pattern on the stamp. When Dynamic Templating is applied, a very thin layer of metal can be coated, which forms small nanoparticle sizes when dewetted. A custom NIL system has been developed to combine these two processes together, which has now proven to yield consistent large-area, dense arrays with a small nanoparticle size. An array spacing of 700 nm has been achieved, along with a nanoparticle size of 90 nm. Arrays have been created in gold and palladium, where there is now the potential to combine them with other solution-based syntheses which should lead to complex nanoparticle geometries suitable for sensor applications.

  17. Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. A.; Bandler, S. b.; Busch, S. E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, J. P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (approximately 75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heat sinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron and up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss fabrication and performance of microstripline wiring at the small scales achieved to date. We also address fabrication issues with reduction of absorber contact area in small devices.

  18. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  19. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  20. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  1. Group Capability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  2. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  3. Management Innovation Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Mie

    2011-01-01

    Management innovation is the implementation of a new management practice, process, technique or structure that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed. This paper presents a typology categorizing management innovation along two dimensions; radicalness and complexity. Then, the paper introduces the concept of management innovation capabilities which refers to the ability of a firm to purposefully create, extend and modify its managerial resource base to add...

  4. Capabilities as causal powers

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Nuno O.

    2006-01-01

    The author argues that Sen's capability approach is primarily a philosophical under-labouring exercise aimed at elaborating certain central economic categories, and that the philosophical and methodological underpinnings of Sen's approach are radically different from those of contemporary welfare economics and mainstream economic practice. Sen's notion of ‘capabilities’ as the potential functionings to achieve well-being is interpreted here as a specification of the ontological category of ‘c...

  5. Knowledge Management Capabilities Rubrics

    OpenAIRE

    Azizah B.A. Rahman; Sara Hassani

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently researchers discerned the vitality and importance of Knowledge Management Capabilities (KMC) evaluation in organizations. In fact evaluation of KMC helps to prevent failure in Knowledge Management (KM) projects. Approach: One of the most popular methods in the phase of evaluating KMC is Fuzzy method which evaluates seven attributes of KMC. Fuzzy needs KM experts to give their opinion about these attributes as input data. However in some organizations these experts ...

  6. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  7. Evaluation of Environmental Effects of Wave Energy Convertor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Stakeholders and regulators in the U.S. are generally uncertain as to the potential environmental impacts posed by deployments of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, and in particular wave energy conversion (WEC) devices, in coastal waters. The first pilot-scale WEC deployments in the U.S. have had to absorb unsustainable costs and delays associated with permitting to get devices in the water. As such, there is an urgent industry need to streamline the technical activities and processes used to assess potential environmental impacts. To enable regulators and stakeholders to become more comfortable and confident with developing effective MHK environmental assessments, a better understanding of the potential environmental effects induced by arrays of WEC devices is needed. A key challenge in developing this understanding is that the assessment of the WEC effects must come prior to deployment. A typical approach in similar environmental assessments is to use numerical models to simulate the WEC devices and array layouts so that the appropriate environmental stressors and receptors can be identified and assessed. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy are fulfilling the industry-wide need to develop "WEC-friendly" open-source numerical modeling tools capable of assessing potential changes to the physical environment caused by the operation of WEC arrays. Studies using these tools will advance the nation's general knowledge of the interrelationships among the number, size, efficiency, and configuration of MHK arrays and the subsequent effects these relationships may have on the deployment environment. By better understanding these relationships, industry, stakeholders, and regulators will be able to work together to optimize WEC deployments such that environmental impacts are minimized while power output is maximized. The present work outlines the initial effort in coupling the SNL WEC-friendly tools with the environmental assessment

  8. Expanding Lookout Capabilities for Architectural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, B.

    SMC/SYSW/ENY's Lookout tool provides a M&S capability for architectural analysis. It models the contributions of ground and space-based assets in several mission threads and scenarios to quantify overall Space Situational Awareness (SSA) capability. Plotting performance results versus costs enables decision makers to identify and evaluate Best Value families of systems and combinations of architectures. Currently, SMC intends to use Lookout to impact the Fiscal Year 2012 budget programming cycle, the National SSA Initial Capabilities Document (ICD) and Architecture definition effort, planning for programs of record, and AFSPC & SMC leadership. Ultimately, Lookout will enable additional space superiority analysis. Previous Lookout work focused on modeling the metric tracking capabilities of the Space Surveillance Network (detecting and tracking) and proposed concepts to close identified collection shortfalls. SMC/SYSW/ENY leveraged some of the lessons learned in developing and implementing the metric tracking models to expand Lookout to develop an initial characterization capability, including non-resolved space object identification (SOI), imaging, and Foreign Instrumentation and Signals (FIS) Intelligence. Characterization collection phenomenologies added in FY08 and FY09 include mechanical tracking and phased array radars, visible telescopes, and signals collection. Lookout enables evaluating the characterization collections for quantity, quality, and timeliness. Capturing the Tasking, Collection, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination processes represent one of the biggest challenges in including characterization capabilities in mission thread and scenario-based analysis. The SMC/SYSW/ENY team met with several representatives of the community and held community-wide Technical Interchange Meetings. Based on feedback from these meetings, SMC created an infrastructure for modeling the tasking processes and scales to relate collection quality to intelligence

  9. Integrated Analysis Capability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, R. G.; Beste, D. L.; Greg, J.; Frisch, H. P.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) software system intended to provide highly effective, interactive analysis tool for integrated design of large structures. Supports needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems. Developed to serve as software interface between computer programs from fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and dynamics of systems on one hand and executive software system and data base on other hand to yield highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention given to such users' requirements as handling data and online assistance with operational features and ability to add new modules of user's choice at future date. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Building Server Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective of this...

  11. Building server capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective of this...

  12. Flexural plate wave devices for biosensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Park, Jung-Hyun; Shen, Dongna; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2007-04-01

    Flexural plate wave (FPW) device is one of promising devices for biological sensor application, because its electronic circuit can be isolated from the medium being detected, and it shows low acoustic energy loss in liquid medium. Moreover, FPW device arrays on the silicon based substrate can be possible at low cost fabrication by micromachining technology, so that it offers batch processing for economic sensor fabrication. In this study, piezoelectric ZnO film was chosen as a material for a biological sensor platform, due to non-toxicity, and chemical and thermal stability. RF magnetron sputtering and chemical solution deposition (CSD) were investigated as film fabrication method. To launch and receive the acoustic wave through the piezoelectric material, it is required that the piezoelectric ZnO film have strong c-axis orientation in the device. For the magnetron RF sputtering, process parameters such as gas ratio, substrate types, and temperature, were varied, and heat treatment and substrate types for CSD. Results indicated that the preferred orientation and microstructure of ZnO films can be controlled by the variation of the process parameter, and that uniform and dense microstructures of ZnO films were obtained by both fabrication methods. CSD method showed, however, stronger dependence of the preferred orientation on substrate types while less dependence on the substrates for sputtering due to energetic sputtered species. Mechanism for ZnO thin film growth will be discussed. FPW devices have been successfully integrated onto 4 inch Si-wafer with 22 different interdigitated electrodes designs, and the device demonstrated the capability to detect biological quantity of 446.13 cm2/gram of sensitivity.

  13. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Seren, Huseyin R; Keiser, George R; Maddox, Scott J; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Bank, Seth R; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector, and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field induced intervalley scattering resulting in a reduced carrier mobility thereby damping the plasmonic response. We demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide f...

  14. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  15. The capability conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: AMEC Nuclear recognises that a skilled workforce is essential to the success of its business. In the current global climate, the potential for new build in the UK, new build underway in Europe and across the world and the acceleration of Clean Up programmes, the competition for skilled staff is fierce. So how do companies develop and grow their Capability? What are the issues? There have been several initiatives undertaken in the UK to identify skills gaps. One example is an exercise undertaken by COGENT, the sector skills council for the Nuclear Sector, who undertook a comprehensive forward looking gap analysis for the industry in 2005 and who have now proposed a number of interventions to address the gaps identified, one of which is the creation of a Nuclear Skills Academy a second is the creation of Career Pathways. Some of the gaps identified cover shortages of skills that we face today but, more worryingly for the future, the projected down turn in the numbers of young people studying Science and Engineering subjects, both in schools and Universities and a shortage of apprenticeship places in the UK paints a gloomy picture. Where will our future capability come from? At AMEC Nuclear we recognise that we need to act now to protect our business and ensure we maintain, develop and grow our capability. We are working closely with COGENT to help to develop Career Pathways to encourage young people to the industry and we are delighted to have secured a place on the shadow board of the National Nuclear Skills Academy, an exciting project which will provide a focus for excellence in workforce skills development. Employers in the Nuclear industry have said that they want a Skills Academy that will provide national leadership in training provision and will move employers and employees from their current level of skills to those which will be needed to take these critical industries forward into a sustainable future in the UK. In order for us to assess what we

  16. PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA AND BEAMFORMING SUBSYTEMS IN PHASEDARRAY RADAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr A. Jhansi rani,; A. Jaya Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Phased array radars are essential for the future missions like Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), human space mission, and space debris tracking. The capabilities of Phased Array Radar include multipletarget long range tracking in skin mode, elimination of mechanical errors and instantaneous beam positioning capability. This paper presents the design of a transmitter/receiver Digital Beam former (DBF) based on the mathematical model of a far-field plane wave incident on a sensor array. Simulation...

  17. Low-Cost Photolithographic Fabrication of Nanowires and Microfilters for Advanced Bioassay Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi M. Doan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated microfluidic devices with nanosized array electrodes and microfiltration capabilities can greatly increase sensitivity and enhance automation in immunoassay devices. In this contribution, we utilize the edge-patterning method of thin aluminum (Al films in order to form nano- to micron-sized gaps. Evaporation of high work-function metals (i.e., Au, Ag, etc. on these gaps, followed by Al lift-off, enables the formation of electrical uniform nanowires from low-cost, plastic-based, photomasks. By replacing Al with chromium (Cr, the formation of high resolution, custom-made photomasks that are ideal for low-cost fabrication of a plurality of array devices were realized. To demonstrate the feasibility of such Cr photomasks, SU-8 micro-pillar masters were formed and replicated into PDMS to produce micron-sized filters with 3–4 µm gaps and an aspect ratio of 3. These microfilters were capable of retaining 6 µm beads within a localized site, while allowing solvent flow. The combination of nanowire arrays and micro-pillar filtration opens new perspectives for rapid R&D screening of various microfluidic-based immunoassay geometries, where analyte pre-concentration and highly sensitive, electrochemical detection can be readily co-localized.

  18. Ultraviolet and near-infrared femtosecond temporal pulse shaping with a new high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional micromirror array

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Stefan M.; Extermann, Jérôme; Bonacina, Luigi; Noell, Wilfried; Kiselev, Denis; Waldis, Severin; Rooij, Nico F. de; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the capabilities of a new optical microelectromechanical systems device that we specifically developed for broadband femtosecond pulse shaping. It consists of a one-dimensional array of 100 independently addressable, high-aspect-ratio micromirrors with up to 3μm stroke. We apply linear and quadratic phase modulations demonstrating the temporal compression of 800 and 400nm pulses. Because of the device’s surface flatness, stroke, and stroke resolution, phase shaping over an unpr...

  19. An All-Digital, Time-gated 128x128 SPAD Array for On-chip, Filter-less Fluorescence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an on-chip, filter-less fluorescence detector using an all-digital, time-resolved imager based on a CMOS single-photon detector array with limited in situ processing. The device comprises an array of pixels capable of detecting single photons integrated with time gating circuitry and a 1-bit memory. The sensor allows on-chip, filter-less fluorescence detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for micro total analysis systems (μ-TAS) and point-of-care tes...

  20. Electrical device fabrication from nanotube formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kittrell, W. Carter; Kim, Myung Jong; Schmidt, Howard K.

    2013-03-12

    A method for forming nanotube electrical devices, arrays of nanotube electrical devices, and device structures and arrays of device structures formed by the methods. Various methods of the present invention allow creation of semiconducting and/or conducting devices from readily grown SWNT carpets rather than requiring the preparation of a patterned growth channel and takes advantage of the self-controlling nature of these carpet heights to ensure a known and controlled channel length for reliable electronic properties as compared to the prior methods.

  1. Highly tunable plasmonic nanoring arrays for nanoparticle manipulation and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergides, M.; Truong, V. G.; Chormaic, S. Nic

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of trapping and detection of nano-objects at very low laser powers in the near-infra-red region (NIR) is crucial for many applications. Singular visible-light nano-optics based on abrupt phase changes have recently demonstrated a significant improvement in molecule detection. Here, we propose and demonstrate tunable plasmonic nanodevices, which can improve both the trapping field enhancement and detection of nano-objects using singular phase drops in the NIR range. The plasmonic nanostructures, which consist of gaps with dimensions 50 nm × 50 nm connecting nanorings in arrays is discussed. These gaps act as individual detection and trapping sites. The tunability of the system is evident from extinction and reflection spectra while increasing the aperture size in the arrays. Additionally, in the region where the plasmonic nano-array exhibits topologically-protected, near-zero reflection behaviour, the phase displays a rapid change. Our experimental data predict that, using this abrupt phase changes, one can improve the detection sensitivity by 10 times compared to the extinction spectra method. We finally report experimental evidence of 100 nm polystyrene beads trapping using low incident power on these devices. The overall design demonstrates strong capability as an optical, label-free, non-destructive tool for single molecule manipulation where low trapping intensity, minimal photo bleaching and high sensitivity is required.

  2. Measurement capabilities of the Bendix Metrology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to communicate the measurement and calibration capabilities of the Metrology Organization of the Bendix Kansas City Division. Included is a listing of the measurement types and ranges available, and the accuracies normally attainable under conditions at the Kansas City Division. Also described are currently used standards and measurement devices. The manual is divided into four major sections, each describing a broad general area of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical; and optical and radiation

  3. Terahertz Plasmonic Structure With Enhanced Sensing Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahiaoui, Riad; Strikwerda, Andrew C.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    resonant frequency of the terahertz transmission. The frequency shift and the amplitude modulation were investigated as a function of the refractive index and the thickness of the overlayer for determining the sensing potential of the proposed structure. Measurements carried out using terahertz time......-domain spectroscopy show good agreement with the numerical predictions. The results we obtained indicate that the proposed device could be very promising for enhancing the sensing capabilities of the refractive index changes involved in bio-applications, for instance....

  4. PHOBOS physics capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-07-15

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, the authors outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, they then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that they plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{eta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays.

  5. Knowledge Management Capabilities Rubrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah B.A. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently researchers discerned the vitality and importance of Knowledge Management Capabilities (KMC evaluation in organizations. In fact evaluation of KMC helps to prevent failure in Knowledge Management (KM projects. Approach: One of the most popular methods in the phase of evaluating KMC is Fuzzy method which evaluates seven attributes of KMC. Fuzzy needs KM experts to give their opinion about these attributes as input data. However in some organizations these experts are not available. Results: Therefore in this study a rubric matrix is developed as an assessment tool with ordered rank (very high, medium and very low of descriptive characteristics of criteria (seven attributes that organizations wish to evaluate. Conclusion: This rubric is applicable for members of an organization which are not familiar completely with KMC and also will be maintained by analyzing and surveying many different researches.

  6. PHOBICS physics capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center of mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, we outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, we then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that we plan to make at RHIC: dN/dζ for charged particles and the mass spectrum from φ→ K+K- decays

  7. General shape optimization capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  8. High Resolution Tracking Devices Based on Capillaries Filled with Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonekamper, D; Vassiltchenko, V; Wolff, T

    2002-01-01

    %RD46 %title\\\\ \\\\The aim of the project is to develop high resolution tracking devices based on thin glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator. This technique provides high hit densities and a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m. Further, their radiation hardness makes them superior to other types of tracking devices with comparable performance. Therefore, the technique is attractive for inner tracking in collider experiments, microvertex devices, or active targets for short-lived particle detection. High integration levels in the read-out based on the use of multi-pixel photon detectors and the possibility of optical multiplexing allow to reduce considerably the number of output channels, and, thus, the cost for the detector.\\\\ \\\\New optoelectronic devices have been developed and tested: the megapixel Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD), a high resolution image-detector having an outstanding capability of single photo-electron detection; the Vacuum Image Pipeline (VIP), a high-speed gateable pi...

  9. Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report graphene-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for metabolites. • The device is able to detect multiple metabolites sensitively and rapidly. • The device fabrication process is simple and inexpensive. - Abstract: The development of a miniaturized and low-cost platform for the highly sensitive, selective and rapid detection of multiplexed metabolites is of great interest for healthcare, pharmaceuticals, food science, and environmental monitoring. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with extraordinary electrical sensing capability. Microfluidic paper with printing technique is a low cost matrix. Here, we demonstrated the development of graphene-ink based biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for the multiplexed detection of different metabolites, such as glucose, lactate, xanthine and cholesterol. Our results show that the graphene biosensor arrays can detect multiple metabolites on a microfluidic paper sensitively, rapidly and simultaneously. The device exhibits a fast measuring time of less than 2 min, a low detection limit of 0.3 μM, and a dynamic detection range of 0.3–15 μM. The process is simple and inexpensive to operate and requires a low consumption of sample volume. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for a variety of applications

  10. Pixel array detector for time-resolved x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a large area hybrid pixel detector designed for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments in which limited frames, with a high framing rate, are required. The final design parameters call for a 1024x1024 pixel array device with 150-micron pixels that is 100% quantum efficient for x-rays with energy up to 20 keV, with a framing rate in the microsecond range. The device will consist of a fully depleted diode array bump bonded to a CMOS electronic storage capacitor array with eight frames per pixel. The two devices may be separated by a x-ray blocking layer that protects the radiation-sensitive electronics layer from damage. The signal is integrated in the electronics layer and stored in one of eight CMOS capacitors. After eight frames are taken, the data are then read out, using clocking electronics external to the detector, and stored in a RAM disk. Results will be presented on the development of a prototype 4x4 pixel electronics layer that is capable of storing at least 10,000 12-keV x-ray photons for a capacity of over 50 million electrons with a noise corresponding to 2 x-ray photons per pixel. The diode detective layer and electronics storage layer along with the radiation damage and blocking layers will be discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Nano-thermal transport array: An instrument for combinatorial measurements of heat transfer in nanoscale films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Patrick J. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vlassak, Joost J., E-mail: vlassak@esag.harvard.ed [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-09-30

    The nano-Thermal Transport Array is a silicon-based micromachined device for measuring the thermal properties of nanoscale materials in a high-throughput methodology. The device contains an array of thermal sensors, each one of which consists of a silicon nitride membrane and a tungsten heating element that also serves as a temperature gauge. The thermal behavior of the sensors is described with an analytical model. The assumptions underlying this model and its accuracy are checked using the finite element method. The analytical model is used in a data reduction scheme that relates experimental quantities to materials properties. Measured properties include thermal effusivity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. While the array is specifically designed for combinatorial analysis, here we demonstrate the capabilities of the device with a high-throughput study of copper multi-layer films as a function of film thickness, ranging from 15 to 470 nm. Thermal conductivity results show good agreement with earlier models predicting the conductivity based on electron scattering at interfaces.

  12. Graphene nano-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for multiplexed detection of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue, E-mail: yue.cui@usu.edu

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report graphene-ink biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for metabolites. • The device is able to detect multiple metabolites sensitively and rapidly. • The device fabrication process is simple and inexpensive. - Abstract: The development of a miniaturized and low-cost platform for the highly sensitive, selective and rapid detection of multiplexed metabolites is of great interest for healthcare, pharmaceuticals, food science, and environmental monitoring. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with extraordinary electrical sensing capability. Microfluidic paper with printing technique is a low cost matrix. Here, we demonstrated the development of graphene-ink based biosensor arrays on a microfluidic paper for the multiplexed detection of different metabolites, such as glucose, lactate, xanthine and cholesterol. Our results show that the graphene biosensor arrays can detect multiple metabolites on a microfluidic paper sensitively, rapidly and simultaneously. The device exhibits a fast measuring time of less than 2 min, a low detection limit of 0.3 μM, and a dynamic detection range of 0.3–15 μM. The process is simple and inexpensive to operate and requires a low consumption of sample volume. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for a variety of applications.

  13. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. A programmable nanoreplica molding for the fabrication of nanophotonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longju; Zhang, Jingxiang; Badshah, Mohsin Ali; Dong, Liang; Li, Jingjing; Kim, Seok-Min; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    The ability to fabricate periodic structures with sub-wavelength features has a great potential for impact on integrated optics, optical sensors, and photovoltaic devices. Here, we report a programmable nanoreplica molding process to fabricate a variety of sub-micrometer periodic patterns using a single mold. The process utilizes a stretchable mold to produce the desired periodic structure in a photopolymer on glass or plastic substrates. During the replica molding process, a uniaxial force is applied to the mold and results in changes of the periodic structure, which resides on the surface of the mold. Direction and magnitude of the force determine the array geometry, including the lattice constant and arrangement. By stretching the mold, 2D arrays with square, rectangular, and triangular lattice structures can be fabricated. As one example, we present a plasmonic crystal device with surface plasmon resonances determined by the force applied during molding. In addition, photonic crystal slabs with different array patterns are fabricated and characterized. This unique process offers the capability of generating various periodic nanostructures rapidly and inexpensively.

  16. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2011-08-01

    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  17. Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Chen, Yong

    2011-12-27

    The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

  18. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  19. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  20. Advanced CLIPS capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language developed by NASA. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high portability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2500 users throughout the public and private community. The primary addition to the next release of CLIPS, version 5.0, will be the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL). The major capabilities of COOL are: class definition with multiple inheritance and no restrictions on the number, types, or cardinality of slots; message passing which allows procedural code bundled with an object to be executed; and query functions which allow groups of instances to be examined and manipulated. In addition to COOL, numerous other enhancements were added to CLIPS including: generic functions (which allow different pieces of procedural code to be executed depending upon the types or classes of the arguments); integer and double precision data type support; multiple conflict resolution strategies; global variables; logical dependencies; type checking on facts; full ANSI compiler support; and incremental reset for rules.

  1. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  2. Mobile systems capability plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered

  3. Enabling Flexible and Continuous Capability Invocation in Mobile Prosumer Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Alcarria; Tomas Robles; Augusto Morales; Diego López-de-Ipiña; Unai Aguilera

    2012-01-01

    Mobile prosumer environments require the communication with heterogeneous devices during the execution of mobile services. These environments integrate sensors, actuators and smart devices, whose availability continuously changes. The aim of this paper is to design a reference architecture for implementing a model for continuous service execution and access to capabilities, i.e., the functionalities provided by these devices. The defined architecture follows a set of soft...

  4. Infrared-Bolometer Arrays with Reflective Backshorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Abrahams, John; Allen, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated circuits that incorporate square arrays of superconducting-transition- edge bolometers with optically reflective backshorts are being developed for use in image sensors in the spectral range from far infrared to millimeter wavelengths. To maximize the optical efficiency (and, thus, sensitivity) of such a sensor at a specific wavelength, resonant optical structures are created by placing the backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometer plane. The bolometer and backshort arrays are fabricated separately, then integrated to form a single unit denoted a backshort-under-grid (BUG) bolometer array. In a subsequent fabrication step, the BUG bolometer array is connected, by use of single-sided indium bump bonding, to a readout device that comprises mostly a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer circuit. The resulting sensor unit comprising the BUG bolometer array and the readout device is operated at a temperature below 1 K. The concept of increasing optical efficiency by use of backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometers is not new. Instead, the novelty of the present development lies mainly in several features of the design of the BUG bolometer array and the fabrication sequence used to implement the design. Prior to joining with the backshort array, the bolometer array comprises, more specifically, a square grid of free-standing molybdenum/gold superconducting-transition-edge bolometer elements on a 1.4- m-thick top layer of silicon that is part of a silicon support frame made from a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The backshort array is fabricated separately as a frame structure that includes support beams and contains a correspond - ing grid of optically reflective patches on a single-crystal silicon substrate. The process used to fabricate the bolometer array includes standard patterning and etching steps that result in the formation of deep notches in the silicon support frame. These notches are designed to

  5. Scintillator detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent application relates to a scintillator detector array for use in computerized tomography and comprises a housing including a plurality of chambers, the said housing having a front wall transmissive to x-rays and side walls opaque to x-rays, such as of tungsten and tantalum, a liquid scintillation medium including a soluble fluor, the solvent for the fluor being disposed in the chambers. The solvent comprises either an intrinsically high Z solvent or a solvent which has dissolved therein a high Z compound e.g. iodo or bromonaphthalene; or toluene, xylene or trimethylbenzene with a lead or tin alkyl dissolved therein. Also disposed about the chambers are a plurality of photoelectric devices. (author)

  6. Solitons in optomechanical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-15

    We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261

  7. Initial steps toward the realization of large area arrays of single photon counting pixels based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2014-03-01

    The thin-film semiconductor processing methods that enabled creation of inexpensive liquid crystal displays based on amorphous silicon transistors for cell phones and televisions, as well as desktop, laptop and mobile computers, also facilitated the development of devices that have become ubiquitous in medical x-ray imaging environments. These devices, called active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), measure the integrated signal generated by incident X rays and offer detection areas as large as ~43×43 cm2. In recent years, there has been growing interest in medical x-ray imagers that record information from X ray photons on an individual basis. However, such photon counting devices have generally been based on crystalline silicon, a material not inherently suited to the cost-effective manufacture of monolithic devices of a size comparable to that of AMFPIs. Motivated by these considerations, we have developed an initial set of small area prototype arrays using thin-film processing methods and polycrystalline silicon transistors. These prototypes were developed in the spirit of exploring the possibility of creating large area arrays offering single photon counting capabilities and, to our knowledge, are the first photon counting arrays fabricated using thin film techniques. In this paper, the architecture of the prototype pixels is presented and considerations that influenced the design of the pixel circuits, including amplifier noise, TFT performance variations, and minimum feature size, are discussed.

  8. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  9. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder: System Architecture and Specifications of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hotan, A W; Harvey-Smith, L; Humphreys, B; Jeffs, B D; Shimwell, T; Tuthill, J; Voronkov, M; Allen, G; Amy, S; Ardern, K; Axtens, P; Ball, L; Bannister, K; Barker, S; Bateman, T; Beresford, R; Bock, D; Bolton, R; Bowen, M; Boyle, B; Braun, R; Broadhurst, S; Brodrick, D; Brooks, K; Brothers, M; Brown, A; Cantrall, C; Carrad, G; Chapman, J; Cheng, W; Chippendale, A; Chung, Y; Cooray, F; Cornwell, T; Davis, E; de Souza, L; DeBoer, D; Diamond, P; Edwards, P; Ekers, R; Feain, I; Ferris, D; Forsyth, R; Gough, R; Grancea, A; Gupta, N; Guzman, JC; Hampson, G; Haskins, C; Hay, S; Hayman, D; Hoyle, S; Jacka, C; Jackson, C; Jackson, S; Jeganathan, K; Johnston, S; Joseph, J; Kendall, R; Kesteven, M; Kiraly, D; Koribalski, B; Leach, M; Lenc, E; Lensson, E; Li, L; Mackay, S; Macleod, A; Maher, T; Marquarding, M; McClure-Griffiths, N; McConnell, D; Mickle, S; Mirtschin, P; Norris, R; Neuhold, S; Ng, A; O'Sullivan, J; Pathikulangara, J; Pearce, S; Phillips, C; Qiao, RY; Reynolds, J E; Rispler, A; Roberts, P; Roxby, D; Schinckel, A; Shaw, R; Shields, M; Storey, M; Sweetnam, T; Troup, E; Turner, B; Tzioumis, A; Westmeier, T; Whiting, M; Wilson, C; Wilson, T; Wormnes, K; Wu, X

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope - the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, which is a prototype of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a 6-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least 9 dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.

  10. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  11. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 102–104 are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays

  12. An MR-compliant phased-array HIFU transducer with augmented steering range, dedicated to abdominal thermotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel architecture for a phased-array high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was investigated, aiming to increase the capabilities of electronic steering without reducing the size of the elementary emitters. The principal medical application expected to benefit from these developments is the time-effective sonication of large tumours in moving organs. The underlying principle consists of dividing the full array of transducers into multiple sub-arrays of different resonance frequencies, with the reorientation of these individual emitters, such that each sub-array can focus within a given spatial zone. To enable magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of the device and the number of output channels from the RF generator to be halved, a passive spectral multiplexing technique was used, consisting of parallel wiring of frequency-shifted paired piezoceramic emitters with intrinsic narrow-band response. Two families of 64 emitters (circular, 5 mm diameter) were mounted, with optimum efficiency at 0.96 and 1.03 MHz, respectively. Two different prototypes of the HIFU device were built and tested, each incorporating the same two families of emitters, but differing in the shape of the rapid prototyping plastic support that accommodated the transducers (spherical cap with radius of curvature/aperture of 130 mm/150 mm and, respectively, 80 mm/110 mm). Acoustic measurements, MR-acoustic radiation force imaging (ex vivo) and MR-thermometry (ex vivo and in vivo) were used for the characterization of the prototypes. Experimental results demonstrated an augmentation of the steering range by 80% along one preferentially chosen axis, compared to a classic spherical array of the same total number of elements. The electric power density provided to the piezoceramic transducers exceeded 50 W cm-2 CW, without circulation of coolant water. Another important advantage of the current approach is the versatility of reshaping the array at low cost.

  13. An MR-compliant phased-array HIFU transducer with augmented steering range, dedicated to abdominal thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auboiroux, Vincent [Inserm, U556, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Dumont, Erik [Image Guided Therapy, Pessac, Bordeaux (France); Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares [Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie, E-mail: vincent.auboiroux@unige.ch [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-06-21

    A novel architecture for a phased-array high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was investigated, aiming to increase the capabilities of electronic steering without reducing the size of the elementary emitters. The principal medical application expected to benefit from these developments is the time-effective sonication of large tumours in moving organs. The underlying principle consists of dividing the full array of transducers into multiple sub-arrays of different resonance frequencies, with the reorientation of these individual emitters, such that each sub-array can focus within a given spatial zone. To enable magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of the device and the number of output channels from the RF generator to be halved, a passive spectral multiplexing technique was used, consisting of parallel wiring of frequency-shifted paired piezoceramic emitters with intrinsic narrow-band response. Two families of 64 emitters (circular, 5 mm diameter) were mounted, with optimum efficiency at 0.96 and 1.03 MHz, respectively. Two different prototypes of the HIFU device were built and tested, each incorporating the same two families of emitters, but differing in the shape of the rapid prototyping plastic support that accommodated the transducers (spherical cap with radius of curvature/aperture of 130 mm/150 mm and, respectively, 80 mm/110 mm). Acoustic measurements, MR-acoustic radiation force imaging (ex vivo) and MR-thermometry (ex vivo and in vivo) were used for the characterization of the prototypes. Experimental results demonstrated an augmentation of the steering range by 80% along one preferentially chosen axis, compared to a classic spherical array of the same total number of elements. The electric power density provided to the piezoceramic transducers exceeded 50 W cm{sup -2} CW, without circulation of coolant water. Another important advantage of the current approach is the versatility of reshaping the array at low cost.

  14. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system

  15. Large Format Detector Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    Improvements in detector design and advances in fabrication techniques has resulted in devices which can reach fundamental sensitivity limits in many cases. Many pressing astrophysical questions require large arrays of such sensitive detectors. I will describe the state of far infrared through millimeter detector development at NASA/GSFC, the design and production of large format arrays, and the initial deployment of these powerful new tools.

  16. Image Enhancement with Polymer Grid Triode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Alan J.; Heeger, David J.; Langan, John; Yang, Yang

    1995-12-01

    An array of polymer grid triodes connected by a common grid functions as a "plastic retina," providing local contrast gain control for image enhancement. This simple device, made from layers of conducting polymers, functions as an active resistive network that performs center-surround filtering. The polymer grid triode array with common grid is a continuous analog of the discrete approach of Mead, with a variety of fabrication advantages and significant savings in area within the unit cell of each pixel.

  17. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are characterized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs

  18. Coincidence detection of spatially correlated photon pairs with a monolithic time-resolving detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Unternährer, Manuel; Gasparini, Leonardo; Stoppa, David; Stefanov, André

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate coincidence measurements of spatially entangled photons by means of a novel type of multi-pixel based detection array. The adopted sensor is a fully digital 8$\\times$16 silicon photomultiplier array allowing not only photon counting but also per-pixel time stamping of the arrived photons with a resolution of 65 ps. Together with a frame rate of 500 kfps, this property exceeds the capabilities of conventional charge-coupled device cameras which have become of growing interest for the detection of transversely correlated photon pairs. The sensor is used to measure a second-order correlation function for various non-collinear configurations of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The experimental results are compared to theory.

  19. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Jan; Feldman, Maryann; Srholec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes factors shaping technological capabilities in USA and European countries, and shows that the differences between the two continents in this respect are much smaller than commonly assumed. The analysis demonstrates a tendency toward convergence in technological capabilities for...... the sample as a whole between 1998 and 2008. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as well-developed public knowledge infrastructure, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety condition the growth of technological capabilities...

  20. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate

  1. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  2. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2014-12-09

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  3. Methods and devices for protein assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Swapnil; Cintron, Jose M.; Shediac, Renee

    2009-11-03

    Methods and devices for protein assays based on Edman degradation in microfluidic channels are disclosed herein. As disclosed, the cleaved amino acid residues may be immobilized in an array format and identified by detectable labels, such as antibodies, which specifically bind given amino acid residues. Alternatively, the antibodies are immobilized in an array format and the cleaved amino acids are labeled identified by being bound by the antibodies in the array.

  4. Nanocavity crossbar arrays for parallel electrochemical sensing on a chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno Kätelhön

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel device for the mapping of redox-active compounds at high spatial resolution based on a crossbar electrode architecture. The sensor array is formed by two sets of 16 parallel band electrodes that are arranged perpendicular to each other on the wafer surface. At each intersection, the crossing bars are separated by a ca. 65 nm high nanocavity, which is stabilized by the surrounding passivation layer. During operation, perpendicular bar electrodes are biased to potentials above and below the redox potential of species under investigation, thus, enabling repeated subsequent reactions at the two electrodes. By this means, a redox cycling current is formed across the gap that can be measured externally. As the nanocavity devices feature a very high current amplification in redox cycling mode, individual sensing spots can be addressed in parallel, enabling high-throughput electrochemical imaging. This paper introduces the design of the device, discusses the fabrication process and demonstrates its capabilities in sequential and parallel data acquisition mode by using a hexacyanoferrate probe.

  5. Thermoelectric Nanowire Arrays Response to Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tito; Scott, Reum; Johnson, Scott; Brower, Tina; Nikolaeva, Albina; Konopko, Leonid

    Bismuth nanowire arrays configured on devices where they are capped with a transparent indium tin oxide electrode generate electric power when exposed to light. The arrays feature poor optical reflectivity and, possibly, light trapping. We show experimental results that indicate that the arrays respond to illumination owing to the thermoelectric conversion of heat absorbed at the surface. The unique features of the energy pathway are manifested through a strong temporal and photon wavelength dependence of the photoresponse. Energy conversion in thermoelectrics with light trapping surfaces is a path to fast infrared light detection and across-the-spectrum solar energy harvesting.

  6. Photoresponse in arrays of thermoelectric nanowire junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T. E.; Scott, R.; Johnson, S.; Brower, T.; Belk, J. H.; Hunt, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of optical detection by thermoelectric nanowire junctions. We employed devices composed of bismuth nanowire arrays which are capped with a transparent indium tin oxide electrode. The incident surface features very low optical reflectivity and enhanced light trapping. The unique attributes of the thermoelectric arrays are the combination of strong temporal and optical wavelength dependences of the photocurrent. Under infrared illumination, the signal can be completely described by thermoelectric effects considering cooling rates given by heat diffusion through the array. In addition, under visible illumination, we observe a photovoltaic response.

  7. Enabling flexible and continuous capability invocation in mobile prosumer environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcarria, Ramon; Robles, Tomas; Morales, Augusto; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Aguilera, Unai

    2012-01-01

    Mobile prosumer environments require the communication with heterogeneous devices during the execution of mobile services. These environments integrate sensors, actuators and smart devices, whose availability continuously changes. The aim of this paper is to design a reference architecture for implementing a model for continuous service execution and access to capabilities, i.e., the functionalities provided by these devices. The defined architecture follows a set of software engineering patterns and includes some communication paradigms to cope with the heterogeneity of sensors, actuators, controllers and other devices in the environment. In addition, we stress the importance of the flexibility in capability invocation by allowing the communication middleware to select the access technology and change the communication paradigm when dealing with smart devices, and by describing and evaluating two algorithms for resource access management. PMID:23012526

  8. Enabling Flexible and Continuous Capability Invocation in Mobile Prosumer Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alcarria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile prosumer environments require the communication with heterogeneous devices during the execution of mobile services. These environments integrate sensors, actuators and smart devices, whose availability continuously changes. The aim of this paper is to design a reference architecture for implementing a model for continuous service execution and access to capabilities, i.e., the functionalities provided by these devices. The defined architecture follows a set of software engineering patterns and includes some communication paradigms to cope with the heterogeneity of sensors, actuators, controllers and other devices in the environment. In addition, we stress the importance of the flexibility in capability invocation by allowing the communication middleware to select the access technology and change the communication paradigm when dealing with smart devices, and by describing and evaluating two algorithms for resource access management.

  9. ParaSol - A Novel Deployable Approach for Very Large Ultra-lightweight Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power solar arrays with capabilities of >100kW are needed for projected NASA missions. Photovoltaic arrays using deployable membranes with thin cells have...

  10. A Photo-Multiplier Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhattacharya

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the design of a photo-multiplier testing device constructed to assess long term stability and suitability of 53 AVP photo-multipliers for use with singles counting, scintillation counter arrays and large plastic scintillation counter arrays (in coincidence in high energy physics experiments (with muons. The device can be used for routine checking of such phototubes in laboratory.

  11. Capability-based computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Capability-Based Computer Systems focuses on computer programs and their capabilities. The text first elaborates capability- and object-based system concepts, including capability-based systems, object-based approach, and summary. The book then describes early descriptor architectures and explains the Burroughs B5000, Rice University Computer, and Basic Language Machine. The text also focuses on early capability architectures. Dennis and Van Horn's Supervisor; CAL-TSS System; MIT PDP-1 Timesharing System; and Chicago Magic Number Machine are discussed. The book then describes Plessey System 25

  12. GPM Solar Array Gravity Negated Deployment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Jonathan; Johnson, Chris; Lewis, Jesse; Dear, Trevin; Stewart, Alphonso

    2014-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) successfully developed a g-negation support system for use on the solar arrays of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Satellite. This system provides full deployment capability at the subsystem and observatory levels. In addition, the system provides capability for deployed configuration first mode frequency verification testing. The system consists of air pads, a support structure, an air supply, and support tables. The g-negation support system was used to support all deployment activities for flight solar array deployment testing.

  13. A new IMS Seismic Array in Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, C. H.; Barrientos, S.; Bergsson, B. H.; Boureima, O. A.; Ebeling, C.; Hfaiedh, M.; Soumana, S.; Suarez, G.

    2006-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test- Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has built a sixteen element broadband seismic array in southwestern Niger near the town of Torodi. This is the first array to be built in West Africa. The array has a diameter of 6 km (three rings with a central element), contains twelve vertical and four 3-component broadband sensors, all with identical instrument responses (Guralp CMG-3TB broadband sensors, flat to velocity from 100 seconds to 20 Hz). All sensors are deployed at 50 meters depth in boreholes. Many elements have seismic noise characteristics at or below Peterson's Low Noise Model at frequencies higher than 0.5 Hz. The array is autonomous: it is powered entirely by solar power, and transmits data directly to Vienna via VSAT with about a 20 second delay from real time. Data availability is nearly 100% since January 2006. The array is entirely on 2 billion year old granodiorite/tonalite with all of the sensors emplaced within the crystalline rock. A receiver function performs on the data shows a very simple crustal structure with a Moho depth of 38 km. The array is capable of resolving and detecting events with magnitude (mb) less than 3.0 from events in Peru and Indonesia, showing that the array significantly adds to the IMS detection capabilities in the Africa region and world-wide.

  14. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  15. Transforming organizational capabilities in strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -term evolvements within the companies. We develop our framework of understanding organizational capabilities drawing on dynamic capability, relational capability and strategy as practice concepts, appreciating the performative aspects of developing new routines. Our two cases are taken from one author’s Ph......Offshored and networked enterprises are becoming an important if not leading organizational form and this development seriously challenges their organizational capabilities. More specifically, over the last years, SMEs have commenced entering these kinds of arrangements. As the organizational...... capabilities of SMEs are limited at the outset, even more emphasis is needed regarding the issues of developing relevant organizational capabilities. This paper aims at investigating how capabilities evolve during an offshoring process of more than 5 years in two Danish SMEs, i.e. not only short- but long...

  16. Tunable Dielectric Materials and Devices for Broadband Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Dayton, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Wireless and satellite communications are a rapidly growing industries which are slated for explosive growth into emerging countries as well as countries with advanced economies. The dominant trend in wireless communication systems is towards broadband applications such as multimedia file transfer, video transmission and Internet access. These applications require much higher data transmission rates than those currently used for voice transmission applications. To achieve these higher data rates, substantially larger bandwidths and higher carrier frequencies are required. A key roadblock to implementing these systems at K-band (18-26.5 GHz) and Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) is the need to develop hardware which meets the requirements for high data rate transmission in a cost effective manner. In this chapter, we report on the status of tunable dielectric thin films for devices, such as resonators, filters, phased array antennas, and tunable oscillators, which utilize nonlinear tuning in the control elements. Paraelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate ((Ba, Sr)TiO3) have dielectric constants which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the electric field across the material. Therefore, these materials can be used to control the frequency and/or phase response of various devices such as electronically steerable phased array antennas, oscillators, and filters. Currently, tunable dielectric devices are being developed for applications which require high tunability, low loss, and good RF power-handling capabilities at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. These properties are strongly impacted by film microstructure and device design, and considerable developmental work is still required. However, in the last several years enormous progress has occurred in this field, validating the potential of tunable dielectric technology for broadband wireless communication applications. In this chapter we summarize how film processing techniques, microwave test

  17. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  18. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  19. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  20. Shuttle/Centaur Upper Stage Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    A joint project to design, develop, procure, and produce Centaur upper stages for use with the Space Shuttle is discussed. A common Centaur G stage 6 meters (19.5 feet) in length is being jointly developed. A longer version designated Centaur G Prime is being developed by NASA to accomplish the Galileo and International Solar-Polar Mission flights in 1986. The Centaur G and G Prime will have the capability to place, respectively, approximately 4540 kilograms (10,000 pounds) and 5910 kilograms (13,000 pounds) into geosynchronous orbit from a standard Shuttle parking orbit of 278 kilometers (150 nautical miles) and Shuttle performance (lift) capability 29,500 kilograms (65,000 pounds). The advent of high energy upper stage capability in 1986 will permit space users and spacecraft developers to utilize spacecraft growth, stage combination concepts with storage modules, teleoperator systems, and other mission peculiar devices to satisfy complex mission demands. These capabilities should greatly enhance the usefulness of the space environment and stimulate mission planners toward conception of innovative means to meet ever increasing mission requirements.

  1. A versatile LabVIEW and FPGA-based scanned probe microscope for in-operando electronic device characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Andrew J; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In-operando characterization of such devices by scanned probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanned probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically-biased graphene FET device. The c...

  2. Diabetes Device Interoperability for Improved Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Alain D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and technological advancements have led to the increasing availability and use of sophisticated devices for diabetes management, with corresponding improvements in public health. These devices are often capable of sharing data with a few other specific devices but are generally not broadly interoperable; they cannot work together with a wide variety of other devices. As a result of limited interoperability, benefits of modern diabetes devices and potential for development of innova...

  3. Liquid Crystal-Based Beam Steering Device Development for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Bos, Philip; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Wang, Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program is supporting the development of liquid crystal-based beam steering devices. The device would use inexpensive, light-weight, optical components, and it would have the following capabilities: electronic beam scanning to angles above 1 milliradian, and submicroradian beam pointing accuracy. In order to correct for the imperfections resulting from the space-deployable optics, the technique of wave-front correction would be implemented. Hence, the output beam quality would be maintained. The potential applications could include satellite tracking, near-Earth inter-satellite communications, deep-space communications, and optical phased array systems. The status of the beam steering device development based on the liquid crystal technology and its relationship to prospective NASA mission scenarios will be described.

  4. Advanced MOSFET variability and reliability characterization array

    OpenAIRE

    Simicic, Marko; Putcha, Vamsi; Parvais, Bertrand; Weckx, Pieter; Kaczer, Ben; Groeseneken, Guido; Gielen, Georges; Linten, Dimitri; Thean, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Time-zero variability, bias temperature instability (BTI) and random telegraph noise (RTN) are issues that both analog and digital designers using scaled CMOS technologies have to face. In order to address them at design time, access to a sufficiently large number of individual devices is required for statistical technology characterization and modeling. In this paper we present a large MOSFET array designed and fabricated in an advanced 28nm technology, containing both nMOS and pMOS devices ...

  5. BOLOMETRIC ARRAYS FOR MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, semiconductor bolometers using thin lms have been developed at INAOE, speci cally boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon lms. The characteristics shown by these devices made them attractive to be used in astronomical instrumentation, mainly in two-dimentional arrays. These detector arrays used at the Large Millimeter Telescope will make possible to obtain astronomical images in millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. With this in mind, we are developing a method to produce, with enough reliability, bolometer arrays at INAOE. Until now, silicon nitride diaphragm arrays, useful as radiation absorbers, have succesfully been obtained. Sizes going from one to four millimeter by element in a consistent way; however we have not tested thermometers and metallic contact deposition yet. At the same time, we are working on two possible con gurations for the readout electronics; one of them using commercial components while the other will be an integrated circuit speci cally designed for this application. Both versions will work below 77K.

  6. A business analytics capability framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ranko Cosic; Graeme Shanks; Sean B Maynard

    2015-01-01

    Business analytics (BA) capabilities can potentially provide value and lead to better organisational performance. This paper develops a holistic, theoretically-grounded and practically relevant business analytics capability framework (BACF) that specifies, defines and ranks the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative. The BACF was developed in two phases. First, an a priori conceptual framework was developed based on the Resource-Based View theory of the firm and a themat...

  7. Experimental Test-Bed for Intelligent Passive Array Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Wanda M.; Torres, Miguel; David, Sunil; Isom, Adam; Cotto, Jose; Sharaiha, Samer

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the test-bed designed for the investigation of passive direction finding, recognition, and classification of speech and sound sources using sensor arrays. The test-bed forms the experimental basis of the Intelligent Small-Scale Spatial Direction Finder (ISS-SDF) project, aimed at furthering digital signal processing and intelligent sensor capabilities of sensor array technology in applications such as rocket engine diagnostics, sensor health prognostics, and structural anomaly detection. This form of intelligent sensor technology has potential for significant impact on NASA exploration, earth science and propulsion test capabilities. The test-bed consists of microphone arrays, power and signal distribution modules, web-based data acquisition, wireless Ethernet, modeling, simulation and visualization software tools. The Acoustic Sensor Array Modeler I (ASAM I) is used for studying steering capabilities of acoustic arrays and testing DSP techniques. Spatial sound distribution visualization is modeled using the Acoustic Sphere Analysis and Visualization (ASAV-I) tool.

  8. A TOUCH-SENSITIVE DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical touch-sensitive device and a method of determining a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch sensitive device. In particular, the present invention relates to an optical touch pad and a method of determining a...... position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch pad. A touch-sensitive device, according to the present invention may comprise a light source, a touch- sensitive waveguide, a detector array, and a first light redirecting member, wherein at least a part of the light...

  9. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  10. Laser beam steering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  11. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the 58Ni + 56Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  12. Compact Printed Arrays with Embedded Coupling Mitigation for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine G. Kakoyiannis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors emerged as narrowband, resource-constrained devices to provide monitoring services over a wide life span. Future applications of sensor networks are multimedia-driven and include sensor mobility. Thus, sensors must combine small size, large bandwidth, and diversity capabilities. Compact arrays, offering transmit/receive diversity, suffer from strong mutual coupling (MC, which causes lower antenna efficiency, loss of bandwidth, and signal correlation. An efficient technique to reduce coupling in compact arrays is described herein: a defect was inserted in the ground plane (GNDP area between each pair of elements. The defect disturbed the GNDP currents and offered multidecibel coupling suppression, bandwidth recovery, and reduction of in-band correlation. Minimal pattern distortion was estimated. Computational results were supported by measurements. The bandwidth of unloaded arrays degraded gracefully from 38% to 28% with decreasing interelement distance (0.25 to 0.10. Defect-loaded arrays exhibited active impedance bandwidths 37–45%, respectively. Measured coupling was reduced by 15–20 dB.

  13. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueyuek, Tayfun; Gadea, Andres; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Di Nitto, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Jaworski, Grzegorz; Javier Valiente-Dobon, Jose; De Angelis, Giacomo; Modamio, Victor; Triossi, Andrea [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Nyberg, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Palacz, Marcin [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Soederstroem, Paer-Anders [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Aliaga-Varea, Ramon Jose [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC, Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Atac, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Collado, Javier; Egea, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez, Vicente; Sanchis, Enrique [University of Valencia, Department of Electronic Engineering, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Erduran, Nizamettin [Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey); Ertuerk, Sefa [University of Nigde, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde (Turkey); France, Gilles de [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, CEA/DSAM, Caen (France); Gadea, Rafael; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, I3M, Valencia (Spain); Kaskas, Ayse [Ankara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Moszynski, Marek [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wadsworth, Robert [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ -ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the {sup 58}Ni + {sup 56}Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array. (orig.)

  14. Synergistic Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Microsome/DNA Electrochemiluminescent Arrays and Nanoreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sadagopan; Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Bajrami, Besnik; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Platforms based on thin enzyme/DNA films were used in two-tier screening of chemicals for reactive metabolites capable of producing toxicity. Microsomes were used for the first time as sources of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in these devices. Initial rapid screening involved electrochemiluminescent (ECL) arrays featuring spots containing ruthenium poly(vinylpyridine), DNA, and rat liver microsomes or bicistronically expressed human cyt P450 2E1 (h2E1). Cyt P450 enzymes were activated via the NADPH/reductase cycle. When bioactivation of substrates in the films gives reactive metabolites, they are trapped by covalent attachment to DNA bases. The rate of increase in ECL with enzyme reaction time reflects relative DNA damage rates. “Toxic hits” uncovered by the array were studied in structural detail by using enzyme/DNA films on silica nanospheres as “nanoreactors” to provide nucleobase adducts from reactive metabolites. The utility of this synergistic approach was demonstrated by estimating relative DNA damage rates of three mutagenic N-nitroso compounds and styrene. Relative enzyme turnover rates for these compounds using ECL arrays and LC-UV-MS correlated well with TD50 values for liver tumor formation in rats. Combining ECL array and nanoreactor/LC–MS technologies has the potential for rapid, high-throughput, cost-effective screening for reactive metabolites and provides chemical structure information that is complementary to conventional toxicity bioassays. PMID:18563913

  15. Precisely Patterned Growth of Ultra-Long Single-Crystalline Organic Microwire Arrays for Near-Infrared Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Deng, Wei; Huang, Liming; Zhang, Xiujuan; Jie, Jiansheng

    2016-03-30

    Owing to extraordinary properties, small-molecule organic micro/nanocrystals are identified to be prospective system to construct new-generation organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. Alignment and patterning of organic micro/nanocrystals at desired locations are prerequisite for their device applications in practice. Though various methods have been developed to control their directional growth and alignment, high-throughput precise positioning and patterning of the organic micro/nanocrystals at desired locations remains a challenge. Here, we report a photoresist-assisted evaporation method for large-area growth of precisely positioned ultralong methyl-squarylium (MeSq) microwire (MW) arrays. Positions as well as alignment densities of the MWs can be precisely controlled with the aid of the photoresist-template that fabricated by photolithography process. This strategy enables large-scale fabrication of organic MW arrays with nearly the same accuracy, uniformity, and reliability as photolithography. Near-infrared (NIR) photodetectors based on the MeSq MW arrays show excellent photoresponse behavior and are capable of detecting 808 nm light with high stability and reproducibility. The high on/off ratio of 1600 is significantly better than other organic nanostructure-based optical switchers. More importantly, this strategy can be readily extended to other organic molecules, revealing the great potential of photoresist-assisted evaporation method for future high-performance organic optoelectronic devices. PMID:26987110

  16. Three-dimensional superhydrophobic copper 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane biointerfaces with the capability of high adhesion of osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Fan, Jun-Bing; Nie, Qiong; Wang, Shutao

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional superhydrophobic copper 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuTCNQ) nanowire array with the capability of high adhesion of osteoblasts was demonstrated. The CuTCNQ nanowire array was constructed by using a combined vapor deposition technique. The superhydrophobic nanowire array exhibited very high adhesion of osteoblasts, indicating that the CuTCNQ nanowire array was a good biointerface.A three-dimensional superhydrophobic copper 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuTCNQ) nanowire array with the capability of high adhesion of osteoblasts was demonstrated. The CuTCNQ nanowire array was constructed by using a combined vapor deposition technique. The superhydrophobic nanowire array exhibited very high adhesion of osteoblasts, indicating that the CuTCNQ nanowire array was a good biointerface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, the EDX, TEM, SAED and cell viability. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08305b

  17. Carbon nanotube chemistry and assembly for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Vincent; Auvray, Stéphane; Borghetti, Julien; Chung, Chia-Ling; Lefèvre, Roland; Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Nguyen, Khoa; Robert, Gaël; Schmidt, Gregory; Anghel, Costin; Chimot, Nicolas; Lyonnais, Sébastien; Streiff, Stéphane; Campidelli, Stéphane; Chenevier, Pascale; Filoramo, Arianna; Goffman, Marcelo F.; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Latil, Sylvain; Blase, Xavier; Triozon, François; Roche, Stephan; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional physical properties that make them one of the most promising building blocks for future nanotechnologies. They may in particular play an important role in the development of innovative electronic devices in the fields of flexible electronics, ultra-high sensitivity sensors, high frequency electronics, opto-electronics, energy sources and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). Proofs of concept of several high performance devices already exist, usually at the single device level, but there remain many serious scientific issues to be solved before the viability of such routes can be evaluated. In particular, the main concern regards the controlled synthesis and positioning of nanotubes. In our opinion, truly innovative use of these nano-objects will come from: (i) the combination of some of their complementary physical properties, such as combining their electrical and mechanical properties; (ii) the combination of their properties with additional benefits coming from other molecules grafted on the nanotubes (this route being particularly relevant for gas- and bio-sensors, opto-electronic devices and energy sources); and (iii) the use of chemically- or bio-directed self-assembly processes to allow the efficient combination of several devices into functional arrays or circuits. In this article, we review our recent results concerning nanotube chemistry and assembly and their use to develop electronic devices. In particular, we present carbon nanotube field effect transistors and their chemical optimization, high frequency nanotube transistors, nanotube-based opto-electronic devices with memory capabilities and nanotube-based nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). The impact of chemical functionalization on the electronic properties of CNTs is analyzed on the basis of theoretical calculations. To cite this article: V. Derycke et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  18. Silicon pin diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included

  19. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) High Temperature Survival Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Ross, Ronald G.; Smith, Brian S.; Glenn, Gregory S.; Sharmit, Khaled S.

    1996-01-01

    The MGS mission is one of the first major palnetary missions conducted under the new NASA Faster, Better, Cheaper guidelines. This paper provides an overview of the array design and performance, the high temperature capable design and development.

  20. Performance of ultra-high-density microelectrode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging the electrical output activity of biological cells is important to gain an understanding of how cell networks process information. This has implications for the understanding of brain processing, such as that performed by the retina in encoding the visual scene. The performance and electrical quality of a state-of-the-art high-density 519-microelectrode array, that recorded simultaneously from hundreds of live retinal output cells (ganglion cells) is reported on. The fabrication process for these devices has been optimised and their electrical characteristics examined. The electrode arrays typically exhibit an impedance of ∼200 kΩ at 1 kHz and the RMS noise of the whole recording system is 7 μV with a signal to noise ratio of 20:1. With a view to direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells, a low impedance Z=300 kΩ iridium oxide interface capable of delivering large currents Q cap=4 mC/cm2 to cells was also developed

  1. Manycore Performance-Portability: Kokkos Multidimensional Array Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carter Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, complex scientific and engineering application code have a significant investment in computational kernels to implement their mathematical models. Porting these computational kernels to the collection of modern manycore accelerator devices is a major challenge in that these devices have diverse programming models, application programming interfaces (APIs, and performance requirements. The Kokkos Array programming model provides library-based approach to implement computational kernels that are performance-portable to CPU-multicore and GPGPU accelerator devices. This programming model is based upon three fundamental concepts: (1 manycore compute devices each with its own memory space, (2 data parallel kernels and (3 multidimensional arrays. Kernel execution performance is, especially for NVIDIA® devices, extremely dependent on data access patterns. Optimal data access pattern can be different for different manycore devices – potentially leading to different implementations of computational kernels specialized for different devices. The Kokkos Array programming model supports performance-portable kernels by (1 separating data access patterns from computational kernels through a multidimensional array API and (2 introduce device-specific data access mappings when a kernel is compiled. An implementation of Kokkos Array is available through Trilinos [Trilinos website, http://trilinos.sandia.gov/, August 2011].

  2. Microcontact printing-based fabrication of digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael W L; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Ye, George; Yonson, Neal; Trottier, Justin; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2006-11-15

    Digital microfluidics is a fluid manipulation technique in which discrete droplets are actuated on patterned arrays of electrodes. Although there is great enthusiasm for the application of this technique to chemical and biological assays, development has been hindered by the requirement of clean room fabrication facilities. Here, we present a new fabrication scheme, relying on microcontact printing (microCP), an inexpensive technique that does not require clean room facilities. In microCP, an elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamp is used to deposit patterns of self-assembled monolayers onto a substrate. We report three different microCP-based fabrication techniques: (1) selective etching of gold-on-glass substrates; (2) direct printing of a suspension of palladium colloids; and (3) indirect trapping of gold colloids from suspension. In method 1, etched gold electrodes are used for droplet actuation; in methods 2 and 3, colloid patterns are used to seed electroless deposition of copper. We demonstrate, for the first time, that digital microfluidic devices can be formed by microCP and are capable of the full range of digital microfluidics operations: dispensing, merging, motion, and splitting. Devices formed by the most robust of the new techniques were comparable in performance to devices formed by conventional methods, at a fraction of the fabrication time. These new techniques for digital microfluidics device fabrication have the potential to facilitate expansion of this technology to any research group, even those without access to conventional microfabrication tools and facilities. PMID:17105183

  3. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  4. A business analytics capability framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Cosic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Business analytics (BA capabilities can potentially provide value and lead to better organisational performance. This paper develops a holistic, theoretically-grounded and practically relevant business analytics capability framework (BACF that specifies, defines and ranks the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative. The BACF was developed in two phases. First, an a priori conceptual framework was developed based on the Resource-Based View theory of the firm and a thematic content analysis of the BA literature. Second, the conceptual framework was further developed and refined using a three round Delphi study involving 16 BA experts. Changes from the Delphi study resulted in a refined and confirmed framework including detailed capability definitions, together with a ranking of the capabilities based on importance. The BACF will help academic researchers and industry practitioners to better understand the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative and their relative importance. In future work, the capabilities in the BACF will be operationalised to measure their as-is status, thus enabling organisations to identify key areas of strength and weakness and prioritise future capability improvement efforts.

  5. Spherical Arrays for Wireless Channel Characterization and Emulation

    OpenAIRE

    Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    Three types of spherical arrays for use in wireless communication research are presented. First, a spherical array of 32 monopoles with beam steering in arbitrary direction and with arbitrary polarization is described. Next, a spherical array with 16 quad-ridged open-flared horns is introduced, offering better wideband performance and easier beam steering. Finally, a multi-probe setup for over-the-air testing of multiple-input multiple-output mobile devices is presented, being essentially a s...

  6. Spatially resolved spectral-imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Joshua Simon; Tyson, John Anthony

    2016-02-09

    A spatially resolved spectral device comprising a dispersive array to receive an incident light comprising a principal ray. The dispersive array comprising a plurality of dichroic layers, each of the plurality of dichroic layers disposed in a path of a direction of the principal ray. Each of the plurality of dichroic layers configured to at least one of reflect or transmit a different wavelength range of the incident light. The device further comprising a detection array operatively coupled with the dispersive array. The detection array comprising a photosensitive component including a plurality of detection pixels, each of the plurality of detection pixels having a light-receiving surface disposed parallel to the direction of the principal ray to detect a respective one of the different wavelength ranges of incident light reflected from a corresponding one of the plurality of dichroic layers.

  7. A Multivariate Process Capability Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shaoxi; JIA Xinzhang; JIAO Huifang; BIAN Yingchao; SONG Ning; ZHAO Luyu; WEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Process capability indices have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, providing numerical measures on process precision, process accuracy, and process performance. Capability measures for processes with a single characteristic have been investigated extensively. However, capability measures for processes with multiple characteristics are comparatively neglected. In this paper, inspired by the approach and model of process capability index investigated by K.S.Chen et al.(2003) and A.B.Yeh et al.(1998), a note model of multivariate process capability index based on non-conformity is presented. As for this index, the data of each single characteristic don't require satisfying normal distribution, of which its computing is simple and particioners will not fell too theoretical. At last the application analysis is made.

  8. Developing Collaborative Product Development Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Tran, Yen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative product development capabilities support a company’s product innovation activities. In the context of the fast fashion sector, this paper examines the development of the product development capabilities (PDC) that align product development capabilities in a dual innovation context......, one, slow paced, where the firm is well established and the other, fast paced, which represents a new competitive arena in which the company competes. To understand the process associated with collaborative capability development, we studied three Scandinavian fashion companies pursuing ‘dual...... innovation strategies’. Our analyses suggest that developing such collaboration capabilities benefits from the search for complementary practices, the combination of learning styles, and the development of weak and strong ties. Results also underscore the crucial importance of co-evolution of multi...

  9. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes...

  10. A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities. 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  12. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  13. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-04-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  14. Platform for analyzing multi-tasking capabilities during BCI operation

    OpenAIRE

    Leeb, Robert; Gwak, Kiuk; Kim, Dae-Shik; Millán, José del R.

    2014-01-01

    Operating brain-actuated devices requires split attention between the interaction of the device with its environment and the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) feedback. Recently we demonstrated that BCI feedback could be provided via tactile stimulation and no difference between tactile and visual BCI feedback could be found. In this work we want to present a platform for analyzing these multi-tasking capabilities during BCI operation. Thereby, the subjects will have to perform a visual engaging...

  15. Increasing the Working Capabilities of the Egyptian Scanning Landmine Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes and discusses the developments which were performed to increase the potential uses of Egyptian Scanning Landmine Detectors, ESCALAD. The ESCALAD apply two nuclear techniques for allocation and identification of landmines buried in arid soil like landmine fields in Egypt. The first technique is based on measuring thermal neutrons backscattered from the soil and the second one is based on measuring gamma-rays emitted from elements of landmine interrogated by fast and thermal neutrons when the soil is irradiated by fast neutrons from Pu-α-Be sources. The developed systems with their associated detectors, neutron sources, measuring electronics and data analysis modules are mounted on an electrically driven trolley. The neutron backscattering NBS device detects landmines by the recognition of hydrogen density variation between explosive material, of a landmine and its surroundings, soil and other scattered objects. When a high energy neutron flux from Pu-α-Be sources penetrates the soil in which the landmine is buried, the neutrons undergo successive moderation processes until they come back with thermal energy. An array of two dimensional position sensitive thermal neutron detectors of 3He was used to monitor the backscattered thermal neutrons and for each neutron the position of hit along the tube with respect to the position on the ground is recorded. The elemental analysis technique is regarded as a complementary sensor of ESCALAD in which the gamma rays produced from fast/thermal neutrons interactions with the buried objects (i.e., a landmine) are measured. The measured response for gamma-rays is given as gamma ray spectrum. A mine is recognized through measuring the difference in the elemental composition, especially H, C, N and O. To increase the working capabilities of ESCALAD, different design mechanisms were developed for mount the detectors tray to overcome the effect of soil surface roughness and standoff distance on scanning capability

  16. Development of ultra-fast ASIC for future PET scanners using TOF-capable MPPC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H., E-mail: aken.matsu@gmail.com [Faculty of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, J. [Faculty of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ikeda, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, T.; Anbe, T. [Faculty of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Sato, K.; Yamamura, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1 Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    We have developed a front-end ASIC (MPPC32) intended for future PET scanners that offers time-of-flight (TOF) capability in conjunction with a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) array. The ASIC design is based on the open-IP project proposed by JAXA and was realized in TSMC 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 32-channel, low impedance CMOS current conveyors (CCs) to effectively acquire fast MPPC signals. In order to precisely measure the coincidence timing of 511 keV gamma rays, the leading-edge method was employed instead of conventional zero-crossing measurement to discriminate signals. As a result, we obtained time jitter and walk measurement of 67 ps (FWHM) and 98 ps (within 511 keV±20%), respectively. Moreover, excellent energy resolutions of 9.8% (662 keV; FWHM) and 10.5% (511 keV; FWHM) were obtained by utilizing a 3×3 mm{sup 2} MPPC (of 50μm pitch) coupled with a Ce-doped LYSO (Ce:LYSO) crystal 3×3×10 mm{sup 3} in size. We finally report on the TOF measurements, and demonstrate that the MPPC32 developed here can be a promising device for future TOF-PET scanners using the MPPC array. -- Highlights: ► We developed an analog front-end ASIC for fast MPPC readout that offers TOF capability. ► We employed CMOS current conveyors with low impedance to acquire fast MPPC signals. ► The excellent coincidence timing resolution between two MPPCs was obtained when coupled to LYSO crystals.

  17. Modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing

    2012-09-21

    Recent advances in graphene nanoribbon (GNR) electronic devices provide a concrete context for developing simulation methods, comparing theories to experiments, and using simulations to explore device physics. We present a review on modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices, with an emphasis on electronic and magnetoresistive devices. Device modeling is reviewed in a synergistic perspective with GNR material properties, device characteristics, and circuit requirements. Similarity with and difference to carbon nanotube devices are discussed. Device modeling and simulation results are compared to experimental data, which underlines the importance of theory-experiment collaborations in this field. Importance of the GNR edges, which have a negative impact on the carrier mobility due to edge roughness but offer new possibilities of spintronic devices and edge doping, is emphasized. Advanced device modeling of GNRs needs to have the capability to describe GNR device physics, including three-dimensional electrostatics, quantum and atomistic scale effects, elastic and inelastic scattering processes, electron-electron interaction, edge chemistry, magnetic field modulation, and spintronic and thermoelectric device phenomena. PMID:22875475

  18. Modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Recent advances in graphene nanoribbon (GNR) electronic devices provide a concrete context for developing simulation methods, comparing theories to experiments, and using simulations to explore device physics. We present a review on modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices, with an emphasis on electronic and magnetoresistive devices. Device modeling is reviewed in a synergistic perspective with GNR material properties, device characteristics, and circuit requirements. Similarity with and difference to carbon nanotube devices are discussed. Device modeling and simulation results are compared to experimental data, which underlines the importance of theory-experiment collaborations in this field. Importance of the GNR edges, which have a negative impact on the carrier mobility due to edge roughness but offer new possibilities of spintronic devices and edge doping, is emphasized. Advanced device modeling of GNRs needs to have the capability to describe GNR device physics, including three-dimensional electrostatics, quantum and atomistic scale effects, elastic and inelastic scattering processes, electron-electron interaction, edge chemistry, magnetic field modulation, and spintronic and thermoelectric device phenomena.

  19. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  20. Josephson arrays for dc and ac metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large series arrays of underdamped SIS tunnel junctions are the basic element of the primary dc voltage standards used at present. The development of versatile quantum voltmeters for dc and ac metrology requires the preparation of large and perfect series arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions. Overdamped junctions can be realized by externally shunted SIS junctions or by internally shunted SNS or SINIS junctions. Arrays of up to 8000 SINIS junctions or 30000 SNS junctions were successfully operated at the 1 V dc level. In addition to being used in large arrays for voltage metrology and oscillators, the described junction types may become very useful for the preparation of highly integrated single-flux-quantum digital devices. (author)

  1. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  2. Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).

  3. Piezoresistive Foam Sensor Arrays for Marine Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dusek, Jeff E; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-dense pressure measurements are needed on curved surfaces in marine environments to provide marine vehicles with the detailed, real-time measurements of the near-field flow necessary to improve performance through flow control. To address this challenge, a waterproof and conformal pressure sensor array comprising carbon black-doped-silicone closed-cell foam (CBPDMS foam) was developed for use in marine applications. The response of the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays was characterized using periodic hydrodynamic pressure stimuli from vertical plunging, from which a piecewise polynomial calibration was developed to describe the sensor response. Inspired by the distributed pressure and velocity sensing capabilities of the fish lateral line, the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays have significant advantages over existing commercial sensors for distributed flow reconstruction and control. Experimental results have shown the sensor arrays to have sensitivity on the order of 5 Pascal, dynamic range of 50-500 Pascal; are...

  4. VLSI array processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, E.

    1982-07-01

    The Arithmetic Processor Unit (APU) data base design check was completed. Minor design rule violations and design improvements were accomplished. The APU mask set has been fabricated and checked. Initial checking of all mask layers revealed a design rule problem in one layer. That layer was corrected, refabricated and checked out. The mask set has been delivered to the chip fabrication area. The fabrication process has been initiated. All work on the Array Processor Demonstration System (APDS) has been suspended at CHI until the additionally requested funding was received. That funding has been authorized and CHI will begin work on the APDS in July. The following activities are planned in the following quarter: 1) Complete fabrication of the first lot of VLSI APU devices. 2) Complete integration and check-out of the APDS simulator. 3) Complete integration and check-out of the APU breadboard. 4) Verify the VLSI APU wafer tests with the APU breadboard. 5) Complete check-out of the APDS using the APU breadboard.

  5. An automated portable array biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joel P.; Shubin, Yura S.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Delehanty, James B.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Rowe-Taitt, Chris A.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-07-01

    Array biosensors provide the capability of immobilizing multiple capture biomolecules onto a single surface and therefore offer the exciting prospect of multi-analyte detection. A miniaturized, fully automated, stand-alone biosensor is reported which can simultaneously test multiple samples for multiple analytes. This portable system (monitoring for food safety, infectious disease detection, and biological warfare defense. The surface-selective nature of this technology allows determination of binding constants and tracking of both specific and non-specific binding events as they occur. Thus, it provides an exciting new research tool for characterizing the interactions of biomolecules with surfaces or immobilized receptors in real time. This capability has important implications for development of new materials and sensors.

  6. Experiments with Compact Antenna Arrays for MIMO Radio Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Browne, D W; Fitz, M P; Rahmat-Samii, Y

    2005-01-01

    The problem tackled in this study is one of MIMO transceiver implementation in which we consider how to design and test compact antenna arrays that have the ability to preserve the native information bearing capacity of a MIMO channel. Mutual coupling in antenna arrays is known to degrade the performance of a MIMO system. However, no tests involving compact arrays have been performed using a MIMO transceiver architecture that is capable of measuring the effect of mutual coupling on system performance. In this study, two novel compact MIMO antenna arrays were designed and integrated into a wideband MIMO radio testbed. These arrays are extremely compact yet have acceptable mutual coupling and radiation efficiency and resonate in three wide frequency bands. A measurement campaign was executed in which MIMO channel sounding measurements were taken using the compact arrays and dipole arrays in a variety of indoor environments. The MIMO transceiver used for channel sounding is able to measure the effect of mutual c...

  7. Multidirectional sorting modes in deterministic lateral displacement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, B.R.; Heller, Martin; Beech, J.P.;

    2008-01-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices separate micrometer-scale particles in solution based on their size using a laminar microfluidic flow in an array of obstacles. We investigate array geometries with rational row-shift fractions in DLD devices by use of a simple model including both...... advection and diffusion. Our model predicts multidirectional sorting modes that could be experimentally tested in high-throughput DLD devices containing obstacles that are much smaller than the separation between obstacles....

  8. Broadening Access to Geospatial Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the need for geospatial tool and data capabilities in HUBzero from various communities, a Purdue team is developing and integrating geospatial capabilities into the HUBzero software. Funded by the National Science Foundation’s Data Infrastructure Building Blocks (DIBBs) initiative, the follow-on program to the DataNet program, the GABBs project is a four-year software development effort aiming at enabling researchers, students and citizens to share geospatial data and tools onli...

  9. Towards a generic operational amplifier with dynamic reconfiguration capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lakshmanan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog and analog-digital mixed signal electronics needed for sensor systems are indispensable components which tend to drifts from the normal phase of operation due to the impact of manufacturing conditions and environmental influences like etching, aging etc. Precise design methodology, trimming / calibration are essential to restore functionality of the system. Recent block level granular approaches using Field Programmable Analog Array and the more recent approaches from evolutionary electronics providing transistor level granularity using Field Programmable Transistor Arrays offers considerable extensions. In our work, we started on a new medium granular level approach called Field Programmable medium-granular Mixed-signal Array (FPMA providing basic building blocks of heterogeneous array of active and passive devices to configure established circuit structures which are adaptive, biologically inspired and dynamically re-configurable. Our design objective is to create components of clear compatibility to that of the industrial standards having predictable behavior along with the incorporation of existing design knowledge. The cells can be used in as a single instance or multiple instances. Further, we will focus on a generic dynamic reconfigurable amplifier cell with flexible topology and dimension called Generic Operational Amplifier (GOPA. The incentive of our work comes from recent development in the field of measurement and instrumentation. The digital programming of analog devices is carried out using range of algorithms from simple to evolutionary. Physical realization of the basic cells is carried out in 0.35 μm CMOS technology.

  10. Kernel CMAC with improved capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Szabó, Tamás

    2007-02-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) has some attractive features, namely fast learning capability and the possibility of efficient digital hardware implementation. Although CMAC was proposed many years ago, several open questions have been left even for today. The most important ones are about its modeling and generalization capabilities. The limits of its modeling capability were addressed in the literature, and recently, certain questions of its generalization property were also investigated. This paper deals with both the modeling and the generalization properties of CMAC. First, a new interpolation model is introduced. Then, a detailed analysis of the generalization error is given, and an analytical expression of this error for some special cases is presented. It is shown that this generalization error can be rather significant, and a simple regularized training algorithm to reduce this error is proposed. The results related to the modeling capability show that there are differences between the one-dimensional (1-D) and the multidimensional versions of CMAC. This paper discusses the reasons of this difference and suggests a new kernel-based interpretation of CMAC. The kernel interpretation gives a unified framework. Applying this approach, both the 1-D and the multidimensional CMACs can be constructed with similar modeling capability. Finally, this paper shows that the regularized training algorithm can be applied for the kernel interpretations too, which results in a network with significantly improved approximation capabilities. PMID:17278566

  11. Super phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, W H; Pendry, J B [Condensed Matter Theory Group Department of Physics Imperial College London London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.wee07@imperial.ac.uk

    2010-03-15

    For a long time phase arrays have been used in a variety of wave transmission applications because of their simplicity and versatility. Conventionally there is a trade-off between the compactness of a phase array and its directivity. In this paper we demonstrate how by embedding a normal phase array within a superlens (made of negative refractive index material) we can overcome this constraint and create compact phase arrays with a virtual extent much larger than the physical size of the array. In this paper we also briefly discuss the apparent unphysical field divergences in superlenses and how to resolve this issue.

  12. Super phase array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time phase arrays have been used in a variety of wave transmission applications because of their simplicity and versatility. Conventionally there is a trade-off between the compactness of a phase array and its directivity. In this paper we demonstrate how by embedding a normal phase array within a superlens (made of negative refractive index material) we can overcome this constraint and create compact phase arrays with a virtual extent much larger than the physical size of the array. In this paper we also briefly discuss the apparent unphysical field divergences in superlenses and how to resolve this issue.

  13. A platform for analysis of nanoscale liquids with an integrated sensor array based on 2-d material

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, M; Neumann, R F; Giro, R; Feger, C; Avouris, P; Steiner, M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of nanoscale liquids, including wetting and flow phenomena, is a scientific challenge with far reaching implications for industrial technologies. We report the conception, development, and application of an integrated platform for the experimental characterization of liquids at the nanometer scale. The platform combines the sensing functionalities of an integrated, two-dimensional electronic device array with in situ application of highly sensitive optical micro-spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate the performance capabilities of the platform with an embodiment based on an array of integrated, optically transparent graphene sensors. The application of electronic and optical sensing in the platform allows for differentiating between liquids electronically, for determining a liquid's molecular fingerprint, and for monitoring surface wetting dynamics in real time. In order to explore the platform's sensitivity limits, we record topographies and optical spectra of individual, spatiall...

  14. Optimized light absorption in Si wire array solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing reflection and transmission losses in photovoltaic devices is essential for realizing highly efficient power conversion. Here, we theoretically investigate arrays of radial junction silicon wires to determine the optimal geometry for maximized light absorption. Using a generalized rigorous coupled wave analysis, we calculate the scattering spectra of arrays of varying wire radii, length, and lattice filling factors. Near unity absorption, far exceeding that of conventional thin film devices, is calculated for a square array of 20 µm long wires with radii of 200 nm and a filling fraction of 30%. These results suggest a potentially cost-effective route toward high efficiency solar cells

  15. Mobile device-to-device distributed computing using data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Remédios, Diogo; Teófilo, António; Paulino, Hervé; Lourenço, João

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing computing power, available storage and communication capabilities of mobile devices makes it possible to start processing and storing data locally, rather than offloading it to remote servers; allowing scenarios of mobile clouds without infrastructure dependency. We can now aim at connecting neighboring mobile devices, creating a local mobile cloud that provides storage and computing services on local generated data. In this paper, we describe an early overview of a dis...

  16. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices.We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the

  17. Micro-fluidic (Lab-on the- Chip) PCR Array Cartridge for Biological Screening in a Hand Held Device: FInal Report for CRADA no 264. PNNL-T2-258-RU with CombiMatrix Corp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainina, Evguenia I.

    2010-10-31

    The worldwide emergence of both new and old diseases resulting from human expansion and also human and materials mobility has and will continue to place stress on both medical and clinical diagnostics. The classical approach to bioagents detection involves the use of differential metabolic assays to determine species type in the case of most bacteria, or the use of cell culture and electron microscopy to diagnose viruses and some bacteria that are intracellular parasites. The long-term goal in bioagent detection is to develop a hand-held instrument featuring disposable cartridges which contain all the necessary reagents, reaction chambers, waste chambers, and micro-fluidics to extract, concentrate, amplify, and analyze nucleic acids. This GIPP project began development of a sensory platform using nucleic-acid based probes. Although research was not completed, initial findings indicated that an advanced sensing device could theoretically be built on a DNA/RNA-based technology platform.

  18. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  19. Accelerator and Electrodynamics Capability Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  20. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  1. Adaptive and mobile ground sensor array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; O' Rourke, William T.; Zenner, Jennifer; Maish, Alexander B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to demonstrate the use of robotic vehicles for deploying and autonomously reconfiguring seismic and acoustic sensor arrays with high (centimeter) accuracy to obtain enhancement of our capability to locate and characterize remote targets. The capability to accurately place sensors and then retrieve and reconfigure them allows sensors to be placed in phased arrays in an initial monitoring configuration and then to be reconfigured in an array tuned to the specific frequencies and directions of the selected target. This report reviews the findings and accomplishments achieved during this three-year project. This project successfully demonstrated autonomous deployment and retrieval of a payload package with an accuracy of a few centimeters using differential global positioning system (GPS) signals. It developed an autonomous, multisensor, temporally aligned, radio-frequency communication and signal processing capability, and an array optimization algorithm, which was implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). Additionally, the project converted the existing single-threaded, monolithic robotic vehicle control code into a multi-threaded, modular control architecture that enhances the reuse of control code in future projects.

  2. Optimized Optomechanical Micro-Cantilever Array for Uncooled Infrared Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Feng-Liang; ZHANG Qing-Chuan; CHEN Da-Peng; MIAO Zheng-Yu; XIONG Zhi-Ming; GUO Zhe-Ying; LI Chao-Bo; JIAO Bin-Bin; WU Xiao-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We present a new substrate-free bimaterial cantilever array made of SiNx and Au for an uncooled microoptomechanical infrared imaging device.Each cantilever element has an optimized deformation magnification structure.A 160×160 array with a 120μm×120μm pitch is fabricared and an optical readout is used to collectively measure deflections of all microcantilevers in the array.Tharmal images of room-temperature objects with higher spatial resolution have been obtained and the noise-equivalent temperature difference of the fabricated focal plane arrays is giyen statistically and is measured to be about 270mK.

  3. PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA AND BEAMFORMING SUBSYTEMS IN PHASEDARRAY RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr A. Jhansi rani,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phased array radars are essential for the future missions like Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV, human space mission, and space debris tracking. The capabilities of Phased Array Radar include multipletarget long range tracking in skin mode, elimination of mechanical errors and instantaneous beam positioning capability. This paper presents the design of a transmitter/receiver Digital Beam former (DBF based on the mathematical model of a far-field plane wave incident on a sensor array. Simulations of a DBF transmitter and receiver are performed to control the power pattern of a 4-element linear array. For the sensor array, two spatial filters were constructed with different pattern requirements to demonstrate theoperation of the Digital Beam Forming.

  4. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a thermonuclear device which causes the thermal expansion of a vacuum vessel to freely escape without refraining and is provided with a vacuum vessel having an excellently large rigidity against an electromagnetic force transiently acting whils retaining a predetermined position. Constitution: The device for supporting the vacuum vessel comprises piston cylinder means in which a pressurized fluid is sealed in cylinder chambers at both sides of a piston and with which these cylinder chambers are liquidly communicated through throttling means, and means for fixing any of the piston and the cylinder of said piston cylinder means to a bed-plate retaining the support device and another to the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel is retained through a connecting rod or the like connected to the cylinder of the support device. (Aizawa, K.)

  5. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  6. Over the Air Testing of MIMO Capable Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei

    This thesis focuses on multi-probe anechoic chamber testing, which is a promising over the air (OTA) testing method to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. With MIMO technology being adopted by new wireless technologies, mobile manufacturers and cellular operators need...... standard test methods to evaluate MIMO device performance. Due to its capability to reproduce radio multipath environments in a shielded laboratory, the multi-probe anechoic chamber method has attracted great research attention. This thesis addresses various aspects related to OTA testing of MIMO capable...... devices, where the focus is on techniques to emulate radio channels in multi-probe setups with a limited number of probes. Several channel emulation techniques are proposed to create realistic 2D and 3D spatial channel models in the thesis. A novel method to calculate probe weights for the prefaded signal...

  7. Miniature Sensor Node with Conformal Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. De Raedt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and fabrication of a fully integrated antenna beam steering concept for wireless sensor nodes. The conformal array circumcises four cube faces with a silicon core mounted on each face. Every silicon core represents a 2 by 1 antenna array with an antenna element consisting of a dipole antenna, a balun, and a distributed MEMS phase shifter. All these components are based on a single wafer process and designed to work at 17.2 GHz. Simulations of the entire system and first results of individual devices are reported.

  8. IBC arrays: Present and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Terry

    1994-01-01

    The development of arrays which operate at wavelengths longer than 8 micrometers has opened up new possibilities for imaging and spectroscopy but offers challenges not present at shorter wavelengths. Impurity Band Conduction (IBC) or Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors can meet these challenges and offer numerous advantages over standard photoconductors. We review some of the general operating principles of these devices and discuss the current state of technology. We then discuss the requirements placed on mid-infrared arrays by groundbased, airborne and spacebased astronomy.

  9. NWCF maintenance features and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A New Waste Calcining Facility is being built at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to replace the existing Waste Calcining Facility which was built to demonstrate fluidized-bed solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes. The new facility is being designed to provide a higher waste throughput, more corrosion resistant materials of construction, more effective cleanup of effluent streams, and extensive remote maintenance and equipment replacement capability. The facility will also contain extensive decontamination capability should contact maintenance become necessary. The facility is presently in construction and is scheduled for hot operation in 1980

  10. The Murchison Widefield Array: Design Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Cappallo, Roger J.; Morales, Miguel F.; Briggs, Frank H.; Benkevitch, Leonid; Bowman, Judd D.; Bunton, John D.; Burns, Steven; Corey, Brian E.; deSouza, Ludi; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Derome, Mark; Deshpande, Avinash; Gopalakrishna, M. R.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.

    2009-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a dipole-based aperture array synthesis telescope designed to operate in the 80-300 MHz frequency range. It is capable of a wide range of science investigations, but is initially focused on three key science projects. These are detection and characterization of 3-dimensional brightness temperature fluctuations in the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) at redshifts from 6 to 10, solar imaging and remote sensing of the inn...

  11. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

    OpenAIRE

    Haarlem, M.P. van; Wise, M. W.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; McKean, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Nijboer, R.; Swinbank, J.; Fallows, R.

    2013-01-01

    LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed t...

  12. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.;

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...... over all of the tracking detector area and even extending over to the satellite station are identified as EAS. The recorded multiplicity spectrum of the events is in general agreement with CORSIKA EAS simulation and demonstrates the array's capability of EAS detection....

  13. Solar energy harnessing in hexagonally arranged Si nanowire arrays and effects of array symmetry on optical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of solar energy harvesting in hexagonally arranged Si nanowire (NW) arrays is performed through optimizing the structural parameters, such as array periodicity (P), Si NW diameter (D) and length (L). The results demonstrate that there exist wide P and D/P ‘windows’ for the Si NW arrays, locating around 600 nm and 0.833 (i.e., D = 500 nm), respectively, for achieving enhanced light absorption compared to their thin film counterparts with the same thickness, but with much less materials consumption. Calculation of the ultimate efficiency (UE) indicates that the light trapping capability is not monotonically increased with L, and that UE vibration is found when L is >1000 nm. Comparison of the light absorption spectra for hexagonally and squarely arranged Si NW arrays demonstrates that these two most widely employed array symmetries in practice have little impact on the light trapping capability. (paper)

  14. Multi-Channel Detector Arrays for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey; Castracane, James; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Demers, Diane; Schatz, John

    1997-11-01

    InterScience, Inc. has developed a multiple slit detector array for use with heavy ion beam probes. The first array was a twenty element array installed on the TEXT tokamak. An initial set of data was obtained with this array prior to the shutdown on the TEXT tokamak in December of 1995. More recently, a smaller detector array has been developed for use in the CHS torsatron in Nagoya. This array is smaller than the TEXT array, with ten elements, but contains two prototype sets of detector plates to determine the beam position. The operating conditions in CHS are expected to be much harsher than in TEXT, with ECH and NBI plasmas. Trajectory simulations allowed for the design of a tilted detector array in the CHS vacuum vessel. First tests of the CHS array will begin in the late summer of 1997. Other candidate machines for detector arrays are the MST reversed field pinch, in which a beam probe is expected to be installed in late 1997 or early 1998 and the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is expected to be operational in 1998. Design issues, trajectory simulations and array test results will be presented. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant #DE-FG02-94ER81788

  15. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  16. Simultaneous operation and control of about 100 telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build the next generation ground-based very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray instrument. Compared to current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope experiments CTA will extend the energy range and improve the angular resolution while increasing the sensitivity up to a factor of 10. With about 100 separate telescopes it will be operated as an observatory open to a wide astrophysics and particle physics community, providing a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. The CTA Array Control system (ACTL) is responsible for several essential control tasks supporting the evaluation and selection of proposals, as well as the preparation, scheduling, and finally the execution of observations with the array. A possible basic distributed software framework for ACTL being considered is the ALMA Common Software (ACS). The ACS framework follows a container component model and contains a high level abstraction layer to integrate different types of device. To achieve a low-level consolidation of connecting control hardware, OPC UA (OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture) client functionality is integrated directly into ACS, thus allowing interaction with other OPC UA capable hardware. The CTA Data Acquisition System comprises the data readout of all cameras and the transfer of the data to a camera server farm, thereby using standard hardware and software technologies. CTA array control is also covering conceptions for a possible array trigger system and the corresponding clock distribution. The design of the CTA observations scheduler is introducing new algorithmic technologies to achieve the required flexibility.

  17. Improved Radiometric Calibrations and Measurements for Evaluating Photovoltaic Devices; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Task has improved broadband and spectral measurement capabilities at NREL. These improved NREL's capabilities affect the Photovoltaic Module and Array Performance and Reliability and Photovoltaic Measurements and Characterization Projects. Recent improvements (during 2000) in broadband radiometer calibrations result in the removal of bias errors on the order of 20 watts per square meter (W/m(sup 2)) in the measurement of global-hemispherical solar radiation. The improvements described are partially due to technical interactions by members of the Measurements and Instrumentation Team with the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) Validation Program, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Baseline Surface Measurement Network (BSRN), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Solar Radiation Research Branch (SRRB). New equipment has been purchased and techniques have been developed to characterize pulsed solar simulator spectral distributions. New equipment has been purchased and will be installed in the redesigned Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Baseline Measurement System (BMS). Expanded measurement capability, including sky radiance mapping, extensive ultraviolet and infrared radiation measurements, and routine spectral sampling will provide a unique complement of data for investigating PV device, module, and system design and performance, model development and validation, and for evaluating new measurement systems

  18. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  19. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.; Madsen, Tammy L.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories ...

  20. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimriks, Koen H.; Madsen, Tammy L.

    We discuss the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories of micro-level components underlying routines...

  1. Integrated optical dual-cantilever arrays in silica on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter A; Carpenter, Lewis G; Mennea, Paolo L; Holmes, Christopher; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2014-12-29

    A dual cantilever device has been demonstrated which can operate as a force sensor or variable attenuator. The device is fabricated using physical micromachining techniques that do not require cleanroom class facilities. The response of the device to mechanical actuation is measured, and shown to be well described by conventional fiber optic angular misalignment theory. The device has the potential to be utilized within integrated optical components for sensors or attenuators. An array of devices was fabricated with potential for parallel operation. PMID:25607148

  2. Recent Advances in Flexible and Stretchable Bio-Electronic Devices Integrated with Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suji; Lee, Hyunjae; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics and optoelectronics configured in soft, water resistant formats uniquely address seminal challenges in biomedicine. Over the past decade, there has been enormous progress in the materials, designs, and manufacturing processes for flexible/stretchable system subcomponents, including transistors, amplifiers, bio-sensors, actuators, light emitting diodes, photodetector arrays, photovoltaics, energy storage elements, and bare die integrated circuits. Nanomaterials prepared using top-down processing approaches and synthesis-based bottom-up methods have helped resolve the intrinsic mechanical mismatch between rigid/planar devices and soft/curvilinear biological structures, thereby enabling a broad range of non-invasive, minimally invasive, and implantable systems to address challenges in biomedicine. Integration of therapeutic functional nanomaterials with soft bioelectronics demonstrates therapeutics in combination with unconventional diagnostics capabilities. Recent advances in soft materials, devices, and integrated systems are reviewes, with representative examples that highlight the utility of soft bioelectronics for advanced medical diagnostics and therapies. PMID:26779680

  3. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-05-01

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  4. Three-dimensional micro-electrode array for recording dissociated neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Katherine; Khatami, David; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2009-07-21

    This work demonstrates the design, fabrication, packaging, characterization, and functionality of an electrically and fluidically active three-dimensional micro-electrode array (3D MEA) for use with neuronal cell cultures. The successful function of the device implies that this basic concept-construction of a 3D array with a layered approach-can be utilized as the basis for a new family of neural electrode arrays. The 3D MEA prototype consists of a stack of individually patterned thin films that form a cell chamber conducive to maintaining and recording the electrical activity of a long-term three-dimensional network of rat cortical neurons. Silicon electrode layers contain a polymer grid for neural branching, growth, and network formation. Along the walls of these electrode layers lie exposed gold electrodes which permit recording and stimulation of the neuronal electrical activity. Silicone elastomer micro-fluidic layers provide a means for loading dissociated neurons into the structure and serve as the artificial vasculature for nutrient supply and aeration. The fluidic layers also serve as insulation for the micro-electrodes. Cells have been shown to survive in the 3D MEA for up to 28 days, with spontaneous and evoked electrical recordings performed in that time. The micro-fluidic capability was demonstrated by flowing in the drug tetrotodoxin to influence the activity of the culture. PMID:19568672

  5. Sonochemically Fabricated Microelectrode Arrays for Use as Sensing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D. Collyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development, manufacture, modification and subsequent utilisation of sonochemically-formed microelectrode arrays is described for a range of applications. Initial fabrication of the sensing platform utilises ultrasonic ablation of electrochemically insulating polymers deposited upon conductive carbon substrates, forming an array of up to 70,000 microelectrode pores cm–2. Electrochemical and optical analyses using these arrays, their enhanced signal response and stir-independence area are all discussed. The growth of conducting polymeric “mushroom” protrusion arrays with entrapped biological entities, thereby forming biosensors is detailed. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this approach, lending itself ideally to mass fabrication coupled with unrivalled sensitivity and stir independence makes commercial viability of this process a reality. Application of microelectrode arrays as functional components within sensors include devices for detection of chlorine, glucose, ethanol and pesticides. Immunosensors based on microelectrode arrays are described within this monograph for antigens associated with prostate cancer and transient ischemic attacks (strokes.

  6. Low-cost SWIR sensors: advancing the performance of ROIC-integrated colloidal quantum dot photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Ethan J. D.; Lewis, Jay; Gregory, Chris; Temple, Dorota; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Dhar, Nibir

    2014-06-01

    RTI has developed a novel photodiode technology based on solution-processed PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQD) capable of providing low-cost, high performance detection across the Vis-SWIR spectral range. The most significant advantages of the CQD technology are ease of fabrication, small pixel size, and extended wavelength range. The devices are fabricated directly onto the ROIC substrate at low temperatures compatible with CMOS, and arrays can be fabricated at wafer scale. We will discuss recent advances in device architecture and processing that result in measured dark currents of 15 nA/cm2 at room temperature and enhanced SWIR responsivity from the UV to ~1.7 μm, compare these results to InGaAs detectors, and present measurements of the CQD detectors temperature dependent dark current.

  7. Improving The Performance Of 3-D Sensor Array By Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Naaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is proposed to improve the performance of 3-D array for DOA estimation. Cancellation of ground clutter received at the array (of sensors is an important problem to be considered. The approach being addressed to reduced the clutter is based on rotating the 3-D array (a cubical array by a fixed angle in all the three directions simultaneously. The computer simulations carried out showed that this method was capable of resolving closely spaced sources and also yielded optimum performance in achieving direction of arrivals. Compared to normal cubical array with the same number of elements, the rotated array provides a significant DOA accuracy. Further simulations were also carried out for various angles of rotation.

  8. Considerations in the sterile manufacture of polymeric microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Alkilani, Ahlam Zaid; Courtenay, Aaron J; McCrudden, Cian M; McCloskey, Bronagh; Walker, Christine; Alshraiedeh, Nida; Lutton, Rebecca E M; Gilmore, Brendan F; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-02-01

    We describe, for the first time, considerations in the sterile manufacture of polymeric microneedle arrays. Microneedles (MN) made from dissolving polymeric matrices and loaded with the model drugs ovalbumin (OVA) and ibuprofen sodium and hydrogel-forming MN composed of "super-swelling" polymers and their corresponding lyophilised wafer drug reservoirs loaded with OVA and ibuprofen sodium were prepared aseptically or sterilised using commonly employed sterilisation techniques. Moist and dry heat sterilisation, understandably, damaged all devices, leaving aseptic production and gamma sterilisation as the only viable options. No measureable bioburden was detected in any of the prepared devices, and endotoxin levels were always below the US Food & Drug Administration limits (20 endotoxin units/device). Hydrogel-forming MN were unaffected by gamma irradiation (25 kGy) in terms of their physical properties or capabilities in delivering OVA and ibuprofen sodium across excised neonatal porcine skin in vitro. However, OVA content in dissolving MN (down from approximately 101.1 % recovery to approximately 58.3 % recovery) and lyophilised wafer-type drug reservoirs (down from approximately 99.7 % recovery to approximately 60.1 % recovery) was significantly reduced by gamma irradiation, while the skin permeation profile of ibuprofen sodium from gamma-irradiated dissolving MN was markedly different from their non-irradiated counterparts. It is clear that MN poses a very low risk to human health when used appropriately, as evidenced here by low endotoxin levels and absence of microbial contamination. However, if guarantees of absolute sterility of MN products are ultimately required by regulatory authorities, it will be necessary to investigate the effect of lower gamma doses on dissolving MN loaded with active pharmaceutical ingredients and lyophilised wafers loaded with biomolecules in order to avoid the expense and inconvenience of aseptic processing. PMID:25787335

  9. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ralph L; Wipf, Mathias; Müller, Steffen; Bedner, Kristine; Wright, Iain A; Martin, Colin J; Constable, Edwin C; Fanget, Axel; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs) have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species. PMID:27164151

  10. Simultaneous positioning of cells into two-dimensional arrays using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Adrian; Oberti, Stefano; Radziwill, Gerald; Dual, Jürg

    2007-08-01

    Contactless simultaneous positioning of micrometer-sized particles in suspension (e.g., copolymer beads, living cells, silicon microparts) can be performed using ultrasound. Current devices are capable of collecting particles into planes or lines by exciting a resonance in the fluid by means of a piezoelectric transducer located beneath the fluidic cavity and are designed such that a one-dimensional pressure field is created. The focus of this work is to collect cells in distinct point locations for potential drug screening array applications. A device to create two-dimensional arrays of cells within a micromachined chamber is described. The chamber is etched into a silicon wafer and sealed with glass; on the underside of the silicon layer a piezoelectric actuator is attached. A signal is applied to each of two orthogonally aligned strips electrodes defined on the surface of the piezoelectric plate. These two strip electrodes create independently addressable approximately one-dimensional pressure fields. It is shown that by applying the same signal to each electrode a diagonally aligned grid of cells can be produced. However, the independence of the two electrodes allows the application of two signals with slightly different frequencies to be applied which creates a grid of circular cell clumps highly suitable for the identified application. (c) PMID:17187440

  11. Content Sharing for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturisation of computing devices has seen computing devices become increasingly pervasive in society. With this increased pervasiveness, the technologies of small computing devices have also improved. Mobile devices are now capable of capturing various forms of multimedia and able to communicate wirelessly using increasing numbers of communication techniques. The owners and creators of local content are motivated to share this content in ever increasing volume; the conclusion has been that social networks sites are seeing a revolution in the sharing of information between communities of people. As load on centralised systems increases, we present a novel decentralised peer-to-peer approach dubbed the Market Contact Protocol (MCP) to achieve cost effective, scalable and efficient content sharing using opportunistic networking (pocket switched networking), incentive, context-awareness, social contact and mobile devices. Within the report we describe how the MCP is simulated with a superimposed geographi...

  12. Pyrotechnic devices and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelblau, Harry

    2002-05-01

    Pyroshock is mechanical shock transmitted through structures from explosive devices, sometimes accompanied by structural impact. These devices are designed to cause the intentional separation of structures, or to cause the deployment of various mechanisms or subsystems required for mission operation. Separation devices usually fall into two categories: (a) line sources, such as linear shaped charges, and (b) point sources, such as explosive bolts, pin puller and pushers, and gas generators. The advantages of these devices are high reliability (especially when redundantly activated), low cost and weight, high activation speed, and low structural deformation a short distance from the source. The major limitation is pyroshock, a severe high-frequency transient capable of causing failure or malfunction to small nearby elements, especially electronic and optical components located close to the source. This pyroshock tutorial, which is intended to summarize recent improvements to the technology, is initiated with a review of explosive and companion devices.

  13. Fabrication and Performance of Large Format Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, James S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Busch, Sara E.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Porter, Frederick S.; Ray, C.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have produced a variety of superconducting transition edge sensor array designs for microcalorimetric detection of x-rays. Designs include kilopixel scale arrays of relatively small sensors (75 micron pitch) atop a thick metal heatsinking layer as well as arrays of membrane-isolated devices on 250 micron pitch and smaller arrays of devices up to 600 micron pitch. We discuss the fabrication techniques used for each type of array focusing on unique aspects where processes vary to achieve the particular designs and required device parameters. For example, we evaluate various material combinations in the production of the thick metal heatsinking, including superconducting and normal metal adhesion layers. We also evaluate the impact of added heatsinking on the membrane isolated devices as it relates to basic device parameters. Arrays can be characterized with a time division SQUID multiplexer such that greater than 10 devices from an array can be measured in the same cooldown. Device parameters can be measured simultaneously so that environmental events such as thermal drifts or changes in magnetic fields can be controlled. For some designs, we will evaluate the uniformity of parameters impacting the intrinsic performance of the microcalorimeters under bias in these arrays and assess the level of thermal crosstalk.

  14. Dr TIM: Ray-tracer TIM, with additional specialist scientific capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Stephen; Tyc, Tomáš; Courtial, Johannes

    2014-03-01

    We describe several extensions to TIM, a raytracing program for ray-optics research. These include relativistic raytracing; simulation of the external appearance of Eaton lenses, Luneburg lenses and generalised focusing gradient-index lens (GGRIN) lenses, which are types of perfect imaging devices; raytracing through interfaces between spaces with different optical metrics; and refraction with generalised confocal lenslet arrays, which are particularly versatile METATOYs. Catalogue identifier: AEKY_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKY_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licencing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 106905 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6327715 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Any computer capable of running the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 1.6. Operating system: Any, developed under Mac OS X Version 10.6 and 10.8.3. RAM: Typically 130 MB (interactive version running under Mac OS X Version 10.8.3) Classification: 14, 18. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKY_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)711 External routines: JAMA [1] (source code included) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Visualisation of scenes that include scene objects that create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. Solution method: Ray tracing. Reasons for new version: Significant extension of the capabilities (see Summary of revisions), as demanded by our research. Summary of revisions: Added capabilities include the simulation of different types of camera moving at relativistic speeds relative to the scene; visualisation of the external appearance of generalised focusing gradient-index (GGRIN) lenses, including Maxwell fisheye, Eaton and Luneburg lenses; calculation of

  15. Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dana; Duncan, Walter M.; Slaughter, John

    2003-01-01

    For the past six years, Digital Light Processing technology from Texas Instruments has made significant inroads in the projection display market. With products enabling the world"s smallest data and video projectors, HDTVs, and digital cinema, DLP technology is extremely powerful and flexible. At the heart of these display solutions is Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), a semiconductor-based "light switch" array of thousands of individually addressable, tiltable, mirror-pixels. With success of the DMD as a spatial light modulator for projector applications, dozens of new applications are now being enabled by general-use DMD products that are recently available to developers. The same light switching speed and "on-off" (contrast) ratio that have resulted in superior projector performance, along with the capability of operation outside the visible spectrum, make the DMD very attractive for many applications, including volumetric display, holographic data storage, lithography, scientific instrumentation, and medical imaging. This paper presents an overview of past and future DMD performance in the context of new DMD applications, cites several examples of emerging products, and describes the DMD components and tools now available to developers.

  16. Tilted Microstrip Phased Arrays With Improved Electromagnetic Decoupling for Ultrahigh-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Daniel B Vigneron; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-...

  17. Laser-Based Directed Release of Array Elements for Efficient Collection into Targeted Microwells

    OpenAIRE

    Dobes, Nicholas C.; Dhopeshwarkar, Rahul; Henley, W. Hampton; Ramsey, J. Michael; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    A cell separation strategy capable of the systematic isolation and collection of moderate to large numbers (25–400) of single cells into a targeted microwell is demonstrated. An array of microfabricated, releasable, transparent micron-scale pedestals termed pallets and an array of microwells in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were mated to enable selective release and retrieval of individual cells. Cells cultured on a pallet array mounted on a custom designed stage permitted the array to be pos...

  18. Computational Framework for Aerocapture Devices (Ballutes) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The individual software tools that make up the analytical capabilities for the design of entry vehicles using an aero-assist/aero-capture device have been fully...

  19. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  20. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  1. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, M. A. A.

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  2. Human-Centered Design Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  3. Improving the RPC rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Iuppa, R; Liberti, B; Paolozzi, L; Pastori, E; Santonico, R; Toppi, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the base of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.

  4. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing of...... changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financial performance and against an organizational commitment scale. We use distributed lag models to test whether the ESOC...... can predict financial performance. Monthly data were collected from frontline employees in three different companies during an 18-month period, and the initial results indicate that the ESOChas predictive power....

  5. Specialized device of power supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunchenko Y. A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The specialized device of power supplies, capable to change parameters of output voltage depending on conditions of environment and parameters of the fed equipment is offered. Examples of its application for feed of the electroluminescent indicator are resulted.

  6. Business Capabilities Centric Enterprise Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Barroero, Thiago; Motta, Gianmario; Pignatelli, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the field of Enterprise Architecture, The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a well known framework, that links Business Architecture, Data Architecture, Application Architecture, Technology. A key concept within Business Architecture domain is Business Capabilities, that are delivered by Business Component (BC). A BC is a business unit that encompasses a coherent set of activities, supported by assets including people, processes and technology. Current TOGAF version recognizes t...

  7. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  8. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms of communication is, at an organizational level, a complex device that determines the mastering of certain techniques, procedures, and algorithms of encoding and decoding intricate messages transmitted through various channels.

  9. Array for detecting microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  10. Infrared focal plane array crosstalk measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khoa V.; Kauffman, Christopher L.; Derzko, Zenon I.

    1992-07-01

    Crosstalk between two neighboring elements in a focal plane array (FPA) occurs when signal incident on one element in the array is seen on another. This undesired effect can occur due to both the electrical and optical properties of the FPA. An effort is underway at the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electro-Optics Directorate to develop a capability to measure crosstalk on both mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared FPAs. A single detector in an array is illuminated using a laser source coupled with a beam expander, collimating lens, and focusing lens. The relative response of that detector to that of its neighboring detectors is measured to calculate crosstalk. The various components of the test station, the methodology for implementing the crosstalk measurement, and a model of the laser spot size are discussed.

  11. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays--in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs--for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA's can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both ins...

  12. Spin scan tomographic array-based imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Harald

    2014-12-29

    This work presents a novel imaging device based on tomographic reconstruction. Similar in certain aspects to the earlier presented tomographic scanning (TOSCA) principle, it provides several important enhancements. The device described generates a stream of one-dimensional projections from a linear array of thin stripe detectors onto which the (circular) image of the scene is rotated. A two-dimensional image is then reproduced from the one-dimensional signals using tomographic processing techniques. A demonstrator is presented. Various aspects of the design and construction are discussed, and resulting images and movies are presented. PMID:25607168

  13. Silicon-based wire electrode array for neural interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. Metal-wire electrode arrays are widely used to record and stimulate neurons. Commonly, these devices are fabricated from a long insulated metal wire by cutting it into the proper length and using the cross-section as the electrode site. The assembly of a micro-wire electrode array with regular spacing is difficult. With the help of micro-machine technology, a silicon-based wire electrode array (SWEA) is proposed to simplify the assembling process and provide a wire-type electrode with tapered tips. Approach. Silicon wires with regular spacing coated with metal are generated from a silicon wafer through micro-fabrication and are ordered into a 3D array. A silicon wafer is cut into a comb-like structure with hexagonal teeth on both sides by anisotropic etching. To establish an array of silicon-based linear needles through isotropic wet etching, the diameters of these hexagonal teeth are reduced; their sharp edges are smoothed out and their tips are sharpened. The needle array is coated with a layer of parylene after metallization. The tips of the needles are then exposed to form an array of linear neural electrodes. With these linear electrode arrays, an array of area electrodes can be fabricated. Main results. A 6  ×  6 array of wire-type electrodes based on silicon is developed using this method. The time required to manually assemble the 3D array decreases significantly with the introduction of micro-fabricated 2D array. Meanwhile, the tip intervals in the 2D array are accurate and are controlled at no more than 1%. The SWEA is effective both in vitro and in vivo. Significance. Using this method, the SWEA can be batch-prepared in advance along with its parameters, such as spacing, length, and diameter. Thus, neural scientists can assemble proper electrode arrays in a short time. (paper)

  14. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes......, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors.......Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes...

  15. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  16. Micromachined electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  17. Diode Laser Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botez, Dan; Scifres, Don R.

    1994-08-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles and applications of semiconductor diode laser arrays. All of the major types of arrays are discussed in detail, including coherent, incoherent, edge- and surface-emitting, horizontal- and vertical-cavity, individually addressed, lattice- matched and strained-layer systems. The initial chapters cover such topics as lasers, amplifiers, external-cavity control, theoretical modeling, and operational dynamics. Spatially incoherent arrays are then described in detail, and the uses of vertical-cavity surface emitter and edge-emitting arrays in parallel optical-signal processing and multi-channel optical recording are discussed. Researchers and graduate students in solid state physics and electrical engineering studying the properties and applications of such arrays will find this book invaluable.

  18. Out-of-plane high-density piezoresistive silicon microwire/p–n diode array for force- and temperature-sensitive artificial whisker sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an out-of-plane high-aspect-ratio 'whisker-like' microwire array sensor for use in multisite contact force and temperature detection with high spatial resolution. Although the wire element has two terminal electrodes, the device consists of force-sensitive wire arrays where one end of the wire is attached to the substrate and the other end is free to be touched. We fabricated a force-sensitive wire array based on p-type (p-) silicon with 3 µm diameter and 30 µm length (1 Ω cm) assembled over an n-type (n-) silicon substrate (3–6 Ω cm), which resulted in a p-silicon wire/p–n diode system array. Due to the piezoresistance effect of the p-silicon wire, the electrical conductance changes upon contact of an individual wire with an object. The shift in the rectifying current–voltage (I–V) curves of the embedded p–n diode depends on the temperature through the silicon wire. Thus, the same alignment can be used as a force sensor and a temperature sensor. Both force- and temperature-sensitive microwire sensor arrays with a small detection area (∼20 µm2) and high spatial resolution (∼100 µm in pitch) have potential in numerous applications, including artificial electronic fingertips in a robot hand/prosthetics, multisite sensing of contact force, shear force, surface roughness and slip, and local temperature sensing capabilities.

  19. A microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of metabolic biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhao, Martin M Thuo and Xinyu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as simple yet powerful platforms for performing low-cost analytical tests. This paper reports a microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensor array for multiplexed detection of physiologically relevant metabolic biomarkers. Different from existing paper-based electrochemical devices, our device includes an array of eight electrochemical sensors and utilizes a handheld custom-made electrochemical reader (potentiostat) for signal readout. The b...

  20. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  1. Tangent hyperbolic circular frequency diverse array radars

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Saeed; Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi; Waseem Khan; Ayesha Salman

    2016-01-01

    Frequency diverse array (FDA) with uniform frequency offset (UFO) has been in spot light of research for past few years. Not much attention has been devoted to non-UFOs in FDA. This study investigates tangent hyperbolic (TH) function for frequency offset selection scheme in circular FDAs (CFDAs). Investigation reveals a three-dimensional single-maximum beampattern, which promises to enhance system detection capability and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio. Furthermore, by utilising the ...

  2. LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haarlem, M. P.; Wise, M. W.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; McKean, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Swinbank, J.; Fallows, R.; Brentjens, M.; Nelles, A.; Beck, R.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Hörandel, J.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mann, G.; Miley, G.; Röttgering, H.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Zaroubi, S.; van den Akker, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, K.; van Ardenne, A.; Arts, M.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Bell, M. R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bennema, P.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Boonstra, A.-J.; Braun, R.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; van de Brink, R. H.; Broderick, J.; Broekema, P. C.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; van Cappellen, W.; Ciardi, B.; Coenen, T.; Conway, J.; Coolen, A.; Corstanje, A.; Damstra, S.; Davies, O.; Deller, A. T.; Dettmar, R.-J.; van Diepen, G.; Dijkstra, K.; Donker, P.; Doorduin, A.; Dromer, J.; Drost, M.; van Duin, A.; Eislöffel, J.; van Enst, J.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Gankema, H.; Garrett, M. A.; de Gasperin, F.; Gerbers, M.; de Geus, E.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Grit, T.; Gruppen, P.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T.; Hoeft, M.; Holties, H. A.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.; van Houwelingen, A.; Huijgen, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N.; Jelic, V.; de Jong, A.; Juette, E.; Kant, D.; Karastergiou, A.; Koers, A.; Kollen, H.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kooistra, E.; Koopman, Y.; Koster, A.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kramer, M.; Kuper, G.; Lambropoulos, P.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lemaitre, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Markoff, S.; Masters, J.; McFadden, R. A.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Meijering, H.; Meulman, H.; Mevius, M.; Middelberg, E.; Millenaar, R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Mohan, R. N.; Mol, J. D.; Morawietz, J.; Morganti, R.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Mulder, E.; Munk, H.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; van Nieuwpoort, R.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M.; Noutsos, A.; Offringa, A. R.; Olofsson, H.; Omar, A.; Orrú, E.; Overeem, R.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A.; Rafferty, D.; Rawlings, S.; Reich, W.; de Reijer, J.-P.; Reitsma, J.; Renting, G. A.; Riemers, P.; Rol, E.; Romein, J. W.; Roosjen, J.; Ruiter, M.; Scaife, A.; van der Schaaf, K.; Scheers, B.; Schellart, P.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schoonderbeek, G.; Serylak, M.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Spreeuw, H.; Steinmetz, M.; Sterks, C. G. M.; Stiepel, H.-J.; Stuurwold, K.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thomas, I.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; van der Tol, B.; Usov, O.; van Veelen, M.; van der Veen, A.-J.; ter Veen, S.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Vermeulen, R.; Vermaas, N.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; de Vos, M.; van der Wal, E.; van Weeren, R.; Weggemans, H.; Weltevrede, P.; White, S.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Wilhelmsson, T.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Zensus, A.; van Zwieten, J.

    2013-08-01

    LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.

  3. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    two fixed-angle solar arrays and one single-axis Sun-tracking array. One of the fixed arrays contains typical less-efficient commercial solar cells and is being used as a baseline for comparison of the other fixed array, which contains the advanced cells. The Sun-tracking array tilts to follow the Sun, using an advanced, real-time tracking device rather than customary pre-programmed mechanisms. Part of the purpose served by the demonstration is to enable determination of any potential advantage of a tracking array over a fixed array. The arrays are monitored remotely on a computer that displays pertinent information regarding the functioning of the arrays.

  4. A Web Service Protocol Realizing Interoperable Internet of Things Tasking Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an infrastructure that interconnects uniquely-identifiable devices using the Internet. By interconnecting everyday appliances, various monitoring, and physical mashup applications can be constructed to improve human's daily life. In general, IoT devices provide two main capabilities: sensing and tasking capabilities. While the sensing capability is similar to the World-Wide Sensor Web, this research focuses on the tasking capability. However, currently, IoT devices created by different manufacturers follow different proprietary protocols and are locked in many closed ecosystems. This heterogeneity issue impedes the interconnection between IoT devices and damages the potential of the IoT. To address this issue, this research aims at proposing an interoperable solution called tasking capability description that allows users to control different IoT devices using a uniform web service interface. This paper demonstrates the contribution of the proposed solution by interconnecting different IoT devices for different applications. In addition, the proposed solution is integrated with the OGC SensorThings API standard, which is a Web service standard defined for the IoT sensing capability. Consequently, the Extended SensorThings API can realize both IoT sensing and tasking capabilities in an integrated and interoperable manner. PMID:27589759

  5. Electrical performance analysis of IC package for the high-end memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong H.; Han, Chan M.

    1997-08-01

    The developments of processing technology and design make it possible to increase the clock speed and the number of input outputs (I/Os) in memory devices. The interconnections of IC package are considered as an important factor to decide the performance of the memory devices. In order to overcome the limitations of the conventional package, new types of package such as Ball Grid Array (BGA), chip scale package or flip chip bonding are adopted by many IC manufacturers. The present work has compared the electrical performances of 3 different packages to provide deign guide for IC packages of the high performance memory devices in the future. Those packages are designed for the same memory devices to confront to the diversity of memory market demand. The conventional package using lead frame, wire bonded BGA using printed circuit board substrate and flip chip bonded BGA are analyzed. Their electrical performances are compared in the area of signal delay and coupling effect between signal interconnections. The electrical package modeling is built by extracting parasitic of interconnections in IC package through electro-magnetic simulations. The electrical package modeling is built by extracting parasitic of interconnections in IC package through electro-magnetic simulations. The analysis of electrical behavior is performed using SPICE model which is made to represent the real situation. The methodology presented is also capable of determining the most suitable memory package for a particular device based on the electrical performance.

  6. Theoretical analysis of short-circuit capability of SiC power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Soeno, Akitaka; Toguchi, Hiroaki; Aoi, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Tadano, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The short-circuit capability of Si power devices, defined in terms of critical energy density, is the product of the heat capacity in the heat generation region and the increase in temperature. However, for SiC power devices, the heat generation region is significantly smaller than that for Si power devices, because the drift-region thickness is about 10 times less in SiC power devices. Therefore, the formulae used for Si devices are not directly applicable to SiC devices. In this study, analytical formulae are derived for the short-circuit capability of a SiC power device and its dependence on the ambient temperature and the thickness of the n- drift region, on the basis of the thermal diffusion equation. The calculated results are found to be in good agreement with those of direct measurements.

  7. Proposed MIDAS II processing array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.

    1982-03-01

    MIDAS (Modular Interactive Data Analysis System) is a ganged processor scheme used to interactively process large data bases occurring as a finite sequence of similar events. The existing device uses a system of eight ganged minicomputer central processor boards servicing a rotating group of 16 memory blocks. A proposal for MIDAS II, the successor to MIDAS, is to use a much larger number of ganged processors, one per memory block, avoiding the necessity of switching memories from processor to processor. To be economic, MIDAS II must use a small, relatively fast and inexpensive microprocessor, such as the TMS 9995. This paper analyzes the use of the TMS 9995 applied to the MIDAS II processing array, emphasizing computational, architectural and physical characteristics which make the use of the TMS 9995 attractive for this application.

  8. Microlens arrays with integrated pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Microlenses are important optical components that image, detect, and couple light. But most synthetic microlenses have fixed position and shape once they are fabricated, so their possible range of tunability and complexity is rather limited. By comparison, biology provides many varied, new paradigms for the development of adaptive optical networks. Here, we discuss inspirational examples of biological lenses and their synthetic analogs. We focus on the fabrication and characterization of biomimetic microlens arrays with integrated pores, whose appearance and function are similar to highly efficient optical elements formed by brittlestars. The complex design can be created by three-beam interference lithography. The synthetic lens has strong focusing ability for use as an adjustable lithographic mask and a tunable optical device coupled with the microfluidic system. Replacing rigid microlenses with soft hydrogels provides a way of changing the lens geometry and refractive index continuously in response to external stimuli, resulting in intelligent, multifunctional, tunable optics.

  9. Cherenkov Telescope Array Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, G; Contreras, J L; Knödlseder, J; Kosack, K; Neyroud, N; Aboudan, A; Arrabito, L; Barbier, C; Bastieri, D; Boisson, C; Brau-Nogué, S; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; Carosi, A; Costa, A; De Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Gallozzi, S; Jacquemier, J; Khelifi, B; Kocot, J; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyard, E; Maier, G; Massimino, P; Osborne, J P; Perri, M; Rico, J; Sanchez, D A; Satalecka, K; Siejkowski, H; Stolarczyk, T; Szepieniec, T; Testa, V; Walter, R; Ward, J E; Zoli, A

    2015-01-01

    Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is evolving towards the model of a public observatory. Handling, processing and archiving the large amount of data generated by the CTA instruments and delivering scientific products are some of the challenges in designing the CTA Data Management. The participation of scientists from within CTA Consortium and from the greater worldwide scientific community necessitates a sophisticated scientific analysis system capable of providing unified and efficient user access to data, software and computing resources. Data Management is designed to respond to three main issues: (i) the treatment and flow of data from remote telescopes; (ii) "big-data" archiving and processing; (iii) and open data access. In this communication the overall technical design of the CTA Data Management, current major developments and prototypes are presented.

  10. The Owens Valley solar array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar microwave emission contains essential information for the study of the coronal magnetic structure of active regions and of thermal and nonthermal flare electrons. To exploit this potential requires BOTH imaging and spectroscopy with sufficient resolution to resolve spatial and spectral features. The VLA provides excellent solar imaging (when in the C and D configurations) but inadequate spectral coverage. The existing Owens Valley system has excellent spectral coverage but imaging that is adequate only for very simple sources. The Owens Valley system is currently undergoing an expansion, which when completed in October 1990 will provide a SOLAR-DEDICATED 5 antenna array (10 baselines). By using frequency-synthesis, this will provide a significant imaging capability in addition to its current spectral coverage

  11. Over-the-Air Testing of MIMO-Capable Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Kyösti, Pekka;

    2015-01-01

    A new over-the-air (OTA) testing method is required for evaluating multiple-antenna systems in realistic multipath propagation environments. Antenna design and propagation channels are the two key parameters that ultimately determine the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) device performance. As...... antennas are inherently included in OTA testing, it is important to also consider realistic channel models for MIMO device-performance evaluation. This article shows that the multiprobe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup is capable of emulating realistic and accurate multipath environments, making it a suitable...

  12. Developing A/E Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, the methods used by EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS and INITEC to perform Architect-Engineering work in Spain for nuclear projects has undergone a process of significant change in project management and engineering approaches. Specific practical examples of management techniques and design practices which represent a good record of results will be discussed. They are identified as areas of special interest in developing A/E capabilities for nuclear projects . Command of these areas should produce major payoffs in local participation and contribute to achieving real nuclear engineering capabities in the country. (author)

  13. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  14. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  15. Development of microwave imaging reflectometry in large helical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Nagayama, Y; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Shi, Z B; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2008-10-01

    Three key devices of the microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) are under development in large helical device (LHD). The 2-D mixer array is developed by stacking the one-dimensional array of the planar Yagi-Uda antenna. The new type of the bandpass filter bank is modified to match the requirement of the MIR. The low-cost quadrature demodulator is also developed for the phase detection system. By using the low-price commercial wireless devices, the development cost becomes much lower than the expensive waveguide system. These devices enable the development of 2-D/3-D microwave imaging system for the plasma diagnostics and industrial applications. PMID:19044595

  16. Wireless communication capability of a reconfigurable plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30 cm long plasma column is excited by a surface wave, which acts as a plasma antenna. Using plasma properties (pattern formation/striations in plasmas) single plasma antenna can be transformed into array, helical, and spiral plasma antenna. Experiments are carried out to study the power patterns, directivity, and half power beam width of such different plasma antennas. Moreover, field properties of plasma and copper antenna are studied. Further, wireless communication and jamming capability of plasma antenna are tested. Findings of this study suggest that directivity and communication range can be increased by converting single plasma antenna in to array/helical/spiral plasma antenna. Field frequencies of plasma antenna determine the communication and jamming of radio frequency waves. Therefore, this study invokes applications of pattern formation or striations of plasmas in plasma antenna technology.

  17. ALMA Capabilities for Observations of Spectral Line Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wootten, A

    2007-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) combines large collecting area and location on a high dry site to provide it with unparalleled potential for sensitive millimeter/submillimeter spectral line observations. Its wide frequency coverage, superb receivers and flexible spectrometer will ensure that its potential is met. Since the 1999 meeting on ALMA Science\\cite{RefA}, the ALMA team has substantially enhanced its capability for line observations. ALMA's sensitivity increased when Japan joined the project, bringing the 16 antennas of the Atacama Compcat Array (ACA), equivalent to eight additional 12m telescopes. The first four receiver cartridges for the baseline ALMA (Japan's entry has brought two additional bands to ALMA's receiver retinue) have been accepted, with performance above the already-challenging specifications. ALMA's flexibility has increased with the enhancement of the baseline correlator with additional channels and flexibility, and with the addition of a separate correlator f...

  18. Summary of Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-01

    The technical capabilities of Sandia Laboratories are detailed in a series of companion reports. In this summary the use of the capabilities in technical programs is outlined and the capabilities are summarized. 25 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Photonic Routing Systems Using All-optical, Hybrid Integrated Wavelength Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontios Stampoulidis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a new generation of all-optical wavelength converters within European project ISTMUFINS has enabled the development of compact and multi-functional photonic processing systems. Here we present the realization of demanding functionalities required in high-capacity photonic routers using these highly integrated components including: Clock recovery, data/label recovery, wavelength routing and contention resolution; all implemented with multi-signal processing using a single photonic chip – a quadruple array of SOAMZI wavelength converters which occupies a chip area of only 15 x 58 mm2. In addition, we present the capability of the technology to build WDM signal processing systems with the simultaneous operation of four quad devices in a four wavelength burst-mode regenerator. Finally, the potential of the technology to provide photonic systems-onchip is demonstrated with the first hybrid integrated alloptical burst-mode receiver prototype.

  20. 0.5 billion events per second time correlated single photon counting using CMOS SPAD arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstajić, Nikola; Poland, Simon; Levitt, James; Walker, Richard; Erdogan, Ahmet; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Henderson, Robert K

    2015-09-15

    We present a digital architecture for fast acquisition of time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) events from a 32×32 complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) single photon avalanche detector (SPAD) array (Megaframe) to the computer memory. Custom firmware was written to transmit event codes from 1024-TCSPC-enabled pixels for fast transfer of TCSPC events. Our 1024-channel TCSPC system is capable of acquiring up to 0.5×10(9) TCSPC events per second with 16 histogram bins spanning a 14 ns width. Other options include 320×10(6) TCSPC events per second with 256 histogram bins spanning either a 14 or 56 ns time window. We present a wide-field fluorescence microscopy setup demonstrating fast fluorescence lifetime data acquisition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest direct TCSPC transfer from a single photon counting device to the computer to date. PMID:26371922