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Sample records for arrau podocnemis expansa

  1. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossini, Mario; Blanco, P.A.; Marin, E.;

    2012-01-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during postlaying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal...

  2. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

  3. Transferrin polymorphism in Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa stocks

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The transferrin gene locus (Tf was investigated in five populations of the Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa sampled from five geographical areas in the Amazon region. This locus was polymorphic, showing three genotypes (Tfª Tfª, Tfª Tf b and Tf b Tf b, presumably encoded by two co-dominant alleles, Tfª and Tf b. All populations showed good genetic balance according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and may sustain the hypothesis of a single stock in the area investigated. The data are consistent with free flow of genes among the population samples examined.

  4. Cytogenetic comparison of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis: A case of inversion and duplication involving constitutive heterochromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunski, Ricardo José; Cunha, Isabel Souza; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Ledesma, Mario; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2013-01-01

    Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis present 2n = 28 chromosomes, a diploid number similar to those observed in other species of the genus. The aim of this study was to characterize these two species using conventional staining and differential CBG-, GTG and Ag-NOR banding. We analyzed specimens of P. expansa and P. unifilis from the state of Tocantins (Brazil), in which we found a 2n = 28 and karyotypes differing in the morphology of the 13th pair, which was submetacentric in P. expansa and telocentric in P. unifilis. The CBG-banding patterns revealed a heterochromatic block in the short arm of pair 13 of P. expansa and an interstitial one in pair 13 of P. unifilis, suggesting a pericentric inversion. Pair 14 of P. unifilis showed an insterstitial band in the long arm that was absent in P. expansa, suggesting a duplication in this region. Ag-NORs were observed in the first chromosome pair of both species and was associated to a secondary constriction and heterochromatic blocks. PMID:24130442

  5. Cytogenetic comparison of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis: a case of inversion and duplication involving constitutive heterochromatin

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    Ricardo José Gunski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis present 2n = 28 chromosomes, a diploid number similar to those observed in other species of the genus. The aim of this study was to characterize these two species using conventional staining and differential CBG-, GTG and Ag-NOR banding. We analyzed specimens of P. expansa and P. unifilis from the state of Tocantins (Brazil, in which we found a 2n = 28 and karyotypes differing in the morphology of the 13th pair, which was submetacentric in P. expansa and telocentric in P. unifilis. The CBG-banding patterns revealed a heterochromatic block in the short arm of pair 13 of P. expansa and an interstitial one in pair 13 of P. unifilis, suggesting a pericentric inversion. Pair 14 of P. unifilis showed an insterstitial band in the long arm that was absent in P. expansa, suggesting a duplication in this region. Ag-NORs were observed in the first chromosome pair of both species and was associated to a secondary constriction and heterochromatic blocks.

  6. Pivotal temperature and sexual dimorphism of Podocnemis expansa hatchlings (Testudines: Podocnemididae) from Bananal Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adélio Lubiana; Paulo Dias Ferreira Júnior

    2009-01-01

    A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil), were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed f...

  7. Pivotal temperature and sexual dimorphism of Podocnemis expansa hatchlings (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Bananal Island, Brazil

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    Adélio Lubiana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A common problem when trying to identify the sex of hatchling turtles is that juveniles are not obviously externally dimorphic and current techniques to identify sex are often invasive. In this paper, 300 eggs of Podocnemis expansa from Bananal Island, state of Tocantins (Brazil, were incubated at constant temperatures. The carapaces of the hatchlings were photographed and subjected to geometric morphometric analysis. The hatchlings were subsequently euthanized and had their gonads removed for sex determination. The pivotal temperature of P. expansa was 33.5ºC, confirming that this species has the highest pivotal temperature among reptiles. Geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the carapace proved efficient in differentiating the sex of the hatchlings and confirmed that this methodology can be efficient for studies that need to ascertain the sex ratio in P. expansa hatchlings.

  8. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL OF TURTLES (Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis ON A RIVERSIDE COMMUNITY

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    Wallace Alves Barroso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os conhecimentos biológicos e a ecologia das espécies Podocnemis expansa (Tartaruga e Podocnemis unifilis (Tracajá na comunidade ribeirinha situada na bacia do Rio Araguaia no município de Santa Terezinha-MT, e entender a relação da comunidade com estas espécies. A característica importante para comunidade diferenciar essas espécies foi o casco. A morfologia desses animais é reconhecida pelos entrevistados. A comunidade estudada diferenciou as espécies pelo padrão morfológico e aparência dos indivíduos, demonstrando intrínseca relação etnoecológica. Palavras-chave: quelônios, Araguaia, conhecimento tradicional.

  9. Effects of the exposure to atrazine on bone development of Podocnemis expansa (Testudines, Podocnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Mendonça, Juliana; Vieira, Lucélia Gonçalves; Valdes, Sady Alexis Chavauty; Vilca, Franz Zirena; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is a widely spread practice in Brazilian agriculture, and dispersion of these substances is an important factor for the fauna and flora. Atrazine is an endocrine disruptor in the xenoestrogen class that is used worldwide in agricultural practices. In Brazil, its use is permitted in several crops. Podocnemis expansa is a representative of the Testudines order that is the largest freshwater reptile of South America. Its distribution enables it to get in contact with molecules that are commonly used as pesticides, which may cause deleterious effects in target populations. In order to evaluate the possible effects of the exposure to atrazine on bone ontogeny of this species, eggs were artificially incubated in sand moistened with water contaminated with atrazine at concentrations equal to 0, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L. Embryos were collected throughout incubation and submitted to diaphanization of soft tissues with potassium hydroxide (KOH); bones were stained with Alizarin red S and cartilages by Alcian blue. Embryos were evaluated for the presence of abnormalities during the different stages of pre-natal development of skeletal elements. No effect of atrazine was observed on bone development during the embryonic phase in P. expansa individuals, in the conditions of this study. PMID:26850621

  10. Geological control of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis nesting areas in Rio Javaés, Bananal Island, Brazil Controle geológico das áreas de nidificação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis no Rio Javaés, Ilha do Bananal, Brasil

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    Paulo Dias Ferreira Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the nests of Podocnemis expansa (Amazon turtle and Podocnemis unifilis (yellow-spotted side neck turtle along the point bars of the Javaés River in Bananal Island, demonstrates a clear preference of these chelonians for differentiated geological environments, in respect to the morphology, grain size or height of the nests in relation to the level of the river. The topographical distribution and the differences in the grain size of the sediments that compose the point bars of the river, originated from the multiple sedimentary processes, and make possible the creation and separation of different nesting environments. Each turtle species takes advantage of the place that presents physiographic characteristics appropriate to the hatching success of their eggs. The superposition of the P. expansa and P. unifilis nest placement areas is rare. The P. expansa nests are concentrated on the central portion of the beaches where successive depositional sedimentary events produced sandy banks more than 3.3 m above the river water level. The P. unifilis nests are distributed preferentially in the upstream and downstream portions along the point bars where the sandy deposits rarely surpass 1.5 m at the moment of laying. P. expansa nests located on the beaches of fine to medium sized sand hatch in a mean of 68 days, while those incubated on beaches of medium to coarse sand size take a mean of 54 days to hatch.A distribuição das covas de Podocnemis expansa (tartaruga-da-amazônia e Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá ao longo das barras em pontal do rio Javaés na Ilha do Bananal, mostra uma clara preferência destes quelônios por ambientes geológicos diferenciados, seja em relação à morfologia, constituição granulométrica ou altura das covas em relação ao nível do rio. A compartimentação topográfica e as diferenças no tamanho dos sedimentos que compõem as barras em pontal, oriundas de processos sedimentares m

  11. Use and commercialization of Podocnemis expansa (Schweiger 1812 (Testudines: Podocnemididae for medicinal purposes in two communities in North of Brazil

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    Santana Gindomar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Brazil a large number of people seek out reptiles for their meat, leather, ornamental value and supposed medicinal importance. However, there is a dearth of information on the use of reptiles in folk medicine. In North Brazil, the freshwater turtle, Podocnemis expansa, is one of the most frequently used species in traditional medicines. Many products derived from P. expansa are utilized in rural areas and also commercialized in outdoor markets as a cure or treatment for different diseases. Here we document the use and commercialization of P. expansa for medicinal purposes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. Methods Data were gathered through interview-questionnaires, with some questions left open-ended. Information was collected in two localities in Pará State, North of Brazil. In the City of Belém, data was collected through interviews with 23 herbs or root sellers (13 men and 10 women. Attempts were made to interview all animal merchants in the markets visited. In fishing community of the Pesqueiro Beach, interviews were done with 41 inhabitants (23 men and 18 women and during the first contacts with the local population, we attempted to identify local people with a specialized knowledge of medicinal animal usage. Results P. expansa was traded for use in traditional medicines and cosmetics. Fat and egg shells were used to treat 16 different diseases. Turtle fat was the main product sold. The demand for these products is unknown. However, the use of this species in folk medicine might have a considerable impact on wild population, and this must be taken into account for the conservation and management of this species. Conclusion Our results indicated that the use and commercialization of P. expansa products for medicinal purposes is common in North of Brazil. More studies regarding the use and commerce of Brazilian turtles are urgently needed in order to evaluate the real impact of such activities on natural

  12. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

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    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  13. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae) no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in the Javaés River, Tocantins

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    Giovanni Salera Junior; Adriana Malvasio; Thiago Costa Gonçalves Portelinha

    2009-01-01

    Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande dive...

  14. Ontogeny of the cranial bones of the giant amazon river turtle Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Podocnemididae = Ontogenia dos ossos do crânio em tartaruga-da-amazônia Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Podocnemididae

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    Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the normal stages of formation in the sequence of ossification of the cranium of Podocnemis expansa in its various stages of development, embryos were collected starting on the 18th day of natural incubation and were subjected to bone diaphanization and staining. In the neurocranium, the basisphenoid and basioccipitalbones present ossification centers in stage 19, the supraoccipital and opisthotic in stage 20, the exoccipital in stage 21, and lastly the prooptic in stage 24. Dermatocranium: the squamosal, pterygoid and maxilla are the first elements to begin the ossification process,which occurs in stage 16. However, ossification centers begin to appear in stage 17 in most of these bone elements, i.e., the frontal, jugal, postorbital, parietal, premaxilla and prefrontal, followed by the palatine and quadratojugal in stage 19 and lastly by the vomer instage 25. The quadrate bone of the splanchnocranium ossifies in stage 23. The mandible and hyoid apparatus, the dentary, coronoid and supra-angular, show ossification centers in stage 16 and the branchial horn I in stage 17. The sequence and synchronization of ossification in P. expansa show similarities as well as differences when compared with other species of Testudines.Com o propósito de estabelecer etapas normais de formação da sequência de ossificação do crânio em Podocnemis expansa, nos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, coletaram-se embriões a partir do 18º dia de incubação natural, os quais foram submetidos à técnica de diafanização e coloração dos ossos. No neurocrânio, no estágio 19, o basisfenoide e o basioccipital apresentam centro de ossificação; no estágio 20, o supraoccipital e o opistótico; no estágio 21, o exoccipital; somente no estágio 24, o proótico. Dermatocrânio: o esquamosal, o pterigoide e a maxila são os primeiros elementos a iniciar o processo de ossificação, que ocorre no estágio 16. Mas a maioria desses elementos

  15. Association of acepromazine with propofol in giant amazon turtles Podocnemis expansa reared in captivity Associação da acepromazina com propofol em tartarugas-da-amazônia Podocnemis expansa criadas em cativeiro

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    José Roberto Ferreira Alves-Júnior

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of different concentrations of an anesthetic association in giant amazon turtles (Podocnemis expansa. METHODS: Twenty healthy P. expansa of both sexes weighing between 1.0 and 1.5kg commercially bred in the Araguaia River Valley, Goias, Brazil, were separated into two groups (G1 n=10 and G2 n=10. Each group received a respective protocol: P1= acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg IM and propofol (5 mg/kg IV and P2 = acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg IM and propofol (10 mg/kg IV. The acepromazine was administered in the left thoracic member and the propofol in the cervical vertebral sinus. Assessments were made of the anesthetic parameters of locomotion, muscle relaxation, response to pain stimuli in the right thoracic and pelvic members and heartbeat. RESULTS: The anesthetic induction time was the same for both protocols (P1 and P2; however the P2 effects were of a longer duration. CONCLUSION: The sedation achieved with both protocols (P1 and P2 were satisfactory for the biological sample collection, physical examinations and minor surgeries on this species.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de uma associação anestésica com diferentes concentrações em tartarugas-da-amazônia (Podocnemis expansa. MÉTODOS: Vinte P. expansa, hígidas, de ambos os sexos, com massa corporal entre 1,0 e 1,5 kg, de um criatório comercial localizado no vale do rio Araguaia, Goiás, Brasil, foram distribuídas em dois grupos (G1 n=10 e G2 n=10. Cada grupo recebeu um protocolo sendo: P1 = acepromazina (0,5 mg/kg IM e propofol (5 mg/kg IV e P2 = acepromazina (0,5 mg/kg IM e propofol (10 mg/kg IV, aplicados nos grupos G1 e G2, respectivamente. A acepromazina foi aplicada no membro torácico esquerdo e o propofol no seio vertebral cervical. Foram avaliados os parâmetros anestésicos: locomoção, relaxamento muscular, resposta aos estímulos dolorosos no membro torácico direito e nos membros pelvinos e frequência cardíaca. RESULTADOS: O tempo de indução anest

  16. Composição nutricional do casco da tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa criada em cativeiro e em idade de abate Centesimal nutrition of the tartaruga-da-Amazônia Podocnemis expansa shell bred in captivity and at slaughter age

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    Renata Cristina Scarlato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A criação de tartarugas em cativeiro no Brasil vem se expandindo nos últimos anos, destacando-se o aumento do volume de abate da espécie Podocnemis expansa para obtenção de carne. Este estudo foi realizado na UFRuralRJ, objetivando-se analisar quantitativamente a composição centesimal, valor calórico, teor de colesterol, perfil em ácidos graxos e aminoácidos, e minerais de 60 cascos de P. expansa em idade de abate mantidas em criatório legalizado e registrado pelo IBAMA. Concluiu-se que o casco de P. expansa é rico em nutrientes, apresentando proteína de alto valor biológico para adultos, lipídios, ácidos graxos essenciais, minerais e baixo teor de colesterol, possibilitando sua utilização como suplemento nutricional após estudos futuros comprobatórios da biodisponibilidade dos nutrientes presentes.Breeding of turtles in Brazil has increased recently, and the increase of the volume of the species Podocnemis expansa to obtain meat is significant. This study was done at UFRuralRJ, and the aim was to analyse the centesimal composition, caloric value, tenor of cholesterol, fatty acids and amino acids and minerals of 60 P. expansa shells quantitativity at slaughter age maintained by IBAMA, a legal and registered breeder. It can be concluded that the P. expansa shell is rich in nutrients, with a high biological value protein for adults, lipids, essentials fatty acids, minerals and low tenor of cholesterol, possible to use as a nutritional supplement after corroborating future studies of the biodisponibility of the present nutrients.

  17. Crescimento ponderal de filhotes de tartaruga gigante da Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa) submetidos a tratamento com rações isocalóricas contendo diferentes níveis de proteína bruta Body growth of one-month giant Amazonian turtle (Podocnemis Expansa) fed isocaloric diet with different levels of crude protein concentration

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    Vinicius Augusto Sá; Leonardo C. Quintanilha; Gustavo Eduardo Freneau; Vera Lucia Ferreira Luz; Arcádio de Los Reyes Borja; Paulo César Silva

    2004-01-01

    A criação de Podocnemis expansa, a tartaruga-da-amazônia, com finalidade comercial foi implantada no Brasil em 1992. Contudo, muitas questões acerca do manejo, da nutrição, da sanidade e, principalmente, da reprodução ainda são obscuras. Visando contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia alimentar da espécie, objetivou-se testar diferentes níveis de proteína da dieta. Uma amostra de 480 animais neonatos de, aproximadamente, um mês de vida foram trazidos de uma área de proteção local...

  18. Ontogeny of the cranial bones of the giant amazon river turtle Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Podocnemididae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5777 Ontogeny of the cranial bones of the giant amazon river turtle Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Podocnemididae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5777

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    Fabiano Campos Lima

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the normal stages of formation in the sequence of ossification of the cranium of Podocnemis expansa in its various stages of development, embryos were collected starting on the 18th day of natural incubation and were subjected to bone diaphanization and staining. In the neurocranium, the basisphenoid and basioccipital bones present ossification centers in stage 19, the supraoccipital and opisthotic in stage 20, the exoccipital in stage 21, and lastly the prooptic in stage 24. Dermatocranium: the squamosal, pterygoid and maxilla are the first elements to begin the ossification process, which occurs in stage 16. However, ossification centers begin to appear in stage 17 in most of these bone elements, i.e., the frontal, jugal, postorbital, parietal, premaxilla and prefrontal, followed by the palatine and quadratojugal in stage 19 and lastly by the vomer in stage 25. The quadrate bone of the splanchnocranium ossifies in stage 23. The mandible and hyoid apparatus, the dentary, coronoid and supra-angular, show ossification centers in stage 16 and the branchial horn I in stage 17. The sequence and synchronization of ossification in P. expansa show similarities as well as differences when compared with other species of Testudines.In order to determine the normal stages of formation in the sequence of ossification of the cranium of Podocnemis expansa in its various stages of development, embryos were collected starting on the 18th day of natural incubation and were subjected to bone diaphanization and staining. In the neurocranium, the basisphenoid and basioccipital bones present ossification centers in stage 19, the supraoccipital and opisthotic in stage 20, the exoccipital in stage 21, and lastly the prooptic in stage 24. Dermatocranium: the squamosal, pterygoid and maxilla are the first elements to begin the ossification process, which occurs in stage 16. However, ossification centers begin to appear in stage 17 in most of these

  19. Pharmacological restraint of captivity giant Amazonian turtle Podocnemis expansa (Testudines, Podocnemididae with xylazine and propofol Contenção farmacológica de tartaruga da Amazônia Podocnemis expansa (Testudines, Podocnemididae de cativeiro com xilazina e propofol

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    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Identify a technique to induce brief sedation and hypnosis in Podocnemis expansa. METHODS: Twenty commercially bred P. expansa, weighing on average 1.2 ± 0.24 kg, were subjected to two protocols: G1 was given 1.5 mg/kg IM of xylazine and 5 mg/kg IV of propofol, while G2 received 1.5 mg/kg IM of xylazine and 10 mg/kg IV of propofol. The drugs were applied, respectively, in the left thoracic member and in the cervical vertebral sinus. Assessments were made of the anesthetic parameters of locomotion, muscle relaxation, response to pain stimuli in the right thoracic members, pelvic members and tail, easy handling and heartbeat, as well as ambient temperature and glycemic level. RESULTS: A consistent hypnotic effect was recorded 49.6 ± 22.1 seconds in G2 and after 58.2 ± 55.1 in G1. All the animals of G2 recovered in 198 minutes, and those of G1 in 156 minutes. CONCLUSION: The hypnosis achieved with these associations was satisfactory, and G1 was as efficient as G2, allowing for the pharmacological restraint for the collection of biological samples, physical examinations and minor surgeries on these species.OBJETIVO: Identificar uma técnica para se induzir sedação e hipnose em Podocnemis expansa. MÉTODOS: Vinte Podocnemis expansa de criatório comercial, com média de peso 1,2 ± 0,24 kg, foram submetidas a dois protocolos: G1 recebeu xilazina 1,5 mg/kg IM e propofol 5 mg/kg IV e o G2 xilazina 1,5 mg/kg IM e propofol 10 mg/kg IV. As drogas foram aplicadas no membro torácico esquerdo e no seio vertebral cervical, respectivamente. Observaram-se os parâmetros anestésicos: locomoção, relaxamento muscular, resposta aos estímulos dolorosos no membro torácico direito, nos membros pelvinos e na cauda, facilidade de manipulação e freqüência cardíaca, além da temperatura ambiental e glicemia. RESULTADOS: Um efeito hipnótico consistente foi observado aos 49,6 ± 22,1 segundos no G2 e 58,2 ± 55,1 segundos no G1. A recuperação de

  20. Habitat, population structure and community consume of Podocnemis unifilis and P. expansa (testudines: podocnemididae turtles in Curare-Los ingleses reserve, La Pedrera, Amazonas, Colombia

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    Ilba Carolina Figueroa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat, population structure and consume of these resources by indigenous communities are determining factors for management and conservation of amazonian chelonians. The objectives of this research were: to identify the habitat types, to describe hunting patterns and to analyze population situation Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis adult females. Therefore we researched and catalogued every habitat type used by turtles and the use of the community in the Curare – Los Ingleses reserve during hydrologic cycle period of Caquetá River, from March 2008 to January 2009. Caimán Port was the area with most incidents of two species during low-water period. On this place there were preserved 56 nests of P. unifilis. The indigenous community consumed mostly the nests on beaches close to the river. The capture effort on this sector it was 0,78 animals/day. Indigenous used cords and camuri in low waters close to nesting beaches, capturing overwhelmingly young of P. unifilis with sizes between 15 - 35 cm (N=23; X : 25,45; DS: 0,19 and adults females 36 - 55 cm (N=16; X =43,24; DS: 5,91. From nine studied beaches, eight were used by indigenous communities for catching eggs. We recommend making managements arrangements between Traditional Indigenous Authorities Criacia (Consolidation of Curare – Los Ingleses reserve and pani (Indigenous from Cahuinari and three isles in Bernardo – Zumaeta sector, with the government support and ngo. The start of co-managements and monitoring activities in the habitats is important in order to recommend management options of beaches and to control capture of chelonians methods.  

  1. Morfometria e histologia das gônadas de machos e fêmeas recém-eclodidos de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae=Morphometry and histology of the gonads of males and females hatchlings of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis. unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae

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    Adson Gomes de Ataídes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância da técnica histológica na sexagem de quelônios e os poucos trabalhos direcionados para esta técnica, é proposto neste estudo caracterizar morfometricamente e histologicamente as gônadas de P. expansa e P. unifilis. Todos os espécimes utilizados neste trabalho foram procedentes do rio Javaés, entorno do Parque Nacional do Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil. Após estudo sob estereomicroscópio, foram coletadas as gônadas para o procedimento histológico de rotina. Foram analisadas 187 amostras de P. expansa, das quais 81,2% foram identificadas como fêmeas e 18,7% como machos; e 98 de P. unifilis, das quais 31,6% eram fêmeas e 68,4% machos. Não foram verificadas diferenças microscópicas relevantes na sexagem entre estas espécies. Os critérios utilizados no diagnóstico microscópico foram principalmente a morfologia das gônadas, a presença do apêndice no oviduto remanescente, a morfologia do oviduto e as características das células de revestimento dos folículos e túbulos seminíferos. Quando comparadas as medidas biométricas dos ovários e testículos, somente foram observadas diferenças para a largura. Considering the importance of the histological sexing technique of turtles and the few works directed to this objective, it was proposed in this study to morphometrically and histologically characterize the gonads of P. unifilis and P. expansa. All specimens used in this work originated in the Javaés river, around the Araguaia National Park, Tocantins State, Brazil. Following a study under a stereoscope, the gonads were collected for the routine histological procedure. A total of 187 samples of P. expansa were analyzed, of which 81.2% were identified as female and 18.7% as male; as well as 98 P. unifilis samples, of which 31.6% were female and 68.4% males. No relevant microscopic differences were verified in the sexing between these species. The criteria used in the microscopically diagnosis

  2. Morfometria do trato digestório da tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa criada em sistema comercial Digestive tract morphometric of tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa kept in commercial captive systems

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    Vera Lúcia Ferreira Luz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de parâmetros morfométricos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestórios dos alimentos no organismo animal e indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Foram amostrados, bimensalmente, 100 filhotes capturados aleatoriamente em oito criadouros no município de Diorama, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido com animais entre 23 a 29 meses de idade, que tiveram seus desempenhos avaliados por medidas biométricas do comprimento retilíneo da carapaça e do peso. Para o cálculo das relações corporais dos órgãos tomou-se como base o peso vivo individual de cinco tartarugas, em cada idade estudada, perfazendo um total de quatro colheitas com 20 exemplares de cada criadouro. As análises de comparação de médias foram realizadas pelo teste de Duncan. Os resultados indicaram que o estômago representou maior percentual do trato digestório, com 44,20%, seguido pelo intestino delgado, 28,48%, e o intestino grosso, com 20,93%, baseados na relação corporal com o TGI vazio. O TGI cheio apresentou comprimento médio de 72,75 cm. Para o intestino delgado foi obtida a média de 46,68 cm e para o intestino grosso 14,00 cm. As análises das relações corporais indicaram que o estômago e o intestino delgado apresentaram maior capacidade de armazenamento, sugerindo que desempenham importante função na digestão de alimentos consumidos.It is necessary to carry out a study that focuses on the morphometrical parameters of the gastrointestinal tract (TGI, which can provide subsidies for getting knowledge about the digestive processes that happen into the animal organism. Bimontly, it was sampled 100 P. expansa hatchlings, which were randomly captured from eight commercial flocks located at the county of Diorama, State of Goiás/Brazil. The experiment was conducted with animals of 23 to 29 months of ages, from which the biometrical measures were taken, in order to evaluate their growth

  3. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limitações metodológicas de contagens de leucócitos e trombócitos totais em répteis (tartaruga da Amazônia, Podocnemis expansa: uma análise e discussão

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três diferentes métodos para contar leucócitos totais [LT] (método de Natt & Herrick, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos e três métodos para contar trombócitos totais [TT] ( método de Wojtaszek, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos em uma espécie de tartaruga de água doce da América do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o método de Natt & Herrick mostraram limitações que são aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritrócitos na extensão sanguínea não são recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amazônia nem para outras espécies de répteis, pois houve ampla variação nestas contagens. Os métodos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritrócitos nas extensões sanguíneas foram mais aceitáveis porque

  4. Comportamento e preferência alimentar em Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, P. unifilis (Troschel e P. sextuberculata (Cornalia em cativeiro (Testudines, Pelomedusidae Feeding behavior and food preference of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, P. unifilis (Troschel and P. sextuberculata (Cornalia in captivity (Testudines, Pelomedusidae

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    Adriana Malvasio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The feeding behavior and the food preference was studied in P. expansa (Schweigger, 1812 P. unifilis (Troschel, 1848 and P. sextuberculata (Cornalia, 1849. The method used for feeding behavior and food preference was the sampling of all occurrences. The Students' t test was applied on the food items, to compare differences during the development of each species. The main conclusions are: feeding behavior for food, except alive animals, is divided in foraging, approach, olfactory recognition, capture, laceration and ingestion; the persecution behavior was observed for prey activity; cleptoparasitism occurs in the three species and neustophagia mechanism was detected in P. unifilis; P. sextuberculata shows to be almost only carnivorous and P. expansa and P. unifilis show to be omnivorous; P. expansa can be considered more herbivorous in captivity than P. unifilis during the age between one and five years old and more than five years old; P. expansa is more sensitive than P. unifilis concerning the alteration of the food place, mainly the meat, decreasing its consumption, if it is put on a dry place.

  5. On clutch size and hatching success of the South American turtles Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812 and P. unifilis Troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae

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    Vanzolini Paulo Emilio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on clutch size and hatching success of P. expansa were gathered for seven beaches traditionally used by the species and re-analyzed statistically by means of regression analysis, of the number of eggs on the number of females (or nests and of the number of young on the number of eggs. All regressions were linear, passed through the origin and had excellent fits. Average clutch size varied from 75 to 123, and presented geographic differentiation: (i Rio Orinoco, (ii Rio Trombetas + Rio Branco and (iii Rio Juruá + Rio Purus. Average hatching success was ca. 83%. In P. unifilis there was also geographic variation in clutch size, the Iquitos area showing the highest values. Hatching success of P. unifilis was uniformly high: only one sample, from Iquitos, had less than 90% success. The outstanding fit of the clutch size regressions leads one to consider egg volume variability, which was found to be high in both species, in contradiction with current optimal egg size theory.

  6. Comportamento e preferência alimentar em Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger), P. unifilis (Troschel) e P. sextuberculata (Cornalia) em cativeiro (Testudines, Pelomedusidae) Feeding behavior and food preference of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger), P. unifilis (Troschel) and P. sextuberculata (Cornalia) in captivity (Testudines, Pelomedusidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Malvasio; Ana Maria de Souza; Flavio de Barros Molina; Francisco de Arruda Sampaio

    2003-01-01

    The feeding behavior and the food preference was studied in P. expansa (Schweigger, 1812) P. unifilis (Troschel, 1848) and P. sextuberculata (Cornalia, 1849). The method used for feeding behavior and food preference was the sampling of all occurrences. The Students' t test was applied on the food items, to compare differences during the development of each species. The main conclusions are: feeding behavior for food, except alive animals, is divided in foraging, approach, olfactory recognitio...

  7. New distribution data for Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix) with remarks on some other turtle taxa (Reptilia: Chelonia: Pelomedusidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Avila-Pires, de T.C.S.

    1990-01-01

    During fieldwork in the Lago de Faro, the lower reaches of the Rio Nhamundá, on the border of the Brazilian states of Pará and Amazonas, several species of pelomedusid turtles were observed. Podocnemis erythrocephala and P. unifilis occur in the area and breed there; P. expansa seems to be absent or

  8. Cytotoxicity of Hymenocallis expansa alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, M D; Mendoza, N T; Ríos, Y R; Proctor, G R; Wickramaratne, D B; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1993-08-01

    From the bulbs and leaves of Hymenocallis expansa (Amaryllidaceae), three alkaloid constituents were identified: (+)-tazettine, (+)-hippeastrine, and (-)-haemanthidine. These alkaloids demonstrated significant cytotoxicity when tested against a panel of human and murine tumor cell lines. PMID:8229020

  9. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis. PMID:26909934

  10. Low genetic variability in the endangered Colombian endemic freshwater turtle Podocnemis lewyana (Testudines, Podocnemididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Ramírez, M.; Chiari, Y.; Castaño-Mora, O.V.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Magdalena River Turtle (Podocnemis lewyana) is a Colombian endemic species, endangered due to human exploitation and habitat destruction. To date, this species is poorly known ecologically and data on its genetic diversity are lacking. Here we report on the first genetic survey of the species ac

  11. NESTING HABITAT OF THE ‘CUPISO’ Podocnemis sextuberculata (TESTUDINES: PODOCNEMIDIDAE) IN EREPECU LAKE (PARÁ-BRAZIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lucia Bermúdez Romero; Nataly Castelblanco-Martínez; Rafael Bernhard; Santiago R. Duque; Richard Vogt

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe the nesting habitat of Podocnemis sextuberculata at Erepecu Lake, Trombetas River Biological Reserve, (REBIO-Trombetas; Pará-Brazil). Initially, the main features of the beaches that potentially determine the habitat selection by cupiso for nesting were described. The nests observed on the beaches were recorded, marked and fenced as protection from natural predators. Information regarding date and location was analyzed with simple linea...

  12. Abundance, Population Structure and Conservation of Podocnemis lewyana (Podocnemididae at the Prado River, Colombia

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    Adriana González-Zárate

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Along the Prado River, at southeast of Colombia, there is a population of Podocnemis lewyana, an endemic and endangered river turtle. Relative abundance, population structure and conservation threats were determined using field data obtained in 2007 and 2009. Relative abundance was estimated by turtle catch per unit of time, which was used to comparebetween the two sampling years. Additionally, turtles per kilometer were counted in 2009 alone, to compare with other populations distributed in the north of the country.The population structure was determined by the frequency of individuals of several size classes and sex ratio of captured animals. Sexual dimorphism was examined in adult animalsby morphometry. One hundred and ten turtles were captured in 2007 and 72 in 2009. The relative abundance of individuals observed was an averaged of 54.46 sightings/km representing the most abundant population of the country so far. The population’s structure was characterizedby a higher frequency of individuals of 21-30 cm maximum straight carapace length SCL and absence of individuals of less than 10 cm SCL or greater than 40 cm SCL. Sex ratio was 2.52:1 for 2007 and 2.75:1 for 2009, being higher forfemales. The main identified threats to the population of P. lewyana at Prado River were (i alterations of habitat, (ii changes in the natural flow of the river, (iii the use of inappropriate fishing arts and (iv probable interruption ofmigrations. Prado River is hereby proposed as priority area for further research and conservation of Podocnemis lewyana in the upper Magdalena river basin.ABUNDANCIA, ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL YCONSERVACIÓN DE Podocnemis lewyana (Podocnemididae EN EL RÍO PRADO, COLOMBIAEn el río Prado, localizado en el sur oriente de Colombia existe una población de Podocnemis lewyana, una tortuga endémica y en peligro de extinción. Para esta población se determinó la abundancia relativa, la estructura poblacional y las amenazas a la

  13. ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON YELLOW-SPOTTED RIVER TURTLE Podocnemis unifilis (REPTILIA: PODOCNEMIDIDAE FROM THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

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    Débora Regina Santos Arraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of anthropogenic impacts on Podocnemis unifilis nesting on a stretch from Falsino river, with two forest reserves, and one urban area on the Araguari river, state of Amapá, eastern Amazon (Brazil. A total of 180 nests was found, being 89.4% in the forest reserves and only 10.6% in urban areas. On Falsino river, we observed a spawning pattern, because the number of nests was correlated to the length and width of the nesting locations. On Araguari river, the P. unifilis nests were generally found in areas with surrounding vegetation up to 5 m in height, minimum distance of 120 m from residences and immediately or after places of higher exploration of pebbles. Females from Falsino river had smaller eggs, but the neonates were bigger and with higher body condition index than the neonates from Araguari river. About 80% of the nests were prey, mostly because of the large collection of eggs for feeding. Furthermore, it was found that adult turtle hunting have been intense. Although one of the areas is in forest reserves, the human impacts were similar to those caused in urban areas, indicating the need to implement protection programs for the conservation of P. unifilis.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of taricaya, Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudines: Podocnemididae from Iquitos, Peru

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    Nofre Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Many Amazonian animals are a valuable food source, for the rural and urban people of the Peruvian forest. Their meat is called carne de monte, and is the third source of protein food in the region. Podocnemis unifilis (Yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle or taricaya is utilized for both its meat and eggs. The efforts for restocking this reptile through breeding in semicaptivity and captivity, has allowed increasing the population, and now they are abundant. However, the breeding process had not taken into account the sanitary aspect, and this information is barely known in Peru. With the objective of identifying the parasitic fauna of the taricaya, the digestive tracts of 12 females (2 adults, 10 young captured in the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve where examined. Different grades of parasitic infection were found in all turtles investigated. The parasites identified were the nematodes Serpinema amazonicus (100% and Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus Diesing, 1934 (83%, and the trematode Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1939, Travassos, 1934 (100%. Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus is a new record from Peru.

  15. Serie normal del desarrollo morfológico embrionario de Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudinata: Pelomedusidae Serie normal del desarrollo morfológico embrionario de Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 (Testudinata: Pelomedusidae

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    Guzmán B., Nory A.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Embriologic development of Podocnemis unijilis on wild and laboratory conditions, from nesting, was monitored. Twenty eight phases, occurring in 95 days were identified, including embriogencsis as a normal series. A close relationship between the progressive expansion of a white zone of the egg-shell and the sequence development of the embriologic stages was found. This relationship is thought be useful as a method to identify externally the stage of the em bryo. It was determined that all the eggs of a nest do not hatch simultaneously, possibly because the embryos were seen to be in 4 different stages of development, and their growth is asynchronous. The physical parameters conditioning effective embryogenic process of this chelonia were registered.

    El desarrollo embriologico de Podocnemis unijil Iis fue estudiado en condiciones silvestres y de laboratorio, desde la anidación hasta la eclosión. Se identificaron 28 fases en los 95 días que comprende su embriogénesis como Serie Normal. Se encontró una estrecha relación entre la progresiva expansión de una zona blanca de la cascara del huevo y el desarrollo secuencial de las etapas embriogénicas; esta relación se muestra útil como método para identificar externamente la etapa de desarrollo en la que se encuentre el embrión. Se determinó que los huevos de una nidada no eclosionan simultáneamente, debido a que según se observe, los embriones pueden estar en cuatro grados de desarrollo, Y su crecimiento es asincrónico. Se definieron además los parámetros físicos que condicionan el éxito del proceso embrionario en este quelonio.

  16. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais natomia e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae = Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cincoexemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004- Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida,aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemisunifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM.The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the branches

  17. Caracterización citogenética de la tortuga sabanera Podocnemis vogli (reptilia: testudinata: podocnemididae Cytogenetic characterization of the Savannah Sideneck Turtle Podocnemis vogli (Reptilia: Testudinata: Podocnemididae

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    Bueno ML.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron siete ejemplares de Podocnemis vogli, tres fueron colectados en las localidades de Puerto López y Puerto Gaitán, Meta, Colombia; cuatro carecen de datos de localidad. Todos los ejemplares presentaron un complemento constituido por 28 cromosomas, sin cromosomas sexuales, que se organizaron en tres grupos: el primero compuesto por cuatro pares submetacéntricos y uno subtelocéntrico, el segundo grupo por seis pares metacéntricos y el último grupo por tres pares acrocéntricos. Esta organización difiere de la descripción previa realizada por Rhodin et al. (1978, en la cual se encontraron dos pares acrocéntricos. Se describen los patrones de bandas C, G, NOR y Q para la especie. Las regiones organizadoras nucleolares se localizaron en el primer par cromosómico en una banda intercalar en brazos cortos, que se puede visualizar en interfase como uno o dos nucleolos. La técnica de bandas C permitió ubicar las regiones heterocromáticas de los cromosomas asociadas a regiones pericentroméricas. Se identificaron algunos polimorfismos heterocromáticos (bandas intercalares en los cromosomas 1, 2, 3 y 7, los cuales permiten suponer la existencia de marcadores a nivel cromosómico, que pueden estar asociados con diferentes poblaciones de P. vogli dentro de su distribución geográfica.Seven specimens of Podocnemis vogli were studied; three were collected at Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in the Meta Department of Colombia, four lacks collecting data. All specimens presented a complement consisting of 28 chromosomes without sexual chromosomes. The first group was composed by four submetacentric pairs and one subtelocentric, the second group by six metacentric pairs and the third group by three acrocentric pairs, differing from the previous description by Rhodin et al. (1978 who found two acrocentric pairs. C, G, NOR and Q band patterns are described for the species. Nucleolar Organizer Regions were localized in the first chromosome

  18. Potential Distribution of Podocnemis lewyana (Reptilia:Podocnemididae and Its Possible Fluctuation Under Different Global Climate Change Scenarios

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    Carlos Ortiz-Yusty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a species distribution modelling approach to establish the potential distribution of Podocnemis lewyana, to explore the climatic factors that may influence the species’ distribution and to evaluate possible changes in distribution under future climate scenarios. The distribution models predicted a continuous distribution from south to north along the Magdalena River, from Rivera and Palermo in the department of Huila to the departments of Atlántico and Magdalena in the north. Temperature was the variable most influential in the distribution of P. lewyana; this species tends to be present in warm regions with low temperature variability. The distribution model predicted an increase in the geographic range of P. lewyana under climate change scenarios. However, taking into account the habitat preferences of this species and its strong association with water, this result should be treated with caution since the model considered only terrestrial climatic variables. Given the life history characteristics of this species (temperature-dependent sex determination, high pivotal temperature and a very narrow transition range and the negative effect of changes in hydrological regimes on embryo survival, expansion of the potential distribution of P. lewyana in the future does not mean that the species will not be affected by global climate change.DISTRIBUCIÓN POTENCIAL DE (Podocnemis lewyana, REPTILIA: Podocnemididae Y SU POSIBLE FLUCTUACIÓN BAJO ESCENARIOS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO GLOBALEn este estudio se implementó el modelaje de distribución de especies para establecer el rango de distribución potencial de Podocnemis lewyana, explorar los componentes del clima que pueden influenciar dicha distribución y evaluar posibles fluctuaciones de su distribución bajo escenarios de clima futuro. Los modelos obtenidos predicen una distribución continua de sur a norte por todo el río Magdalena, desde los municipios de Rivera y Palermo en el

  19. 78 FR 34118 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009), which call on... turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), tartaruga ] (Podocnemis expansa), Cuban ground iguana (Cyclura nubila nubila), Grand Cayman blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi), and Cayman Brac ground iguana (Cyclura...

  20. Effect of dietary cadmium on fitness, growth, genotoxicity and accumulation in the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to expose the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis, to dietary cadmium (Cd) contamination. The P. unifilis were fed with a Cd contaminated diet (590 µg g−1) or a control diet for 30 and 60 days. After the Cd feeding period, the locomotor performance and specific growth rate were assessed. Blood samples were drawn for micronuclei analysis and tissues were collected to analyze the Cd concentration. Dietary Cd influenced the fitness of turtles at 30 days (righting time 752 s), but not after 60 days (righting time 43.67 s). Micronuclei in erythrocytes (12 ± 5‰) were significantly greater in contaminated turtle at 60 days. Cd accumulation is found in gut, intestine, kidney, fat, liver and blood of animals from contaminated diet group and the Cd concentration of almost all the tissues had increased following the 30–60-day feeding period. Cd does not impair animal the fitness after sixty days of dietary treatment, but it does can cause an accumulation on P. unifilis

  1. Effect of dietary cadmium on fitness, growth, genotoxicity and accumulation in the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frossard, Alexandra; Ferreira, Paulo D. [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Carneiro, Maria T.W.D. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Heringer, Otávio A. [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Tommasi Analítica, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Endringer, Denise C. [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil); Gomes, Levy C., E-mail: levy.gomes@uvv.br [Universidade Vila Velha, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to expose the Yellow-spotted River Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis, to dietary cadmium (Cd) contamination. The P. unifilis were fed with a Cd contaminated diet (590 µg g{sup −1}) or a control diet for 30 and 60 days. After the Cd feeding period, the locomotor performance and specific growth rate were assessed. Blood samples were drawn for micronuclei analysis and tissues were collected to analyze the Cd concentration. Dietary Cd influenced the fitness of turtles at 30 days (righting time 752 s), but not after 60 days (righting time 43.67 s). Micronuclei in erythrocytes (12 ± 5‰) were significantly greater in contaminated turtle at 60 days. Cd accumulation is found in gut, intestine, kidney, fat, liver and blood of animals from contaminated diet group and the Cd concentration of almost all the tissues had increased following the 30–60-day feeding period. Cd does not impair animal the fitness after sixty days of dietary treatment, but it does can cause an accumulation on P. unifilis.

  2. Paraorientatractis semiannulata n. g., n. sp. (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae from the Large Intestine of the SideNecked Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 (Testudines: Pelomedusidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Lynda M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens collected from the large intestine of the sidenecked turtle Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 in the region of Cuminá and Trombetas rivers near Pará, Brazil are assigned to a new genus and new species of the nematode superfamily Cosmocercoidea and family Atractidae and named Paraorientatractis semiannulata. The new genus is separated from the nearest genus Orientatractis by the funnelshaped mouth opening, the presence of 4 distinct lips, 4 papillae in the internal cycle, one on each lip margin, 2 lateral amphids with large amphidial pores and absence of submedian papillae. It is also separated from Orientatractis and Proatractis by the presence of striated lateral alae which curve dorsally extending from mid oesophagus to mid tail, the difference in size of the vulvar opening and the presence of large transverse ridges or semiannules on the dorsal surface. The new species can be separated from the species of the genera Orientatractis and Proatractis by the characters that distinguish the genera and the arrangement of the caudal papillae on the male. A host/parasite list for Podocnemis spp. is included

  3. Determinación de resistencia antihelmíntica (Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni y Thysanosoma actioides frente a albendazol y febendazol en ovino en tres rebaños de La Paz – Bolivia (Anthelminthic resistance (Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni and Thysanosoma actioides in sheep against albendazole and febendazole in three farms of La Paz - Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani Linares Lindon Willy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenResistencia antihelmíntica de cestodos frente a albendazol y febendazol en ovinos se determinó en tres rebaños del departamento de La Paz: uno cercano a Tambillo (Rebaño 1, otro cercano a Tihuanacu (Rebaño 2, y otro cercano a Batallas (Rebaño 3. Al azar se eligieron en cada rebaño 30 ovinos de 8 a 9 meses de edad, y los tratamientos fueron: grupo control, grupo tratado con 10 mg/kg de albendazol y grupo tratado con 10 mg/kg de febendazol. Los parámetros estudiados fueron: la prueba de reducción de la oviposición (FECRT y necropsia. Los corderos fueron sacrificados 21 días después del tratamiento y el número de parásitos fueron contados. La reducción de la oviposición se evaluó en la semana 2 y 3 postratamiento. Se observó mayor a 95% de reducción de la oviposición en el rebaño 1 para ambos fármacos. En el rebaño 2 se observó un 57% de reducción de la oviposición para febendazol y 68% de reducción para albendazol, con T. actinioides el más resistente seguido por M. expansa. En el rebaño 3 la resistencia frente a febendazol fue observado principalmente en Thysanosoma actinioides y seguido por Moniezia expansa. En animales sacrificados el porcentaje de eficacia fue: en el rebaño 1 mayor de 80% para ambos antiparasitarios, en el rebaño 2 para febendazol con 42%, para albendazol de 64 % de reducción de T. actinioides y en el rebaño 3 la eficacia fue menor al rebaño 2 para febendazol y albendazol de T. actinioides y M. expansa. Se concluyó que existe resistencia antihelmíntica frente a febendazol de T. actinioides y M. expansa en ovinos en los rebaños 2 y 3, mientras la resistencia a albendazol está en proceso de establecimiento. SummaryCestoids resistance in sheep against albendazole and febendazole wasevaluated in three farms in La Paz: one located near Tambillo (Farm 1, other near Tihuanacu (Farm 2 and the other near Batallas (Farm 3. Thirty male lambs of 8 to 9 months of age were selected in each farm

  4. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.680 Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árthur Paulino Sanzo Kaminishi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cinco exemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004-Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida, aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM. The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the

  5. Population structure and allometry of Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in a protected area upstream Belo Monte dam in Xingu River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorando, Priscila S; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Pezzuti, Juarez C B

    2015-01-01

    Amazon river turtles are increasingly threatened by habitat loss and alteration due to the Brazilian energy policy based on construction of hydroelectric dams, meanwhile, populational studies remain scarce. We described the population structure, and established body allometric relationships of Podocnemis unifilis in the Terra do Meio Ecological Station in the Iriri River, tributary of the Xingu River upstream the Belo Monte dam under construction Turtles were captured by hand net and diving in 2012 and 2013 dry seasons, and 2013 rainy season. A total of 728 males, 296 females and four juveniles were captured. Adult sex ratio was male-biased by 9.15 ♂:1 ♀. Females were significantly larger than males. Mean straight carapace length was 268.9 ± 46.7 mm (165 - 403) for females; and 232.7 ± 24.8 mm (167 - 303) for males. The sexes were morphologically distinct in function of a proportionally larger plastron, and higher carapace, on females. Allometric relationships between straight carapace length and other morphometric traits were strong for males (R2 range = 0.87 - 0.96 and females (R2 range =0.79 - 0.98. Exploitation of P. unifilis in biomass extirpated from the Middle Xingu River may be estimated from body parts found post-consumption by the presented regressions. PMID:26628030

  6. Alometria reprodutiva de Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines: Podocnemididae na várzea do baixo rio Amazonas, Santarém, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina T. Pignati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho do corpo dos organismos representa um parâmetro importante, podendo gerar consequências na sua ecologia, atividades reprodutivas, evolução e desenvolvimento. Relação alométrica é o estudo do tamanho (ou do crescimento de uma parte do corpo relacionado com o tamanho (ou crescimento total do corpo do organismo. Este estudo analisou a relação alométrica entre as fêmeas de Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 e seus ovos e filhotes e entre as características dos ninhos e a ninhada em uma área de várzea do baixo rio Amazonas, estado do Pará, Brasil. As ninhadas de P. unifilis foram monitoradas no Tabuleiro da Água Preta durante o período reprodutivo de 2009. As fêmeas encontradas desovando foram medidas e seus respectivos ninhos marcados com estacas numeradas e as características físicas mensuradas. Os ovos e filhotes destes ninhos foram retirados e contados, e tiveram seus dados biométricos tomados. Os parâmetros das fêmeas analisados (comprimento retilíneo da carapaça e massa correlacionaram-se fortemente às variáveis dos ovos (variável x e filhotes (variável y, exceto com o comprimento do ovo e com a massa do filhote. Estudos futuros direcionados para melhor compreensão de como as características ambientais influenciam nas ninhadas podem ser aplicados, sendo úteis no manejo da espécie.

  7. Effect of blanching time on selective mineral elements extraction from the spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa commonly used in Brazil Efeito do tempo de branqueamento na extração seletiva de elementos minerais do substituto de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa comumente empregado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Kawashima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The true spinach (Spinacia oleracea does not grow well in warm climates and for that reason is not commercialized in Brazil. Instead, a spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa, originally from New Zealand, is widely used in the country. There is scant information on the mineral profile and none on the soluble mineral fraction of this vegetable. The solubility of a mineral is one of the important factors for its absorption. For this reason, the calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, potassium, and sodium soluble fractions in the raw spinach substitute were determined and the effect of blanching times on the solubility of these minerals was investigated. Blanching times of 1, 5, and 15 minutes were employed. The magnesium, manganese, potassium, and sodium soluble fractions increased sizably with shorter blanching time. Longer blanching time (15 minutes caused large losses of minerals. The soluble mineral fractions can contribute poorly to diet in terms of potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. The spinach substitute cannot be considered a dietary source of calcium, iron and copper due to the insolubility of these minerals in the vegetable, possibly caused by the large oxalate content.O verdadeiro espinafre (Spinacia oleracea não se desenvolve bem em climas quentes e por esta razão não é comercializado no Brasil. Em seu lugar, um substituto de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa, originário da Nova Zelândia, é amplamente utilizado. A informação sobre o perfil mineral é resumida e inexistente sobre a fração solúvel de minerais deste vegetal. A solubilidade de um mineral é um dos fatores importantes para sua absorção. Por esta razão, as frações solúveis de cálcio, magnésio, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, potássio e sódio foram determinadas no substituto de espinafre cru, e o efeito dos tempos de branqueamento na solubilidade destes minerais foi investigado. Tempos de branqueamento de 1, 5, e 15 minutos foram

  8. Estrutura populacional, razão sexual e abundância de Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines, Podocnemididae na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Fachín-Terán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied turtles in the focal area of the Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá from September 1996 through August 1998. The reserve is located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, between the Japurá, Solimões, and Auti-Paraná rivers, near the city of Tefé, in the state of Amazonas. In this study the population structure, sex ratio and abundance of Podocnemis sextuberculata were investigated. We intensively studied the population of turtles in the Jarauá river basin in order to determine population structure. We sampled turtles in different sectors in the focal area of the reserve for one month each year during July and August of 1997 and 1998. We captured the turtles using flag gill nets and trammel nets. The type of net and the size of the nets used influenced the size of the turtles captured. The nets used by the local fishermen were sexually selective in the capture of the turtles. Sevent-two percent of the P. sextuberculata captured were adults; 13% juveniles and 14.7% subadults. During the second year of the study we found a lower density of turtles in the five areas wich we sampled each years. The sex ratio of captured P. sextuberculata was 1.87 males per female.

  9. Nuevos registros de nemátodes parásitos de animales de vida silvestre en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2014-01-01

    Se registran, por primera vez para el Perú, 4 especies de nemátodes: Dipetalonema graciliformis Freitas, 1964 parásito de Saguinus labiatus; Evaginuris branickii (McCiure, 1932) Quentín, 1973 de Dinomys branickii; Alaeuris caudatus (Lent & Freitas, 1948) de Iguana iguana y Serpinema amazonicus de Podocnemis expansa. También, se considera a Saguinus labiatus como un nuevo huésped para Dipetalonema graciliformis.

  10. Nuevos registros de nemátodes parásitos de animales de vida silvestre en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez para el Perú, 4 especies de nemátodes: Dipetalonema graciliformis Freitas, 1964 parásito de Saguinus labiatus; Evaginuris branickii (McCiure, 1932 Quentín, 1973 de Dinomys branickii; Alaeuris caudatus (Lent & Freitas, 1948 de Iguana iguana y Serpinema amazonicus de Podocnemis expansa. También, se considera a Saguinus labiatus como un nuevo huésped para Dipetalonema graciliformis.

  11. Conservation of freshwater turtles in Amazonia:retrospective and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aderson de Souza Alcântara

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the current status of conservation of freshwater turtles of the Amazon and the absence of the genus Podocnemis the Official List of Species of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. Amazonian turtles are used as food by indigenous people and fisherman communities. However, fishing of adult females, uncontrolled egg collecting, habitat degradation and trafficking in wildlife have caused the decline of these populations. Nevertheless, Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis were not included in the Brazil’s official list of animals threatened. Therefore, the turtles remain at great risk, due to the intense pressure that they are suffering. It is recommended that the criteria and the conservation status are reviewed including those animals in the category of vulnerable and to ensure a thorough review and modification in the current Brazilian law to be covered studies and management of turtles for subsistence, respecting and adding value to way of life of Amazonian peoples.

  12. Validade comercial e aceitabilidade da carne de tartaruga-da-amazônia (P.expansa Shelf-life and acceptance of Amazon turtle meat (P.expansa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Gaspar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse experimento foi elaborado em parceria com o CENAQUA (Centro Nacional de Quelônios do Amazonas e a Pró-Fauna (localizada em Iguape - SP objetivando o estudo da validade comercial e a aceitabilidade da carne de tartaruga-da-amazônia criada em cativeiro. Foi avaliado o efeito do tempo de estocagem de amostras de carne de 14 tartarugas (7 fêmeas e 7 machos nos dias 01, 30, 60 e 120, estocadas a -10 ºC, nos valores de pH e de Bases Voláteis Totais (BVT, cor, textura, odor e prova de cocção. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os valores de pH em relação ao tempo de estocagem nos dias 01 (5,81 e 5,81, 30 (6,04 e 6,05, 60 (6,22 e 6,23 e 120 (6,30 e 6,30, respectivamente para a carne das fêmeas e machos. Entre os sexos não houve diferença significativa. Quanto a BVT o tempo de estocagem influenciou significativamente entre os dias 01 (11,34 e 11,74 g/100g, 30 (13,92 e 13,90 g/100g e 120 (17,62 e 17,82 g/100g; entre os dias 30 (13,92 e 13,90 g/100g e 60 (14,02 e 14,06 g/100g não observou-se diferença significativa, respectivamente para a carne de fêmeas e machos. Entre os sexos não ocorreu diferenças significativas. A cor, textura, odor e a prova de cocção não apresentaram alteração ao longo do tempo de estocagem. A carne de tartaruga obteve media de aceitabilidade global de 7,04. De acordo com os resultados obtidos concluímos que, pelas provas de pH e BVT, a carne de tartaruga pode ter uma validade comercial de 120 dias, quando embaladas a vácuo e estocadas a -10 ºC, e que a os provadores gostaram muito desse tipo de carne.This research was developed in partnership with CENAQUA and Pró-Fauna with the objective of studying commercial validity and acceptance of the meat of Amazon-turtle that was bred in captivity. The effect of the storage period was evaluated on meat samples of fourteen turtles (7 female and 7 male stored in a period of 1, 30, 60, and 120 days at a temperature of -100Celsius, concerning to values of pH, total volatile bases, color, scent, and cooking test. Significant difference was observed in relation to pH values and the period of storage as follow: in the period of 1 (5.81 and 5.81, 30 (6.04 and 6.05, 60 (6.22 and 6.23, and 120 (6.30 and 6.30 days, respectively either for the meat of female turtle or male. There was not significant difference concerning to sex. As for total volatile bases (TVB, the period of storage has influenced significantly: in the period of 1 (11.34 and 11.74 g/100g, 30 (13.92 and 13.90 g/100g, and 120 (17.62 and 17.82 g/100g; in the period of 30 (13.92 and 13.90g/100g and 60 (14.02 and 14.06g/100g days, significant difference was not observed, respectively for female and male meat. Not significant difference occurred in relation to sex. The result for color, texture, scent, and cooking test did not present any alteration along the period of storage. The meat of turtle obtained a 7.04 average of general acceptability that shows the acceptance of the tasters for this sort of meat. According to the results for pH and TVB, we have concluded that this meat of turtle may have 120 days of commercial validity once it is vacuum-packed and stored at -100Celsius, and that it presents good acceptance for the tasters.

  13. Organization and variation of mitochondrial DNA control region in pleurodiran turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control regions (CRs of Chelodina rugosa (Ogilby, 1890, Chelus fimbriata (Schneider, 1783, and Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848 were firstly determined using Long-PCR method and the length were 1,016 bp, 1,149 bp, and 985bp, respectively. Together with CRs of Pelomedusa subrufa (Bonnaterre, 1789 and nearly complete CR of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812 obtained from GenBank, the structural and evolutionary characteristics of mtDNA CRs in pleurodiran turtle were analyzed in this study. We identified three functional domains (TAS, CD, and CSB domains as well as their conservation sequences (TAS, CSB-F, and CSB-1 according to their homology to those of other turtles. Within the TAS domain, an interrupted poly-C stretch was found in C. rugosa, C. fimbriata, and P. subrufa, which also exists in the published mt DNA CRs of Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783, Trachemys scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792, and Trionyx triunguis (Forskål, 1775. The analysis of the origin for the poly-C sequences in TAS domain from six turtles suggested that the poly-C sequences are more related to "goose hairpin" in birds rather than CSB2 in CSB domain. In the CSB domain, CSB2 and CSB3, which were determined in CRs of Cryptodira, were absent in Pleurodira CRs, indicating the regulative mechanisms of transcription may be varied in both two suborders and the lack of CSB2 and CSB3 could be proposed as one of diagnostic characters between Pleurodira and Cryptodira at molecular level. As for CR of other cryptodiran turtles, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs in the 3' end of the CRs was found in the five pleurodiran turtles. Interestingly, the long repeated motifs from each species could form stable stem-loop secondary structures, suggesting that the repeated sequences may play an important role in regulating replication of the mitochondrial genome in Pleurodiran, and the secondary structures of VNTRs may provide some

  14. Savoirs naturalistes et stratégies de collecte de Geloina erosa, Geloina expansa et Polymesoda bengalensis dans la mangrove de l’île de Siberut (Indonésie)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Les femmes de la baie de Katurai (Île de Siberut, Indonésie) partent tous les jours dans la mangrove à la recherche de crabes, de poissons et de coquillages. Depuis leur enfance, elles ont une relation étroite avec cet écosystème et ont consolidé par leur expérience et la transmission de savoirs, un corpus de connaissances naturalistes qui leur permet d’évaluer leur milieu, d’identifier des changements et d’optimiser leur travail. Par une approche ethnoécologique, cet article s’intéresse plus...

  15. 78 FR 44961 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... (Podocnemis unifilis) Spotted pond turtle (Geoclemys hamiltonii) Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) Caiman (Caiman crocodilus) Indian python (Python molurus...

  16. GENUS EI:IOTIS MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: OECOPHORIDAE) NEW FOR CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-xiaWang

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the genus Erotis Meyrick for the first time from China. Two new species Erotis expansa sp. nov. and Erotis punctalosa sp. nov. are described. E. expansa sp. nov. is related to E. phosphora Meyrick both in appearance and in the male genitalia, but can be differentiated from the latter by uncus broader and slightly concave at middle of caudal margin, gnathos nearly as long as uncus and valva with costa almost straight in the male genitalia. E. punctalosa resembles E. expansa sp. nov. externally, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by the female genitalia: eighth tergite caudally almost straight; two signa large thorn-like, basal plate irregularly triangular in shape, with fine spines along anterior margin. The photographs of the adults and the genital structures of the new species are provided. A key to all the known species of Erotis is given.

  17. New Caulerpenyne-derived Metabolites of an Elysia Sacoglossan from the South Indian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Cimino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the secondary metabolite pattern of the sacoglossan mollusc Elysia cf. expansa, collected along South Indian coasts, showed the presence of the typical Caulerpa-derived sesquiterpene caulerpenyne (1 and two new minor co- occurring metabolites, the compounds dihydrocaulerpenyne (4 and expansinol (5. The chemical characterization of these molecules, structurally related to 1, is reported

  18. Prevalence and Scanning Electron Microscopic Identification of Anoplocephalid Cestodes among Small Ruminants in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anoplocephalid cestodes in sheep and goats in Senegal. Intestines of 462 sheep and 48 goats were examined; 47.4% of sheep and 6.2% of goats were infected. The species identified and their prevalence were, among sheep, Avitellina centripunctata 38.7%, Moniezia expansa 15.4%, Stilesia globipunctata 16.7%, and Thysaniezia ovilla 0.4%. Among goats, they were M. expansa 6.2% and T. ovilla 2.1%. The prevalence of all species was not statistically different between dry and rainy seasons. The infections were single or multiple. Indeed, 56.2% of sheep were infected by a single species, 37.4% by two species, and 6.4% by three species. For goats, 66.7% were infected by M. expansa and 33.3% by both M. expansa and T. ovilla. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of tapeworms show the general diagnosis characters of these species. PMID:27597893

  19. Vitellogenesis of diphyllobothriidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Bruňanská, M.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 3 (2015), s. 169-179. ISSN 1631-0691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Vitellogenesis * Ultrastructure * Cestoda * Diphyllobothriidea * Cephalochlamys namaquensis * Duthiersia expansa * Schistocephalus solidus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2014

  20. A possible chelonian egg from the Brazilian late cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a possible fossil egg proceeding from the Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of Paraná Basin, Brazil. External morphology, dimensions, texture and shell ornamentation examined under electron microscopy show close resemblance to the Recent podocnemidid chelonian eggs. Association with bony material in the outcrop suggests that it is related to a species of Podocnemis. Computerized tomography reveals a high density outer region corresponding to the shell component layers, and suc...

  1. Jouer du piano

    OpenAIRE

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-01-01

    La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à...

  2. August-September 2003 small vulcanian eruption at the Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex (36°50'S, Southern Andes (Chile

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    José A. Naranjo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the winter months of August-September 2003 a small (VEI=0-1 eruption took place at the 9 km long fissure-like Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex (36°50'S, that includes Nuevo (formed between 1906 and 1945 and Arrau (formed in the 1973-1986 period volcanoes. Only the local inhabitants and tourists of the ski resort located at the foothills noted the eruption. From August 29 to September 4, 2003, low-magnitude explosive events occurred and brown-greyish to white gas and ash columns reached up to 400 to 500 m above the crater, rising at periods that lasted for 20 to 25 minutes. After the first week, explosions became more sporadic and occurred at two-three day intervals. Strong prevailing winds from the north dispersed the low-altitude plume to the SSE until the eruption finally stopped by the middle of September. A new compound crater is now present in the saddle between Nuevo and Arrau volcanoes. This 64 m fissure-like double crater is surrounded by an area of intense fumaroles near to Nuevo volcano suggesting the renewal of activity in the complexPequeña erupción vulcaniana de agosto-septiembre en el Complejo Volcánco Nevados de Chillán (36°50'S, Andes del sur (Chile. Durante los meses invernales de agosto y septiembre de 2003 ocurrió una pequeña erupción (IEV=0-1 en la fisura de 9 km de largo del Complejo Volcánico Nevados de Chillán (36°50'S, que incluye a los volcanes Nuevo (formado entre 1906 y 1945 y Arrau (formado entre 1973 y 1986. La erupción fue advertida únicamente por los lugareños y los visitantes del centro invernal situado a los pies del volcán. La semana del 20 al 27 de agosto 2003 se produjeron eventos explosivos de baja magnitud con columnas de gas y ceniza de color pardo-grisáceo y blanco que alcanzaron alturas de 400 a 500 m con períodos de 20 a 25 minutos. Después de la primera semana las explosiones se hicieron más esporádicas ocurriendo a intervalos de 2 a 3 días. Los fuertes vientos

  3. Glucogeno sintasa en helmintos parasitos: inhibicion por benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gomez-Banqueri; M. A. Garcia Ruiz; M. Monteoliva; Sanchez-Moreno, M.

    1987-01-01

    Se ha determinado el effecto inhibidor sobre la actividad Glucogeno sintetasa (E.C.2.41.11) por parte de cuatro antihelminticos: Albendazol, Mebendazol, Parbendazol y Tiabendazol. Observandose que en todos los casos, es el Parbendazol quien ha demostrado un mayor poder inhibidor sobre la glucógeno sintetasa de Ascaris suum, Fasciola hepatica y Moniezia expansa. El Tiabendazol es el anti-helmintico que menor efecto inhibidor ha presentado sobre la enzima en los tres parasitos objeto de nuestro...

  4. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTHELMINTIC ACTION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. GROWN IN IRAN

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    T.Ghafagaai

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of Trigonella foenum graecum stem and leaves was tested for lethal activity against Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia obvelata, and Moniezia expansa. The plant extract demonstrated good anthelmintic activity in vitro which is directly related to the concentration of the extract used. The extract also prevents the formation of Ascaris larvae from the eggs of Ascaris lumbrico- ides (human. Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathobiology, School of Medicine, Universety of Isfahan, Isfahan IRAN.

  5. Jouer du piano

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    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  6. Animais silvestres utilizados como recurso alimentar em assentamentos rurais no município de Uruará, Pará, Brasil

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of hunting animals is of fundamental importance for human subsistence in different tropical areas. Knowing the chosen species, the techniques of capture and the quantity are fundamental aspects to understand how to use and the degree of threat of hunting on each wild species. In this perspective, the objective of this work was to record the wild animal species most commonly used as food resource in five rural settlements in the municipality of Uruará-PA, in addition to qualify the main techniques of capturing these species. The data collection was made through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. For the selection of the interviewees, we adopted the “snowball” method. As a result, we identified 38 species of animals consumed, most being mammals (42.1%, followed by birds (39.4% and reptiles (18.5%. The species most frequently mentioned were: Cuniculus paca (n=156, Euphractus sexcinctus (n=154 and Pecari tajacu (n=137. The most used technique was hunting with shotgun. Among the animals cited, Priodontes maximus, Tayassu pecari, Tapirus terrestris, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Podocnemis unifilis, Tinamus tao, Crax fasciolata and Podocnemis unifilis are in the list of threatened species. The results point to the urgent need for educational programs to farmers regarding the unsustainable use of animals.

  7. Pteridófitos de Navarra

    OpenAIRE

    Bascones-Carretero, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Ederra, A. (Alicia); Perez, A.; Medrano-Moreno, L.M. (Luis Miguel)

    1982-01-01

    En el estado actual de nuestros conocimientos, la pteridoflora navarra se compone de 51 especies, algunas subspecies e híbridos. Se aportan nuevas localidades, precisadas en U.T.M. que ayudarán a definir los límites de distribución general. Señalamos las cuadrículas vacantes del Atlas Florae Europaeae. Lepidotis inundata, Equisetum hyemale, Equisetum sylvaticum, Asplenium celtibericum, Dryopteris oreades, Dryopteris affinis, subsp. borreri, Dryopteris expansa se citan por vez primera para Nav...

  8. Antineoplastic agents, 301. An investigation of the Amaryllidaceae genus Hymenocallis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, G R; Pettit, G R; Groszek, G; Backhaus, R A; Doubek, D L; Barr, R J; Meerow, A W

    1995-05-01

    Seven species (and one cultivated variety) of Hymenocallis (Amaryllidaceae) and the related Pancratium maritima, representing a broad geographical selection, were investigated as sources of pancratistatin [1] now undergoing preclinical development as an anticancer agent. Pancratistatin [1] was found to be a constituent of H. speciosa (Singapore), H. variegated (Singapore), H. pedalis (Seychelles), H. expansa (Bermuda), H. sonoranensis (Mexico), and P. maritimum (Israel). Only two species of Hymenocallis failed to yield one or more of the related cell-growth inhibitory isocarbostyrils such as narciclasine [3a], 7-deoxynarciclasine [3b], and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine [2]. PMID:7623049

  9. Lipid content and composition of oocytes from five coral species: potential implications for future cryopreservation efforts.

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    Chiahsin Lin

    Full Text Available Given the previously documented importance of lipid concentration and composition in the successful cryopreservation of gorgonian corals, these parameters were assessed in oocytes of five species of scleractinian coral; Platygyra daedalea, Echinopora gemmacea, Echinophyllia aspera, Oxypora lacera and Astreopora expansa. Wax esters, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and fatty acids were all measured at detectable levels, and the latter were produced at significantly elevated quantities in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera. On the other hand, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and wax ester were found at significantly higher concentrations in A. expansa oocytes. Triacylglycerol was not present in any species. Interestingly, the total lipid content of oocytes from all five scleractinians was significantly lower than that of oocytes of two gorgonian species, Junceella juncea and Junceella fragilis. As higher total lipid concentrations may be correlated with greater degrees of cellular membrane fluidity at lower temperatures, it stands to reason that gorgonian coral oocytes may be more likely to survive the cryopreservation process than oocytes of scleractinian corals.

  10. Dryopteris × orexpansa, un nuevo híbrido y D. × deweberi en Cantabria [Dryopteris × oroexpansa, a new hybrid fern and Dryopteris × dewe-veri in Cantabria (N Spain

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    Francisco Javier Pérez Carro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se describe un nuevo híbrido en Cantabria Dryopteris × orexpansa. Se presenta su citología y se estudian los caracteres morfológicos y micromorfológicos con el fin de establecer sus posibles parentales: D. oreades y D. expansa. Por otro lado se cita por primera vez en Cantabria, Dryopteris × deweveri.Se hacen algunas consideraciones sobre su distribución en la Península Ibérica y se proporciona información para su identificación. ABSTRACT: Dryopteris × oroexpansa, a new hybrid fern and Dryopteris × dewe-veri in Cantabria (N Spain. A new Dryopteris hybrid from Cantabria is described as D. orexpansa. We report on its cytology and on morphological and micromorphological characters that were studied in order to establish its putative parents: Dryopteris oreades and D. expansa. On the other hand, we record for fist time D. × deweveri from Cantabria (Spain. Some considerations do on his distribution in the Iberian Peninsula and information is provided for his identification.

  11. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

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    Niranjan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis, and red rose (Rosa hybrida were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain. Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites.

  12. Clinical and therapeutic study of gastrointestinal parasites in fedlot calves in Goggeli region

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    M. A. Abdulhameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 10 herds included 811 local fedlot calves (1 to 2 years old in Goggeli region, 86 calves wereaffected with gastrointestinal parasites. Total infestation rate was (60.99%. The study showed that Calves were infested withvarious species of nematodes and cestodes representing,The highest ratio of infestation was with Ostertagia spp (61.62%, andthe lowest with Monezia expansa (2.32%. Affected calves exhibited weakness, pale mucous membranes, loss of appetite,diarrhea, easily detached and lusterless hair. Results revealed that single infestation was (17.5%, whereas mixed infestationwas (82.5%. Results of blood picture indicated significant increase in total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration,packed cell volume, and significant decrease in total leukocyte count, at days 7, 14, 21 post treatment calves with Albendazoleand (levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6% compared with control group. Levamisole hydrochloride 3% andoxyclozanide 6% was more efficient against gastrointestinal parasites when compared with albendazole.

  13. Upper Frasnian and Lower Tournaisian events and evolution of calcareous foraminifera — close links to climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvoda, Jiří

    The extinctions of the calcareous foraminiferal fauna at the Frasnian-Famennian and Famennian-Tournaisian boundaries appear to be connected with more than one event in each case (episodic gradualism), 4 of them seeming to be most important — the Kellwasser and Crickites event in the first case and the Hangenberg and sulcata event in the second case. The cumulative nature of extinctions is in contradiction with impact theory. The Famennian is then marked by 2 radiations — in the marginifera and in the expansa Zones. Both extinctions and radiations are closely linked to global changes in carbonate sedimentation and they seem to be best explained by climatic fluctuations of the glacial/interglacial type which were accompanied by aridity/humidity oscillations.

  14. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  15. Macroalgal materials: Foiling fracture and fatigue from fluid forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Benjamin Brown

    The persistence of qualitatively weak and flimsy algae on wave-exposed shores is generally attributed to their structural flexibility, which is presumed to reduce hydrodynamic forces. In this dissertation I describe the material properties of over 30 algal materials and investigate the relationship between material properties and fracture in macroalgae using fatigue fracture mechanics, computer modeling, and a novel, virtual-reality based, dynamic testing system. Among biomaterials, non-coralline algae have generally low strengths (0.20 to 8.08 MN/m2) and high breaking strains (0.14 to 0.79). The absence of upright, non-extensible algal structures supports the idea that extensibility is critical to the persistence of algae on wave-swept shores. As algae are subjected to roughly 8,000 waves each day, I examine the resistance to cyclic crack propagation in algal blades using protocols and analyses gleaned from the rubber technology industry. The algal species, M. flaccida and P. occidentalis, from wave-exposed sites have higher critical energy release rates than U. expansa blades collected from protected sites. However, for blades with large cracks already present, U. expansa blades are predicted to break at higher stresses than blades of the two wave-exposed species. While the flexibility of algae generally results in reduced drag forces, the potential for large inertial forces concomitantly increases with freedom of motion. I use a computer model of the bull kelp N. leutkeana to investigate the effects of material properties on the loading imposed on the kelp stipe under ocean waves. Using the cyclic breaking values of stress and strain for N. leutkeana stipe, the safety factor under large waves is maximized when stipe stiffness is 20 MN/m 2. I incorporated the N. leutkeana computer model into the testing apparatus to create a closed-loop system that reproduces natural loading patterns in the lab. Under large simulated waves, N. leutkeana stipes exhibit an initial

  16. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bożena; Werszko, Joanna; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

  17. Efficacy of closantel plus albendazole liquid suspension against natural infection of gastrointestinal parasites in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, K M; Sharif, L A; Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K

    1999-03-31

    Oral administration of closantel in a dose of 10 mg/kg plus albendazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg liquid suspension was studied in 75 camels naturally infected with various types of gastrointestinal parasites. The camels involved were 15 pregnant she-camels, 20 non-pregnant she-camels and 40 male camels of various ages. Each camel received a single oral dose of closantel (10 mg/kg) plus albendazole (5 mg/kg) orally. Two weeks later, 20 camels of this group were re-dosed again with the same dose of the anthelmintic. Fecal samples were collected per rectum from all camels at the time of treatment and again 14 and 42 days post treatment. Fecal egg counts and generic determination of third stage larvae was performed. Results indicated that six different species of gastrointestinal tract parasites were identified in camels. Single treatment of closantel plus albendazole mixture reduced egg counts in camels by 100%, 100%, 98% and 77% for Haemonchus longistipes, Ascaris spp., Monezia expansa and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. However, administration of the drug twice on the base of 2 weeks apart significantly raised the efficacy of the drug for clearance of the parasites from 92.5% to 100% in camels infected with various parasites. Camels were not adversely affected by treatment. PMID:10321589

  18. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

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    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  19. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

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    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed. PMID:24431582

  1. Incubation of rigid-shelled turtle eggs: do hydric conditions matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D T

    2002-10-01

    Rigid-shelled eggs of the broad-shelled river turtle Chelodina expansa were incubated at 28 degrees C in wet (-100 kPa), intermediate (-350 kPa) and dry (-750 kPa) conditions. Incubation period was influenced by clutch of origin, but was independent of incubation water potential. Rates of water gained from the environment and pre-pipping egg mass were influenced by incubation water potential -- eggs incubating at higher (less negative) water potentials absorbing more water from their environment. Hatchlings from wet conditions had greater mass but a smaller amount of residual yolk than hatchlings from dry conditions and it is suggested that the amount of yolk converted to tissue is influenced by the amount of water absorbed by the egg during incubation. Water content of yolk-free hatchlings from the -100-kPa treatment was greater than those from the -350-kPa and -750-kPa treatments, but the water content of residual yolks was similar across all hydric conditions. PMID:12355231

  2. Taxonomic Study of Edible Bivalve from Selected Division of Sarawak, Malaysia

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    M.K. Abu Hena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of edible bivalve was conducted from August 2010 to July 2011 covering eight divisions i.e., Kuching, Sarikei, Sibu, Mukah, Bintulu, Miri, Limbang and Lawas of Sarawak, Malaysia. Samples were collected from native market and fishing village during the study period. All edible bivalves inhabit either in brackish or marine environment and comprised 19 species from 10 families namely Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Paphia undulata, Circe scripta, Solen regularies, Solen lamarckii, Pharella acutidens, Amusium pleuronectes, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Placuna placenta, Crassotrea lugubris, Isognomon ephippium, Polymesoda erosa, P. bengalensis, P. expansa, Anadonta woodina and Pilsbryoconcha exilis. The diversity of edible bivalves was found highest in Kuching and Bintulu compared to other divisions studied in Sarawak. The bivalve species at Sarawak could have economic potentiality in terms of protein source, livelihoods of local tribes and economic value. Study suggests that if the high conservation and management of edible bivalve diversity could establish in the coastal and wetland area of Sarawak, a remarkable and vast economic return could achieve.

  3. Illegal Trade of Tortoises (Testudinata in Colombia: A Network Analysis Approach

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    Felber Jair Arroyave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of wildlife is important for supporting the economic and demographic growth in emerging countries. Nevertheless, the products of wildlife usually come from illegal trade to supply fur, wild meat and pet markets. Illegal trade puts great pressure over wild populations and threats some endangered species. In Colombia, the trade of wildlife is important because of thevolumes traded and the cultural and economic connotation of some products. We describe the spatial structure of illegal trade of wildlife at departmental level for the five most traded genera of Colombian tortoises (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis and Rhinoclemmys. This study is based on thereports of seizures between 2005 and 2009 compiled by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo of Colombia. Weapply Network Analysis to study and evidence that the illegal trade network of tortoises includes international markets and supplies the Andean region. The Caribbean, Pacific and Orinoquia regions are the principal suppliers. Quindio, Santander, Antioquia and Putumayo are the biggest jobbers and consumers of wild tortoises. We propose sociocultural and cohercitive actions to fragment the trade network andtheir illegal market as well as promoting the conservation and sustainable use of tortoises.TRÁFICO ILEGAL DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALES (TESTUDINATA EN COLOMBIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDEEL ANÁLISIS DE REDESEl uso de productos extraídos o provenientes de la fauna silvestre es relevante para el desarrollo económico y el bienestar social en muchos lugares del mundo. Sin embargo, frecuentemente la fauna silvestre entra en los circuitos de tráfico ilegal para abastecer los mercados de mascotas y productos como pieles, plumas, “carne de monte”, entre otros. El tráfico ilegal genera enormes presiones sobre las especies sujetas a extracción y es una de las principales amenazas para estas. En Colombia, el tráfico de tortugas es de importancia debido a los vol

  4. Microbiological quality of organic vegetables produced in soil treated with different types of manure and mineral fertilizer Qualidade microbiológica de vegetais orgânicos produzidos em solo tratado com diferentes tipos de esterco e fertilizante mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cabral Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to evaluate microbiological quality of horticultural crops grown organically. Three species of vegetables were used, lettuce (Lactuva sativa, radish (Raphanus sativus and spinach (Tetragonia expansa, grown organically, in fertile soil. Six different treatments were applied: mineral fertilizer, chicken, cow, and pig manure, chicken litter and cow manure, in association with a liquid foliar biofertilizer. These crops were handled according to correct agronomic practices for growing crops organically for commercial purposes. Samples were examined for the Most Probable Number (MPN/g/mL of total and fecal coliforms and to detect the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All analyzed samples were considered acceptable for consumption, as Salmonella spp. was not detected. However, 63.3%, 50.0%, and 23.3% of the samples of lettuce, radish and spinach, respectively, contained >10² total coliforms/g of product. None of the samples of spinach or radish presented >10² fecal coliforms/g, and only 6.6% of lettuce samples contained >10² fecal coliforms/g. The presence of E. coli was confirmed in one sample of spinach, cultivated with cow manure.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças orgânicas produzidas sob diferentes condições. Três espécies de vegetais, alface (Lactuva sativa, rabanete (Raphanus sativus e espinafre (Tetragonia expansa, foram cultivadas no sistema orgânico, em solo fertilizado com seis tratamentos diferentes: adubo mineral, estercos de galinha, bovino e suíno, cama de frango e esterco bovino associado com biofertilizante líquido de aplicação foliar. O cultivo das hortaliças foi feito de acordo com as práticas agronômicas recomendadas para o sistema orgânico em escala comercial. Das hortaliças cultivadas, foram coletadas amostras para a determinação do Número Mais Provável de coliformes totais e termotolerantes e detecção da presença de

  5. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida

    2016-09-01

    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park. PMID:27605778

  6. Direct injection of tissue extracts in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Estrada, Elvagris Segovia; Juhel, Guillaume; Kelly, Barry C

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, a straightforward approach was validated for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the mollusk tissues, with a focus on two species commonly consumed in Southeast Asia (green mussels: Perna viridis; lokan clams: Polymesoda expansa). This approach relied on a simple solvent extraction (shaker table) followed by direct injection in liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This "cleanup-free" approach was made possible by the use of isotopically labeled surrogates (to correct for matrix effects) and a post-column switch on the LC-MS/MS system (to remove potential interfering material). Altogether, relative recoveries were satisfactory for 36 out of 44 compounds (26-163% range) and excellent for 27 out of 44 compounds (79-107% range). Method detection limits (MDLs) were usually expressed in the nanogram per gram wet weight (ww) range and below. The method was successfully applied to 16 batches of green mussel samples collected in Singapore coastal waters. Trace levels of six compounds were detected in mussel tissues: caffeine (0.22-1.55 ng g(-1) ww), carbamazepine (

  7. A carbon isotopic and sedimentological record of the latest Devonian (Famennian) from the Western U.S. and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, P.M.; Strauss, J.V.; Creveling, J.R.; Sicard, K.R.; Ripperdan, R.; Sandberg, C.A.; Hartenfels, S.

    2011-01-01

    New carbon isotopic data from upper Famennian deposits in the western United States reveal two previously unrecognized major positive isotopic excursions. The first is an abrupt ~. 3??? positive excursion, herein referred to as ALFIE (A Late Famennian Isotopic Excursion), recorded in two sections of the Pinyon Peak Limestone of north-central Utah. Integration of detailed chemostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data suggests that ALFIE is the Laurentian record of the Dasberg Event, which has been linked to transgression in Europe and Morocco. Sedimentological data from the Chaffee Group of western Colorado also record transgression at a similar biostratigraphic position, with a shift from restricted to open-marine lithofacies. ALFIE is not evident in chemostratigraphic data from age-equivalent strata in Germany studied herein and in southern Europe, either because it is a uniquely North American phenomenon, or because the German sections are too condensed relative to those in Laurentia. A second positive carbon isotopic excursion from the upper Chaffee Group of Colorado is recorded in transgressive strata deposited directly above a previously unrecognized paleokarst interval. The age of this excursion, and the duration of the associated paleokarst hiatus, are not well constrained, although the events occurred sometime after the Late Famennian Middle expansa Zone. The high positive values recorded in this excursion are consistent with those associated with the youngest Famennian Middle to Late praesulcata Hangenberg Isotopic Excursion in Europe, the isotopic expression of the Hangenberg Event, which included mass extinction, widespread black shale deposition, and a glacio-eustatic fall and rise. If correct, this would considerably revise the age of the Upper Chaffee Group strata of western Colorado. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. I. Identification and characterization of dasheen mosaic virus in Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) in California. II. New approaches for detecting plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) with symptoms of mild stunting, chlorosis, leaf distortion and mosaic, were observed in Southern California. Flexuous rods (ca. 750 nm) were detected in leaf dip and partially purified preparations. Dasheen mosac virus (DMV) was identified as the causal agent on the basis of host range, morphology and reaction with DMV antiserum in immunodouble diffusion and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) tests. Tetragonia expansa was found to be a new host of this virus. Surveys indicate that DMV is not widespread in cultivars of A. commutatum in Southern California. The virus was purified from leaves of seedling Philodendron selloum by clarification with CCl4, CHCl3, and Triton X-100, precipitation with PEG-8000 and centrifugation in either Cs2SO4-sucrose cushion gradients or Cs2SO4 equilibrium density gradients. Purified virions formed a single UV-absorbing infectious band with densities of 1.31 and 1.245 g/ml in CsCl2 and Cs2SO4 equilibrium density gradients, respectively, and a sedimentation coefficient of 154 S as determined by a linear-log sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Dasheen mosaic virus has a plus-sense ssRNA with the M.W. of 3.2 x 106 under denaturing conditions. Molecular hybridization analysis using 3H-complementary DNA specific to DMV-Ca RNA showed that DMV-Ca isolate was more closely related to DMV-Fiji isolate than to DMV-Fla isolate, and was very distantly related to ZYMV, TEV. PeMoC and PVY

  9. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojeta, J., Jr.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta

  10. Sensitivity and efficiency of selected coproscopical methods-sedimentation, combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation, and McMaster method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ann-Christin; Kraemer, Amelie; Epe, Christian; Strube, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Coproscopical methods used in veterinary-parasitological diagnostics were validated according to their sensitivity (Se) and egg recovery rate [efficiency (Ef)]. Validation of the combined sedimentation-flotation method and the modified McMaster method was performed by using feces spiked with eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cooperia oncophora, cyathostomins, Ascaris suum, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Moniezia expansa, and Anoplocephala perfoliata. For validation of the sedimentation method, Fasciola hepatica eggs were used. With the combined sedimentation-flotation method using ZnSO4 as flotation medium [specific gravity (SG) 1.30], 5 g fecal samples of all tested parasite species (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 epg) were reproducibly detected "positive" (100 % Se) as of 80 epg. The Ef of the combined sedimentation-flotation method, defined as percentage of rediscovered eggs, revealed clear differences between parasites and showed the highest value for cyathostomins and the lowest for U. stenocephala and T. leonina eggs. The average Ef for all parasite species at 80 epg was 1.50 %. With the McMaster method (concentration levels 1, 30, 50, 80, 100, 500, and 1000 epg), all tested parasite species were detected reliably positive as of 500 epg with a mean Ef of 46.4 %. When evaluating the sedimentation method (concentration levels 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 epg), F. hepatica eggs were reproducibly found in 5 g fecal samples as of 20 epg with 20.0 % Ef. The result that the combined zinc sulfate sedimentation-flotation method (SG 1.30) as flotation medium provides diagnostic certainty only as of 80 epg has to be considered at preventing zoonoses. If pet owners wish to prevent any zoonotic infection ("zero tolerance"), a monthly anthelminthic treatment should be advised instead of monthly fecal examinations. PMID:26997342

  11. Translation Inhibition of Capped and Uncapped Viral RNAs Mediated by Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, Jorge M; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of the large rRNA and arrest protein synthesis at the translocation step. In addition to their enzymatic activity, RIPs have been reputed to be potent antiviral agents against many plant, animal, and human viruses. We recently showed that pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), an RIP from pokeweed, inhibits translation in cell extracts by binding to the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA and viral RNAs and depurinating these RNAs at multiple sites downstream of the cap structure. In this study, we examined the activity of three different RIPs against capped and uncapped viral RNAs. PAP, Mirabilis expansa RIP (ME1), and the Saponaria officinalis RIP (saporin) depurinated the capped Tobacco mosaic virus and Brome mosaic virus RNAs, but did not depurinate the uncapped luciferase RNA, indicating that other type I RIPs besides PAP can distinguish between capped and uncapped RNAs. We did not detect depurination of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs at multiple sites by PAP or ME1. Because AMV RNAs are capped, these results indicate that recognition of the cap structure alone is not sufficient for depurination of the RNA at multiple sites throughout its sequence. Furthermore, PAP did not cause detectable depurination of uncapped RNAs from Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), and uncapped RNA containing poliovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES). However, in vitro translation experiments showed that PAP inhibited translation of AMV, TBSV, SPMV RNAs, and poliovirus IRES dependent translation. These results demonstrate that PAP does not depurinate every capped RNA and that PAP can inhibit translation of uncapped viral RNAs in vitro without causing detectable depurination at multiple sites. Thus, the cap structure is not the only determinant for inhibition of translation by PAP. PMID:18942981

  12. New U-Pb zircon ages and the duration and division of Devonian time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Bradley, D.C.; Ver Straeten, C.A.; Harris, A.G.; Ebert, J.R.; McCutcheon, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Newly determined U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic ashes closely tied to biostratigraphic zones are used to revise the Devonian time-scale. They are: 1) 417.6 ?? 1.0 Ma for an ash within the conodont zone of Icriodus woschmidti/I. w. hesperius Lochkovian); 2) 408.3 ?? 1.9 Ma for an ash of early Emsian age correlated with the conodont zones of Po. dehiscens--Lower Po. inversus; 3) 391.4 ?? 1.8 Ma for an ash within the Po. c. costatus Zone and probably within the upper half of the zone (Eifelian); and 4) 381.1 ?? 1.3 Ma for an ash within the range of the Frasnian conodont Palmatolepis punctata (Pa. punctata Zone to Upper Pa. hassi Zone). U-Pb zircon ages for two rhyolites bracketing a palyniferous bed of the pusillites-lepidophyta spore zone, are dated at 363.8 ?? 2.2 Ma and 363 ?? 2.2 Ma and 363.4 ?? 1.8 Ma, respectively, suggesting an age of ~363 Ma for a level within the late Famennian Pa. g. expansa Zone. These data, together with other published zircon ages, suggest that the base and top of the Devonian lie close to 418 Ma and 362 Ma, respectively, thus lengthening the period of ~20% over current estimates. We suggest that the duration of the Middle Devonian (Eifelian and Givitian) is rather brief, perhaps no longer than 11.5 Myr (394 Ma-382.5 Ma), and that the Emsian and Famennian are the longest stages in the period with estimated durations of ~15.5 Myr and 14.5 Myr, respectively.

  13. Luz Sarmiento Bendezú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Romero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Luz Sarmiento Bendezú nació en Nazca, Ica, el 10 de enero de 1924. El camino que describieron sus actos refleja el decidido espíritu académico que la ha alentado siempre y aún proyecta a sus colegas y alumnos. La doctora Luz ingreso a la Facultad de Ciencias de Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos en 1942. Su interés e iniciación en el estudio de los parásitos los reafirmó con la tesis para Bachiller en Ciencias Biológicas “Identificación de Haemonchus contortus en carneros nacidos en la sierra del Perú” sustentada en 1946. Ese mismo año empezó su carrera docente como Jefe de Prácticas del curso Zoología Sistemática I en la Facultad de Ciencias de la UNMSM. En 1952 inició sus estudios de Maestría y participó como Asistente del curso de Parasitología del Dpto. del Biología de la Virginia Polytechnick Institute and State University, USA. En 1953 obtuvo el grado de Master of Science con la tesis “Gigantorhinchus ortizi n. sp. of Acanthocephalian from Metachyrus nudicaudatus”. En 1954 obtuvo el grado de Doctora en Ciencias Biológicas, en la UNMSM, con la tesis: “Descripción de Paratractis hystrix n. gen., n. sp. de Podocnemis dumeriliana”. Continúo desde 1954 hasta 1958 como profesora de Biología, Anatomía y Zoología en el Brenau College en Gainesville, Georgia, USA. En 1959 de regreso al Perú continuó su carrera docente como Catedrática Asociada y asumió el curso de Zoología Sistemática I y en 1970 fue nombrada Jefa de la Sección Helmintología del Museo de Historia Natural de la UNMSM.

  14. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  15. Anoxia, sealevel changes and mass extinctions at the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, S. I.; Steuber, T.; Becker, R. T.

    2003-04-01

    of δ13C from the expansa to the sandbergi Zone occurs in all studied sections of the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, but no reliable data are present for the clastic units of the event interval. A distinct carbon isotope excursion up to +4 ppm δ13C in the praesulcata zone was found by detailed sampling of the Grüne Schneid section in the Carnic Alps. This excursion is most probably time-equivalent to the deposition of black shales elsewhere, and indicates widespread oceanic anoxic conditions during an episode of sealevel highstand, related to the onset of the main phase of the Hangenberg Event.

  16. Devonian/Carboniferous boundary glacioeustatic fluctuations in a platform-to-basin direction: A geochemical approach of sequence stratigraphy in pelagic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bábek, Ondrej; Kumpan, Tomáš; Kalvoda, Jiří; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We investigated high-resolution stratigraphic distribution of selected major and trace elements and gamma-ray spectra of fourteen Devonian/Carboniferous (D/C) boundary sections of Europe located in the late Palaeozoic Laurussia and Gondwana. The aim was to trace the geochemical signature of a marked forced and normal regressive interval which was associated with rapid progradation of siliciclastics into the marine carbonate systems (Rhenish Massif) and a prominent hiatus in shallow-water ramp settings (Namur-Dinant Basin). This interval represents the late Devonian Hangenberg event (HBE) sensu lato (middle praesulcata conodont zone) as defined by previous authors. This regressive interval (FSST to LST) correlates with thin shale layers (HBE shale) sandwiched between monotonous nodular calcilutite/calcisiltite successions at five pelagic sections of Moravia, Carnic Alps, Montagne Noire, and Pyrenees. In all sections with continuous D/C sedimentation (i.e., except those of the Namur-Dinant Basin), the HBE s.l. interval is accompanied by elevated percentages of detrital proxies (Al, K, Rb, Zr) and changes in their ratios (Zr/Rb, K/Al, Rb/K) which are normally interpreted as indicators of increased siliciclastic input, provenance, and grain size. Zr/Rb and other proxies are traceable even without apparent lithological evidence and can, therefore, facilitate stratigraphic correlation. Paleoredox and productivity proxies (U/Th and Ni/Rb enrichment factors) only rarely show elevated values in the Hangenberg black shale interval, indicating that the associated water dysoxia/anoxia was a local rather than global phenomenon. Global correlations based on the HBE black shales should therefore be dropped in favor of the HBE s.l. interval. Moreover, analysis of sedimentation rates in the upper expansa to kockeli zone interval using the published radiometric ages suggests that the HBE s.l. was a time of significant increase in the rate of siliciclastic supply into the ocean, even

  17. Sea-level and environmental changes around the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin (S Belgium, NE France): A multi-proxy stratigraphic analysis of carbonate ramp archives and its use in regional and interregional correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpan, Tomáš; Bábek, Ondřej; Kalvoda, Jiří; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Frýda, Jiří

    2014-08-01

    The paper focuses on high-resolution multidisciplinary research on three Devonian-Carboniferous boundary sections in shallow-water carbonate rocks in the Namur-Dinant Basin (Belgium, France). The aim of the study is to provide palaeo-environmental reconstructions and correlations supported by several independent quantitative proxies. We describe several correlative horizons and provide their sequence-stratigraphic interpretation based on facies analysis, spectral gamma-ray data, element concentrations (XRF) and δ13Ccarb, with foraminifer-biostratigraphy age control. The most prominent surface is a basal surface of forced regression, which is indicated by a sharp basinwards facies shift and a drop in clay-gamma-ray values and Al concentrations at the base of the Hastière and Avesnelles formations in more distal settings. In proximal settings, this surface merges with a hiatus at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary inferred from foraminifer biostratigraphy. This hiatus can be correlated with the global Hangenberg sandstone event, which indicates a glacioeustatic sea-level fall. Increasing values of Zr/Al, K/Al, Sr/Al and Mn/Al coincide with the proximal facies of the falling stage system tract and lowstand system tract in the Hastière and Avesnelles formations as a consequence of the enhanced input of siliciclastics and nutrients during low sea levels. The top of the middle Hastière member is interpreted as the maximum regression surface, which is overlain by transgressive system tract of the upper Hastière member. The patterns of gamma-ray, δ13Ccarb, Th/K, Al and Zr/Al curves are well correlated between the studied sections. The δ13Ccarb excursions are correlated with the unnamed excursion in the Upper expansa conodont zone (Carnic Alps) and with the global Hangenberg event s.l. excursion in the kockeli conodont zone. This sequence-stratigraphic framework is used for correlations with deltaic successions from the Tafilalt Basin, Morocco. The basal surface of

  18. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY, CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN (GIVETIAN TO EARLY CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN LIPAK FORMATION IN THE PIN VALLEY OF SPITI (NW INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERICH DRAGANITS

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bed-by-bed lithostratigraphic sections combined with sequence stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy provide new information on the depositional environment and age of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley (Spiti. The formation comprises mixed siliciclastic and calcareous sediments at lower levels, richly fossiliferous limestones with two distinct sandstone incursions at higher levels, and dark mudstones followed by a thin siltstone interval. The upper limit of the Lipak Formation is defined by the angular unconformity below the sandstones of the Permian Gechang Formation. Lithologic correlation with sections in upper Lahaul indicates that, in the Pin Valley, the formation has been truncated just below its characteristic gypsum horizon. The lower boundary of the Lipak Formation is gradational from coastal arenites of the Muth Formation; the mappable boundary is drawn at the first appearance of dark carbonaceous, argillaceous siltstone and shale.Sedimentary structures, microfacies and conodont faunas indicate a general shallow marine depositional environment of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley; five sequence stratigraphic units have been distinguished. Conodont data demonstrate that the lowest 33 m of the Lipak Formation of the Pin Valley is mid to late Early varcus Subzone with characteristic species of Icriodus and Bipennatus. A previously unrecognised hiatus at c. 33 m above the base, at the boundary of sequence stratigraphic units S1 and S2, represents the interval Middle varcus Subzone to at least the end of the late Famennian Early expansa Zone. Because this hiatus does not correspond to a mappable boundary, no division of the Lipak Formation into named stratigraphic units is suggested, but we refer informally to the sediments represented by cycle S1 as Lipak A, and the sediments represented by cycles S2-S5 as Lipak B. Determination of S1 as Early varcus Subzone provides a maximum age for the gradationally underlying Muth Formation

  19. Presencia y distribución de micofilas en gramíneas de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugo, Mónica A.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mycophyllas were studied in grasses (Poaceae from natural Argentinian grasslands. Festuca fiebrigii Pilg., F. hieronymi Hack. var. expansa (St. Yves Türpe, F. parodii St. Yves, Melica macra Nees, M. stuckertii Hack., Poa hieronymi Hack.. P. holciformis J. Presl, P. lilloi Hack., P. plicata Hack, and P. stuckertii (Hack. Parodi are reponed as new hosts and the distribution área of the association for Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. hieronymi Hack, var. hieronymi and F. tucumanica E.B. Alexeev, has been extended. The interaction was a mutualistic symbiosis. Most of the species had both the culm parenchyma and the fruits colonized, except in Melica macra. Poa hieronymi and P. plicata, where the symbiont was only observed in the parenchyma. On the other hand, variation in the association was observed in relation to the host species, location and altitude.Se realiza un estudio de las micofilas encontradas en gramíneas (Poaceae de pastizales naturales de Argentina. La búsqueda del simbionte fúngico se efectuó en plantas vivas y herborizadas. Se dan a conocer como nuevos hospedantes a Festucafiebrigii Pilg., F. hieronymi Hack, var. expanda (St. Yves Türpe, F. parodii St. Yves, Melica macra Nees, M. stuckertii Hack., Poa hieronymi Hack., P. holciformis J. Presl, P. lilloi Hack., P. plicata Hack, y P. stuckertii (Hack. Parodi, y se amplía el área de distribución de la asociación para Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. hieronymi Hack. var. hieronymi y F. tucumanica E.B. Alexeev. El tipo de interacción observada corresponde a una simbiosis mutualista. En la mayoría de las especies analizadas el endófito colonizó el parenquima de las cañas y los frutos, salvo en Melica macra. Poa hieronymi y P. alicata, en las que solo se observó en el parenquima. Por otro lado, la presencia de micofilas presentó variaciones con relación a la especie del hospedante, altitud y localidad de procedencia.

  20. Behavior of Sr-90 and transuranic elements in three areas in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in three areas (both terrestrial and aquatic): in the Maenttae area in Central Finland and in the environs of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants. The highest Sr-90 concentrations were found in Ebilobium angustifolium, being 70 - 90 Bq/kg d.w., and Empetrum nigrum, 15 - 60 Bq/kg d.w. Concentrations of more than 10 Bq/kg d.w. were also detected in leaves of birch (Betula pendula), in berries of Empetrum nigrum and in ferns (Dryopteris carthusiana, Dryopteris expansa, Polypodium vulgare). The Sr-90 concentrations in mushrooms were less than 10 Bq/kg d.w. and varied considerably from one species to another. The concentrations of Pu-239,240 were below the detection limits in mushrooms and berries. Detectable amounts of Pu-239,240 were found in ferns. Am-241 was detected in ferns, but also in a Cantharellus tubaeformis sample and in Calluna vulgaris, in which the Pu-239,240 concentrations were below the detection limits. The highest concentrations of Sr-90 in fresh water environment were detected in shells and flesh of freshwater clam, Anodonta sp., and in marine environment in Saduria entomon and Macoma balthica. In Anodonta sp. (both shells and flesh), also Pu-239,240 and Am-241 were detected. Pu-239,240 was detectable in almost all the marine samples. Concentration factors (CF) of Pu-239,240 were roughly at the same level or greater than those of Sr-90, especially in the marine environment. Best indicator organism for Sr in the fresh water environment was Anodonta sp., and then Nuphar lutea (CFs 103 - 104); and Macoma balthica and Fucus vesiculosus in the marine environment. Roots of Nymphaea candida and flesh of Anodonta sp. accumulated best Pu-239,240 in fresh water environment; The CFs of Pu-239,240 were greater in the marine environment compared to those in fresh water environment. Phytoplankton and periphyton accumulate most efficiently Pu-239,240 in the marine environment. The behavior of plutonium and americium were

  1. Estudio anual de la eliminación de huevos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales y larvas de nemátodos pulmonares en ovinos de una estancia en Magallanes, Chile Annual study of the of egg and oocyst outputs of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworm larvae in a sheep station of Magallanes, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SIEVERS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de recabar antecedentes epidemiológicos sobre las endoparasitosis del ovino en Magallanes, XIIª Región de Chile, se trabajó en la estancia "Entre Vientos", comuna de Río Verde, durante un año (septiembre de 1999 a agosto del 2000. A partir de animales de 3 categorías de edad mantenidos bajo un sistema de explotación extensiva, compuestos por 9.800 corderos (nacidos durante la primavera de 1999, 1.800 borregas (1 año de edad y 13.500 ovejas (2 o más años de edad, se determinaron las tendencias de eliminación de huevos, ooquistes y larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales y pulmonares. Cada 14 días se obtuvo materia fecal desde el recto de 25 animales pertenecientes a cada grupo de edad, muestreados al azar, para realizar recuentos de huevos y diferenciación de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales, recuentos de huevos de cestodos, determinación de animales positivos a ooquistes de protozoos intestinales y detección de larvas de nemátodos pulmonares. Los corderos presentaron las mayores eliminaciones de huevos de nemátodos gastrointestinales durante el verano, con predominancia de los géneros Nematodirus y Ostertagia. En borregas y ovejas, las mayores eliminaciones de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus se produjeron en primavera, coincidiendo con el alza de la temperatura ambiental. La categoría más contaminante fue la de las ovejas en primavera, mientras que los corderos lo fueron en el verano. Durante la primavera, la mayor parte de los animales eliminó ooquistes de Eimeria spp., pero fueron los corderos los mayores contaminantes. La mayor oviposición de huevos de Moniezia expansa se registró en corderos y borregas, durante el verano y primavera respectivamente. Larvas de Dictyocaulus filaria se detectaron principalmente en corderos durante el otoño e invierno. No se diagnosticaron casos de parasitosis clínicas durante los meses del estudio, lo que se puede explicar dado el sistema de crianza extensivo y al

  2. Sedimentology, conodonts and ostracods of the Devonian - Carboniferous strata of the Anseremme railway bridge section, Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Seven major carbonate microfacies are defined in the Devonian - Carboniferous (D/C) strata (50 m) of the Anseremme railway bridge section, south of Dinant. They permit recognition of several levels encompassing the Etroeungt and Hastie??re formations. "Bathymetric" sequences range from open marine, below the storm wave base, to semi-restricted lagoon. This sequence records a shallowing-upward trend of the relative sea level, from environments below the storm wave base to strongly eroded supraticial pre-evaporitic environments. Faunal components (echinoderms, brachiopods...) indicate open-marine domain for the first six microfacies located within the dysphoticeuphotic zone in relatively shallow waters. The textures of the rocks (mudstones to rudstones) associated with lamination characteristics indicate the position of the storm (SWB) and the fair-weather (FWWB) wave bases. Microfacies seven suggests a semi-restricted platform with salinity fluctuations from hypersaline brines to brackish waters. Thus, the boundary of the Etroeungt/Hastie??re formations is marked by an abrupt drop in sea level. Carbonate micro-conglomerates recording an important erosive phase and a sedimentary hiatus. The environment is again open marine in the upper part of the Hastie??re Formation. Our conclusion is that the Anseremme section is not a reliable continuous succession for the study of the D/C boundary. This confirms the VAN STEENWINKEL (1988, 1993 hypothesis based on other arguments. Conodont faunas demonstrate that the Devonian sequence spans the five youngest conodont zones, but that two of these zones are not represented. The Epinette Formation is dated as the youngest part of the Middle expansa Zone. Thus, the boundary with the Late praesulcata Zone probably coincides with the sharp sedimentological change at the base of the Etroeungt Formation, which is interpreted to belong entirely to this zone. The disconformably overlying basal bed 159 of the Hastie??re Formation is dated