Sample records for around-the-objective total internal

  1. Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications. (United States)

    Arwin, Hans; Poksinski, Michal; Johansen, Knut


    A concept for a measurement technique based on ellipsometry in conditions of total internal reflection is presented. When combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects, this technique becomes powerful for monitoring and analyzing adsorption and desorption on thin semitransparent metal films as well as for analyzing the semitransparent films themselves. We call this technique total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The theory of ellipsometry under total internal reflection combined with SPR is discussed for some simple cases. For more advanced cases and to prove the concept, simulations are performed with the Fresnel formalism. The use of TIRE is exemplified by applications in protein adsorption, corrosion monitoring, and adsorption from opaque liquids on metal surfaces. Simulations and experiments show greatly enhanced thin-film sensitivity compared with ordinary ellipsometry.

  2. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.


    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  3. Partial internal reflections on total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. (United States)

    Simon, Sanford M


    Microscopy, especially fluorescence microscopy, has proven to be a powerful method for studying biological processes. Unfortunately, some of the same features that make biological membranes powerful (for example, all of the action taking place across a narrow 4nm film) also make it difficult to visualize by fluorescence. Over the past 30 years, numerous tricks have been developed to narrow the plane over which data is collected. One approach, total internal reflection (TIR) fluorescence microscopy, is particularly well suited for studying membrane events. A key issue to address when using TIR to tackle a new biological problem is: how can one judge whether the signals being observed are actually the biological phenomena that one wishes to study?

  4. Dispersion Properties in Total Internal Reflective Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hua; HAO Dong-shan


    The dispersion properties in the short wavelength region of total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber have been studied by using the models of the equivalent twin waveguide soliton coupling,effective refractive index, effective normalized frequency and dispersion management solitons. It is shown that the dispersion in the cladding waveguide of the total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber is a positive dispersion,and the dispersion of its core waveguide is a negative dispersion. The method of the compensated probing laser diffraction by the phase hole induced by the stationary pumping laser in the cladding waveguide enables the average dispersion value of the total internal reflective photonic crystal fiber to be close to zero and the zero dispersion point to shift to the short wavelength region.

  5. Questions Students Ask: What Causes Total Internal Reflection? (United States)

    Giancoli, Douglas


    Provides a detailed, non-mathematical analysis of total internal reflection based on the interaction of light and matter and the principle of superposition. Discusses factors affecting the critical angle and the percent of the incident beam that is refracted and reflected. (JM)

  6. Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter. (United States)

    Woods, David A; Bain, Colin D


    Total internal reflection (TIR) spectroscopy is a widely used technique to study soft matter at interfaces. This tutorial review aims to provide researchers with an overview of the principles, experimental design and applications of TIR spectroscopy to enable them to understand how this class of techniques might be used in their research. It also highlights limitations and pitfalls of TIR techniques, which will assist readers in critically analysing the literature. Techniques covered include attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), TIR fluorescence, TIR Raman scattering and cavity-enhanced techniques. Other related techniques are briefly described.

  7. Frustration of total internal reflection by a hidden nanowire (United States)

    Frumin, Leonid; Nemykin, Anton; Shapiro, David


    A metallic wire embedded in the dielectric substrate leads to frustration of the total internal reflection at the interface between dielectric and free space. The scattering by a gold cylinder is studied in order to exploit the light for hidden objects optical diagnostics. The p-wave incidenting by the angle close to total reflection with the frequency near plasmonic resonance is treated by the modified boundary elements method. The magnetic and electric fields at the interface are calculated. The scattering diagrams are found in near and far field.

  8. Breakthroughs in Photonics 2014: Relaxed Total Internal Reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman


    Total internal reflection (TIR) is a ubiquitous phenomenon used in photonic devices ranging from waveguides and resonators to lasers and optical sensors. Controlling this phenomenon and light confinement are keys to the future integration of nanoelectronics and nanophotonics on the same silicon platform. We introduced the concept of relaxed total internal reflection in 2014 to control evanescent waves generated during TIR. These unchecked evanescent waves are the fundamental reason photonic devices are inevitably diffraction-limited and cannot be miniaturized. Our key design concept is the engineered anisotropy of the medium into which the evanescent wave extends thus allowing for skin depth engineering without any metallic components. In this article, we give an overview of our approach and compare it to key classes of photonic devices such as plasmonic waveguides, photonic crystal waveguides and slot waveguides. We show how our work can overcome a long standing issue in photonics nanoscale light confinement...

  9. Internal iliac artery pseudoaneurysm in primary total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Agarwala


    Full Text Available Vascular injury is one of the rare complications of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA. We report an unusual case of lobulated pseudoaneurysm arising from one of the branches of the left internal iliac artery during acetabulum preparation in THA, which was successfully treated with coil embolization and multidisciplinary care. After 6 years follow up, patient did not have any symptoms related to the hip replacement. We recommend that surgeons should be extremely cautious while drilling medial wall of the acetabulum for depth assessment. Aggressive multidisciplinary approach, including possible support from an interventional radiologist is required for the treatment of such vascular injuries.

  10. Development of an internally braced prosthesis for total talus replacement. (United States)

    Regauer, Markus; Lange, Mirjam; Soldan, Kevin; Peyerl, Steffen; Baumbach, Sebastian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Polzer, Hans


    Total loss of talus due to trauma or avascular necrosis, for example, still remains to be a major challenge in foot and ankle surgery with severely limited treatment options. Implantation of a custom made total talar prosthesis has shown promising results so far. Most important factors for long time success are degree of congruence of articular surfaces and ligamentous stability of the ankle. Therefore, our aim was to develop an optimized custom made prosthesis for total talus replacement providing a high level of primary stability. A custom made hemiprosthesis was developed using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data of the affected and contralateral talus considering the principles and technology for the development of the S.T.A.R. prosthesis (Stryker). Additionally, four eyelets for fixation of artificial ligaments were added at the correspondent footprints of the most important ligaments. Two modifications can be provided according to the clinical requirements: A tri-articular hemiprosthesis or a bi-articular hemiprosthesis combined with the tibial component of the S.T.A.R. total ankle replacement system. A feasibility study was performed using a fresh frozen human cadaver. Maximum range of motion of the ankle was measured and ligamentous stability was evaluated by use of standard X-rays after application of varus, valgus or sagittal stress with 150 N. Correct implantation of the prosthesis was technically possible via an anterior approach to the ankle and using standard instruments. Malleolar osteotomies were not required. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were measured as 22-0-28 degrees. Maximum anterior displacement of the talus was 6 mm, maximum varus tilt 3 degrees and maximum valgus tilt 2 degrees. Application of an internally braced prosthesis for total talus replacement in humans is technically feasible and might be a reasonable procedure in carefully selected cases with no better alternatives left.

  11. Total Internal Reflection for Effectively Transparent Solar Cell Contacts

    CERN Document Server

    Jahelka, Phillip; Atwater, Harry


    A new strategy for eliminating photocurrent losses due to the metal contacts on the front of a solar cell was proposed, simulated, and tested. By placing triangular cross-section lines of low refractive index on top of the contacts, total-internal reflection at the interface of the low-index triangles and the surrounding material can direct light away from the metal and into the photoactive absorber. Simulations indicated that losses can be eliminated for any incident angle, and that yearly energy production improvements commensurate with the metallized area are possible. Proof of principle experiments were carried out to eliminate the reflective losses of a commercial solar cell's busbar contact. Spatially resolved laser beam induced current measurements demonstrated that reflection losses due to the busbar were reduced by voids with triangular cross-section.

  12. Absolute Position Total Internal Reflection Microscopy with an Optical Tweezer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lulu; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Capasso, Federico


    A non-invasive, in-situ calibration method for Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 $\\mu$m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10x improvement in error and 3x improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique's advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle's scattering intensity vs. height profile in-situ, rather than relying on calculations or inexact system analogs for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle.

  13. Plasmonically amplified bioassay - Total internal reflection fluorescence vs. epifluorescence geometry. (United States)

    Hageneder, Simone; Bauch, Martin; Dostalek, Jakub


    This paper investigates plasmonic amplification in two commonly used optical configurations for fluorescence readout of bioassays - epifluorescence (EPF) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF). The plasmonic amplification in the EPF configuration was implemented by using crossed gold diffraction grating and Kretschmann geometry of attenuated total reflection method (ATR) was employed in the TIRF configuration. Identical assay, surface architecture for analyte capture, and optics for the excitation, collection and detection of emitted fluorescence light intensity were used in both TIRF and EPF configurations. Simulations predict that the crossed gold diffraction grating (EPF) can amplify the fluorescence signal by a factor of 10(2) by the combination of surface plasmon-enhanced excitation and directional surface plasmon-coupled emission in the red part of spectrum. This factor is about order of magnitude higher than that predicted for the Kretschmann geometry (TIRF) which only took advantage of the surface plasmon-enhanced excitation. When applied for the readout of sandwich interleukin 6 (IL-6) immunoassay, the plasmonically amplified EPF geometry designed for Alexa Fluor 647 labels offered 4-times higher fluorescence signal intensity compared to TIRF. Interestingly, both geometries allowed reaching the same detection limit of 0.4pM despite of the difference in the fluorescence signal enhancement. This is attributed to inherently lower background of fluorescence signal for TIRF geometry compared to that for EPF which compensates for the weaker fluorescence signal enhancement. The analysis of the inflammation biomarker IL-6 in serum at medically relevant concentrations and the utilization of plasmonic amplification for the fluorescence measurement of kinetics of surface affinity reactions are demonstrated for both EPF and TIRF readout.

  14. Nanoscale contact line visualization based on total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, M.J.Z.; Poelma, C.; Westerweel, J.


    We describe a novel measurement method to study the contact line of a droplet at nanoscale level. The method is based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM), which uses an evanescent excitation field produced by total internal reflection of light. The evanescent field depends o

  15. Exploring the Pattern of Internal Communication in Total Quality Management Implementation in Manufacturing Companies


    Samsudin Sharina; Jalil Nor Hayati Mohd; Ibrahim Marzura


    Communication is an important aspect of organizational dynamic process and it is irrefutable one of the critical success factors of the Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation. Although there are increasing awareness concerning the importance of internal organizational communication, knowledge appears to have rarely translated into practice or there is lack of guidance to effectively practicing it. Therefore, a study was proposed to investigate the pattern of internal communication prac...

  16. International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total-scattering draft standard. (United States)

    Kadkhoda, P; Müller, A; Ristau, D; Duparré, A; Gliech, S; Lauth, H; Schuhmann, U; Reng, N; Tilsch, M; Schuhmann, R; Amra, C; Deumie, C; Jolie, C; Kessler, H; Lindström, T; Ribbing, C G; Bennett, J M


    An international round-robin experiment has been conducted among laboratories in different countries to test the measurement and the data-analysis procedures in the International Organization for Standardization draft standard ISO/DIS 13696 for measuring total scattering from low-scatter laser optics. Ten laboratories measured total backscattering from high-reflectance mirrors, 50% beam splitters, and antireflection-coated windows. Results were sent to the Laser Zentrum Hannover, which acted as coordinator and analyzed all the backscattering data. The results showed that the procedure in the draft standard was useful for measuring and reporting backscattering for low-scatter optics. Problems encountered in the round-robin experiment included the accumulation of particles on the surfaces, particularly on the high-reflectance mirrors.

  17. Optical Waveguide Switches Employing Total-Internal-Reflection (TIR) Effect (Invited Paper)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, our recent research work on the total-internal-reflection optical switch is presented. The thermo-optic effect of polymeric materials and the photon-induced carrier effect of GaAlAs/GaAs are used in our devices.

  18. Internal Consistency and Power When Comparing Total Scores from Two Groups. (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Brouwers, Vincent


    Researchers now know that when theoretical reliability increases, power can increase, decrease, or stay the same. However, no analytic research has examined the relationship of power to the most commonly used type of reliability-internal consistency-and the most commonly used measures of internal consistency, coefficient alpha and ICC(A,k). We examine the relationship between the power of independent samples t tests and internal consistency. We explicate the mathematical model upon which researchers usually calculate internal consistency, one in which total scores are calculated as the sum of observed scores on K measures. Using this model, we derive a new formula for effect size to show that power and internal consistency are influenced by many of the same parameters but not always in the same direction. Changing an experiment in one way (e.g., lengthening the measure) is likely to influence multiple parameters simultaneously; thus, there are no simple relationships between such changes and internal consistency or power. If researchers revise measures to increase internal consistency, this might not increase power. To increase power, researchers should increase sample size, select measures that assess areas where group differences are largest, and use more powerful statistical procedures (e.g., ANCOVA).

  19. Frustrated Total Internal Reflection: Resonant and Negative Goos-H\\"anchen Shifts in Microwave Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Min


    It is well-known that the variations of Goos-H\\"anchen shifts (GHSs) are closely associated with the enengy-flux provided by evanescent states in the case of total internal reflection. However, when the frustrated internal total reflection (FTIR) is realized with a Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) double-prism system operated in the microwave frequency range of 8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz, we observe that the GH shifts for the reflected beam show periodic resonances with varying the operation frequency or the air layer thickness, which is different from the variation of the corresponding reflected energy. Moreover, in another FTIR based system introduced by a composite absorptive material slab with a two-dimensional top layer of frequency selective surface (FSS), the GHSs for reflected beam are discovered as not only resonant but also negative with the incidence of transverse electric that is TE polarized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Risk analysis materializes in: applying to the weightings of risk factors the level of risk assessment, on risk factors, based on the assessments made by auditors regarding: the functionality of internal control, the influence of quantitative and qualitative elements; determination of the total risk score, which represents a sum of weights between the appreciation level of each risk and the weightings of risk factors.

  1. Efficient optical path folding by using multiple total internal reflections in a microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara, Susumu; Fukushima, Takehiro; Harayama, Takahisa; Arai, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki


    We propose using an asymmetric resonant microcavity for the efficient generation of an optical path that is much longer than the diameter of the cavity. The path is formed along a star polygonal periodic orbit within the cavity, which is stable and confined by total internal reflection. We fabricated a semiconductor device based on this idea with an average diameter of 0.3 mm, and achieved a path length of 2.79 mm experimentally.

  2. The influence of spatial coherence on the Goos-Haenchen shift at total internal reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liqin; Wang Ligang; Zhu Shiyao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Zubairy, M Suhail [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail:


    In this paper, the influence of spatial coherence on the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift at total internal reflection is theoretically investigated. Based on the theory of partial coherence, a general integral expression of the cross-spectral density is derived for a partially coherent beam reflected from an interface. Using numerical simulation, we find that the GH shift of the reflected beam greatly depends on the spatial coherence, and the GH shift is greatly reduced with a decrease in spatial coherence.

  3. A Spectrometric Setup for Synchronous Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Measurement at the Solid/Liquid Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A spectrometric setup to perform total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and synchronous TIRF measurements at solid/liquid interfaces is presented. The combination of TIRF and synchronous fluorescence was proposed to analyze simultaneously different components at interfaces. The TIRF excitation, emission and synchronous spectra of a water-soluble porphyrin were obtained from water/glass interface using this setup without the existence of a surfactant.

  4. Exploring the Pattern of Internal Communication in Total Quality Management Implementation in Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudin Sharina


    Full Text Available Communication is an important aspect of organizational dynamic process and it is irrefutable one of the critical success factors of the Total Quality Management (TQM implementation. Although there are increasing awareness concerning the importance of internal organizational communication, knowledge appears to have rarely translated into practice or there is lack of guidance to effectively practicing it. Therefore, a study was proposed to investigate the pattern of internal communication practice in TQM implementation. This paper concerns on focusing into internal communication practices in TQM implementation factors and the communication patterns in terms of message forms and mediums of communication to convey TQM messages. Reliability and Factor analysis were carried out to confirm items that form each factor in internal communication in TQM implementation. Based on the analysis of survey questionnaires distributed to 104 large manufacturing companies implementing TQM in Malaysia, it was found that there are certain communication patterns practice by the management when conveying and disseminating TQM messages, but they have no specific guidelines. Therefore, the internal communication practices are not well planned. Finally, it is suggested that further research should be carried out to explain clearly the role and strategy of communication on this issue in order to boost the success of TQM implementation particularly in manufacturing company.

  5. Proceedings of RITE international workshop on valuation; Total eko balance ni kansuru kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The RITE International Workshop on Valuation was held in Tokyo and Osaka in February 1996, and eight papers on total ecobalance were reported. In The Field of Impact Assessment, described were constitution and methodology about impact assessment in a wide sense. In LCA Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, discussed were the historical development and future outlook of LCA. In Standardization of Product Life Cycle Assessment, a survey of the present situation of LCA international standardization was made. In the Relationship between Product Life Cycle Assessment Methodology, considered was the relationship between the goal definition of the product life cycle assessment and the methodological choices. In Valuation in LCA, the present study of LCA was reviewed. Besides, reviews of the LCA study in Japan were made public.

  6. Total Arterial Revascularization with Internal Mammary Artery or Radial Artery Graft Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To investigate the clinical use of π graft in total arterial revascularization and its outcomes, a retrospective analysis of 23 patients out of 1000 patients undergoing total arterial coronary bypass surgery with a π graft between September 1994 and December 2004 was performed. In the selected patients for the management of triple vessel disease with middle diagonal/intermediate ramus disease such that a skip with the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) or radial artery (RA),the main stem of π graft, to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) will not work and the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) cannot pick up the diagonal/intermediate ramus, hence the LAD and diagonal/intermediate ramus were grafted with a mini Y graft using the distal segment of LIMA, RIMA, RA or RGEA, together with the bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) or LIMA-RA T graft to compose π graft. Twenty-three patients (18 males, 5 females) underwent the π graft procedure. There were no deaths or episodes of myocardial infarction, stroke, and deep sternal wound infection. One patient required reopening for controlling bleeding. Until the end of 2004, during a mean follow-up of 81.0 ±28.4 months, no angina needing re-intervention or operative therapy or coronary related death occurred. In conclusion, in patients with specific coronary artery anatomy/stenosis, the BIMA (sometimes LIMA with RA or RGEA) π graft can be successfully performed for total arterial revascularization with good midterm outcomes.

  7. Microplate-compatible total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for receptor pharmacology (United States)

    Chen, Minghan; Zaytseva, Natalya V.; Wu, Qi; Li, Min; Fang, Ye


    We report the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for analyzing receptor pharmacology and the development of a microplate-compatible TIRF imaging system. Using stably expressed green fluorescence protein tagged β2-adrenergic receptor as the reporter, we found that the activation of different receptors results in distinct kinetic signatures of the TIRF intensity of cells. These TIRF signatures closely resemble the characteristics of their respective label-free dynamic mass redistribution signals in the same cells. This suggests that TIRF in microplate can be used for profiling and screening drugs.

  8. Generation of nearly 3D-unpolarized evanescent optical near fields using total internal reflection. (United States)

    Hassinen, Timo; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero


    We analyze the time-domain partial polarization of optical fields composed of two evanescent waves created in total internal reflection by random electromagnetic beams with orthogonal planes of incidence. We show that such a two-beam configuration enables to generate nearly unpolarized, genuine three-component (3D) near fields. This result complements earlier studies on spectral polarization, which state that at least three symmetrically propagating beams are required to produce a 3D-unpolarized near field. The degree of polarization of the near field can be controlled by adjusting the polarization states and mutual correlation of the incident beams.

  9. Energy flux and Goos-Hänchen shift in frustrated total internal reflection. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Lu, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Pei-Liang; Zhu, Qi-Biao


    Using Yasumoto and Õishi's energy flux method, a generalized analytical formulation for analyzing the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in frustrated total internal reflection is provided, from which the GH shift given by Artman's stationary phase method is shown to equal the GH calculated by Renard's conventional energy flux method plus a self-interference shift. The self-interference shift, originating from the interference between the incident and reflected beams, sheds light on the asymptotic behavior of the GH shift in such optical tunneling process in term of energy flux.

  10. Thin-Film Enhanced Goos-H(a)nchen Shift in Total Internal Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Fang; YANG Xiao-Yan


    @@ It is reported that the Goos-Hanchen (GH) shift of both TE and TM light beams totally reflected from a dielectric interface can be greatly enhanced by a dielectric thin film without changing the property of total internal reflection.Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical analysis and show that the enhanced GH shift can be as large as the width of the beam for beam's width up to 820 times of the wavelength. This may stimulate investigations in other areas of physics and may lead to interesting applications in optical devices. The enhancement of the GH shift is accompanied by the enhancement of the intensity of the decaying field in the optically thin medium and of the propagating field inside the film.

  11. Nanoscale contact line visualization based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. (United States)

    Franken, M J Z; Poelma, C; Westerweel, J


    We describe a novel measurement method to study the contact line of a droplet at nanoscale level. The method is based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM), which uses an evanescent excitation field produced by total internal reflection of light. The evanescent field depends on the angle of the incident light and has an exponential intensity decay, characterized by the penetration depth. The penetration depth is determined by imaging a fluorescent particle probe that is traversed using an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) setup. The result confirms the exponential behavior of the evanescent field intensity, and the value of the penetration depth also corresponds with the value predicted based on the optical configuration. By using the intensity distribution of a fluorescent dye and the value for the penetration depth of the evanescent wave, it is possible to reconstruct the interface of a partial wetting droplet. The reconstructed interface based on TIRFM is in good agreement with the interface obtained from two reference measurements: non-disturbing AFM-imaging and conventional contact angle measurement. The latter lacks spatial resolution, while the former is limited to particular droplets. This new non-contact measurement does not suffer from these drawbacks, making it a very useful tool to study the fundamental wetting behavior of both stationary and dynamic interfaces.

  12. Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of intact cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM is a powerful tool for observing fluorescently labeled molecules on the plasma membrane surface of animal cells. However, the utility of TIRFM in plant cell studies has been limited by the fact that plants have cell walls, thick peripheral layers surrounding the plasma membrane. Recently, a new technique known as variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM was developed to circumvent this problem. However, the lack of a detailed analysis of the optical principles underlying VAEM has limited its applications in plant-cell biology. Results Here, we present theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of variable-angle TIRFM in observations of intact plant cells. We show that when total internal reflection occurs at the cell wall/cytosol interface with an appropriate angle of incidence, an evanescent wave field of constant depth is produced inside the cytosol. Results of experimental TIRFM observations of the dynamic behaviors of phototropin 1 (a membrane receptor protein and clathrin light chain (a vesicle coat protein support our theoretical analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that variable-angle TIRFM is appropriate for quantitative live imaging of cells in intact tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  13. Total internal reflection optical switch using the reverse breakdown of a pn junction in silicon. (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hun; Park, Hyo-Hoon


    We demonstrate a new type of silicon total-internal-reflection optical switch with a simple pn junction functioning both as a reflector and a heater. The reflector is placed between asymmetrically y-branched multimode waveguides with an inclination angle corresponding to half of the branch angle. When the reflector is at rest, incident light is reflected in accordance to the refractive index difference due to the plasma dispersion effect of the pre-doped carriers. Switching to the transmission state is attained under a reverse breakdown of the pn junction by the thermo-optic effect which smears the refractive index difference. From this switching scheme, we confirmed the switching operation with a shallow total-internal-reflection region of 1 μm width. At a 6° branch angle, an extinction ratio of 12 dB and an insertion loss of -4.2  dB are achieved along with a thermal heating power of 151.5 mW.

  14. Total Internal Reflection Accounts for the Bright Color of the Saharan Silver Ant. (United States)

    Willot, Quentin; Simonis, Priscilla; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Aron, Serge


    The Saharan silver ant Cataglyphis bombycina is one of the terrestrial living organisms best adapted to tolerate high temperatures. It has recently been shown that the hairs covering the ant's dorsal body part are responsible for its silvery appearance. The hairs have a triangular cross-section with two corrugated surfaces allowing a high optical reflection in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) range of the spectrum while maximizing heat emissivity in the mid-infrared (MIR). Those two effects account for remarkable thermoregulatory properties, enabling the ant to maintain a lower thermal steady state and to cope with the high temperature of its natural habitat. In this paper, we further investigate how geometrical optical and high reflection properties account for the bright silver color of C. bombycina. Using optical ray-tracing models and attenuated total reflection (ATR) experiments, we show that, for a large range of incidence angles, total internal reflection (TIR) conditions are satisfied on the basal face of each hair for light entering and exiting through its upper faces. The reflection properties of the hairs are further enhanced by the presence of the corrugated surface, giving them an almost total specular reflectance for most incidence angles. We also show that hairs provide an almost 10-fold increase in light reflection, and we confirm experimentally that they are responsible for a lower internal body temperature under incident sunlight. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the optical mechanisms responsible for the silver color of C. bombycina and the remarkable thermoregulatory properties of the hair coat covering the ant's body.

  15. Novel Propagation Properties of Total Internal Reflection Photonic Crystal Fibres with Rhombic Air Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hai-Feng; YU Zhong-Yuan; LIU Yu-Min; TIAN Hong-Da; HAN Li-Hong


    We investigate the propagation properties of a multi-layer photonic crystal fiber with novel rhombic air holes using the finite element method,and calculate the dependence of the propagation properties on the wavelength in the fiber with different geometrical structural parameters,including the internal angle and the external arrangement of the rhombic air holes.Optimizing these parameters,we design a photonic crystal which exhibits both a small dispersion value and low loss near the wavelength of 1.55 μm.Photonic crystal fibers are known as microstructured optical fibers or multi-hole optical fibers,and their cross sections have periodic structures with hollows in the centers due to one or more missing air holes as shown in Fig.1.The light wave can propagate along this hollow structure,which can be considered as the core of the fiber.According to the light-guiding mechanism,there are two types of photonic crystal fibers:total internal reflection photonic crystal fibers and photonic bandgap photonic crystal fibers.[1] The propagation properties of total internal reflection photonic crystal fibers are determined by the arrangements of holes in the transverse field.[1,2] With the flexibility to control the arrangement,size and shape of the air holes,various photonic crystal fibers with different optical properties can be designed as desired.Recently the microstructural design of photonic crystal fibers has drawn extensive attention over the world.[3] As a novel kind of optical fiber,photonic crystal fibers have been widely used for optoelectronic devices.%We investigate the propagation properties of a multi-layer photonic crystal fiber with novel rhombic air holes using the finite element method, and calculate the dependence of the propagation properties on the wavelength in the fiber with different geometrical structural parameters, including the internal angle and the external arrangement of the rhombic air holes. Optimizing these parameters, we design a photonic

  16. Watch your step! A frustrated total internal reflection approach to forensic footwear imaging (United States)

    Needham, J. A.; Sharp, J. S.


    Forensic image retrieval and processing are vital tools in the fight against crime e.g. during fingerprint capture. However, despite recent advances in machine vision technology and image processing techniques (and contrary to the claims of popular fiction) forensic image retrieval is still widely being performed using outdated practices involving inkpads and paper. Ongoing changes in government policy, increasing crime rates and the reduction of forensic service budgets increasingly require that evidence be gathered and processed more rapidly and efficiently. A consequence of this is that new, low-cost imaging technologies are required to simultaneously increase the quality and throughput of the processing of evidence. This is particularly true in the burgeoning field of forensic footwear analysis, where images of shoe prints are being used to link individuals to crime scenes. Here we describe one such approach based upon frustrated total internal reflection imaging that can be used to acquire images of regions where shoes contact rigid surfaces.

  17. Tunneling mode in a frustrated total internal reflection structure with hyperbolic metamaterial (United States)

    Luo, Li; Li, Chaoyang; Tang, Tingting


    We study the tunneling modes in a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) structure with hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). The physical mechanism of tunneling mode is analyzed by the condition of general zero average permittivity. The influence of anisotropy, loss and dispersion of HMM on tunneling modes is discussed based on simulation results. Tunneling mode merging or splitting can be realized by adjusting the thickness of air or HMM. We can also find the absorption of HMM significantly reduces the transmittance peak of tunneling mode. When a recently reported HMM of ZnAlO/ZnO multilayer is introduced in the FTIR structure, the combined action of HMM loss and dispersion brings many small tunneling modes in the angular spectrum. The tunneling mode in the proposed structure can be used to design filters and wavelength selectors which may also have applications in wavelength de-multiplexing in optical communications.

  18. Imaging Early Steps of Sindbis Virus Infection by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youling Gu


    Full Text Available Sindbis virus (SINV is an alphavirus that has a broad host range and has been widely used as a vector for recombinant gene transduction, DNA-based vaccine production, and oncolytic cancer therapy. The mechanism of SINV entry into host cells has yet to be fully understood. In this paper, we used single virus tracking under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM to investigate SINV attachment to cell surface. Biotinylated viral particles were labeled with quantum dots, which retained viral viability and infectivity. By time-lapse imaging, we showed that the SINV exhibited a heterogeneous dynamics on the surface of the host cells. Analysis of SINV motility demonstrated a two-step attachment reaction. Moreover, dual color TIRFM of GFP-Rab5 and SINV suggested that the virus was targeted to the early endosomes after endocytosis. These findings demonstrate the utility of quantum dot labeling in studying the early steps and behavior of SINV infection.

  19. Redistribution of fluorescent molecules at the solid/liquid interface with total internal reflection illumination. (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Ye, Zhongju; Luo, Wenjuan; Chen, Bo; Xiao, Lehui


    Many intriguing physical and chemical processes commonly take place at the solid/liquid interface. Total internal reflection illumination, together with single molecule spectroscopy, provides a robust platform for the selective exploration of kinetic processes close the interface. With these techniques, it was observed that the distribution of Rhodamine B molecules close to a solid/liquid interface could be regulated in a photo-induced route. The laser-induced repulsion force at this interface is enough to compromise the Brownian diffusion of single molecules in a range of several hundred nanometers normal to the solid/liquid interface. This observation is fundamentally and practically interesting because moderate laser intensity is enough to initiate this repulsion effect. Therefore, it might display extensive applications in the development of photo-modulation technique with high throughput capability.

  20. Evaluation of lateral resolution of scanning surface microscopy by total internal reflection with thermal lens effect. (United States)

    Shimosaka, Takuya; Izako, Masakazu; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Hobo, Toshiyuki


    We have developed a novel method for in situ and non-destructive surface analyses, or a total internal reflection with thermal lens spectroscopy (TIR-TLS), which has sufficient sensitivity to monitor phenomena in thin films, such as lipid bilayers. In this study, we applied TIR-TLS to microscopy for surface analyses, and we experimentally obtained its lateral resolution using the edge of a chromium film made by a photolithography technique. The obtained resolution was 20 microm, which was 60% of the diameter of an excitation beam at the interface. The estimated resolution with a simple model agreed with the experimental one, and from this model, TIR-TLS microscopy has the same resolution as that of ordinary optical microscopy. The microscopy by TIR-TLS was applied to a sample whose contrast was too weak to be visually seen, and an image of the sample was obtained without any loss of resolution.

  1. Observation of Insulin Exocytosis by a Pancreatic (3 Cell Line with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-ying Fu; Ya-ping Wang; Yu Chen


    @@ INSULIN secretion was traditionally measured with biochemical and immunological methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbant assay and radio-immunoassay.However,these methods can only tell the amount of insulin secreted; they give no information about the secretion process or mechanism of exocytosis.In recent years,an imaging technique known as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy has been employed to study insulin secretion.1-4 This imaging technique can explore events taking place near or on live cell membrane,such as secretory granule movement,exocytosis,vesicle content release,and membrane fusion.5-10 In the present paper,we applied TIRF microscopy to the observation of insulin exocytosis by the pancreatic β cell line Ins-1.

  2. Total-internal-reflection-based photomask for large-area photolithography (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Kang; Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chou, Chen-Hsun; Lin, You-Chuan


    Photolithography has been widely implemented with a photomask in contact or in close proximity to the photoresist layer. The flatness of the substrates is a crucial factor to guarantee the quality of the entire patterned photoresist (PR) layer especially for large-area photolithography. However, some substrates, such as sapphire wafers, do not possess highly uniform thickness as silicon wafer does. In this work, we demonstrate that a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) photomask with optical total-internal-reflection structure can effectively circumvent this problem for mass production. Different from conventional photomask that the light is blocked by the patterned reflective/absorbing materials, the distributions of light intensity on the PR is engineered by the geometric structure of the transparent PDMS photomask. We demonstrate that 4 in. patterned sapphire wafers can be successfully fabricated by using this PDMS photomask, which can be easily integrated into the present techniques in industry for mass production of substrates for GaN-based optoelectronic devices.

  3. Exploiting total internal reflection geometry for efficient optical modulation of terahertz light (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Ung, Benjamin S.-Y.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma


    Efficient methods to modulate terahertz (THz) light are essential for realizing rapid THz imaging and communication applications. Here we report a novel THz modulator which utilizes the evanescent wave in a total internal reflection setup coupled with a conductive interface to enhance the attenuation efficiency of THz light. This approach makes it possible to achieve close to 100% modulation with a small interface conductivity of 12 mS. The frequency dependence of this technique is linked to the optical properties of the materials: a material with close to frequency independent conductivity that is also controllable will result in an achromatic modulation response, and the device performance can be optimized further by tuning the internal reflection angle. In this work, we focus on applying the technique in the terahertz frequency range. Using an LED array with a pump intensity of 475 mW/cm2 to produce carriers in a silicon wafer, we have achieved a modulation depth of up to 99.9% in a broad frequency range of 0.1 THz-0.8 THz. The required pumping power for the generation of the required free carriers is low because the sheet conductivity needed is far less than required for traditional transmission techniques. Consequently, the device can be modulated by an LED making it a very practical, low cost, and scalable solution for THz modulation.

  4. Exploiting total internal reflection geometry for efficient optical modulation of terahertz light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu


    Full Text Available Efficient methods to modulate terahertz (THz light are essential for realizing rapid THz imaging and communication applications. Here we report a novel THz modulator which utilizes the evanescent wave in a total internal reflection setup coupled with a conductive interface to enhance the attenuation efficiency of THz light. This approach makes it possible to achieve close to 100% modulation with a small interface conductivity of 12 mS. The frequency dependence of this technique is linked to the optical properties of the materials: a material with close to frequency independent conductivity that is also controllable will result in an achromatic modulation response, and the device performance can be optimized further by tuning the internal reflection angle. In this work, we focus on applying the technique in the terahertz frequency range. Using an LED array with a pump intensity of 475 mW/cm2 to produce carriers in a silicon wafer, we have achieved a modulation depth of up to 99.9% in a broad frequency range of 0.1 THz–0.8 THz. The required pumping power for the generation of the required free carriers is low because the sheet conductivity needed is far less than required for traditional transmission techniques. Consequently, the device can be modulated by an LED making it a very practical, low cost, and scalable solution for THz modulation.

  5. Two-Dimensional Standing Wave Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy: Superresolution Imaging of Single Molecular and Biological Specimens



    The development of high resolution, high speed imaging techniques allows the study of dynamical processes in biological systems. Lateral resolution improvement of up to a factor of 2 has been achieved using structured illumination. In a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope, an evanescence excitation field is formed as light is total internally reflected at an interface between a high and a low index medium. The


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry N. Bolotov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the main form of international payment - bank transfer and features when it is charging by banks correspondent fees for transit funds in their correspondent accounts. In order to optimize the cost of expenses for international money transfers there is a need to develop models and toolkit of automatic generation of the total amount of commissions in international interbank settlements. Accordingly, based on graph theory, approach to the construction of the model was developed.

  7. Introduction of total quality management (TQM) into an internal medicine residency. (United States)

    Ellrodt, A G


    In spite of significant enthusiasm for the principles and methods of total quality management (TQM) in health care organizations, there have been only a few creative programs applying TQM to medical education. In addition, teaching programs are under significant pressure to teach and practice cost-effective medicine and to produce more sophisticated general internists. In July 1992, the governance and operation of the internal medicine training program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center was restructured to integrate a TQM program with a health services research section and a resource management department. This restructured program transfers significant programmatic responsibility and power to houseofficers. Within the playing field defined through a housestaff values statement and requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Internal Medicine, the housestaff have brought about substantial change. The first housestaff survey after the new program was operational for six months revealed that 68% of the 77 respondents felt the housestaff had greater programmatic influence, 68% felt that the rate of program change was "better," and 63% felt the overall training program had improved, while 3% felt it had worsened after the restructuring. Fifty-six percent of the housestaff felt the new program should be continued unchanged, and 29% felt it should be continued with changes. Housestaff teams have approached educational issues, quality-of-care problems, and resource management challenges through formal scientific problem-solving techniques. This article discusses the lessons learned in the first six months and the program improvements that will be attempted in the future.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Near-wall nanovelocimetry based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence with continuous tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenzhen; Lee, Choongyeop; Monti, Fabrice; Yonger, Marc; Chollet, Benjamin; Bresson, Bruno; Tran, Yvette; Tabeling, Patrick


    The goal of this work is to make progress in the domain of near-wall velocimetry. The technique we use is based on the tracking of nanoparticles in an evanescent field, close to a wall, a technique called TIRF (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence)-based velocimetry. At variance with the methods developed in the literature, we permanently keep track of the light emitted by each particle during the time the measurements of their positions ('altitudes') and speeds are performed. By performing the Langevin simulation, we quantified effect of biases such as Brownian motion, heterogeneities induced by the walls, statistical biases, photo bleaching, polydispersivity and limited depth of field. Using this method, we obtained slip length on hydrophilic surfaces of 1$ \\pm $5 nm for sucrose solution, and 9$ \\pm $10 nm for water; On hydrophobic surface, 32$ \\pm $5 nm for sucrose solution, and 55$ \\pm $9 nm for water. The errors (based on 95% confidence intervals) are significantly smaller than the state-of-the-art, bu...

  9. Optical design and laser ablation of surface textures: demonstrating total internal reflection (United States)

    Gommans, Hans; Booij, Silvia; Pijlman, Fetze; Krijn, Marcel; de Zwart, Siebe; Sepkhanov, Ruslan; Beaumont, Dave; van der Schaft, Hans; Sanders, Rene


    In lighting applications key drivers for optical design of surface textures are integration of optical elements, the disentanglement of optical functionality and appearance and late stage configuration. We investigated excimer laser ablation as a mastering technology for micro textured surfaces, where we targeted an increase in correspondence between surface design and ablated surface for high aspect ratio structures. To achieve this we have improved the photo mask design using a heuristic algorithm that corrects for the angular dependence of the ablation process and the loss of image resolution at ablation depths that exceed the depth of field. Using this approach we have been able to demonstrate close correspondence between designed and ablated facet structures up to 75° inclination at 75 μm depth. These facet design parameters allow for total internal reflection (TIR) as a means of beam deflection which is demonstrated in a range of mono shaped cone arrays in hexagonal tessellation. BSDF analysis was used to characterize the narrow TIR deflection beams that matched the peak positions of the design down to 28° apex. In addition, a single surface TIR-Fresnel lens design with focal distance 5 mm has been manufactured using this photo mask design algorithm and beam collimation up to 12° beam angle and 32° field angle is shown. These outcomes demonstrate that the laser ablation process intrinsically yields sufficient small dispersion in structure and fillet radii for lighting applications.

  10. Frustrated total internal reflection in organic light-emitting diodes employing sphere cavity embedded in polystyrene (United States)

    Zhu, Peifen


    The light extraction efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is numerically investigated employing the finite-difference time-domain method. The periodic nanostructures formed by embedding the sphere arrays in polystyrene (PS) are placed on top of OLED to frustrate the total internal reflection at the interface between OLED and free space. These nanostructures serve as an intermediate medium to extract the light out of OLED devices. Efficiently coupling both evanescent waves and propagation waves into spheres and subsequently extracting these light waves out of the sphere is key to achieving high extraction efficiency. By tuning the thickness of PS layer, both of the in-coupling efficiency and out-coupling efficiency are optimized for achieving high light extraction efficiency. Thicker PS layer results in higher in-coupling efficiency in sphere while the thinner PS layer leads to higher out-coupling efficiency. Thus the maximum light extraction is a trade-off between the in-coupling efficiency and out-coupling efficiency. The study shows that light extraction efficiency of 89% can be achieved by embedding 0.90 μm TiO2 sphere in 0.30 μm PS layer with optimized in-coupling efficiency, out-coupling efficiency and cavity effect.

  11. Design and construction of a multiwavelength, micromirror total internal reflectance fluorescence microscope. (United States)

    Larson, Joshua; Kirk, Matt; Drier, Eric A; O'Brien, William; MacKay, James F; Friedman, Larry J; Hoskins, Aaron A


    Colocalization single-molecule spectroscopy (CoSMoS) has proven to be a useful method for studying the composition, kinetics and mechanisms of complex cellular machines. Key to the technique is the ability to simultaneously monitor multiple proteins and/or nucleic acids as they interact with one another. Here we describe a protocol for constructing a CoSMoS micromirror total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (mmTIRFM). Design and construction of a scientific microscope often requires a number of custom components and a substantial time commitment. In our protocol, we have streamlined this process by implementation of a commercially available microscopy platform designed to accommodate the optical components necessary for an mmTIRFM. The mmTIRF system eliminates the need for machining custom parts by the end user and facilitates optical alignment. Depending on the experience level of the microscope builder, these time savings and the following protocol can enable mmTIRF construction to be completed within 2 months.

  12. 3D reconstruction of cortical microtubules using multi-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Jin, Luhong; Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xiaoxu; Fan, Jiannan; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu; Xu, Yingke


    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has been widely used in biomedical research to visualize cellular processes near the cell surface. In this study, a novel multi-angle ring-illuminated TIRFM system, equipped with two galvo mirrors that are on conjugate plan of a 4f optical system was developed. Multi-angle TIRFM generates images with different penetration depths through the controlled variation of the incident angle of illuminating laser. We presented a method to perform three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of microtubules from multi-angle TIRFM images. The performance of our method was validated in simulated microtubules with variable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and the axial resolution and accuracy of reconstruction were evaluated in selecting different numbers of illumination angles or in different SNR conditions. In U373 cells, we reconstructed the 3-D localization of microtubules near the cell surface with high resolution using over a hundred different illumination angles. Theoretically, the presented TIRFM setup and 3-D reconstruction method can achieve 40 nm axial resolution in experimental conditions where SNR is as low as 2, with 35 different illumination angles. Moreover, our system and reconstruction method have the potential to be used in live cells to track membrane dynamics in 3-D.

  13. Real-time monitoring of NKCC2 endocytosis by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. (United States)

    Jaykumar, Ankita Bachhawat; Caceres, Paulo S; Sablaban, Ibrahim; Tannous, Bakhos A; Ortiz, Pablo A


    The apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) mediates NaCl reabsorption by the thick ascending limb (TAL). The amount of NKCC2 at the apical membrane of TAL cells is determined by exocytic delivery, recycling, and endocytosis. Surface biotinylation allows measurement of NKCC2 endocytosis, but it has low time resolution and does not allow imaging of the dynamic process of endocytosis. We hypothesized that total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy imaging of labeled NKCC2 would allow monitoring of NKCC2 endocytosis in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and TAL cells. Thus we generated a NKCC2 construct containing a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) sequence between the transmembrane domains 5 and 6. Once expressed in polarized MDCK or TAL cells, surface NKCC2 was specifically biotinylated by exogenous biotin ligase (BirA). We also demonstrate that expression of a secretory form of BirA in TAL cells induces metabolic biotinylation of NKCC2. Labeling biotinylated surface NKCC2 with fluorescent streptavidin showed that most apical NKCC2 was located within small discrete domains or clusters referred to as "puncta" on the TIRF field. NKCC2 puncta were observed to disappear from the TIRF field, indicating an endocytic event which led to a decrease in the number of surface puncta at a rate of 1.18 ± 0.16%/min in MDCK cells, and a rate 1.09 ± 0.08%/min in TAL cells (n = 5). Treating cells with a cholesterol-chelating agent (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) completely blocked NKCC2 endocytosis. We conclude that TIRF microscopy of labeled NKCC2 allows the dynamic imaging of individual endocytic events at the apical membrane of TAL cells.

  14. Study of antibody/antigen binding kinetics by total internal reflection ellipsometry. (United States)

    Baleviciute, Ieva; Balevicius, Zigmas; Makaraviciute, Asta; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas


    Total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) has been applied for the investigation of (i) kinetics of biosensing layer formation, which was based on the immobilization of fragmented and intact antibodies, and (ii) kinetics of antigen interaction with the immobilized antibodies. It has been demonstrated that ellipsometric parameter Δ(t) showed much higher sensitivity at the initial phase of Au-protein and protein-protein interaction, while the parameter Ψ(t) was more sensitive when the steady-state conditions were established. A new method, which taking into consideration this feature and nonlinear change of Δ(t) and Ψ(t) parameters during various stages of biological layer formation process, was used for the calculation of antibody and antigen adsorption/interaction kinetics. The obtained results were analyzed using a model, which took into account partial reversibility during the formation of both antibody and antigen based monolayers. It was shown that the immobilization rate of antibody during the preparation of the sensing layer was similar for the formation of both intact and fragmented antibody based layers; however, the residence time was 25 times longer for intact antibody based layer formation in comparison to that of fragmented antibody based layer formation. On the contrary, residence time of antigen interaction with immobilized antibodies was about 8 times longer for the sensor based on fragmented antibodies. Moreover, it has been determined that the structural differences of immobilized antibodies (fragmented or intact) significantly influence antibody-antigen interaction rate, the major difference being in the residence time of antigen interaction with both types of immobilized antibodies.

  15. Complications of Central Venous Totally Implantable Access Port: Internal Jugular Versus Subclavian Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Young Jung

    Full Text Available Background: Totally implantable access port (TIAP provides reliable, long term vascular access with minimal risk of infection and allows patients normal physical activity. With wide use of ports, new complications have been encountered. We analyzed TIAP related complications and evaluated the outcomes of two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Methods: All 172 patients who underwent port insertion with internal jugular approach (Group 1, n = 92 and subclavian approach (Group 2, n = 79 between August 2011 and May 2013 in a single center were analyzed, retrospectively. Medical records were analyzed to compare the outcomes and the occurrence of port related complications between two different percutaneous routes of access to superior vena cava. Results: Median follow-up for TIAP was 278 days (range, 1-1868. Twenty four complications were occurred (14.0%, including pneumothorax (n = 1, 0.6%, migration/malposition (n = 4, 2.3%, pinch-off syndrome (n = 4, 2.3%, malfunction (n = 2, 1.1%, infection (n = 8, 4.7%, and venous thrombosis (n = 5, 2.9%. The overall incidence was 8.7% and 20.3% in each group (p = 0.030. Mechanical complications except infectious and thrombotic complications were more often occurred in group 2 (p = 0.033. The mechanical complication free probability is significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.040. Conclusions: We suggest that the jugular access should be chosen in patients who need long term catheterization because of high incidence of mechanical complication, such as pinch-off syndrome.

  16. Membrane order parameters for interdigitated lipid bilayers measured via polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Ngo, An T; Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Lu, Zhengfang; Joós, Béla; Morris, Catherine E; Johnston, Linda J


    Incorporating ethanol in lipid membranes leads to changes in bilayer structure, including the formation of an interdigitated phase. We have used polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy (pTIRFM) to measure the order parameter for Texas Red DHPE incorporated in the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase (LβI) formed from ternary lipid mixtures comprising dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and egg sphingomyelin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These lipid mixtures have 3 co-existing phases in the presence of ethanol: liquid-ordered, liquid-disordered and LβI. pTIRFM using Texas Red DHPE shows a reversal in fluorescence contrast between the LβI phase and the surrounding disordered phase with changes in the polarization angle. The contrast reversal is due to changes in the orientation of the dye, and provides a rapid method to identify the LβI phase. The measured order parameters for the LβI phase are consistent with a highly ordered membrane environment, similar to a gel phase. An acyl-chain labeled BODIPY-FL-PC was also tested for pTIRFM studies of ethanol-treated bilayers; however, this probe is less useful since the order parameters of the interdigitated phase are consistent with orientations that are close to random, either due to local membrane disorder or to a mixture of extended and looping conformations in which the fluorophore is localized in the polar headgroup region of the bilayer. In summary, we demonstrate that order parameter measurements via pTIRFM using Texas Red-DHPE can rapidly identify the interdigitated phase in supported bilayers. We anticipate that this technique will aid further research in the effects of alcohols and other additives on membranes.

  17. Adhesion of living cells revealed by variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Marcelina; Vézy, Cyrille; Jaffiol, Rodolphe


    Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) is a widespread technique to study cellular process occurring near the contact region with the glass substrate. In this field, determination of the accurate distance from the surface to the plasma membrane constitutes a crucial issue to investigate the physical basis of cellular adhesion process. However, quantitative interpretation of TIRF pictures regarding the distance z between a labeled membrane and the substrate is not trivial. Indeed, the contrast of TIRF images depends on several parameters more and less well known (local concentration of dyes, absorption cross section, angular emission pattern…). The strategy to get around this problem is to exploit a series of TIRF pictures recorded at different incident angles in evanescent regime. This technique called variable-angle TIRF microscopy (vaTIRFM), allowing to map the membrane-substrate separation distance with a nanometric resolution (10-20 nm). vaTIRFM was developed by Burmeister, Truskey and Reichert in the early 1990s with a prism-based TIRF setup [Journal of Microscopy 173, 39-51 (1994)]. We propose a more convenient prismless setup, which uses only a rotatable mirror to adjust precisely the laser beam on the back focal plane of the oil immersion objective (no azimuthal scanning is needed). The series of TIRF images permit us to calculate accurately membrane-surface distances in each pixel. We demonstrate that vaTIRFM are useful to quantify the adhesion of living cells for specific and unspecific membrane-surface interactions, achieved on various functionalized substrates with polymers (BSA, poly-L-lysin) or extracellular matrix proteins (collagen and fibronectin).

  18. Direct experimental observation of giant Goos-Hänchen shifts from bandgap-enhanced total internal reflection. (United States)

    Wan, Yuhang; Zheng, Zheng; Kong, Weijing; Liu, Ya; Lu, Zhiting; Bian, Yusheng


    Giant Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts are experimentally demonstrated from a prism-coupled multilayer structure incorporating a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) through a bandgap-enhanced total internal reflection scheme. By combining the large phase changes near the bandgap of the PC and the low reflection loss of the total internal reflection, 2 orders of magnitude enhancement of the GH shift is realized with rather low extra optical loss, which might help to open the door toward many interesting applications for GH effects.

  19. Goos-Hänchen shift of a transmitted light beam in frustrated total internal reflection for moderately large gap widths (United States)

    Bocharov, A. A.


    Goos-Hänchen shift of transmitted light beam is studied in frustrated total internal reflection for moderately large gap widths. The traditional Artmann's formula is shown to be inapplicable in this case. An alternative approach of this value calculation is proposed. The presented result corresponds to the intuitively expected limit dependencies on the problem parameters.

  20. A plastic total internal reflection-based photoluminescence device for enzymatic biosensors (United States)

    Thakkar, Ishan G.

    Growing concerns for quality of water, food and beverages in developing and developed countries drive sizeable markets for mass-producible, low cost devices that can measure the concentration of contaminant chemicals in water, food, and beverages rapidly and accurately. Several fiber-optic enzymatic biosensors have been reported for these applications, but they exhibit very strong presence of scattered excitation light in the signal for sensing, requiring expensive thin-film filters, and their non-planar structure makes them challenging to mass-produce. Several other planar optical waveguide-based biosensors prove to be relatively costly and more fragile due to constituent materials and the techniques involved in their fabrication. So, a plastic total internal reflection (TIR)-based low cost, low scatter, field-portable device for enzymatic biosensors is fabricated and demonstrated. The design concept of the TIR-based photoluminescent enzymatic biosensor device is explained. An analysis of economical materials with appropriate optical and chemical properties is presented. PMMA and PDMS are found to be appropriate due to their high chemical resistance, low cost, high optical transmittance and low auto-fluorescence. The techniques and procedures used for device fabrication are discussed. The device incorporated a PMMA-based optical waveguide core and PDMS-based fluid cell with simple multi-mode fiber-optics using cost-effective fabrication techniques like molding and surface modification. Several techniques of robustly depositing photoluminescent dyes on PMMA core surface are discussed. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, fluoresceinamine, and an O2-sensitive phosphorescent dye, Ru(dpp) both are successfully deposited using Si-adhesive gel-based as well as HydroThane-based deposition methods. Two different types of pH-sensors using two different techniques of depositing fluoresceinamine are demonstrated. Also, the effect of concentration of fluoresceinamine-dye molecules

  1. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for real-time imaging of nanoparticle-cell plasma membrane interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moien


    Nanoparticulate systems are widely used for site-specific drug and gene delivery as well as for medical imaging. The mode of nanoparticle-cell interaction may have a significant effect on the pathway of nanoparticle internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking. Total internal reflection...... fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy allows for real-time monitoring of nanoparticle-membrane interaction events, which can provide vital information in relation to design and surface engineering of therapeutic nanoparticles for cell-specific targeting. In contrast to other microscopy techniques, the bleaching...

  2. Design of an optical lens combined with a total internal reflection (TIR) freeform surface for a LED front fog lamp (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiufeng; Ge, Peng


    We propose a design method of an optical lens combined with a total internal reflection (TIR) freeform surface for a LED front fog lamp. The TIR freeform surface controls the edge rays of the LED source. It totally reflects the edge rays and makes them emit from the top surface of the lens. And the middle rays of the LED source go through the refractive surface and reach the measured plane. We simulate the model by Monte Carlo method. Simulation results show that the front fog lamp system can satisfy the requirement of ECE R19 Rev7. The light control efficiency can reach up to 76%.

  3. Two-dimensional standing wave total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy: superresolution imaging of single molecular and biological specimens. (United States)

    Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Daekeun; Cui, Yan; Kim, Yang-Hyo; So, Peter T C


    The development of high resolution, high speed imaging techniques allows the study of dynamical processes in biological systems. Lateral resolution improvement of up to a factor of 2 has been achieved using structured illumination. In a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope, an evanescence excitation field is formed as light is total internally reflected at an interface between a high and a low index medium. The excitation region resulting in low background fluorescence. We present even higher resolution wide-field biological imaging by use of standing wave total internal reflection fluorescence (SW-TIRF). Evanescent standing wave (SW) illumination is used to generate a sinusoidal high spatial frequency fringe pattern on specimen for lateral resolution enhancement. To prevent thermal drift of the SW, novel detection and estimation of the SW phase with real-time feedback control is devised for the stabilization and control of the fringe phase. SW-TIRF is a wide-field superresolution technique with resolution better than a fifth of emission wavelength or approximately 100 nm lateral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of the SW-TIRF microscopy using one- and two-directional SW illumination with a biological sample of cellular actin cytoskeleton of mouse fibroblast cells as well as single semiconductor nanocrystal molecules. The results confirm the superior resolution of SW-TIRF in addition to the merit of a high signal/background ratio from TIRF microscopy.

  4. Resolution of Internal Total Reflection Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Huayong; GUO Qizhi; TAN Weihan


    In this paper, the probe-sample interaction equation based on Mie′s scattering theory is derived, and the resolution of scanning near field optical microscopy is calculated numerically. The results show that the offset of far-field component to near-field component in total field plays an important role in the resolution and the size of samples also has influence on resolution.

  5. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth


    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  6. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P


    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...

  7. A Novel Method for Enhancing Goos-H(a)nchen Shift in Total Internal Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Wei; WEN Ting-Dun; ZHANG Ji-Long


    Due to the tiny shift in order of optical wavelength for Goos-Hiinchen (GH) shift,it is very difficult to directly measure and apply the GH shift.We develop a new method for enhancing GH shift of both TE and TM polarized waves.The method is based on a total reflection prism made of BK9 glass combined with a precise measurement of the resulting spatial displacement with a one-dimensional charge coupled device (CCD).Measurements are performed to examine the validity of the method.Experimental and theoretical results indicate the feasibility of the method with an enhancement in optical wavelenghth shift at millimetre scale.The method is advantageous to application the GH shift in the optical domain,and is also meaningful for measuring even smaller changes in the refractive index of a liquid.

  8. Influence of Valve's Characteristic on Total Performance of Three Cylinders Internal Combustion Water Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongxin; ZHANG Tiezhu; WANG Weichao


    lntenal combustion pump (ICP) is a new type power device turning the thermal energy from fuel combustion into fluid pressure energy. Three cylinders prototype has just been developed. The study on the influence of valve's characteristic on ICP's total performance will found the base for its optimum design. Based on the theoretical and testing fruits of single cylinder prototype, the performance of the valves and complete appliance of the latest is simulated. When the natural frequency of valves is approximately to the round number times of the working frequency, volumetric efficiency is seriously low. The nominal rotational speed of the prototype is nearly to the speed where the volumetric efficiency is lowest, which is harmful to the normal work of ICP, so further structure optimization of valves should be carried out. The change of volumetric efficiency has great influence on the fuel consumption rate,output flow, effective thermal efficiency, effective power, and so on, but little on output pressure.

  9. Design of an efficient Fresnel-type lens utilizing double total internal reflection for solar energy collection. (United States)

    Wallhead, Ian; Jiménez, Teresa Molina; Ortiz, Jose Vicente García; Toledo, Ignacio Gonzalez; Toledo, Cristóbal Gonzalez


    A novel of Fresnel-type lens for use as a solar collector has been designed which utilizes double total internal reflection (D-TIR) to optimize collection efficiency for high numerical aperture lenses (in the region of 0.3 to 0.6 NA). Results show that, depending on the numerical aperture and the size of the receiver, a collection efficiency theoretical improvement on the order of 20% can be expected with this new design compared with that of a conventional Fresnel lens.

  10. Very low zero-dispersion wavelength predicted for single-mode modified-total-internal-reflection crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    A zero-dispersion wavelength (lgr/sub ZD/) below 600 nm has been predicted for a pure silica modified-total-internal-reflection (M-TIR) single-mode crystal fibre with a 1 mm pitch. The fibre is single mode from at least 250 nm, i.e., from well below lgr/sub ZD/. Both a method for designing single......-mode crystal fibres using an anti-guiding structure and a fast calculation scheme for investigating the structure for different pitch sizes are proposed....

  11. “Remotion” Total Wrist Arthroplasty: Preliminary Results of a Prospective International Multicenter Study of 215 Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzberg, Guillaume; Boeckstyns, Michel Ernest Henri; Sorensen, Allan Ibsen;


    preoperative and postoperative reports of "ReMotion" TWA at regular intervals. The cases of 7 centers with more than 15 inclusions were considered for this article. A total of 215 wrists were included. In the rheumatoid arthritis (RA; 129 wrists) and nonrheumatoid arthritis (non-RA; 86 wrists) groups......This study reports the current results of an international multicenter study of one last generation total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) ("ReMotion," Small Bone Innovation, Morristown, PA). The two first authors (G.H. and M.B.) built a Web-based prospective database including clinical and radiological...... with the previous generation TWA. The level of evidence for this study is IV....

  12. Investigation of the Unsteady Total Pressure Profile Corresponding to Counter-Rotating Vortices in an Internal Flow Application (United States)

    Gordon, Kathryn; Morris, Scott; Jemcov, Aleksandar; Cameron, Joshua


    The interaction of components in a compressible, internal flow often results in unsteady interactions between the wakes and moving blades. A prime example in which this flow feature is of interest is the interaction between the downstream rotor blades in a transonic axial compressor with the wake vortices shed from the upstream inlet guide vane (IGV). Previous work shows that a double row of counter-rotating vortices convects downstream into the rotor passage as a result of the rotor blade bow shock impinging on the IGV. The rotor-relative time-mean total pressure distribution has a region of high total pressure corresponding to the pathline of the vortices. The present work focuses on the relationship between the magnitude of the time-mean rotor-relative total pressure profile and the axial spacing between the IGV and the rotor. A survey of different axial gap sizes is performed in a two-dimensional computational study to obtain the sensitivity of the pressure profile amplitude to IGV-rotor axial spacing.

  13. Attenuated total internal reflection infrared microspectroscopic imaging using a large-radius germanium internal reflection element and a linear array detector. (United States)

    Patterson, Brian M; Havrilla, George J


    The number of techniques and instruments available for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic imaging has grown significantly over the past few years. Attenuated total internal reflectance (ATR) FT-IR microspectroscopy reduces sample preparation time and has simplified the analysis of many difficult samples. FT-IR imaging has become a powerful analytical tool using either a focal plane array or a linear array detector, especially when coupled with a chemometric analysis package. The field of view of the ATR-IR microspectroscopic imaging area can be greatly increased from 300 x 300 microm to 2500 x 2500 microm using a larger internal reflection element of 12.5 mm radius instead of the typical 1.5 mm radius. This gives an area increase of 70x before aberrant effects become too great. Parameters evaluated include the change in penetration depth as a function of beam displacement, measurements of the active area, magnification factor, and change in spatial resolution over the imaging area. Drawbacks such as large file size will also be discussed. This technique has been successfully applied to the FT-IR imaging of polydimethylsiloxane foam cross-sections, latent human fingerprints, and a model inorganic mixture, which demonstrates the usefulness of the method for pharmaceuticals.

  14. In-situ analysis of fruit anthocyanins by means of total internal reflectance, continuous wave and time-resolved spectroscopy (United States)

    Zude, Manuela; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Dosche, Carsten; Torricelli, Alessandro


    In sweet cherry (Prunus avium), the red pigmentation is correlated with the fruit maturity stage and can be measured by non-invasive spectroscopy. In the present study, the influence of varying fruit scattering coefficients on the fruit remittance spectrum (cw) were corrected with the effective pathlength and refractive index in the fruit tissue obtained with distribution of time-of-flight (DTOF) readings and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) analysis, respectively. The approach was validated on fruits providing variation in the scattering coefficient outside the calibration sample set. In the validation, the measuring uncertainty when non-invasively analyzing fruits with cw method in comparison with combined application of cw, DTOF, and TIRF measurements showed an increase in r2 up to 22.7 % with, however, high errors in all approaches.

  15. Quantum (not frustrated) theory of the total internal reflection as the source of the Goos-Hänchen shift (United States)

    Jakiel, Jacek; Kantor, Wiesław


    The frustrated total internal reflection theories (FTIR) from previous century are thoroughly recalculated from the, so called, monodromy operator's point of view - a theory lunched by Born and Wolf [Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1975), Chap. 1.6] and Arnold [Geometric Methods in the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations (Springer, 1987)]. Monodromy is a theory of simultaneous solution (for both reflection and transmission amplitudes) of one dimensional Schrödinger equation (for the wavefunction and its derivative) and the Maxwell equation (for electric and magnetic fields). Introducing new quantities: the dwell distance and the phase distance, we get general Goos-Hänchen (G-H) shift formula for optical tunneling for three layer system with refraction indexes n0, n1, n2. This formula reduces itself to expressions known from the scientific literature for infinite air gap (infinite width of second layer). Extension to many layers is possible.

  16. Quality of life following total hip arthroplasty in patients with acetabular fractures, previously managed by open reduction and internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasoon Kumar; Ramesh Kumar Sen; Vishal Kumar; Ankit Dadra


    Purpose:Total hip replacement (THR) is one of the most successful and cost-effective surgical procedures and remains the treatment of choice for long-term pain relief and restoration of function for patients with diseased or damaged hips.Acetabular fractures managed either conservatively or operatively by fixation tend to present later with secondary joint changes that require THR.In this study we evaluated the functional outcome and quality of life achieved by such patients.Methods:Our study was carried out as a retrospective trial by recruiting patients who underwent THR from June 2006 to May 2012.A total of 32 patients were included with a mean age of 46.08 years ranging from (25-65) years.We evaluated the quality of life in the patients using scoring techniques of Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12).Functional outcome was assessed using Harris Hip Score (HHS).Results:The mean HHS of the patients was 84.3 with a range from 56 to 100.The SMFA averaged 13.3.The SF-12 score averaged 49.1.The correlation of the HHS with SF-12 was positive (p =0.001) while with SMFA there was a negative correlation (p =0.001).Conclusion:From this study it is inferred that the functional outcome of THR and quality of life in patients who had acetabular fractures and were initially managed by open reduction and internal fixation is good.

  17. Pharmacokinetic detection of penicillin excreted in urine using a totally internally reflected resonance light scattering technique with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Huang, Cheng Zhi; Feng, Ping; Li, Yuan Fang; Tan, Ke Jun


    A quantitative analysis method for penicillins including ampicillin (AmP), benzyl penicillin (BP), oxacillin (OA) and amoxycillin (AmO) is proposed that makes use of the totally internally reflected resonance light scattering (TIR-RLS) signal from the penicillin at the H2O/CCl4 interface in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), and enables the pharmacokinetics of penicillin taken orally and excreted through urine to be monitored. Penicillin is coadsorbed with CTMAB at the H2O/CCl4 interface in neutral solution, resulting in the formation of ion associates that display greatly enhanced TIR-RLS signals (maximum at 368-372 nm). This enhanced TIR-RLS intensity was found to be proportional to the penicillin concentration over the range 0.2 x 10(-6) to 2.2 x 10(-6) mol L(-1), with limits of determination (3sigma) of 5.0 x 10(-8) to 7.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1). Pharmacokinetics studies performed using the present method show that the excretion of orally-taken ampicillin through urine has a half-time of 1.05 h and an excremental quantum over 8 h of 49.3%, respectively.

  18. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker. (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che


    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X).

  19. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Technique for the Analysis of Polymer Laminates. (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Sommer, André J


    Until recently, the analysis of polymer laminates using infrared microspectroscopy involved the painstaking separation of individual layers by dissection or by obtaining micrometer thin cross-sections. The latter usually requires the expertise of an individual trained in microtomy and even then, the very structure of the laminate could affect the outcome of the spectral results. The recent development of attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared microspectroscopy imaging has provided a new avenue for the analysis of these multilayer structures. This report compares ATR infrared microspectroscopy imaging with conventional transmission infrared microspectroscopy imaging. The results demonstrate that the ATR method offers improved spatial resolution, eliminates a variety of competing optical processes, and requires minimal sample preparation relative to transmission measurements. These advantages were illustrated using a polymer laminate consisting of 11 different layers whose thickness ranged in size from 4-20 μm. The spatial resolution achieved by using an ATR-FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) imaging technique was diffraction limited. Contrast in the ATR images was enhanced by principal component analysis.

  20. Characterization of GLUT4-containing vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Insulin-responsive GLUT4(glucose transporter 4) translocation plays a major role in regulating glucose uptake in adipose tissue and muscle.Whether or not there is a specialized secretory GSV(GLUT4 storage vesicle) pool,and more importantly how GSVs are translocated to the PM(plasma membrane) under insulin stimulation is still under debate.In the present study,we systematically analyzed the dynamics of a large number of single GLUT4-containing vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by TIRFM(total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy).We found that GLUT4-containing vesicles can be classified into three groups according to their mobility,namely vertical,stable,and lateral GLUT4-containing vesicles.Among these groups,vertical GLUT4-containing vesicles exclude transferrin receptors and move towards the PM specifically in response to insulin stimulation,while stable and lateral GLUT4-containing vesicles contain transferrin receptors and show no insulin responsiveness.These data demonstrate that vertical GLUT4-containing vesicles correspond to specialized secretory GSVs,which approach the PM directly and bypass the constitutive recycling pathway.

  1. Protein-surfactant interactions at hydrophobic interfaces studied with total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). (United States)

    Sonesson, Andreas W; Blom, Hans; Hassler, Kai; Elofsson, Ulla M; Callisen, Thomas H; Widengren, Jerker; Brismar, Hjalmar


    The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of proteins near solid surfaces in the presence or absence of competing surfactants by means of total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). Two different proteins were studied, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL). A nonionic/anionic (C12E6/LAS) surfactant composition was used to mimic a detergent formulation and the surfaces used were C18 terminated glass. It was found that with increasing surfactant concentrations the term in the autocorrelation function (ACF) representing surface binding decreased. This suggested that the proteins were competed off the hydrophobic surface by the surfactant. When fitting the measured ACF to a model for surface kinetics, it was seen that with raised C12E6/LAS concentration, the surface interaction rate increased for both proteins. Under these experimental conditions this meant that the time the protein was bound to the surface decreased. At 10 microM C12E6/LAS the surface interaction was not visible for BSA, whereas it was still distinguishable in the ACF for TLL. This indicated that TLL had a higher affinity than BSA for the C18 surface. The study showed that TIR-FCS provides a useful tool to quantify the surfactant effect on proteins adsorption.

  2. Characterization of GLUT4-containing vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG JinZhong; CHEN Yu; JIANG Li; JI Wei; XU Tao


    Insulin-responsive GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) translocation plays a major role in regulating glucose uptake in adipose tissue and muscle. Whether or not there is a specialized secretory GSV (GLUT4 storage vesicle) pool, and more importantly how GSVs are translocated to the PM (plasma membrane) under insulin stimulation is still under debate. In the present study, we systematically analyzed the dynamics of a large number of single GLUT4-containing vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by TIRFM (total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy). We found that GLUT4-containing vesicles can be classi fled into three groups according to their mobility, namely vertical, stable, and lateral GLUT4-containing vesicles. Among these groups, vertical GLUT4-containing vesicles exclude transferrin receptors and move towards the PM specifically in response to insulin stimulation, while stable and lateral GLUT4 containing vesicles contain transferrin receptors and show no insulin responsiveness. These data demonstrate that vertical GLUT4-containing vesicles correspond to specialized secretory GSVs, which approach the PM directly and bypass the constitutive recycling pathway.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Total Antioxidant Status During Internal Carotid Artery Clamping with or without Shunting: An Experimental Pilot Study. (United States)

    Papapetrou, Anastasios; Moris, Demetrios; Patelis, Nikolaos; Kouvelos, George N; Bakogiannis, Chris; Klonaris, Chris; Georgopoulos, Sotiris


    BACKGROUND The exact role of shunting during carotid endarterectomy remains controversial and unclear. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate to what degree carotid clamping may induce changes in the cerebral oxidative status and to focus on the relation of these changes with shunt insertion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty New-Zealand rabbits were randomized into 4 groups: group 1 classifying animals with carotid shunt and patent contralateral carotid artery; group 2 shunt and occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery; group 3 no-shunt and patent contralateral carotid artery; and group 4 no-shunt and occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. Blood samples were collected from the ipsilateral internal jugular vein, immediately after carotid clamping (time 0), and then at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes afterwards. Evaluation of oxidative stress was accomplished by measuring the lag-time, representing the initial phase of oxidation, rate of accumulation (RA), showing concentration of free oxygen radical and total antioxidant status (TAS) representing antioxidant composition of serum. RESULTS Lag-time was significantly different in time points 0, 30 and 60 minutes within each different group. TAS was significantly different in time points 0, 15 and 60 min and RA in time points 0, 5, 10 and 60 min within each different group. 60 minutes after carotid clamping, the rate of accumulation as well as lag-time and TAS were increased in all groups, independently of using or not shunting or the presence of contralateral occlusion. After comparing groups 1, 2 and 3 regarding lag-time, TAS and RA, we did not find statistical difference among the groups at any time point. On the contrary, groups 1, 2 and 3 did show significantly different values comparing to group 4 after 60 min of occlusion. CONCLUSIONS Our experimental work based on cerebral metabolism found a significantly higher oxidative stress in models with contralateral carotid occlusion. The use of shunt

  4. Development and Improvement of Internal Audit in the Perspective of Total Quality Management%论内部审计的全面质量管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 侯翠婷


    从全面质量管理理论基础入手,利用现代管理学相关的观点,结合内部审计的质量和质量管理,从高度关注顾客、坚持持续改进、重视全过程改进组织各项工作的质量、遵照执行明确的质量标准、全员参与质量管理这五个维度详细论述了内部审计全面质量管理的内容与方法,提出了人力资源、责任制度及作业技术水平是内部审计全面质量管理的三大保障要素。%From the theoretical basis of Total Quality Management, combined with the view ot moaern manage- ment, internal audit,. From the theory of total quality management foundation, using the modern management science point of view, combining with the internal audit quality and quality management, the article detailed dis- cussed the content and the method of Total Quality Management from the highly pay attention to the customer, adhering to continuous improvement, thinking highly of the entire process improvement of the organization's work quality, conforming to specific quality standard, full participation in quality management, and put forward the three security elements of manpower resource, responsibility system and operation technical level to carry out Total Quality Management of internal audit.

  5. Internal and External Intertextuality as a ‘Total Novel’ Formula in Noaptea de Sânziene by Mircea Eliade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela RUSU


    Full Text Available One of the possible grids of analysis of Mircea Eliade’s novel Noaptea de Sânziene (The Forbidden Forest is intertextuality, which aims at tracing the presence of a text within another text, in view of relating the author’s creativity and the reader’s vigilance. The fictional world of the novel in focus provides the reader with the image of a few intellectual characters which live their personal experience through the fundamental myths of the European space (Ulysses, Percival, Tristan and Isolde, feeling that the modern man relives the experiences of the mythical one. The quotation of a few lines from Dante’s Inferno comes to reinforce the idea that the protagonists are in search for identity in the maze of their lives, seen as an archetype of the world. War, death, and the world’s decay, which take place under their eyes, are expressed using the principles of Hindu philosophy: the world goes through a sombre age named kali-yuga, a form of dissolution which is a requisite for its (recreation. This mixture of direct references to representative European literary works and allusions to Hindu philosophy supports Eliade’s efforts in creating the first total novel in Romanian literature, a work which provides the informed reader with a journey through literary spaces.

  6. News and Views: A total solar eclipse over Rapa Nui; ESA's vision; International team wins first Ambartsumian Prize; Thinner thermosphere; ESA funds games; Team finds starspots (United States)


    Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.

  7. The Achilles tendon total rupture score: a study of responsiveness, internal consistency and convergent validity on patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Rebecca S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was developed by a research group in 2007 in response to the need for a patient reported outcome measure for this patient population. Beyond this original development paper, no further validation studies have been published. Consequently the purpose of this study was to evaluate internal consistency, convergent validity and responsiveness of this newly developed patient reported outcome measure within patients who have sustained an isolated acute Achilles tendon rupture. Methods Sixty-four eligible patients with an acute rupture of their Achilles tendon completed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score alongside two further patient reported outcome measures (Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D. These were completed at baseline, six weeks, three months, six months and nine months post injury. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was evaluated for internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, through correlation analysis and responsiveness, by analysing floor and ceiling effects and calculating its relative efficiency in comparison to the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D scores. Results The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha > 0.8 and correlated significantly (p Conclusions A universally accepted outcome measure is imperative to allow comparisons to be made across practice. This is the first study to evaluate aspects of validity of this newly developed outcome measure, outside of the developing centre. The ATRS demonstrated high internal consistency and responsiveness, with limited convergent validity. This research provides further support for the use of this outcome measure, however further research is required to advocate its universal use in patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Such areas include inter-rater reliability and research to determine the minimally clinically important difference

  8. Novel Folding Large-Scale Optical Switch Matrix with Total Internal Reflection Mirrors on Silicon-on-Insulator by Anisotropy Chemical Etching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Wei; YU Jin-Zhong; CHEN Shao-Wu


    A compact optical switch matrix was designed, in which light circuits were folded by total internal reflective (TIR) mirrors. Two key elements, 2 × 2 switch and TIR mirror, have been fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafer by anisotropy chemical etching. The 2 × 2 switch showed very low power consumption of 140mW and avery high speed of 8 ± 1 μs. An improved design for the TIR mirror was developed, and the fabricated mirror with smooth and vertical reflective facet showed low excess loss of 0.7 ± 0.3 dB at 1.55μm.

  9. Optical interrupter based in the internal total reflection of spatial solitons at nonlinear saturable interfaces; Interruptores opticos basados en reflexion interna total de solitones espaciales en interfaces no lineales saturables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Mendez, E.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Gutierrez-Hernandez, D. A.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Lagunas, R.; Pedraza-Ortega, J. C.; Torres Cisneros, G. E. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sanchez Mondragon, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico); Flores-Alvarado, G. [Preparatoria por Cooperacion Domingo Arenas, Tlaxcala (Mexico)


    We study the reflection of one-dimensional spatial soliton at the nonlinear interface between a saturable type medium and linear medium. Our study makes emphasis on determining the physical conditions under which the beam reflected by the interface is still a spatial soliton. Depended the incidence angle we find three critical regions for spatial solitons in the interface. We observed nonlinear Goos- Haechen shift is determined if reflection angle are conserved. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results in SBN61:Ce of the total internal reflection of one dimensional beam. [Spanish] Estudiamos la reflexion de un soliton espacial unidimensional en una interfase formada por un medio no lineal saturable y un medio lineal. Nuestros estudios hacen enfasis en determinar las condiciones fisicas bajo las cuales el haz reflejado por la interfase no lineal sigue siendo soliton. Encontramos tres regiones criticas para un soliton especial en la interfase, dependiendo del valor que tome el angulo de incidencia. Asi mismo observamos corrimiento Goos-Haechen no lineal que es determinante para la conservacion del angulo de reflexion. Finalmente, presentamos resultados preliminares experimentales en SBN61:Ce de la reflexion interna total de un haz unidimensional.

  10. Versatile microfluidic total internal reflection (TIR)-based devices: application to microbeads velocity measurement and single molecule detection with upright and inverted microscope. (United States)

    Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Thien Duy; Wells, John C; Sugiyama, Susumu


    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip for Total Internal Reflection (TIR)-based imaging and detection has been developed using Si bulk micromachining and PDMS casting. In this paper, we report the applications of the chip on both inverted and upright fluorescent microscopes and confirm that two types of sample delivery platforms, PDMS microchannel and glass microchannel, can be easily integrated depending on the magnification of an objective lens needed to visualize a sample. Although any device configuration can be achievable, here we performed two experiments to demonstrate the versatility of the microfluidic TIR-based devices. The first experiment was velocity measurement of Nile red microbeads with nominal diameter of 500 nm in a pressure-driven flow. The time-sequenced fluorescent images of microbeads, illuminated by an evanescent field, were cross-correlated by a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) program to obtain near-wall velocity field of the microbeads at various flow rates from 500 nl/min to 3000 nl/min. We then evaluated the capabilities of the device for Single Molecule Detection (SMD) of fluorescently labeled DNA molecules from 30 bp to 48.5 kbp and confirm that DNA molecules as short as 1105 bp were detectable. Our versatile, integrated device could provide low-cost and fast accessibility to Total Internal Reflection Fluorescent Microscopy (TIRFM) on both conventional upright and inverted microscopes. It could also be a useful component in a Micro-Total Analysis System (micro-TAS) to analyze nanoparticles or biomolecules near-wall transport or motion.

  11. Three-dimensional particle tracking around microstructures in water via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and refractive-index-matching method (United States)

    Unno, Noriyuki; Nakata, Shuichiro; Satake, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Jun


    Multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry (MnPIV) with a refractive-index-matching method is powerful technique for x- y- z (3D) flow measurement, because it can detect the 3D position of fluorescent particles with submicron resolution. In MnPIV, the intensity of fluorescence of a particle is used to estimate its z-position. However, it has been difficult to measure 3D flows around microstructures in water by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy because of light scattering caused by the different refractive indices of the structures and the working fluid. By using a thermal nanoimprinting technique, we succeeded in fabricating microstructures from a polymer resin whose refractive index is equal to that of water, and we used these microstructures to perform MnPIV in water. As a result of the match between the refractive index of water and that of the microstructures, we were able to perform 3D tracking of nanoparticles around the microstructures in water.

  12. Superluminal advanced transmission of X waves undergoing frustrated total internal reflection: the evanescent fields and the Goos-Hänchen effect. (United States)

    Shaarawi, Amr M; Tawfik, Bassem H; Besieris, Ioannis M


    A study of X waves undergoing frustrated total internal reflection at a planar slab is provided. This is achieved by choosing the spectral plane wave components of the incident X wave to fall on the upper interface at angles greater than the critical angle. Thus, evanescent fields are generated in the slab and the peak of the field tunneling through the slab appears to be transmitted at a superluminal speed. Furthermore, it is shown that for deep barrier penetration, the peak of the transmitted field emerges from the rear interface of the slab before the incident peak reaches the front interface. To understand this advanced transmission of the peak of the pulse, a detailed study of the behavior of the evanescent fields in the barrier region is undertaken. The difference in tunneling behavior between deep and shallow barrier penetrations is shown to be influenced by the sense of the Goos-Hänchen shift.

  13. Imaging exocytosis of single glucagon-like peptide-1 containing granules in a murine enteroendocrine cell line with total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Aoyagi, Kyota [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Akimoto, Yoshihiro [Department of Anatomy, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Kawakami, Hayato [Department of Anatomy, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan); Nagamatsu, Shinya, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 (Japan)


    To analyze the exocytosis of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) granules, we imaged the motion of GLP-1 granules labeled with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) fused to human growth hormone (hGH-Venus) in an enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1 cells, by total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. We found glucose stimulation caused biphasic GLP-1 granule exocytosis: during the first phase, fusion events occurred from two types of granules (previously docked granules and newcomers), and thereafter continuous fusion was observed mostly from newcomers during the second phase. Closely similar to the insulin granule fusion from pancreatic {beta} cells, the regulated biphasic exocytosis from two types of granules may be a common mechanism in glucose-evoked hormone release from endocrine cells.

  14. A novel form of Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (LG-TIRFM) reveals different and independent lipid raft domains in living cells. (United States)

    Asanov, Alexander; Zepeda, Angélica; Vaca, Luis


    In the present study we have applied a novel form of Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (LG-TIRFM) in combination with fluorescently labeled cholera toxin to the study of lipid rafts dynamics in living cells. We demonstrate the usefulness of such approach by showing the dynamic formation/disaggregation of islands of cholera toxin on the surface of cells. Using multicolor LG-TIRFM with co-localization studies we show for the first time that two receptors previously identified as constituents of lipid rafts are found on different and independent "raft domains" on the cell plasma membrane. Furthermore, LG-TIRFM studies revealed limited association and dissociation of both domains overtime on different areas of the plasma membrane. The implications of different "raft domains" on cell physiology are discussed.

  15. Fermat's Principle in Curved Space-time, No Emission from Schwarzschild Black Holes as Total Internal Reflection and Black Hole Unruh effect

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Soma


    Using the Fermat's principle in curved space-time with stationary type metric, we have obtained the speed of light as a function of spatial coordinates and hence the corresponding refractive index. The whole region with space dependent gravity is divided into a number of overlapping transparent refracting media with varying refractive index. The refractive index is found to be increasing with the strength of gravitational field. Hence using the laws of refraction, we have explained the gravitational bending of light. Further using the conventional idea of total internal reflection of light while going from denser to rarer medium, in the present scenario it is the propagation of light from the region of ultra-strong gravitational field to relatively weaker gravitational field region, we have proposed an alternative approach for no emission of any kind of electromagnetic radiation from the surface of a classical Schwarzschild Black Hole. We have further noticed that for an observer in a uniformly accelerated fr...

  16. Total internal reflection without change of polarization using a right-angle prism with half-wavelength-thick optical interference coating. (United States)

    Azzam, R M A


    Monochromatic light, which is polarized in an arbitrary state, is totally internally reflected at angle of incidence phi=45 degrees without change of polarization by a right-angle prism of refractive index n0=1+1/Square root of 2=1.70711 (e.g., N-LAK8 Schott glass at wavelength lambda=706 nm), which is coated with a transparent thin film of refractive index n1=(1+1/2)1/2=1.30656 (e.g., vacuum-deposited fluoride material) and of metric thickness equal to half of the vacuum wavelength of incident light, d=lambda/2. The ambient medium of evanescent refraction is assumed to be vacuum, air, or an inert gas. Wavelength shifts of +/-50 nm, or changes of the internal angle of incidence of +/-1 degrees around 45 degrees, cause phase errors of only a few degrees. The reflected and incident polarization states are nearly identical in the presence of such small phase errors.

  17. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video (United States)

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Bouloumpasis, Serafeim; Di Candia, Michele; Malata, Charles M.


    Introduction The total ‘rib’-preservation method of dissecting out the internal mammary vessels (IMV) during microvascular breast reconstruction aims to reduce free flap morbidity at the recipient site. We review our five-year experience with this technique. Patients & methods An analysis of a prospectively collected free flap data cohort was undertaken to determine the indications, operative details and reconstructive outcomes in all breast reconstruction patients undergoing IMV exposure using the total ‘rib’-preservation method by a single surgeon. Results 178 consecutive breast free flaps (156 unilateral, 11 bilateral) were performed from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2013 in 167 patients with a median age of 50 years (range 28–71). There were 154 DIEP flaps, 14 SIEA flaps, 7 muscle-sparing free TRAMs, 2 IGAP flaps and one free latissimus dorsi flap. 75% of the reconstructions (133/178) were immediate, 25% (45/178) were delayed. The mean inter-costal space distance was 20.9 mm (range 9–29). The mean time taken to expose and prepare the recipient IMV's was 54 min (range 17–131). The mean flap ischaemia time was 95 min (range 38–190). Free flap survival was 100%, although 2.2% (4 flaps) required a return to theatre for exploration and flap salvage. No patients complained of localised chest pain or tenderness at the recipient site and no chest wall contour deformity has been observed. Discussion & conclusion The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques. PMID:26468373

  18. Sphincter-preserving RO total mesorectal excision with resection of internal genitalia combined with pre- or postoperative chemoradiation for T4 rectal cancer in females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bartlomiej Szynglarewicz; Rafal Matkowski; Piotr Kasprzak; Daniel Sydor; Jozef Forgacz; Marek Pudelko; Jan Kornafel


    AIM: To evaluate the impact of chemoradiation administered pre- or postoperatively on prognosis in females following RO extended resection with sphincterpreserving total mesorectal excision (TME) for locally advanced rectal cancer and to assess the association between chemoradiation and intra- and postoperative variables.METHODS: Twenty-one females were treated for locally advanced but preoperatively assessed as primarily resectable rectal cancer involving reproductive organs. Anterior resection with TME and excision of internal genitalia was combined with neo- or adjuvant chemoradiation. Two-year disease-free survival analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and logrank test. The association between chemoradiation and other variables was evaluated with the Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test.RESULTS: Survival rate decreased in anaemic females (51.5% vs 57.4%), in patients older than 60 years (41.8% vs 66.7%) with poorly differentiated cancers (50.0% vs 55.6%) and tumors located ≤ 7 cm from the anal verge (42.9% vs 68.1%) but with the lack of importance. Patients with negative lymph nodes and women chemoradiated preoperatively had significantly favourable prognosis (85.7% vs 35.7%; P= 0.03 and 80.0% vs 27.3%; P = 0.01, respectively). Preoperative chemoradiation compared to adjuvant radiochemotherapy was not significantly associated with the duration of surgery, incidence of intraoperative bowel perforation and blood loss ≥ 1 L, rate of postoperative bladder and anorectal dysfunction, and minimal distal resection margin. It significantly influenced minimal radial margin (mean 4.2 mm vs 1.1 mm; P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Despite involving internal genitalia, long-term disease-free survival and sphincter preservation may be achieved with combined-modality therapy for females with T4 locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation does not compromise functional results and may significantly improve oncological outcomes probably due to

  19. Adsorption of Dimethyldodecylamine Oxide and Its Mixtures with Triton X-100 at the Hydrophilic Silica/Water Interface Studied Using Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ngo, Dien; Baldelli, Steven


    Adsorption of dimethyldodecylamine oxide (DDAO) and its mixtures with Triton X-100 (TX-100) at the hydrophilic silica/water interface has been studied using total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy and target factor analysis (TFA). The use of a linear vibrational spectroscopic technique helps obtain information on molecular behavior, adsorbed amount, and conformational order of surfactant molecules at the interface. The results obtained from polarized Raman measurements of pure DDAO show insignificant changes in the orientation and conformational order of surface molecules as a function of DDAO bulk concentrations. The adsorption isotherm of pure DDAO shows a change in the structure of the adsorbed layer at concentrations close to the critical micelle concentration (cmc). TFA reveals that, for a low concentration of DDAO (0.30 mM in this study), adsorption of both DDAO and TX-100 in the mixed surfactants was enhanced at low TX-100 concentrations. The synergistic effect is dominant at low concentrations of TX-100, with enhanced adsorption of both surfactants. Although competitive adsorption is effective at high concentrations of TX-100, the presence of a small amount of DDAO at the interface still enhances TX-100 adsorption. When DDAO concentrations are increased to 1.00 mM, TX-100 replaces DDAO molecules on the surface when TX-100 concentration is increased.

  20. Wide-angle, high-extinction-ratio, infrared polarizing beam splitters using frustrated total internal reflection by an embedded centrosymmetric multilayer (United States)

    Perla, Siva R.; Azzam, R. M. A.


    A centrosymmetric multilayer stack of two transparent thin-film materials, which is embedded in a high-index prism, is designed to function as an efficient polarizer or polarizing beam splitter (PBS) under conditions of frustrated total internal reflection over an extended range of incidence angles. The S(LH)kLHL(HL)kS multilayer structure consists of a high-index center layer H sandwiched between two identical low-index films L and high-index-low-index bilayers repeated (k times) on both sides of the central trilayer maintaining the symmetry of the entire stack. For a given set of refractive indices, all possible solutions for the thicknesses of the layers that suppress the reflection of p-polarized light at a specified angle, and the associated reflectance of the system for the orthogonal s polarization, are determined. The angular and spectral sensitivities of polarizing multilayer stacks employing 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19 layers of BaF2 and PbTe thin films embedded in a ZnS prism, operating at λ=10.6 μm, are presented. The 15- and 19-layer stack designs achieve extinction ratios (ER) >30 dB in both reflection and transmission over a 46°-56° field of view inside the prism. Spectral analysis reveals additional discrete polarizing wavelengths other than the design wavelength (λ=10.6 μm). The 11-, 15-, and 19-layer designs function as effective s-reflection polarizers (|Rs|2>99%) over a 2-3 μm bandwidth. The effect of decreasing the refractive index contrast between the H and L layers on the resulting ER is also considered.

  1. Prediction models for short children born small for gestational age (SGA covering the total growth phase. Analyses based on data from KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Anders


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models can be developed to predict growth in short children treated with growth hormone (GH. These models can serve to optimize and individualize treatment in terms of height outcomes and costs. The aims of this study were to compile existing prediction models for short children born SGA (SGA, to develop new models and to validate the algorithms. Methods Existing models to predict height velocity (HV for the first two and the fourth prepubertal years and during total pubertal growth (TPG on GH were applied to SGA children from the KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database - 1st year: N = 2340; 2nd year: N = 1358; 4th year: N = 182; TPG: N = 59. A new prediction model was developed for the 3rd prepubertal year based upon 317 children by means of the all-possible regression approach, using Mallow's C(p criterion. Results The comparison between the observed and predicted height velocity showed no significant difference when the existing prediction models were applied to new cohorts. A model for predicting HV during the 3rd year explained 33% of the variability with an error SD of 1.0 cm/year. The predictors were (in order of importance: HV previous year; chronological age; weight SDS; mid-parent height SDS and GH dose. Conclusions Models to predict growth to GH from prepubertal years to adult height are available for short children born SGA. The models utilize easily accessible predictors and are accurate. The overall explained variability in SGA is relatively low, due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. The models can be used to provide patients with a realistic expectation of treatment, and may help to identify compliance problems or other underlying causes of treatment failure.

  2. Single molecule investigations of DNA looping using the tethered particle method and translocation by acto-myosin using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Beausang, John F.

    Single molecule biophysics aims to understand biological processes by studying them at the single molecule level in real time. The proteins and nucleic acids under investigation typically exist in an aqueous environment within ˜ ten degrees of room temperature. These seemingly benign conditions are actually quite chaotic at the nanoscale, where single bio-molecules perform their function. As a result, sensitive experiments and statistical analyses are required to separate the weak single molecule signal from its background. Protein-DNA interactions were investigated by monitoring DNA looping events in tethered particle experiments. A new analysis technique, called the Diffusive hidden Markov method, was developed to extract kinetic rate constants from experimental data without any filtering of the raw data; a common step that improves the signal to noise ratio, but at the expense of lower time resolution. In the second system, translocation of the molecular motor myosin along its actin filament track was studied using polarized total internal reflection (polTIRF) microscopy, a technique that determines the orientation and wobble of a single fluorophore attached to the bio-molecule of interest. The range of resolvable angles was increased 4-fold to include a hemisphere of possible orientations. As a result, the handedness of actin filament twirling as it translocated along a myosin-coated surface was determined to be left-handed. The maximum time resolution of a polTIRF setup was increased 50-fold, in part by recording the arrival times and polarization state of single photons using a modified time-correlated single photon counting device. A new analysis, the Multiple Intensity Change Point algorithm, was developed to detect changes in molecular orientation and wobble using the raw time-stamped data with no user-defined bins or thresholds. The analysis objectively identified changes in the orientation of a bifunctional-rhodamine labeled calmodulin that was attached

  3. The prognostic value of functional tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases undergoing {sup 90}Y selective internal radiation therapy plus chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Seza A.; Suthar, Rekha R.; Barot, Tushar C. [Jackson North Medical Center, Florida International University College of Medicine, North Miami Beach, FL (United States); Pennington, Kenneth [Center for Cancer Care, Goshen, IN (United States)


    Functional tumor volume (FTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are measures of metabolic activity of tumors determined by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images. These parameters could potentially have clinical value in response to treatment evaluation and disease prognostication. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between functional tumor parameters (FTV and TLG) and clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) undergoing {sup 90}Y-resin microsphere selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) (SIR-Spheres {sup registered}, Sirtex Medical Limited, Lane Cove, NSW, Australia). FDG PET/CT studies of 20 patients with unresectable CRCLM who underwent {sup 90}Y SIRT under a phase II clinical trial were analyzed. FTV and TLG were calculated using PET VCAR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) on pretreatment and 4-week posttreatment scans. The effects of pretreatment and posttreatment functional tumor activity on patient survival were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The median survival in the study group was 14.8 months (range 2.0-27.7 months). The median survival for patients with pretreatment FTV values of above and below 200 cc were 11.2 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The median survival for patients with 4-week posttreatment FTV values of above and below 30 cc were 10.9 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The median survival for patients with pretreatment TLG values of above and below 600 g were 11.2 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). The median survival for patients with 4-week posttreatment TLG values of above and below 100 g were 10.9 and 26.9 months, respectively (p < 0.05). Pretreatment and posttreatment FTV and TLG showed very strong association with survival. These values can be useful quantitative criteria for patient selection and disease prognostication when {sup 90}Y SIRT is contemplated in patients with CRCLM. (orig.)

  4. Total protein (United States)

    ... page: // Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  5. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Rosich-Medina


    Discussion & conclusion: The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques.

  6. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro–National Institute for Cancer Research and University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Han, Eunyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Matulewicz, Lukasz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Schubert, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Chityala, Ravishankar [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Minnesota Super Computer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Tournel, Koen [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Penagaricano, Jose A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Florian, Sterzing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Mahe, Marc-Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Integrated Center of Oncology–René Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain Cédex (France); Verneris, Michael R. [Divisions of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Weisdorf, Daniel J. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); and others


    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  7. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.


    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yuri Zagloel puslit


    Full Text Available The competition in industry is getting harder, where companies face changes in their environment. So that organization must increase their performance and show their ability to win the competition. This tight competition makes organization has to own innovation where employees grow according to change. In the effort of improving organization performance, it must be an harmony between organization and individual objectives. This research in the oil company Indonesia aims to harmonize it based on Total Performance Scorecard (TPS. This harmonization is done through several phases with the results of a communication among organizational Balance scorecard, scorecard section and Individual Performance plan. These things become a integrated strategic planning of the company. This integrated plan means in the process of planning, it involves departments, sections, and all employees. The advantages are to make sure all employees understand the objective of their departments and their sections, whereas they involve in the process and the implementation of the strategy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Untuk menghadapi persaingan, umumnya kalangan industri terus berupaya untuk melakukan perbaikan dan peningkatan kinerja. Dalam upaya peningkatan kinerja organisasi, keselarasan antara tujuan organisasi dengan tujuan setiap individu yang ada dalam organisasi merupakan hal yang penting. Penelitian di sebuah perusahaan minyak dan gas bumi ini bertujuan untuk menyelaraskan tujuan organisasi dengan tujuan individu dengan menggunakan pendekatan Total Performance Scorecard. Pendekatan ini mempunyai kekhasan yaitu menyelaraskan tujuan organisasi dengan tujuan individu yang tergambar dalam hubungan antara Organizational Balanced Scorecard, Scorecard Section dan rencana kinerja individu. Hubungan tersebut dapat menjadi rancangan strategi yang terintegrasi bagi perusahaan, yang dalam perumusannya melibatkan pihak departemen, seksi, serta seluruh karyawan yang berada

  9. Effect of eprosartan-based therapy on systolic blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk in a large international population: preliminary report of the observational POWER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudev A


    Full Text Available Assen Goudev,1 Jean-Pascal Berrou,2 Atul Pathak3 On behalf of the POWER Investigators1Department of Cardiology, Queen Giovanna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Strategic Medical Affairs, CardioMetabolic Established Products, Abbott Products Operations AG, Allschwil, Switzerland; 3Faculte´ de Médecine et CHU Toulouse, Unité de Pharmacologie Cardiovasculaire et Autonome, Service de Pharmacologie et Cardiologie, INSERM U 1048, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceBackground: Estimation of total cardiovascular risk is useful for developing preventive strategies for individual patients. The POWER (Physicians' Observational Work on Patient Education According to their Vascular Risk survey, a 6-month, open-label, multinational, post-marketing observational evaluation of eprosartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of eprosartan-based therapy in the treatment of high arterial blood pressure in a large population recruited from 16 countries with varying degrees of baseline cardiovascular risk, and the effect of eprosartan-based therapy on total cardiovascular risk, as represented by the SCORE® (Systematic Coronary Risk Assessment or Framingham risk equations.Methods: Participating physicians recruited > 29,000 hypertensive patients whom they considered to be candidates (according to specified criteria for treatment with eprosartan 600 mg/day, with other drugs added at the discretion of the physician.Results: During treatment, systolic blood pressure decreased by 25.8 ± 14.4 mmHg to 134.6 ± 11.4 mmHg (P < 0.001, mean diastolic blood pressure fell by 12.6 ± 9.5 mmHg to 81.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, and pulse pressure fell by 13.2 ± 13.5 mmHg to 53.6 ± 11.4 mmHg (both P < 0.01. Calculated total cardiovascular risk declined in parallel with the reduction in blood pressure.Conclusion: The POWER study has demonstrated, in a large and nonselected population, the feasibility and practicability of

  10. Micro- and macro-attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging. Plenary Lecture at the 5th International Conference on Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy, 2009, Melbourne, Australia. (United States)

    Kazarian, Sergei G; Chan, K L Andrew


    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging has become a very powerful method in chemical analysis. In this review paper we describe a variety of opportunities for obtaining FT-IR images using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) approach and provide an overview of fundamental aspects, accessories, and applications in both micro- and macro-ATR imaging modes. The advantages and versatility of both ATR imaging modes are discussed and the spatial resolution of micro-ATR imaging is demonstrated. Micro-ATR imaging has opened up many new areas of study that were previously precluded by inadequate spatial resolution (polymer blends, pharmaceutical tablets, cross-sections of blood vessels or hair, surface of skin, single live cells, cancerous tissues). Recent applications of ATR imaging in polymer research, biomedical and forensic sciences, objects of cultural heritage, and other complex materials are outlined. The latest advances include obtaining spatially resolved chemical images from different depths within a sample, and surface-enhanced images for macro-ATR imaging have also been presented. Macro-ATR imaging is a valuable approach for high-throughput analysis of materials under controlled environments. Opportunities exist for chemical imaging of dynamic aqueous systems, such as dissolution, diffusion, microfluidics, or imaging of dynamic processes in live cells.

  11. The role of pain and functional impairment in the decision to recommend total joint replacement in hip and knee osteoarthritis: an international cross-sectional study of 1909 patients. Report of the OARSI-OMERACT Task Force on total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gossec, L; Paternotte, S; Maillefert, J F;


    Score Physical function Short-form, 0-100). Analyses: Comparison of patients with vs without surgeons' indication for TJR. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and logistic regression were applied to determine cut points of pain and disability defining recommendation for TJR. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the pain and functional disability levels corresponding to an indication for total joint replacement (TJR) in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Design: International cross-sectional study in 10 countries. Patients: Consecutive outpatients with definite hip or knee OA...

  12. Lens testing using total internal reflection holography (United States)

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.


    Accurate, rapid and inexpensive testing and inspecting of lens surfaces tugh holographic means requiring no beamsplitters, mirrors or overpower optics, and wherein a hologram formed in accordance with one aspect of the invention contains the entire interferometer and serves as both a master and illuminating source for both concave and convex surfaces to be so tested.

  13. Proposta do uso de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade em hematologia Proposal for the use of a pool of whole blood as internal quality control in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Daniele Schons


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A confiabilidade dos resultados do laboratório é garantida pela realização do controle de qualidade, que tem como funções básicas análise, pesquisa e prevenção da ocorrência de erros laboratoriais por meio de programas que abrangem tanto o controle interno quanto o externo. OBJETIVO: Propor a padronização de utilização de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade no setor de hematologia. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de sangue total, colhidas com ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (EDTA, de mesmos grupo sanguíneo e fator Rh, livres de interferentes, como hemólise, lipemia e icterícia. De um total de 30 ml de sangue total, obtiveram-se três alíquotas de 10 ml cada, às quais foram adicionados, respectivamente, 0 ml (sem adição, 1 ml e 5 ml de glicerol (conservante. As amostras foram avaliadas em contador automático ADVIA® 60. Após determinação dos valores de média e DP, todas as amostras foram avaliadas por um período de 45 dias úteis para confecção do gráfico de Levey-Jennings e verificação da estabilidade da amostra. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: Podemos verificar que o pool de sangue total, preparado de acordo com a metodologia proposta, não apresenta estabilidade necessária para sua utilização, como controle interno alternativo no setor de hematologia.INTRODUCTION: The reliability of laboratory results is ensured by the implementation of quality control, which has basic functions, such as analysis, research and prevention of laboratory errors through programs that encompass both internal and external control. OBJECTIVE: To propose a standard method to use pooled whole blood as internal quality control in the Hematology division. METHOD: The selected whole blood samples were collected with EDTA, belonged to the same blood group and Rh factor and did not present interfering factors, such as hemolysis, lipemia and icterus. From a total of 30 ml of whole blood it was obtained 3

  14. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E


    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  15. International Prostatic Symptom Score-voiding/storage subscore ratio in association with total prostatic volume and maximum flow rate is diagnostic of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive values of the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS-T and voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S in association with total prostate volume (TPV and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax in the diagnosis of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. METHODS: A total of 298 men with LUTS were enrolled. Video-urodynamic studies were used to determine the causes of LUTS. Differences in IPSS-T, IPSS-V/S ratio, TPV and Qmax between patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD and bladder-related LUTD were analyzed. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV for bladder outlet-related LUTD were calculated using these parameters. RESULTS: Of the 298 men, bladder outlet-related LUTD was diagnosed in 167 (56%. We found that IPSS-V/S ratio was significantly higher among those patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD than patients with bladder-related LUTD (2.28±2.25 vs. 0.90±0.88, p1 or >2 was factored into the equation instead of IPSS-T, PPV were 91.4% and 97.3%, respectively, and NPV were 54.8% and 49.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of IPSS-T with TPV and Qmax increases the PPV of bladder outlet-related LUTD. Furthermore, including IPSS-V/S>1 or >2 into the equation results in a higher PPV than IPSS-T. IPSS-V/S>1 is a stronger predictor of bladder outlet-related LUTD than IPSS-T.

  16. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing


    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  17. Design and research of total-internal-reflection solar energy concentrating module%全内反射型太阳能聚光模块设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骁; 曹秒; 安志勇; 曹维国


    设计了用于太阳能聚集的全内反射(Total-internal-reflection,TIR)聚光器并采取措施进行优化,将多个TIR聚光器进行叠加放置在光波导板组成波导聚光模块。太阳光线经TIR聚光器阵列收集后照射到光波导板上并在其内部传播,由末端的光伏电池吸收。由实验结果可知,在光波导板长度为400 mm增至4800 mm的过程中,光学效率由88.6%降低为40.2%,而辐照度由212 W/m2增长为980 W/m2。这样根据不同需求选取不同长度的光波导板,并在保证较高的输出功率的前提下大大减少所需使用的光伏电池面积,同时TIR聚光器只需水平放置在光波导板上,避免了透镜阵列与光波导板的严格对准要求,降低了制造与装配成本。%Total-internal-reflection(TIR) concentrator for solar concentration was designed, and a series of measures was adopted to optimize. Then lots of TIR concentrators was superimposed and assembled on the waveguide slab to form the waveguide concentrating module. Collected by the TIR concentrator array, the sun light incident on the waveguide slab continued to propagate in it, and was absorbed by the photovoltaic cells in the end. The experimental result shows that when the length of the waveguide slab increased from 400 mm to 4 800 mm, the optical efficiency decreased from 88.6% to 40.2%, while the irradiance concentration grew from 212 W/m2 to 980 W/m2. Thus different lengths of the waveguide slab can be selected according to different requirements. While getting the high output power, the area of photovoltaic cells used is decimated. At the same time, the TIR concentrator can be just placed on the waveguide slab, avoiding the demand of aligning strictly the lens array and the waveguide slab, which is convenient in installation and adjustment.

  18. Nucleation-fibrillation dynamics of Aβ1-40 peptides on liquid-solid surface studied by total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled with quartz-crystal microbalance biosensor (United States)

    Hamada, Hiroki; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Noi, Kentaro; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko


    We have successfully developed the total-internal-reflection-fluorescence microscopy combined with a quartz-crystal microbalance (TIRFM-QCM) biosensor, and monitored the nucleation-fibrillation phenomenon of amyloid β1-40 peptide on the naked quartz surface. The cross-β-sheet structures were visualized with the TIRFM using the thioflavin-T (Th-T) label, and other unlabeled aggregates were detected through the frequency change of the 58-MHz wireless-electrodeless QCM throughout the aggregation reaction. The QCM response indicates significant adsorption of the peptides on the quartz surface at the early stage, which is followed by fibrillation. The non-cross-β-sheet oligomers are first formed, and nuclei appear in the oligomer region, from which fibrils originate and elongate. The two-color TIRFM observation was performed after the aggregation reaction with the Nile-red label as well as the ThT label for identifying nucleation from non-β-sheet regions. An aggregation model is proposed.

  19. Study of protein stoichiometry by single-molecule imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy%应用全内反射单分子荧光成像研究蛋白复合物亚基组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程茗; 李楠; 方晓红


    细胞的生化过程大都是由蛋白复合物完成的,研究蛋白复合物亚基的组成对于了解蛋白质的结构和生物学功能具有重要的意义,然而如何准确确定蛋白复合物中蛋白质亚基的数量(stoichiometry)仍然是一个挑战.近年来,活细胞体系单分子荧光成像技术的不断发展为原位实时动态地研究蛋白质的结构和性质提供了新的手段.本文主要介绍了应用活细胞全内反射单分子荧光成像技术表征细胞膜区蛋白复合物组成的3种方法,包括单分子漂白步数分析、荧光强度统计分布以及蛋白运动分析,并结合其基本原理介绍了这几种方法在活细胞体系膜蛋白研究中的应用.%Most of cellular processes are realized by protein complexes, and the study of subunits composition of protein complexes is very important for the understanding of protein structure and biological function. However, accurate determination of protein stoichiometry under the physiological conditions is still a challenge. In recent years, the development of single-molecule fluorescence imaging of living cells offers a new approach to characterize protein in real time. In this review, we first introduce the basic principle of imaging single-molecule in living cells by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and then discuss the application of single-molecule TIRFM to study the plasma membrane protein complex in three ways, including the analysis of photobleaching step, the statistical distribution of fluorescence intensity and the dynamics of protein diffusion.

  20. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'


    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  1. [Internal migration]. (United States)

    Borisovna, L


    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  2. Qualidade total do produto Products total quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira de Almeida


    Full Text Available O texto aborda o conceito de qualidade total do produto, seus determinantes, bem como as dimensões que compõem essa qualidade. Parte-se do pressuposto de que a qualidade do produto deve ser avaliada pela satisfação total do consumidor. Para o consumidor a qualidade do produto envolve pelo menos as seguintes dimensões: a qualidade do produto em si; a qualidade do produto ao longo do tempo; a qualidade dos serviços associados ao uso do produto; e o custo do ciclo de vida do produto. O trabalho procura detalhar e discutir cada uma dessas dimensões da qualidade, tendo em vista a satisfação do consumidor.The paper concerns to the concept of product's total quality, its determinants, and the dimensions wich constitute this quality. We admit that product quality should be evaluated via consumer's total satisfaction. Product quality for consumers includes at least the following dimensions: the product quality per se; the performance of product quality over time; the quality of services related to the use of the product; and the product lifecycle costs. This study seeks to specify and to discuss each of these quality dimensions related to consumer's satisfaction.

  3. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 3. Conceptual design of the total system; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the research result on the conceptual design of the total system for the WE-NET project in 1996. Basic conditions are as follows: solid polymer water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, hydrogen transport/storage through ammonia medium, power generation scale of 1000-4000MW (2-5 yen/kWh), and transport distance of 5000-20000km between supply and consumption places. The system efficiency was estimated to be 68% and 23% at an ammonia arrival time and power sending end, respectively, and it was dependent on a transport distance, while no power generation scale. The power cost was estimated to be 7 yen/Mcal and 33 yen/kWh, respectively. The system efficiency at a sending end was lower by 15% and 2% than that of the liquid hydrogen and methanol system, while the power cost was higher by 0 and 8 yen/kWh, respectively. It was necessary for loss reduction of this ammonia system to develop a new high-efficiency ammonia synthesis process, and hydrogen separation (decomposition/refining) process. 80 figs., 52 tabs.

  4. The international standard ISO/TS 21872-1 to study the occurence of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae in seafood: ITS improvement by use of a chromogenic medium and PCR. (United States)

    Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Causse, Véronique; Cruz, Barbara; Rauzier, Jean; Carnat, Laurence


    During two surveys conducted in 2008 and 2009, the culture method described in the international standard ISO/TS 21872-1 was applied to the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae in 112 living bivalve mollusc samples, with a chromogenic medium used in addition to the TCBS agar, as second selective isolation medium and for enumeration of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae by surface inoculation. A PCR method for detection of these 2 Vibrio species and the hemolysin genes tdh and trh, was applied in parallel. In 2009, the survey was extended to finfish fillets and crustaceans. PCR was also used for species confirmation of characteristic colonies. The identity of the PCR products, specifically targeting V. parahaemolyticus, was checked by sequencing. Occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae isolates in living bivalve molluscs ranged from 30.4% to 32.6% and from 1.4% to 4.7% respectively. In frozen crustaceans (2009 survey) V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae isolates were respectively found in 45% and 10% of the samples. No V. parahaemolyticus or V. cholerae was detected in frozen fish fillets, neither by the ISO method nor by PCR. In 2009, enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (trh+) was isolated from 4 out of 43 oyster samples while the trh gene was present in V. alginolyticus strains and in samples where V. parahaemolyticus was not detected (9 over 112 samples). The ISO method failed to isolate V. parahaemolyticus in 44% to 53% of the living bivalve molluscs where PCR detected the toxR gene specific of V. parahaemolyticus (Vp-toxR). Our results highlighted the need for a revision of the ISO/TS 21872-1 standard, at least, for analysis of living bivalve molluscs, and confirmed the increasing concern of enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in French bivalve molluscs. Enrichment at 41.5°C was questioned and some reliable solutions for the improvement of the ISO/TS 21872-1 method, such as the PCR method for screening of positive samples and

  5. Total abdominal colectomy (United States)

    ... the rectum. This can cause an infection or abscess. Scarring of the connection between the small intestine ... More Crohn disease Ileostomy Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy Ulcerative colitis Patient ...

  6. Total parenteral nutrition - infants (United States)

    ... Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  7. Total parenteral nutrition (United States)

    ... Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  8. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  9. Reemplazo total de cadera


    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili


    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  10. Reason analysis and solution method of internal quality total bilirubin drift%关于室内质控总胆红素漂移的原因分析及解决办法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To study the reason and solution of the down drift of total bilirubin serum prepared monthly. Methods:The prepared quality-control serum was distributed into 30 crystal or brown bullet-shaped tubes respectively, and stored at-20℃. Take out a tube every day for test.Results:The test level of quality-control serum preserved in crystal tubes drift down obviously everyday,while that in brown tubes was stable in a desired range. Conclusions:The down-drift of quality-control serum levels could be prevented effectively by preserved in brown tubes.%目的:研究月配质控血清总胆红素(TBIL)测定值随着时间的推移向下漂移的原因及找出解决的办法。方法:把配制的质控血清分别分装在30支普通透明的子弹头状离心管和30支棕褐色避光的离心管中放冰箱冷冻备用,每天取出一支进行质控检测。结果:普通透明离心管保存的质控血清TBIL测定值逐天明显向下漂移,而避光保存的质控血清其TBIL测定值则基本稳定在一个理想的质控允许范围以内。结论:用棕褐色离心管保存质控血清,可有效防止质控血清TBIL测定值的向下漂移。

  11. Total light absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia


    We demonstrate that 100% light absorption can take place in a single patterned sheet of doped graphene. General analysis shows that a planar array of small lossy particles exhibits full absorption under critical-coupling conditions provided the cross section of each individual particle is comparable to the area of the lattice unit-cell. Specifically, arrays of doped graphene nanodisks display full absorption when supported on a substrate under total internal reflection, and also when lying on a dielectric layer coating a metal. Our results are relevant for infrared light detectors and sources, which can be made tunable via electrostatic doping of graphene.

  12. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9–11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.


    Purpose Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. Methods The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10) were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05) were considered correlates of SED and/or ST. Results Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom. Conclusions In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of

  13. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9-11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana G LeBlanc

    Full Text Available Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED and screen time (ST in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world.The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10 were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05 were considered correlates of SED and/or ST.Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom.In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom, and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity. Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of culturally meaningful public health

  14. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  15. Strictness and Totality Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, K. L.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming


    We define a novel inference system for strictness and totality analysis for the simply-typed lazy lambda-calculus with constants and fixpoints. Strictness information identifies those terms that definitely denote bottom (i.e. do not evaluate to WHNF) whereas totality information identifies those ...

  16. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik


    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat...

  17. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci


    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  18. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  19. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  20. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  1. Total Water Management - slides (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  2. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......, or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.


    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  4. Total`s LNG activities from Algeria to Yemen; Total et le GNL de l`Algerie au Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrenne, J.P. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France)


    In March 1995, further to an international tender, Total was awarded the leadership of the first LNG project in Yemen. On January 1997 Total announced the extension of the share-holding of the Yemen LNG Co. to include the companies with interests in the Marib area (Hunt-Exxon-Yukong). The Marib area will supply the gas to the future liquefaction plant. The ratification of these agreements confirms the role of Total as lead shareholder with 36% in the share-holding structure and guarantees gas supply from the Marib licence, operated by Hunt-Exxon. (author).

  5. Food safety and total quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsz, A.W.


    Food safety is a growing global concern not only because of its continuing importance for public health but also because of its impact on international trade. The application of total quality management (TQM) provides the best possible care by continuously improving products and services to meet or

  6. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine


    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  7. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S


    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  8. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M


    is examined. It is concluded that the risk of developing carcinoma of the cervical stump is low, and no longer a weighty indication for the total in preference to the supravaginal hysterectomy as long as subsequent screening of the cervix is performed. At the same time it is important to inform the women...

  9. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik


    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  10. CSF total protein (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  11. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming


    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  12. Total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja


    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty is most common reconstructive hip procedure in adults. In this surgery we replace some parts of the upper femur and acetabulum with biocompatible materials. The main goal of this surgery is to eliminate pain and regain full extent of joint motion, maintaining hip stability. Surgical technique, biomaterials, design of the prosthesis and fixation techniques have evolved with time adjusting to each other. After total hip arthroplasty patients’ quality of life should be improved. There are many various postoperative complications. Some of them are fatal, and some are minor, which may become manifested years after surgery. Each next surgical procedure following previous hip surgery is associated with considerably lower chances to be successful. Therefore, in primary total hip arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are essential. Every orthopaedic surgeon needs to improve already adopted surgical skills applying them with precision and without compromise, with the main goal to achieve long-term durability of the selected implant. The number of total hip arthroplasties will also increase in future, and newer and higher quality materials will be used.

  13. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe;


    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...

  14. Total Quality Management Simplified. (United States)

    Arias, Pam


    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  15. Total Quality Management Seminar. (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  16. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  17. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas;


    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  18. Total synthesis of teixobactin (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen


    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  19. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty


    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.


    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  20. Total Synthesis of (-)-Conolutinine. (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyang; Jiang, Guangde; Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Wan, Xiaolong; Gao, Jin-Ming; Lai, Yisheng; Xie, Weiqing


    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.





    The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated t...

  2. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja


    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  3. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak


    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  4. Total ankle joint replacement. (United States)


    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  5. International Reports. (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances


    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  6. International Health (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  7. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  8. Internal education


    Anita Zagorc


    Research Question (RQ): The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organi...

  9. Identity and total institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana


    Full Text Available This paper analyses a psychiatric institution resident’s identity (self- construction processes. Our quest was grounded on constructivist theoretical paradigm that sees identity as a manner a person defines oneself in accordance with offered social repertoire. In other words, the total institution milieu offers limited range of identities to its residents. On the other hand, the latter are not just passive subjects that identity is imposed upon. They are able to use a number of adjustment mechanisms to the knowledge about themselves - ranging from symbolic escape to open resistance against the imposed image about them; to obedience, and we were interested to understand the (supposed complex dynamic of identity (re-building in, so-called, special or forensic patients. In order to understand this process and attempting to discover, besides the manifest also the latent layer of the story about self, the local, or personal, identity understanding was examined.

  10. Total organic carbon analyzer (United States)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  11. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years. The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80° and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°. Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°. However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25° of extension (45° out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100. Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18% out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head

  12. Total disc replacement. (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L


    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine.

  13. The total artificial heart. (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G


    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  14. Efeitos de indicadores e dias de coleta na digestibilidade dos nutrientes e nas estimativas do valor energético de alimentos para vacas alimentadas com diferentes fontes de proteína Comparison of internal markers and extent of total fecal collection to estimate nutrient digestibility and energy value of feeds on dairy cows fed different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas dos Santos Pina


    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, entre puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, organizados de acordo com os dias em lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois períodos de coleta de fezes (dois ou seis dias, em intervalos de 26 horas, e de dois indicadores (fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (FDNi ou fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi na estimativa da excreção de matéria seca fecal (EMSF, do coeficiente de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e dos teores de NDT. Avaliou-se também a eficiência do conjunto de equações somativas propostas pelo NRC (2001 para estimar o valor energético dos alimentos utilizando-se 60% de silagem de milho com base da MS total das dietas. Os concentrados foram constituídos de diferentes fontes protéicas (FS - farelo de soja; FA38 - farelo de algodão 38%PB; FA28 - farelo de algodão 28%PB e FSU - farelo de soja + 5% de uréia/sulfato de amônia na MS do concentrado. Não foram observados efeitos dos dias de coleta de fezes e dos indicadores sobre as estimativas da EMSF, dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e dos teores de NDT. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 subestimaram os consumos de CNF e EE digestíveis e NDT e superestimaram os de FDN e PB digestíveis. Dois dias de coleta de fezes são suficientes para estimativa da digestibilidade dos nutrientes e, conseqüentemente, do consumo de NDT. A FDNi foi o indicador mais preciso para estimar a excreção de MS fecal. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 não foram adequadas para estimar o valor energético dos alimentos em condições tropicais.Twelve lactating dairy cows (Holstein and crossbred Holstein x Zebu were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to three replicate 4 x 4 Latin squares to compare two schedules of total fecal collection (two versus six days and the reliability of two internal markers [indigestible neutral detergent fiber (INDF or

  15. International Entomology (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  16. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)


    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the wo

  17. Ascott International

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "Heart-to-Heart" Charity Event for Hearing-Impaired Children in Beijing On June 12, Ascott International North China held a "heart-to-heart" charity event for hearing-impaired children in the Heritage Room at the Ascott Beijing.

  18. International Reports. (United States)

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John


    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  19. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel


    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  20. Liver International


    Quarantini, Lucas de Castro [UNIFESP; Rodrigo A Bressan; Galvão, Amanda; Neves, Susana Batista; Raymundo PARANÁ


    p. 1098-1102 Objective: Evaluate the incidence of mental disorders using pegylated interferon plus ribavirin retreatment in nonresponder hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Method: The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to evaluate 30 hepatitis C virus-infected interferon-nonresponder patients at baseline and following 4, 12 and 24 weeks of pegylated interferon retreatment. Results: During the pegylated interferon/ribavirin retreatment, 5(16.6%) patient...

  1. Rotational total skin and total nodal radiotherapy in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, M.; Molls, M.; Langrock, J.; Muskalla, K.; Quast, U.


    The following report describes our technique of rotational total skin radiotherapy with electrons (TSER). We present stage related treatment results. Furthermore our first experiences with the combination of TSER and total nodal irradiation (TNI) are communicated.

  2. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  3. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  4. Fostering internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Drake, Emily; Maron, Frederic


    Aim: This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a semester-long exchange program between two Bachelor of Science in Nursing programs in the USA and Denmark. Background: Nurses globally need to provide culturally sensitive care for an ethnically diverse population. Comp......, flexibility and open communication are key components when setting up a 360 degrees exchange program. Keywords: Cultural Competence, Exchanges, International Collaboration, Undergraduate Education......: In internationalization of nursing education, an awareness of underlying cultural values regarding nursing competence and taking appropriate action are important for success. Other areas for a successful exchange program include matching of courses or content across schools, clear objectives and evaluation plans. Finally...

  5. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...... forhold til tidligere politiske strategier for udvikling af den offentlige sektor er den meget omfattende og i nogle sammenhænge systematiske anvendelse af evalueringsmetoder, af refleksive kontrol og reguleringssystemer, det som Power (1997) sammenfattende betegner som 'the audit society'. Overgangen fra...

  6. Total Restrained Bondage in Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader JAFARI RAD; Roslan HASNI; Joanna RACZEK; Lutz VOLKMANN


    A subset S of vertices of a graph G with no isolated vertex is a total restrained dominating set if every vertex is adjacent to a vertex in S and every vertex in V(G)-S is also adjacent to a vertex in V(G)-S.The total restrained domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a total restrained dominating set of G.In this paper we initiate the study of total restrained bondage in graphs.The total restrained bondage number in a graph G with no isolated vertex,is the minimum cardinality of a subset of edges E such that G-E has no isolated vertex and the total restrained domination number of G-E is greater than the total restrained domination number of G.We obtain several properties,exact values and bounds for the total restrained bondage number of a graph.

  7. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu


    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus


    Full Text Available Although TQM could solve every problems but it does not mean that TQM is unlimited. There are several limitations on TQM application, some examples from international cases is taken to show the failure of TQM implementation. The understanding of TQM philosophy is really necessary. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Meskipun TQM dapat menyelesaikan semua masalah tetapi bukan berarti bahwa TQM tanpa batas. Ada beberapa keterbatasan penerapan TQM yang berujung pada beberapa kasus dunia yang dapat diambil sebagai contoh dari kegagalan penerapan TQM secara baik dan benar. Untuk itu diperlukan pemahaman filosophi TQM secara tepat. Kata kunci: total quality management, keterbatasan TQM


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić


    Full Text Available Strong competition in the market has caused the development of a new management approach known as Total Quality Management (TQM. Due to importance that quality plays in achieving competitive advantage, the hotel industry started to apply TQM. During the introduction of these systems, hotel companies may use different approaches to suit their own buseiness requirements. In doing so, 'TQM standards' can be used, or various international standards and models of business excellence Malcolm Balridge National Quality Award and European Quality Award.

  11. Total skin electron irradiation in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Vloten, W.A.; Vermeij, J.; de Vroome, H.


    Total skin irradiation with fast electrons (4 MeV, 3500 rad) was applied in 10 cases of histologically proven mycosis fungoides without any signs of internal dissemination. The technique is described. Complete disappearance of both lesions and symptoms occurred in all patients after treatment. However, half of the patients relapsed after the initial irradiation and were subsequently treated with a booster dose of 1000 rad 4 MeV electrons or with topical nitrogen mustard. Irradiation with fast electrons seems to be of great importance in the treatment of mycosis fungoides.

  12. Total hip arthroplasty after previous fracture surgery. (United States)

    Krause, Peter C; Braud, Jared L; Whatley, John M


    Total hip arthroplasty can be a very effective salvage treatment for both failed fracture surgery and hip arthritis that may occur after prior fracture surgery. The rate of complications is significantly increased including especially infection, dislocation, and loosening. Complications are more likely to occur after failed open reduction and internal fixation than after posttraumatic arthritis. Adequately ruling out infection before hip arthroplasty can be difficult. The best predictor of infection is a prior infection. Long-term outcomes can be comparable to outcomes in other conditions if complications are avoided.

  13. Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casel Katrin


    Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.

  14. Asymptotic Behaviour of Total Generalised Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos


    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. The recently introduced second order total generalised variation functional TGV2 β,α has been a successful regulariser for image processing purposes. Its definition involves two positive parameters α and β whose values determine the amount and the quality of the regularisation. In this paper we report on the behaviour of TGV2 β,α in the cases where the parameters α, β as well as their ratio β/α becomes very large or very small. Among others, we prove that for sufficiently symmetric two dimensional data and large ratio β/α, TGV2 β,α regularisation coincides with total variation (TV) regularization

  15. An unusual case of total ophthalmoplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Ravindra


    Full Text Available An eight-year-old male child presented with drooping of the left eyelid with a history of penetrating injury of hard palate by an iron spoon seven days ago, which had already been removed by the neurosurgeon as the computed tomography scan revealed a spoon in the left posterior ethmoid and sphenoid bone penetrating into the middle cranial fossa. On examination, visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye and left eye showed total ophthalmoplegia. Oral cavity revealed a hole in the left lateral part of the hard palate. We managed the case with tapering dose of systemic prednisolone. The total ophthalmoplegia was markedly improved in one month. Cases of foreign bodies in the orbit with intracranial extension are not unusual, but the path this foreign body traveled through the hard palate without affecting the optic nerve, internal carotid artery or cavernous sinus makes an interesting variation.

  16. China and IEC international standardization activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhongmin; Guo Chenguang


    @@ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), one of the currently worlswide largest and most authoritative international standardization organizations,is specialized in developing and promulgating international standards for the electric and electronic fields, which are widespread adopted through out the world and play an important role in the international trade of electric and electronic products. Moreover, according to the 2005 statistics by the World Bank, the population of countries participating in the IEC activities accounts for 92% of the world total and their trade volume accounts for 95% of the global total.

  17. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R


    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  18. Total parenteral nutrition in children. (United States)

    Zlotkin, S H; Stallings, V A; Pencharz, P B


    This article first focuses on the indications for total parenteral nutrition and the effect of its use on the outcome of various nutrient-depleting diseases in infants and children. This is followed by a discussion of some of the newer nutrient additions to total parenteral nutrition regimens, such as biotin, carnitine, zinc, copper, iron, and others.

  19. International environmental policy; Internasjonal miljoepolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Boasson, Elin Lerum; Hoenneland, Geir (eds.)


    The global climate crisis has brought the questions on environment forward to top level in international politics. 'International environmental policy' gives an overview over the most central international cooperation directed on solving the environmental problems of the world, such as problems connected to climatic changes, marine pollution and loss of the diversity of nature. The authors describe the problems, how they are sought solved in agreements, which results are achieved globally and in Norway. They explain why cooperation varies in success and discuss how to improve them. How can reality get closer to ideals? This book is the first total exposition of international environmental policy in Norwegian. It is aimed for students in social studies and science, to participants in environmental debate and others interested in the theme. (AG). 50 refs

  20. 人工全膝关节置换术治疗胫骨平台骨折内固定术后创伤性关节炎回顾性研究%Total knee arthroplasty for post-traumatic osteoarthritis secondary to internal fracture fixation of tibial plateau fracture:a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴山; 唐杞衡; 杜辉; 周一新


    目的 探讨胫骨平台骨折内固定术后创伤性骨关节炎的人工全膝关节置换术及其临床疗效.方法 北京积水潭医院矫形骨科自2003年1月至2015年1月,收治12例(12膝)胫骨平台骨折术后创伤性关节炎患者.所有患者骨折后均曾行切开复位内固定术治疗.应用KSS评分和功能评分术前和术后随访评估.术前膝关节屈伸活动度(80.0° ±34.9°).膝关节学会KSS评分(62.7±11.1)分,功能评分(61.7±10.7)分.12例患者均行全膝关节置换术.9例患者选择后稳定型假体,2例患者选择限制性LCCK假体,1例患者选择旋转铰链膝关节假体.结果 本组共12例患者,1例患者出现伤口并发症和浅表感染,1例患者术中内侧副韧带部分撕脱.术后随访1~13年(平均4.3年),无晚期并发症出现.末次随访时,KSS评分(80.5±10.4)分,功能评分(82.5±16.6)分,膝关节屈伸活动度(101.7° ±16.0°),均较术前显著改善(P<0.05).结论 胫骨平台骨折内固定术后创伤性骨关节炎的人工全膝关节置换术可以显著改善患者的关节功能,但易出现感染及伤口并发症,具有较高的技术要求.%Objective To investigate the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty( TKA) for post-traumatic osteoarthritis secondary to inter-nal fracture fixation of the tibial plateau treated with open reduction and internal fixation(ORIF). Methods From January 2003 to January 2015,12 consecutive patients underwent TKA at a mean of 7. 6 years(1 to 25)after tibial plateau fracture. All of these cases had undergone ORIF. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and post-operatively using Knee Society Score ( KSS ) and function score. The KSS score was(62. 7 ± 11. 1),function score was(61. 7 ± 10. 7),and the flexion and extension ROM of the knee joint was (80. 0° ± 34. 9°) pre-operatively. TKA was performed in all cases. Posterior stabilize prosthesis were used in 9 cases,condylar con-strained prosthesis in 2 cases,and rotational hinged

  1. Diagnostic of patellar instability after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Zhizhenkova


    Full Text Available Objectives - to identify main reasons of patella instability after primary total knee arthroplasty, and to determine further treatment strategy of this complication. Material and methods. Since 2011 till 2014 1098 total knee arthroplasties have been performed in Yaroslavl Regional Hospital for Veterans of Wars. We observed 14 (1.3% patients with postoperative patella instability The evaluation included clinical and radiographic methods. Rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components was studied by computed tomography (CT scanner. Conclusion. Position of the femoral components ranged from 2° excessive external to 8° excessive internal rotation. Position of the tibial components ranged from 0° to 6° excessive internal rotation. The summary endoprosthetic position ranged from 1 ° to 10° excessive internal rotation. We found direct correlation between summary implant internal rotation and the severity of postoperative complications in patellafemoral joint. Results. The main reason of the patella instability is implant summary internal malrotation. Extensive lateral release with patella resurfacing was sufficient for pain relief and tracking correction if the combined internal rotation did not exceed 6°. Large value of internal malrotation was the indication for revision surgery with selective approach.

  2. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken


    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  3. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning (United States)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.


    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  4. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  5. Healthcare Professionals’ Perception and Related Factors About Total Quality Management


    Tapan, Birkan; ALICI, Selin; GAYEF, Albena; YILDIRIM, Nurdan; Sezen, Adem


    Quality defined as extent of features of any product or service to meet expectations of consumers enjoying such product or service. Although it was a concept first emerged in manufacturing industry, today, it has become an important competitive factor for service institutions as well. Total Quality Management approach is drawing more and more interest as international borders start to fade out in parallel with globalization and increasing competition. Total Quality Management is a ma...

  6. Qualità totale e mobilità totale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste


    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  7. The total synthesis of psymberin. (United States)

    Huang, Xianhai; Shao, Ning; Palani, Anandan; Aslanian, Robert; Buevich, Alexei


    The total synthesis of a new member of the pederin family of natural products, psymberin 1, was accomplished. Using a recently reported novel and efficient PhI(OAc)2 mediated oxidative entry to 2-(N-acylaminal)-substituted tetrahydropyrans as the key step, this total synthesis was executed in a convergent and efficient manner. The longest linear sequence of this synthesis was 22 steps starting from known 6.

  8. Total eclipses of the sun. (United States)

    Zirker, J B


    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  9. 26 CFR 1.669(d)-1A - Total taxes deemed distributed. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(d)-1A Section 1.669(d)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 §...

  10. 26 CFR 1.666(b)-1A - Total taxes deemed distributed. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(b)-1A Section 1.666(b)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 §...

  11. 26 CFR 1.666(b)-1 - Total taxes deemed distributed. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(b)-1 Section 1.666(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 §...

  12. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.


    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  13. Total hip and total knee replacement: preoperative nursing management. (United States)

    Lucas, Brian

    Total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgery are carried out for the relief of hip or knee pain, usually caused by osteoarthritis. This is the first of two articles on THR and TKR. It will outline the different types of replacement used in lower limb joint replacement surgery. Preparation of patients for surgery requires attention to physical, psychological and social factors and these are explored in detail. The organization of services along the patient pathway to ensure comprehensive preparation is considered and the nursing role highlighted. The second article, to be published in the next issue, will discuss recovery and rehabilitation from THR and TKR surgery.

  14. International oil law; Le droit international du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkzad, B


    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  15. Plasma Interaction with International Space Station High Voltage Solar Arrays (United States)

    Heard, John W.


    The International Space Station (ISS) is presently being assembled in low-earth orbit (LEO) operating high voltage solar arrays (-160 V max, -140 V typical with respect to the ambient atmosphere). At the station's present altitude, there exists substantial ambient plasma that can interact with the solar arrays. The biasing of an object to an electric potential immersed in plasma creates a plasma "sheath" or non-equilibrium plasma around the object to mask out the electric fields. A positively biased object can collect electrons from the plasma sheath and the sheath will draw a current from the surrounding plasma. This parasitic current can enter the solar cells and effectively "short out" the potential across the cells, reducing the power that can be generated by the panels. Predictions of collected current based on previous high voltage experiments (SAMPIE (Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment), PASP+ (Photovoltaic Array Space Power) were on the order of amperes of current. However, present measurements of parasitic current are on the order of several milliamperes, and the current collection mainly occurs during an "eclipse exit" event, i.e., when the space station comes out of darkness. This collection also has a time scale, t approx. 1000 s, that is much slower than any known plasma interaction time scales. The reason for the discrepancy between predictions and present electron collection is not understood and is under investigation by the PCU (Plasma Contactor Unit) "Tiger" team. This paper will examine the potential structure within and around the solar arrays, and the possible causes and reasons for the electron collection of the array.

  16. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  17. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.


    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  18. Total Quality Management (TQM) Bibliography (United States)



  19. Total quality management in clinical virology laboratories. (United States)

    Tibbets, M W; Gomez, R; Kannangai, R; Sridharan, G


    The diagnostic laboratories in India are progressively promoting higher standards and are moving towards accreditation and international acceptance. Hence, the concept of "Quality" will need to be understood and implemented. Total quality management (TQM) in a laboratory is an integrated program involving all laboratory staff and management. TQM is a framework to operate and it is aiming for integration, consistency, increase in efficiency and a continuous drive for improvement. A well structured clinical virology service will include serology setup, cell culture facility and capacity for molecular diagnosis. The quality of results from the laboratory is significantly influenced by many pre-analytical and post-analytical factors which needed attention. The end goal of the TQM should be to provide the best care possible for the patient.

  20. 78 FR 42761 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student... (United States)


    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student Assessments... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Program for International Student.... Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 2,240. Abstract: PISA (Program for International...

  1. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook. (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  2. Haitian Creole via Total Physical Response; An Introduction. (United States)

    Lafayette, Robert C.; Zephir, Flore

    The instructional materials for introductory instruction in Haitian Creole are designed for use with the Total Physical Response method of second language teaching, with priority placed on listening comprehension before production and on internalization of physical activities during use of the language. The text consists of 24 chapters targeting…

  3. An Analysis of Total Quality Management in Aeronautical Systems Division (United States)


    specifically designed to combat various types of waste. Concern over waste has existed for a long time; in the 1920s, Henry Ford dealt specifically with waste...costs approach infinity near perfect quality is a problem. "Infi- 3-25 0 1 UA VUALITY 0L COSTS o MINIMUM 0 TOTAL COSTo POINT C,. Lu (L INTERNAL I-.COST OF

  4. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.


    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  5. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Mycalamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Toyota


    @@ 1Introduction Mycalamides A (1a) and B (1b) are potent antiviral compounds from a New Zealand sponge of the genus Mycale. Apart from their antitumor property, mycalamide A (1a) exhibits immunosuppressive action by blocking T-cell activation in mice and is significantly more potent than FK-506 and cyclosporine A. Because of their intriguing biological activity, unique structures and scarce supply of these natural products, mycalamides A (1a) and B (1b) have attracted considerable attention as target molecules for total synthesis, and total, formal, or partial syntheses of this family of compounds have been reported[1,2].

  6. Qualidade total e cultura organizacional


    Machado, Denise Del Pra Netto


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Socio-Economico O ambiente dinâmico em que as organizações estão inseridas determina uma constante busca de competitividade. Com a adoção da Qualidade Total, como um processo ofensivo de enfrentamento das exigências de mercado, procura-se uma vantagem competitiva, além da sobrevi-vência organizacional. Com base no referencial teórico-empírico sobre Qualidade Total e Cultura Organizacional, procurou-se verifi-car o efei...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan


    Full Text Available Despite continuing advances in surgical management of laryngeal malignancy, total laryngectomy is still the treatment of choice in advanced laryngeal malignancies. Considering the longevity of the patient following total laryngectomy, various measures have been adopted in order to provide voice function to the patient. Significant advancements have taken place in voice rehabilitation of post laryngectomy patients. Advancements in oncological surgical techniques and irradiation techniques have literally cured laryngeal malignancies. Among the various voice rehabilitation techniques available TEP (Tracheo oesophageal puncture is considered to be the gold standard. This article attempts to explore the various voice rehabilitation technique available with primary focus on TEP.

  8. Lü Shengrong Competes Internationally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Little-known by her Chinese compatriots but wellknown in the international sports world, L(?) Shengrong,president of the International Badminton Federation (IBF) and member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), has had a legendary career.

  9. Total enantioselective synthesis of (-)-cytisine. (United States)

    Danieli, Bruno; Lesma, Giordano; Passarella, Daniele; Sacchetti, Alessandro; Silvani, Alessandra; Virdis, Andrea


    [reaction: see text] The first total enantiosynthesis of the biologically active alkaloid (-)-cytisine is reported, featuring a ruthenium-catalyzed RCM reaction as the key step. The approach relies on readily available cis-piperidine-3,5-dimethanol monoacetate as the chiral building block, and it is suited for achieving the target compound in both enantiomeric forms.

  10. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael


    a multiple imputation analysis, this difference disappeared (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-2.13; P = .19). No differences were seen in any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Subtotal abdominal hysterectomy was not superior to total abdominal hysterectomy on any outcomes. More women...

  11. Spraakrevalidatie na een totale laryngectomie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.J.; Krap, M.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.


    In patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer, or in cases when the disease recurs after treatment with (chemo)radiation, a total laryngectomy (TLE) is performed. For them to be able to function properly, speech rehabilitation is of the utmost importance for these patients. For voice

  12. [Hypoparathyroid risk after total thyroidectomy]. (United States)

    Milone, Antonino; Carditello, Antonio; Stilo, Francesco; Paparo, Domenica; Paparo, Teresa


    From January 1970 to December 1999, 881 patients with thyroid pathology underwent surgery consisting in 551 subtotal thyroidectomies and 330 total thyroidectomies. Permanent hypocalcaemia was present in 32 patients (3.6%). The importance of accurate isolation and ultraligature of the branches of the inferior thyroid artery in the prevention of parathyroid damage is stressed.

  13. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Selected Indian Medicinal Plants


    C T Sulaiman; Indira Balachandran


    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia ni...

  14. Surveying your internal customers. (United States)

    Weir, V L


    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  15. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren


    Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevale......Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...... reduced kidney function, was seen in 374 individuals (11%). Interpretation - Development of acute kidney injury appears to be a substantial problem compared to other complications related to elective total hip arthroplasty, i.e. luxation and infection. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease may...

  16. Extensor mechanism allograft in total knee arthroplasty (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Tozi, Mateus Ramos; Félix, Alessandro Monterroso; Angelini, Fábio Janson; Pécora, José Ricardo


    Objective To analyze the experience with allograft transplantation of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty and compare results with the international experience. Methods We retrospectively evaluated three cases of extensor mechanism allograft after total knee arthroplasty performed in our hospital with the aid of one of the few tissue banks in Brazil and attempt to establish whether our experiences were similar to others reported in the world literature regarding patient indication, techniques, and outcomes. Results Two cases went well with the adopted procedure, and one case showed bad results and progressed to amputation. As shown in the literature, the adequate tension of the graft, appropriate tibial fixation and especially the adequate patient selection are the better predictors of good outcomes. Previous chronic infection can be an unfavorable predictor. Conclusion This surgical procedure has precise indication, albeit uncommon, either because of the rarity of the problem or because of the low availability of allografts, due to the scarcity of tissue banks in Brazil. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453688

  17. [Decision procedures and international law]. (United States)

    Mahiou, A


    This work examines the significance of international spaces in the ocean, the polar regions, the air, and beyond the atmosphere; the importance of their resources; and the prospects for communal management of them in the future. International spaces and resources are considered those over which 1 country cannot exercise any right of appropriation and over which all countries exercise exactly the same rights. International spaces are more extensive than national spaces, and their extension and potential richness of resources incite nations to attempt to exercise control over them. Concerns about the environment have contributed to development of the notion of a common patrimony of humanity and the consequent rejection of traditional concepts of total freedom of action of states in regard to common spaces and resources. The existing governance of international spaces and resources was guided by a few simple principles that assured free access, with only the problems of harmonizing the uses and interests of the concerned countries. The idea of a common patrimony of humanity is closely linked to development of the law of the sea, in which it received its most complete expression to date. The emergence and recognition of juridical principles relative to common spaces and resources has been a long and controversial process, and not all such principles have attracted the same degree of support among nations. Even when consensus has been achieved regarding 1 of the principles, divergent interpretations have been made concerning the content and scope of the principle or the regulations that should result from it. 6 principles can be identified concerning nonappropriation, the oldest and long the only principle regulating use of international spaces; peaceful utilization; rational utilization; equitable utilization; protection of spaces and resources; and joint international administration or management. An important question concerning the development of a structure for


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi B. Solanki


    Full Text Available Arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty is an uncommon complication defined as less than 80 degrees of knee flexion 6-8 weeks post operatively. It is characterized by abnormal scarring of the joint in which the formation of dense fibrous tissue and tissue metaplasia prevent normal range of motion. Clinical features include limited knee Range of motion with extension deficit, pain with activities of daily living and unusual amount of pain and swelling post operatively in the absence of infection, bleeding or mechanical complications. We present case of 55 years old female who undergone for total knee replacement before 3 months and presented to our department with complain of knee pain and swelling with activities of daily living. She was diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination. Her detailed evaluation was carried out and Physiotherapy treatment was started.

  19. Rehabilitation for total joint arthroplasty. (United States)

    Ritterman, Scott; Rubin, Lee E


    Total hip and knee replacement are two of the most common and successful elective surgeries preformed in the United States each year. Preoperative medical preparation and postoperative rehabilitation are equally important to a successful outcome. Physical deconditioning, tobacco use, obesity and medical co-morbidities can adversely affect outcomes and should be addressed before any elective procedure. Formal postoperative therapy is geared towards the specific surgery and is aimed at returning the patient to independent activity.

  20. Edge adaptive directional total variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang


    Full Text Available The directional total variation (DTV model has been proposed very recently for image denoising. However, the DTV model works well when there is just one dominant direction in the image. In this Letter, the authors propose to make the DTV model adaptive to image edge direction so that the proposed model can handle images with several dominant directions. Experiment and comparison show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Total Monomeric Anthocyanin and Total Flavonoid Content of Processed Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potato Florentina Damşa


    Full Text Available It is well known that processing change physical and chemical composition of foods, thus affecting the content in bioactive substances. Potatoes are almost always consumed after processing (baked, fried or boiled making it critical to understand the effect of such processing techniques on the containing in bioactive compounds. In order to determine the influence of processing on the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids was achieved the extraction of these compounds from boiled and baked purple potato tuber (Albastru-Violet de Galanesti variety. Also, in order to obtain the maximum amount of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids from processed potatoes was applied ultrasonic extraction (20 kHz and was performed the mathematical modeling (central composite design using SigmaXL software. The total anthocyanins content were determined spectrophotometrically by the pH differential method and the total flavonoids content were determine colorimetric by AlCl3 method. This study proves that the potato processing decreases the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids.

  2. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski


    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  3. International migration: a global challenge. (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J


    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  4. The total synthesis of (-)-nitidasin. (United States)

    Hog, Daniel T; Huber, Florian M E; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk


    Nitidasin is a pentacyclic sesterterpenoid with a rare 5-8-6-5 carbon skeleton that was isolated from the Peruvian folk medicine "Hercampuri". It belongs to a small class of sesterterpenoids that feature an isopropyl trans-hydrindane moiety fused to a variety of other ring systems. As a first installment of our general approach toward these natural products, we report the total synthesis of the title compound. Our stereoselective, convergent route involves the addition of a complex alkenyl lithium compound to a trans-hydrindanone, followed by chemoselective epoxidation, ring-closing olefin metathesis, and redox adjustment.

  5. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.).

  6. Radiology of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Lovelock, J.E.; McCollister Evarts, C.; Geyer, D.


    The radiology of total hip replacement (THR) and its complications is reviewed in conjunction with a long-term follow-up study on 402 patients with 501 prostheses. The indications, contraindications, biomechanics, and operative management of these patients is discussed. Clinical complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage are mentioned. Postoperative infections including granulomatous pseudotumors, dislocations and fractures, true loosening of the prosthesis, and heterotopic bone formation (HBF) are discussed and illustrated. The importance of differentiating the lucent line from true loosening is stressed. Mechanical and other clinical complications which are largely ignored by radiologists are also discussed. The uses of arthrography and bone scanning are included.

  7. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yamu Xia; Xiaoli Dai; Haixin Liu; Chen Chai


    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to afford the intermediate diol. The diol was condensated with the derivative of ferulic acid, then removed the protecting groups, to get Boehmenan. Meanwhile, a study on the ring-opening reaction of the intermediate dihydrobenzofuran neolignan under base conditions was described.

  8. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B


    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  9. AQUILA: assessment of quality in lower limb arthroplasty. An expert Delphi consensus for total knee and total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Linden-Van der Zwaag Henrica MJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the light of both the importance and large numbers of case series and cohort studies (observational studies in orthopaedic literature, it is remarkable that there is currently no validated measurement tool to appraise their quality. A Delphi approach was used to develop a checklist for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability of case series and cohorts in total hip and total knee arthroplasty with a focus on aseptic loosening. Methods A web-based Delphi was conducted consisting of two internal rounds and three external rounds in order to achieve expert consensus on items considered relevant for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability. Results The internal rounds were used to construct a master list. The first external round was completed by 44 experts, 35 of them completed the second external round and 33 of them completed the third external round. Consensus was reached on an 8-item reporting quality checklist, a 6-item methodological checklist and a 22-item generalizability checklist. Conclusions Checklist for reporting quality, methodological quality and generalizability for case series and cohorts in total hip and total knee arthroplasty were successfully created through this Delphi. These checklists should improve the accuracy, completeness and quality of case series and cohorts regarding total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

  10. 'Total IBA' - Where are we?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeynes, C., E-mail: [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Bailey, M.J.; Bright, N.J.; Christopher, M.E.; Grime, G.W.; Jones, B.N.; Palitsin, V.V.; Webb, R.P. [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)


    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of 'Total IBA' is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far 'Total IBA' can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  11. "Total IBA" - Where are we? (United States)

    Jeynes, C.; Bailey, M. J.; Bright, N. J.; Christopher, M. E.; Grime, G. W.; Jones, B. N.; Palitsin, V. V.; Webb, R. P.


    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of "Total IBA" is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far "Total IBA" can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  12. Employees in Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Matlhape


    Full Text Available Companies have become very disillusioned with Total Quality Management (TQM as a solution to their quality related problems. Part of the problem has been that companies' expectations from TQM is as a solution to their existing problems rather than as a new philosophy towards creating value for shareholders, employees, and customers. Employee involvement is usually the element in the TQM philosophy that is most difficult to manage. Central to employee participation within the TQM philosophy is teamwork. In the attempt to facilitate total quality management, this article explores specific South African challenges to achieving this. These areaffirmative action and divers ity management skills shortages, training and development low levels of employee well-being. Working with people requires fundamental understanding of the uniqueness of each individual with their own identity and set of preferences. It also requires an understanding of teams and the mechanisms of making a group of individuals work well or poorly together. This will assist managers to realise active participation, quality output from their workers through individualised, and team based motivational processes.

  13. Qualidade total: Um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Rosa Tolfo


    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o movimento para a implantação da Gestão da Qualidade Total vem crescendo ao redor do mundo. Em razão disso, há uma diversidade de ações realizadas com o nome de "Qualidade Total'. Uma revisão da teoria é complexa, porque existem muitos autores que tratam da questão. Eles escolhem diferentes perspectivas de análises (teóricas e empíricas e há dificuldades em se identificar um corpo conceitual. Há uma ampla difusão de modelos, ferramentas, técnicas, mercado e consultores. Essa popularidade, muitas vezes, faz com que determinadas organizações adotem essa forma de gestão do trabalho sem o conhecimento necessário das implicações que um modelo dessa ordem representa; especialmente no caso brasileiro, suscetível a proposições importadas. O presente artigo propõe um exame daquilo que os fundadores têm articulado sobre TQM, as principais críticas nesta direção e a avaliação de como vem sendo aplicadono nosso país.

  14. Total hip replacement in dancers. (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A


    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  15. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hysterectomy is a common gynaecological surgery which can be done by abdominal, vaginal or laparoscopic routes or with robotic assistance. Although there were concerns regarding the safety of laparoscopic surgery, a newer technique when compared with abdominal hysterectomy, it is now being reco gnized as a safe procedure in the hands of an experienced surgeon. AIMS: This study was done to compare the intra - operative and post - operative parameters of abdominal and laparoscopic hysterectomy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was done at JSS Hospital, Mysore between June 2013 and September 2014. It is a retrospective study . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Patients admitted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at JSS Hospital, JSS University, Mysore, with an indication for total abdominal hysterectomy( TAH or total laparoscopic hysterectomy(TLH for benign pathology from June 2013 to September 2014 were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were suspicion of malignancy, vaginal prolapse higher than first degree and those undergoing laparoscopic assi sted vaginal hysterectomy. Baseline characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative parameters were compared between the two groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : The data were analyzed using independent T test, Chi square test and Mann Whitney test. A p value o f <0 . 05 was accepted as significant. RESULTS: The mean time taken to perform TLH was significantly longer, i.e. 113.46 minutes compared with TAH, i.e. 70.44 minutes, with the p value being <0.0001. But the duration of stay in the hospital was shorter for t he women undergoing TLH, mean duration being 3.74 days as opposed to 7.65 days in women undergoing TAH. This difference was also statistically significant with p value being <0.0001. Also, women undergoing TAH required more analgesic doses (mean 3.29 than those undergoing TLH (mean 1.36 and this difference was also statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Although TLH took a

  17. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per


    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  18. World news; Actualite international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 21. of April 2005, was held in Paris the 6. international petroleum meeting whose main theme was: the supply and demand. The participants of this summit have in majority argued for a greater opening of the productive countries to the international investments which are indispensable to face with a world demand of oil in full expansion. Total has announced the approval by the British authorities of the development of the gas and condensates deposit of north Forvie, located at about 440 km at the nord-east of Aberdeen. Technip and Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp., have received the prestigious price of the Offshore Technology Conference 2005. The Norway and the United Kingdom have signed a cooperation treaty for stimulating the development of petroleum and natural gas deposits in North sea. The petroleum groups Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil think to sale their shares in three fields in the North sea. Total and Lubrifin, one of the main manufacturers and distributors of lubricants and greases on the Romanian market, have just finalize an agreement for the establishment of a common firm: Total Lubrifin. The IEA has published a study for the governments to rapidly reduce the petroleum consumption in transports in the case of crisis or breakdown of the supply. In order to avoid an accident risk which could have disastrous environmental consequences, by the important transit in the Bosphore pass, a plan (dating from 1995) provides that the petroleum of the Caspian sea transiting by the Russian harbour of Novorossiisk, on North sea, be conveyed by sea way to the Bulgarian harbour of Bourgas, to be transported by pipeline on 320 km to the Alexandroupolis harbour. Vladimir Poutine has received last April to the Kremlin John Browne, general director of the British firm BP, came ask for its investment in Russia in the common firm: TNK-BP. The Algerian petroleum firm Sonatrach is in the 12. world place among the hundred first petroleum firms in the world. Shell Ivory Coast

  19. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  20. Sociologist in the total institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Željko


    Full Text Available On the basis of empirical experience from practical work this paper discusses the real place and role of the sociologist in the prison, as a total institution, where sociologists are employed as educators, along with other professions (psychologists, educationalists, social workers, etc., and usually closely cooperating with lawyers. According to the current work regulations, and on the basis of practice so far, the sociologist can work as classical educator, to be in charge of educational groups of inmates, work in the reception department on assessing incoming inmates, and to organize inmates' leisure time by directing them towards pro-social and creative activities (music, painting, reading, etc.. New reform trends in working with inmates suggest new work methods, such as creative workshops, counselling in the sphere of substance abuse and dependency, or expert teams in working with minors. In the prison, the sociologist is indispensable as a researcher of criminal activities.

  1. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  2. Total quality management program planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.


    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  3. Internal septorhinoplasty technique. (United States)

    Waite, Peter D


    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU


    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  5. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain


    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  6. International Transplant Nurses Society (United States)

    ... The Mission of ITNS The International Transplant Nurses Society is committed to the promotion of excellence in ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  7. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura


    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By us

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ayyamperumal


    Full Text Available Background: Many malignancies affecting the internal organs display cutaneous manifestations which may be either specific (tumor metastases or nonspecific lesions. Aims: The study is aimed at determining the frequency and significance of cutaneous manifestations among patients with internal malignancy. Materials and Methods: 750 cases of proven internal malignancy, who attended a cancer chemotherapy center in South India, were studied. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and marker studies. Results: Out of the 750 patients with internal malignancy, skin changes were seen in a total of 52 (6.93% patients. Conclusion: Cutaneous metastases (specific lesions were seen in 20 patients (2.66%: contiguous in 6 (0.8%, and non-contiguous in 14 (1.86%. Nonspecific skin changes were seen in 32 patients (4.26%. None of our patients presented with more than one type of skin lesions. Herpes zoster was the most common nonspecific lesion noticed in our patients, followed by generalized pruritus, multiple eruptive seborrheic keratoses, bullous disorder, erythroderma, flushing, purpura, pyoderma gangrenosum, insect bite allergy and lichenoid dermatitis.

  9. Magnetic Field - Total Field Intensity for the Epoch 2010.0 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows isodynamic lines (lines of equal total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field), derived from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field...

  10. Stiffness after total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Manrique, Jorge; Gomez, Miguel M; Parvizi, Javad


    Stiffness after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) adversely affects outcome and impacts patient function. Various risk factors for stiffness after TKA have been identified, including reduced preoperative knee range of motion, history of prior knee surgery, etiology of arthritis, incorrect positioning or oversizing of components, and incorrect gap balancing. Mechanical and associated causes, such as infection, arthrofibrosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and heterotopic ossification, secondary gain issues have also been identified. Management of stiffness following TKA can be challenging. The condition needs to be assessed and treated in a staged manner. A nonsurgical approach is the first step. Manipulation under anesthesia may be considered within the first 3 months after the index TKA, if physical therapy fails to improve the range of motion. Beyond this point, consideration should be given to surgical intervention such as lysis of adhesions, either arthroscopically or by open arthrotomy. If the cause of stiffness is deemed to be surgical error, such as component malpositioning, revision arthroplasty is indicated. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the various aspects of management of stiffness after TKA.

  11. Asymmetric total synthesis of vindoline. (United States)

    Kato, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Boger, Dale L


    A concise asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-vindoline (1) is detailed based on a tandem intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole inspired by the natural product structure, in which the tether linking the initiating dienophile and oxadiazole bears a chiral substituent that controls the facial selectivity of the initiating Diels-Alder reaction and sets absolute stereochemistry of the remaining six stereocenters in the cascade cycloadduct. This key reaction introduces three rings and four C-C bonds central to the pentacyclic ring system setting all six stereocenters and introducing essentially all the functionality found in the natural product in a single step. Implementation of the approach also required the development of a unique ring expansion reaction to provide a six-membered ring suitably functionalized for introduction of the Delta (6, 7)-double bond found in the core structure of vindoline and defined our use of a protected hydroxymethyl group as the substituent used to control the stereochemical course of the cycloaddition cascade.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  13. Improving Internal Communication. (United States)

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  14. National and International Views. (United States)

    Kilgour, David


    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  15. Fifth International Conference KSE 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Denoeux, Thierry; Tran, Dang; Le, Anh; Pham, Son; Knowledge and Systems Engineering


    The field of Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE) has experienced rapid development and inspired many applications in the world of information technology during the last decade. The KSE conference aims at providing an open international forum for presentation, discussion and exchange of the latest advances and challenges in research of the field. These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE 2013), which was held in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 17–19 October, 2013. Besides the main track of contributed papers, which are compiled into the first volume, the conference also featured several special sessions focusing on specific topics of interest as well as included one workshop, of which the papers form the second volume of these proceedings. The book gathers a total of 68 papers describing recent advances and development on various topics including knowledge discovery and data mining, natural language processing, expert systems, intell...

  16. Total Quality Management as a Paradigm of Business Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luburić Radoica


    Full Text Available Total Quality Management denotes a path by which - both in a stable and a transitional environment, in a professional and scientific way and by applying a variety of methods and techniques, through constant improvements and involvement of all employees - one could get to a model that enables a simultaneous achievement of the top quality level on one hand, and the top management level, on the other. Total Quality Management is a paradigm of business success in the entire world because its set up, inter alia, improves internal functions of an organisation, instils confidence in customers and triggers improvement chain reactions with suppliers and stakeholders. Quality is the foundation and client orientation is the base of the entire concept of total quality management. Placing customers at the centre is the main idea behind the entire quality concept around which everything is built. Improving the capacity of an organization to understand and meet the actual customer needs, both stated and implied, is the main objective of the total quality management. Teamwork and team leadership play a specific role in the total quality management, top managers have the key responsibilities, and activities of the medium and lower level managers together with all employees are of immeasurable significance. Managing the teamwork within the total quality management is not only a requirement for its set up, development and implementation, but also for its survival. Total Quality Management is a managerial philosophy and a mode of running a business in order to achieve success.

  17. Total joint replacement preadmission programs. (United States)

    Messer, B


    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  18. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs (United States)

    ... state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On This ... get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August 1999 ...

  19. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  20. Neurology and international organizations. (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J


    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  1. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex


    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  2. Effective Form of Reproducing the Total Financial Potential of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portna Oksana V.


    Full Text Available Development of scientific principles of reproducing the total financial potential of the country and its effective form is an urgent problem both in theoretical and practical aspects of the study, the solution of which is intended to ensure the active mobilization and effective use of the total financial potential of Ukraine, and as a result — its expanded reproduction as well, which would contribute to realization of the internal capacities for stabilization of the national economy. The purpose of the article is disclosing the essence of the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country, analyzing the results of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine. It has been proved that the basis for the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country is the volume and flow of resources, which are associated with the «real» economy, affect the dynamics of GDP and define it, i.e. resource and process forms of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine (which precede the effective one. The analysis of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine has shown that in the analyzed period there was an increase in the financial possibilities of the country, but steady dynamics of reduction of the total financial potential was observed. If we consider the amount of resources involved in production, creating a net value added and GDP, it occurs on a restricted basis. Growth of the total financial potential of Ukraine is connected only with extensive quantitative factors rather than intensive qualitative changes.

  3. Internal auditing in hospitals. (United States)

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom


    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  4. The International Trade Network


    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.


    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  5. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per


    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...

  6. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  7. International migration, international relations and foreign policy. (United States)

    Mitchell, C


    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  8. Registry data trends of total ankle replacement use. (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A


    Joint arthroplasty registry data are meaningful when evaluating the outcomes of total joint replacement, because they provide unbiased objective information regarding survivorship and incidence of use. Critical evaluation of the registry data information will benefit the surgeon, patient, and industry. However, the implementation and acceptance of registry data for total ankle replacement has lagged behind that of hip and knee implant arthroplasty. Currently, several countries have national joint arthroplasty registries, with only some procuring information for total ankle replacement. We performed an electronic search to identify publications and worldwide registry databanks with pertinent information specific to total ankle replacement to determine the type of prostheses used and usage trends over time. We identified worldwide registry data from 33 countries, with details pertinent to total ankle replacement identified in only 6 countries. The obtained information was arbitrarily stratified into 3 distinct periods: 2000 to 2006, 2007 to 2010, and 2011. Within these study periods, the data from 13 total ankle replacement systems involving 3,980 ankles were identified. The vast majority (97%) of the reported ankle replacements were 3-component, mobile-bearing, uncemented prostheses. Three usage trends were identified: initial robust embracement followed by abrupt disuse, minimal use, and initial embracement followed by sustained growth in implantation. Before the widespread acceptance of new total ankle replacements, the United States should scrutinize and learn from the international registry data and develop its own national joint registry that would include total ankle replacement. Caution against the adoption of newly released prostheses, especially those without readily available revision components, is recommended.

  9. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement. (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas


    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  10. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.


    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  11. Sovereignty in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MAFTEI


    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  12. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada


    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firm...

  13. Embracing an International Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new international stock board will soon be established in Shanghai,allowing foreign companies to list their businesses and tap into the China market China is moving closer to launching its own international stock board,a market for foreign companies to list their stocks in China,said Shang Fulin,

  14. Publishing International Counseling Articles (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.


    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  16. Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng


    @@ The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair is a new starting point. In the face of the main development trend of international and domes tic convention and exhibition industry, the fierce competition among the domestic exhibition industry, Dalian International Garment Fair sizes up the situation and the golden opportunity that China will revitalize the Northeast old industrial base and turn Dalian into the international shipping center in Northeast Asia; it takes the new Dalian Convention and Exhibition Center as a turning point. Under the leadership of Dalian Mu-nicipal Party Committee and Dalian municipal government, and under the support and assistance of the sponsors, Dalian International Garment Fair emancipates the mind and plans the future with the viewpoint of scientific development, innovative thinking and practical operation.

  17. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico


    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  18. Intern kommunikation under forandring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Helle; Asmuss, Birte; Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove;

    , organisation og ledelse, som er relevante for arbejdet med den interne kommunikation. Bogen beskæftiger sig med intern kommunikation i bred forstand, dvs. med tekster og genrer, der ikke kun produceres af kommunikationsafdelingen, men også af ledelse, medarbejdere og HR-afdeling. Blandt bogens emner kan nævnes......, men kan læses med stort udbytte af alle, der arbejder med eller interesserer sig for, hvordan organisationer kommunikerer med sig selv, og hvordan den interne kommunikation forandrer sig. Bogen udfylder et hul i den danske faglitteratur om strategisk kommunikation, hvor der i mange år har manglet en......Intern kommunikation under forandring giver en teoretisk og praktisk indføring i de tekster, genrer og kommunikationsformer, som den interne kommunikation i private og offentlige virksomheder eller organisationer typisk omfatter. Dertil kommer en indføring i opfattelser af kommunikation...

  19. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe


    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  20. Evolution of the total logistics costs concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The article considers the evolution stages of the total logistics cost concept; an interrelations of TLC and EOQ models has been analyzed. The author presented analytical approaches to determine a value of total cost, as well as an integral criterion for logistics systems' functioning, based upon package treatment of the total costs value and service level.

  1. Total Internal Reflection Ultrasonic Sensor for Detection of Subsurface Flaws: Research into Underlying Physics (United States)


    from 1 September 2012 to 31 August 2014 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Office of Scientific Research European Office of Aerospace...wave and ray vectors. 11.5 Displacement of an Ultrasonic Beam Optical visualisation of reflection of the SH-wave type pulse from the inclined face...Photoelastic Technique,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 65-73, 1984. [12] E. Ginzel, “Photoelastic Visualisation of Ultrasonic

  2. Research of Asymmetric Y-Branching Total Internal Reflection All-Optical Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Y-branching TIR all-optical switch have been fabricated. When the switching optical intensity is 149.9W/mm2, the extinction ratio is 18dB. A theoretical model was also proposed which provided a good fit to the experimental data.

  3. Status and trends in the development of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - a review of international articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads; Gertsen, Frank; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm


    than 30 years ago in Japan, it has only recently found it's way to the wider population of companies across Europe, America and Asia, especially within the assembly and process industry area. TPM includes key aspects from team development and continuous improvement aimed at obtaining preventive...... the definition and principles of the TPM concept. In the third part findings are illustrated in graphs and discussed. In the last part a conclusion is summed up and some indication for further research is presented....

  4. Component rotation and anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Barrack, R L; Schrader, T; Bertot, A J; Wolfe, M W; Myers, L


    All patients undergoing cruciate-retaining primary total knee arthroplasty for degenerative osteoarthritis at one center were studied prospectively. Clinical and radiographic followup was obtained at a minimum 5 years in 102 knees in 73 patients. Patients were asked specifically about the presence of the pain in the anterior aspect of the knee in the vicinity of the patella and rated the severity of the pain on a visual analog scale. Significant anterior knee pain rating at least 3 of 10 on the visual analog scale was present in 16 knees (13 patients). Eleven patients with 14 symptomatic knees agreed to undergo computed tomography scanning to accurately determine the rotation of the tibial and femoral components. The epicondylar axis and tibial tubercle were used as references using a previously validated technique. A control group of 11 asymptomatic patients (14 knees), matched for age, gender, and length of followup also underwent computed tomography scanning. All patients in both groups had normal axial alignment. There was a highly significant difference in tibial component rotation between the two groups with the patients with anterior knee pain averaging 6.2 degrees internal rotation compared with 0.4 degrees external rotation in the control group. There also was a significant difference in combined component rotation with the patients with anterior knee pain averaging 4.7 degrees internal rotation compared with 2.6 degrees external rotation in the control group. There was no significant difference in the degree of radiographic patellar tilt or patellar subluxation between the two groups. Patients with combined component internal rotation were more than five times as likely to experience anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty compared with those with combined component external rotation. Component malrotation is a significant factor in the development of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty.

  5. International experimental zone to be created for thermonuclear fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Institute of Plasma Physics (ASIPP) under the CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences, a Chinese partner in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Program, is going to establish an international experimental zone for thermonuclear fusion in Hefei, capital of east China's Anhui Province. With a total area up to 13 hectares, its work on land acquisition has been completed.

  6. History and factors of survival of total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Kolundžić, Robert; Trkulja, Vladimir; Orlić, Dubravko


    Since the 1960s total hip arthroplasty (THA) has represented one of the greatest accomplishments in orthopedic surgery. It improves the functionality, working ability and quality of life of patients with non-functional hip joint due to various reasons. This article reviews general and regional history of THA, current knowledge and concepts regarding the long-term outcomes of the procedure and emphasizes the need for establishing national (and international) THA registries as an essential way of gathering data critical for decision making in daily practice as well as in defining national healthcare policies in respect to arthroplasty procedures.

  7. Internal tide oceanic tomography (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang


    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  8. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.


    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  10. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben


    Abstract Personas have become a well-known method for IT-designers when developing new products. However, the vast majority of personas constructed are created from a mono-cultural (Western) perspective, representing users from a single national culture at a time. Due to the growing global market......, international companies show an increasing interest in creating international personas, but research on personas in a global context is still limited. To address this gap, this paper first offers a review on articles addressing international personas, and second it presents an empirical Danish study...

  11. Veterinary practice internal controls. (United States)

    Catanzaro, T E


    This chapter explores the responsive management requirements critical for effective internal controls. Internal control techniques offered include the application of segregation of function, goal-orientation, performance planning, and training objectives in five veterinary practice areas. These areas are client controls, cash controls, inventory controls, purchase controls, and stock controls. Because only trusted staff members are given access to practice assets, the veterinary leadership must have a responsive management plan to protect the life of the practice while building the practice team. Methods are shared for controlling opportunities that can lead to employee fraud while concurrently building a team approach to internal controls.

  12. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...

  13. International Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER


    Full Text Available There are over three million international students worldwide, and in recent years higher education institutions compete with each other in order to receive these students to their institutions. International students are now one of the most important indicator of the internationalization of the higher education systems and institutions. In this context, the detection of the status of this indicator in our higher education system and institutions is of great importance as our higher education system shows a large expansion. This study, discusses the status of international students in our country.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  15. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob


    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  16. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong


    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  17. Perspectives of Turkish Intern and Non-Intern Students towards Sport Management Internship within the Context of Field Experience (United States)

    Coknaz, Dilsad


    The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…

  18. The Internal Audit. (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.


    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  19. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  1. Galaxy International Mall Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An agreement between Galaxy International Mall (hereinafter referred to as Galaxy) and its three main partners was signed on January 12, 2011, in the city of Tianjin. The partners are Lotte Department

  2. Globalisation of international health. (United States)

    Walt, G


    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  3. ASKME Enterprise Portal (internal) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASKME Enterprise Portal Internal (AEPi) is envisioned to be an integrated, single-point-of-entry solution that contains modular components. The AEPi will provide...

  4. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.


    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  5. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  6. NCEP Internal Office Notes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  7. Evolutionary internalized regularities. (United States)

    Schwartz, R


    Roger Shepard's proposals and supporting experiments concerning evolutionary internalized regularities have been very influential in the study of vision and in other areas of psychology and cognitive science. This paper examines issues concerning the need, nature, explanatory role, and justification for postulating such internalized constraints. In particular, I seek further clarification from Shepard on how best to understand his claim that principles of kinematic geometry underlie phenomena of motion perception. My primary focus is on the ecological validity of Shepard's kinematic constraint in the context of ordinary motion perception. First, I explore the analogy Shepard draws between internalized circadian rhythms and the supposed internalization of kinematic geometry. Next, questions are raised about how to interpret and justify applying results from his own and others' experimental studies of apparent motion to more everyday cases of motion perception in richer environments. Finally, some difficulties with Shepard's account of the evolutionary development of his kinematic constraint are considered.

  8. National narcissism: Internal dimensions and international correlates. (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Gries, Peter


    In studies conducted in the United States and China, we explored the impact of national narcissism, grandiosity, and entitlement, demonstrating that: (a) national narcissism was distinct from both individual narcissism and collective self-esteem (patriotism); (b) national entitlement and national grandiosity constituted two distinct dimensions of national narcissism; and (c) national narcissism, national grandiosity, and national entitlement, but not individual narcissism, were uniquely predictive of political attitudes, foreign policy preferences, and purchase intentions. Together, these findings provided convergent evidence for the utility of national narcissism and its two internal dimensions, national entitlement and national grandiosity.

  9. Criteria for internal auditing. (United States)

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J


    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  10. USSR Report, International Affairs. (United States)


    167092 JPRS-UIA-87-014 7 APRIL 1987 USSR Report INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DTSTPIBÜTTON HT^TFM’oKT Ä Approved fox ou’-K- ’c<£x;se; Distribution... USSR REPORT INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS EAST-WEST RELATIONS Ambassador, Correspondents View CSCE Process, Progress (NEPSZABADSAG, 13 Feb 87...Range Program (Boris Remizov, Valdimir Proskuryakov ; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 10, 1986) 21 - a - Measures for

  11. International Cometary Explorer (ICE) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    NASA spacecraft, originally known as ISEE-3 (International Sun-Earth Explorer). First spacecraft to encounter a comet. Launched in August 1978. After completing its original mission, it was reactivated and diverted to pass through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on 11 September 1985. It also observed Halley's Comet from a distance of 28 million km in March 1986. (See also INTERNATIONAL SUN-EAR...

  12. International Drug Control Policy (United States)


    cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy ,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...replaces CRS Report RL33582, International Drug Trade and U.S. Foreign Policy, by Raphael F. Perl. 2 Ecstasy is the street name for MDMA (3,4... mechanisms to monitor treaty adherence— through the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)—and for the collection of data related to the illicit

  13. Do internal medicine interns practice etiquette-based communication? A critical look at the inpatient encounter. (United States)

    Block, Lauren; Hutzler, Lindsey; Habicht, Robert; Wu, Albert W; Desai, Sanjay V; Novello Silva, Kathryn; Niessen, Timothy; Oliver, Nora; Feldman, Leonard


    Etiquette-based communication may improve the inpatient experience but is not universally practiced. We sought to determine the extent to which internal medicine interns practice behaviors that characterize etiquette-based medicine. Trained observers evaluated the use of 5 key communication strategies by internal medicine interns during inpatient clinical encounters: introducing one's self, explaining one's role in the patient's care, touching the patient, asking open-ended questions, and sitting down with the patient. Participants at 1 site then completed a survey estimating how frequently they performed each of the observed behaviors. A convenience sample of 29 interns was observed on a total of 732 patient encounters. Overall, interns introduced themselves 40% of the time and explained their role 37% of the time. Interns touched patients on 65% of visits, asked open-ended questions on 75% of visits, and sat down with patients during 9% of visits. Interns at 1 site estimated introducing themselves and their role and sitting with patients significantly more frequently than was observed (80% vs 40%, P < 0.01; 80% vs 37%, P < 0.01; and 58% vs 9%, P < 0.01, respectively). Resident physicians introduced themselves to patients, explained their role, and sat down with patients infrequently during observed inpatient encounters. Residents surveyed tended to overestimate their own practice of etiquette-based medicine.

  14. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC



    This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  15. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas


    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  16. Wear debris in cemented total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Huo, M H; Salvati, E A; Buly, R L


    One of the most prevalent clinical problems in long-term follow up of total hip arthroplasty patients is loosening of prosthetic fixation. Factors contributing to mechanical failure of total hip reconstruction are complex and multiple. It has become increasingly apparent that wear debris from the prosthetic components may contribute significantly to this process. The authors summarize some of the current concepts concerning the detrimental effects of metallic debris in total hip arthroplasty.

  17. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay


    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  18. Total synthesis of (-)-oseltamivir by domino reactions [Síntese total do (-)-oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) por reações do tipo dominó


    Fernando de Carvalho da Silva


    This digest report the total synyhesis of (‐)‐oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) by three “one‐pot” operations like domino reactions. This article was published by Ishikawa e co‐workers in Angewandte Chemie, International Edition. This molecule is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment against avian H5N1 influenza virus.

  19. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin


    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  20. Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi


    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  1. Total Formulates Aggressive Plan in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The world's fourth largest oil company Total is expanding its business in China's oil and gas exploration and production sector. Charles Mattenet, Total's senior vice president for Asia and the Far East, recently said in an interview with the news media that his company plans to start exploring in north China's Ordos Basin next year with its partner PetroChina. Total expects to invest60 million to 80 million U.S. dollars in its China project between 2007 and 2008, amounting for nearly 5 to 6percent of Total's worldwide budget for exploration and production.

  2. Existing chemicals: international activities. (United States)

    Purchase, J F


    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  3. Integration of Public Finance Administration into ISO 9001 Total Quality Management




    In Chronology; although they show different progress from each others, today Total Quality Management (TQM) and Internal Auditing are two management concepts that are in mutual interaction and provide help for development of each other. TQM is a human based management concept that aims to increase customer satisfaction and enhance quality with decreasing cost in organizations. Internal Auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consultancy action on organization’s efficiency, product...

  4. Multiregional estimation of gross internal migration flows. (United States)

    Foot, D K; Milne, W J


    "A multiregional model of gross internal migration flows is presented in this article. The interdependence of economic factors across all regions is recognized by imposing a non-stochastic adding-up constraint that requires total inmigration to equal total outmigration in each time period. An iterated system estimation technique is used to obtain asymptotically consistent and efficient parameter estimates. The model is estimated for gross migration flows among the Canadian provinces over the period 1962-86 and then is used to examine the likelihood of a wash-out effect in net migration models. The results indicate that previous approaches that use net migration equations may not always be empirically justified."

  5. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese


    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  6. Sexuality after total vs. subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobbe, Vibeke Bahn; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe Elisabeth; Andersen, Birthe Margrethe;


    The effect of hysterectomy on sexuality is not fully elucidated and until recently total and subtotal hysterectomies have only been compared in observational studies.......The effect of hysterectomy on sexuality is not fully elucidated and until recently total and subtotal hysterectomies have only been compared in observational studies....


    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  8. Airway Complications of Total Artificial Heart. (United States)

    Pathak, Vikas; Donovan, Colin; Malhotra, Rajiv


    The total artificial heart is the mechanical device which is used as a bridge to the heart transplant in patients with biventricular failure. Due to the mechanical nature of the device, patients receiving total artificial heart (TAH) require to be on anticoagulation therapy. Hemorrhage and coagulopathy are few of the known complications of TAH.

  9. Attenuated partial internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Ewing, George E


    A new method for the spectroscopic study of absorbing films is proposed. In contrast to the well-established methods that take advantage of the attenuation of total internal reflection (ATR) to obtain spectra, we intentionally arrange the optics to permit partial internal reflection from the sampling prism face. Attenuated partial internal reflection (APR) spectroscopy is introduced through theoretical calculations and experimental demonstrations. The calculated APR spectra in the infrared region were generated from the Fresnel and Airy equations. Experimentally, APR spectra of water films on a NaCl prism were obtained. APR is more sensitive than ATR, and can easily distinguish water films at the monolayer level (310 pm). The determination of film thickness from interference fringes in APR spectra is also illustrated. It is shown that APR can be used for film thickness measurements that can span 6 orders of magnitude. The limitations of APR are also discussed.

  10. Third international handbook of mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Alan; Keitel, Christine; Kilpatrick, Jeremy; Leung, Frederick


    This entirely new Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education comprises 31 chapters which have been written by a total of 84 different authors representing 26 nations, each a recognized expert in the field.   Comprised of four sections: Social, Political and Cultural Dimensions in Mathematics Education; Mathematics Education as a Field of Study; Technology in the Mathematics Curriculum; and International Perspectives on Mathematics Education, this Third Handbook offers essential reading for all persons interested in the future of mathematics education. The authors present challenging international perspectives on the history of mathematics education, current issues, and future directions.   What makes this Handbook unique is its structure. Each section covers past, present and future aspects of mathematics education.   The first chapter in each section identifies and analyzes historical antecedents The “middle” chapters draw attention to present-day key issues and themes The final chapter in ...

  11. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor


    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  12. 'Total disability' and the wrongness of killing. (United States)

    Omelianchuk, Adam


    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Franklin G Miller recently argued that the wrongness of killing is best explained by the harm that comes to the victim, and that 'total disability' best explains the nature of this harm. Hence, killing patients who are already totally disabled is not wrong. I maintain that their notion of total disability is ambiguous and that they beg the question with respect to whether there are abilities left over that remain relevant for the goods of personhood and human worth. If these goods remain, then something more is lost in death than in 'total disability,' and their explanation of what makes killing wrong comes up short. But if total disability is equivalent with death, then their argument is an interesting one.

  13. New terminal of Beijing Capial International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THE extension of the terminal at the Beijing Capital International Airport, one of the key construction projects of the Ninth National Five Year Plan, was completed successfully in September 1999. The Hshaped new terminal building covers a total area of 336 thousand square meters -- four times that of the old one. It stands three floors above ground (part of it four floors) and one floor underground. Its opening upgrades peak time passenger

  14. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.


    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  15. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005 (United States)

    Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.


    This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at:

  16. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  17. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  18. Sport and International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yimeng


    As China takes center stage for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in August, enthusiasm for the Games extends far beyond the capital city. For Chinese, the Olympics is about national pride and cultural legacy. The Chinese government hopes to make this event a morale booster for the development of the whole country. And for the world, the Olympics is not just a global sporting event, but also an important platform for promoting world harmony and communication between cultures. As editor of Contemporary International Relations, I am mindful of the connection between sport and international relations. Sport today plays a highly significant role in the world, and the impact of this global phenomenon on international relations is often underestimated.

  19. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G;


    of the completion of the intervention or surgical closure; (6) Surgical procedure-open reduction, (7) Surgical procedure-direct decompression of neural elements, and (8 and 9) Surgical procedure-stabilization and fusion (spinal segment number and level). All variables are coded using numbers or characters. Each...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set......STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS...

  20. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L


    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  1. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander


    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  2. Constructivism and International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This new book unites in one volume some of the most prominent critiques of Alexander Wendt's constructivist theory of international relations and includes the first comprehensive reply by Wendt. Partly reprints of benchmark articles, partly new original critiques, the critical chapters are informed...... by a wide array of contending theories ranging from realism to poststructuralism. The collected leading theorists critique Wendt's seminal book Social Theory of International Politics and his subsequent revisions. They take issue with the full panoply of Wendt's approach, such as his alleged positivism, his...... critique of the realist school, the conceptualism of identity, and his teleological theory of history. Wendt's reply is not limited to rebuttal only. For the first time, he develops his recent idea of quantum social science, as well as its implications for theorising international relations. This unique...

  3. Determinants of International Competiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Mehdi


    Full Text Available International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix”. Data is collected from two areas:  competitiveness and culture. After describing two sets of data, the researcher tests two hypotheses: (1 long-term economic growth is a function of government policies and (2 culture plays an insignificant role in gaining competitiveness and economic growth. In conclusion, the paper makes recommendations as how a country can improve its economic competitiveness.

  4. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  5. Magnetic Field - Secular Variation of the Total Field Component for the Epoch 2010.0 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows lines of equal annual change (secular variation), in the total field intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, derived from the International...

  6. ILO - International Migration Programme. (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam


    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  7. International Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongtu


    The international energy situation has entered a new phase of change and readjustment. On the one hand, while imbalances in petroleum market supply-demand have been alleviated , the consuming states are now focusing on demand side management and development of new and renewable energy. There has been great progress in international energy security dialogue and cooperation. On the other hand , supply-demand market balance remains fragile , and restrictions due to insufficient energy investment are more evident. The concerned states have taken a stronger grip over their own resources. Implementation of energy diplomacy has also further complicated the relationship between energy and geo-politics, causing an upsurge of competition.

  8. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  9. When managerialism meets internationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas; Lewis, Jenny; Bentzen, Sune Raahede


    and identified structural shortcomings. Our analysis shows that New Public Management ideas were in circulation in the UN at this time. It also demonstrates the different pressures that international bureaucracies face in regard to their personnel. This is likely to make their responses to reform pressures......This article examines whether reform ideas that gained influence in national-level bureaucracies in the 1970s were also on the United Nations’ internal agenda. The Joint Inspection Unit (Bertrand) Report of 1971 is the focus of this analysis, as it addressed personnel problems in the UN Secretariat...

  10. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server


    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in:

  11. The international RESPO network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  12. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  13. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull


    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  14. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....


    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  16. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel


    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  17. Total dominator chromatic number of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel P. Kazemi


    Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.

  18. Dislocation following revision total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J


    Dislocation is a relatively common complication following revision total hip arthroplasty. Risk factors include surgical approach, gender, underlying diagnosis, comorbidities, surgical experience, and previous surgery; for later dislocations, risk factors include wear/deformation of polyethylene, trauma, and decreased muscle strength. Prevention and precaution are the watchwords for dislocations following revision total hip arthroplasty. For dislocations that do occur, treatment rests first on identifying the source of instability. Most dislocations can be managed by closed reduction. Constrained components may increase success rates, but only for appropriate indications. Prevention and treatment of dislocations following revision total hip arthroplasty are discussed in this article.

  19. The total bondage number of grid graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fu-Tao; Xu, Jun-Ming


    The total domination number of a graph $G$ without isolated vertices is the minimum number of vertices that dominate all vertices in $G$. The total bondage number $b_t(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the total domination number. This paper considers grid graphs. An $(n,m)$-grid graph $G_{n,m}$ is defined as the cartesian product of two paths $P_n$ and $P_m$. This paper determines the exact values of $b_t(G_{n,2})$ and $b_t(G_{n,3})$, and establishes some upper bounds of $b_t(G_{n,4})$.

  20. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay


    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  1. The current issues of internal control and internal audit harmonization


    Синюгіна, Наталія Вікторівна


    The relevance of topics related to a harmonization of internal control and internal audit system of internal financial control is being proved. It is high lightened the essence of harmonization period by reviewing existing thoughts on this object, a concept of 'harmonization of internal control and internal audit", and provided reasonably practical recommendations to ensure such harmonization in the modern world. The scientific impact of this research is to clarify the concept of "harmonizati...

  2. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)


    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  3. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G


    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  4. China International Fashion Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thirty-six young fashion designers from 17 countries and regions gathered at the Fourth Brother Cup China International Young Fashion Designers Contest in Beijing in mid-April. The designers drew ideas from colorful life and displayed their talents in art through the theme, "Splendid Attire for the Art Festival."

  5. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna


    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...

  6. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente; Levinsen, Karin

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...

  7. Simulation in International Studies (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.


    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  8. International Summer Programs. (United States)

    Cox, June


    The article describes five summer programs for gifted and talented students offered internationally. The programs outlined are workshops in the publication arts, a study of humanistic development; computer science, writing, and photography workshops; a language study; a historical/social study of English history; and a workshop on photography,…

  9. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam


    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...... of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves....

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  11. Decoding the International System

    CERN Document Server

    Piepers, Ingo


    The International System develops according to a clear logic: By means of systemic wars organisational innovations are periodically introduced, contributing to a process of social expansion and integration, and to wealth creation. A finite-time singularity accompanied by four accelerating log-periodic cycles can be identified during the time frame 1495-1945.

  12. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.


    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  13. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu


    Migrant self-selection is important to both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration, using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  14. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.


    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  15. International Outreach from Kentucky. (United States)

    Egerton, John


    Programs at Western Kentucky University including undergraduate curricula in Latin-American and Asian studies, technical assistance projects overseas, student and faculty exchange programs, seminars and workshops, and community activities are described. "Friendship teams" (a faculty advisor, four international students, and an American…

  16. Clarifying the Internment. (United States)

    Schulman, Bruce J.


    Through efforts to interpret and condemn the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, the experience of internees themselves has been neglected. To clarify the experience, the author has focused on the internees in faculty seminars and in history classes at the University of California Los Angeles. (SLD)

  17. International Dictionary of Ballet. (United States)

    Martin, Ron


    Describes the "International Dictionary of Ballet" and provides an activity for grades 6-9 that can be used by the school library media specialist in cooperation with the music teacher. Resource materials are listed (including books and nonprint materials), and suggestions for adaptation to other curriculum areas are offered. (LRW)

  18. International Foundry Forum 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The International Foundry Forum is a "Summit"of the Foundry World. It is the convention of the CEO world wide, of important casting users, ferrous and non-ferrous foundries as well as foundry equipment and consumable suppliers. Their overall goal is to increase the market opportunities for metal castings in competition with other processes and products in a global business environment.

  19. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L


    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  20. Independence of Internal Auditors. (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.


    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  1. Jiangsu International Apparel Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ On September 7th-9th, 2007, the 9th International Apparel Festival, sponsored by the People's Government of Jiangsu province and China National Textile and Apparel Council, and organized by the Economic and Trade Commission of Jiangsu province, was held in the city of Nanjing, in Jiangsu province of China.

  2. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia


    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  3. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B


    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  4. Internal displacement in Burma. (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V


    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  5. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala


    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  6. Medications and International Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast answers a listener's question about her medications and an international trip she's planning.  Created: 4/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/12/2011.

  7. International kernekraftstatus 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerup, C.F.; Majborn, Benny; Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck


    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1997, the report contains: -General trends in the development of nuclear power -A review of what can bedone with the plutonium stocks of the world...

  8. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.


    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  9. Clathrin-independent internalization and recycling. (United States)

    Gong, Qiang; Huntsman, Christopher; Ma, Dzwokai


    The functionality of receptor and channel proteins depends directly upon their expression level on the plasma membrane. Therefore, the ability to selectively adjust the surface level of a particular receptor or channel protein is pivotal to many cellular signaling events. The internalization and recycling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of protein surface level, and thus has been a focus of research for many years. Although several endocytic pathways have been identified, most of our knowledge has come from the clathrin-dependent pathway, while the other pathways remain much less well defined. Considering that clathrin-independent internalization may account for as much as 50% of the total endocytic activity in the cell, the lack of such knowledge constitutes a major gap in our efforts to understand how different internalization pathways are utilized and coordinated. Recent studies have provided valuable insights into this area, yet many more questions still remain. In this review, we will give a panoramic introduction to the current knowledge of various internalization and recycling pathways, with an emphasis on the latest findings that have broadened our view of the clathrin-independent pathways. We will also dedicate one section to the emerging studies of the clathrin-independent internalization pathways in neuronal cells.

  10. Total ankle replacement - surgical treatment and rehabilitation. (United States)

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Krogulec, Zbigniew; Turski, Piotr; Przepiórski, Emil; Małdyk, Paweł; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna


    Functions of the ankle joint are closely connected with the gait and ability to maintain an upright position. Degenerative lesions of the joint directly contribute to postural disorders and greatly restrict propulsion of the foot, thus leading to abnormal gait. Development of total ankle replacement is connected with the use of the method as an efficient treatment of joint injuries and continuation of achievements in hip and knee surgery. The total ankle replacement technique was introduced as an alternative to arthrodesis, i.e. surgical fixation, which made it possible to preserve joint mobility and to improve gait. Total ankle replacement is indicated in post-traumatic degenerative joint disease and joint destruction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, total ankle replacement and various types of currently used endoprostheses are discussed. The authors also describe principles of early postoperative rehabilitation as well as rehabilitation in the outpatient setting.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Sabina HODOR


    Full Text Available Total Rewards Management is a subject of major importance for companies, because, by using models for this, firms can achieve their objectives of high performance. In order to analyse a validated total rewards model in Romanian Accounting and Consulting Companies, it is used The WorldatWork Total Rewards Model, which depict what contributes to applicant attraction and employee motivation and retention. Thus, the methodology of the previous survey is adjusted to the local context. The conclusions for the methodological aspects illustrate that the present research involves three strategic steps in order to achieve the objectives presented: the analysis of organizational environment of the companies from the sample, checking if Total Rewards Model proposed in the previous research is applicable for the same romanian companies from the previous survey, the analysing of the differences between results, and, if necessary, the adaptation of the model for Romania.

  12. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure. (United States)

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil


    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  13. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  14. Practical considerations for permanent total enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, M. [Amcec Adsorption Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)


    This paper considers some of the practical consideration of Permanent Total Enclosures (PTEs) for gravure printing facilities. In particular the dispersion of fugitive losses from the presses by thermal air currents generated by heat from the press dryers.

  15. The First Total Synthesis of Isoliquiritin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A first total synthesis of isoliquiritin was accomplished starting from p-hydroxy- benzaldehyde and 2,4-dihydroxyacetylphenone. The key step is condensation reaction. In synthetic process need not protect the hydroxy group of reacting substance.

  16. A Convergent Total Synthesis of Methoxatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickson, James B.; Vries, Johannes G. de


    We report a convergent total synthesis of the coenzyme methoxatin (1) by linking a pyrrole subunit with an uvitonic acid derivative and oxidative photocyclization to a deoxymethoxatin triester, followed by seven refunctionalization steps to 1.

  17. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 1989-1991 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  18. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 1989-1991 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  19. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 2011-2013 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013 at a set of point locations across the...

  20. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 2011-2013 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013 at a set of point locations across the...

  1. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  2. Internal audit consider the implications. (United States)

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela


    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  3. Internal Auditing for School Districts. (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  4. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  5. Total Quality Management: A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    Quality Institute. INTRODUCTION TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, by Frank L. Lewis and others. Washington: May 1991. 34pp...1993, pp. 26-29. Schermerhorn , Michele. "High-Performance Work Teams: Another Management Fad?" QUALITY DIGEST, Vol. 11, October 1991, pp. 37-52...58pp. (TS156 H59 1991) US Office of Personnel Management . Federal Quality Institute. INTRODUCTION TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE FEDERAL

  6. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J


    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  7. [Treatment of infected total hip endoprostheses]. (United States)

    Zilkens, K W; Forst, R; Casser, H R


    In total hip arthroplasty the most serious complication besides aseptic loosening is infection. The results observed in 42 cases of infected hip arthroplasties are presented. In contrast to early superficial infection, deep infection following total hip replacement is difficult to treat. Depending on the general condition of the patient, a well-defined, adequate treatment is required. In patients at vital risk the provocation of a permanent fistula can be recommended as an alternative method in preference to revision arthroplasty.

  8. Place of the internal communications in the industrial enterprises common functioning system



    The article analyzes the internal communications importance from the perspective of the company development assistance, particular their influence on economic performance through the implementation of business processes is given. There are defined the aims of internal communications depending on the stage of its life cycle and the place of internal communications in the total management.

  9. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun


    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  10. Place of the internal communications in the industrial enterprises common functioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yu. Sager


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the internal communications importance from the perspective of the company development assistance, particular their influence on economic performance through the implementation of business processes is given. There are defined the aims of internal communications depending on the stage of its life cycle and the place of internal communications in the total management.

  11. A technological contingency perspective on the depth and scope of international outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, M.J.; Pauwels, Pieter; Matthyssens, P.; Quintens, L.


    In this study, we present and test a technological contingency perspective on two dimensions of international outsourcing: depth and scope. The depth of international outsourcing refers to the ratio of foreign to total outsourcing. The scope of international outsourcing captures the degree of psychi

  12. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce (United States)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan


    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  13. Educating the Public about the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.


    On behalf of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, I have long worked to bring knowledge about eclipses and how to observe the safely to the people of the various countries from which partial, annular, or total solar eclipses are visible. In 2017, we have first a chance to educate the people of South America on the occasion of the February 26 annular eclipse through southern Chile and Argentina that is partial throughout almost the entire continent (and an eclipse workshop will be held February 22-24 in Esquel, Argentina: and then a chance to educate the 300 million people of the United States and others in adjacent countries as far south as northern South America about the glories of totality and how to observe partial phases. Our website, a compendium of links to information about maps, safe observing, science, and more is at We link to important mapping sites at,, and, and information about cloudiness statistics at, as well as simulation sites at and The American Astronomical Society's task force on the 2017 eclipse has a website at We are working to disseminate accurate information about how and why to observe the total solar eclipse, trying among other things to head off common misinformation about the hazards of looking at the sun at eclipses or otherwise. About 12 million Americans live within the 70-mile-wide band of totality, and we encourage others to travel into it, trying to make clear the difference between even a 99% partial eclipse and a total eclipse, with its glorious Baily's beads, diamond rings, and totality that on this occasion lasts between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 40 seconds


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salagean Horatiu Catalin


    Full Text Available In the current market economy, companies are constantly struggling to achieve a sustained competitive advantage that will enable them to improve performance, which results in increased competitiveness, and of course, profit. Among the few competitive advantages that can become sustainable competitive advantages, quality plays a crucial role. Recent research shows that about 90% of buyers in the international market, consider quality as having at least equal importance with price in making the decision to purchase. In the opinion of some specialists in economic theory and practice, total quality refers to the holistic approach of quality, which actually means, addressing all aspects of economic and social development and technical of quality. Thus, the holistic approach of quality at organisation-wide involves procedural approach of quality, in this respect, the study focuses on this type of quality approach, i.e. the procedural approach, taking into account the strategic aspects of the continuous improvement of quality, which means in fact, the quality management. Total Quality Management is seen as a way to transform the economies of some countries to be more competitive than others. However, Total Quality Management brings not and will not produce results overnight, it is not a panacea for all the problems facing the organization. Total Quality Management requires a change in organizational culture, which must focus on meeting customer expectations and increasing the involvement of all employees to meet this objective, as an expression of the ethics of continuous improvement. In general, research on quality aiming identify why an organization should adopt the principles of total quality management, but attempts to identify the failing companies' attempts to implement total quality management principles are not so visible. Concerns companies to introduce quality management systems are becoming more pronounced, therefore, in this study we try to

  15. Totally semi-continuous and semi totally-continuous functions in double fuzzy topological spaces (United States)

    Mahmood Mohammed, Fatimah; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi; Salleh, Abdul Razak


    The aim of this paper is to introduce new classes of functions called totally-continuous functions and its variants totally semi-continuous functions and semi totally-continuous functions in double fuzzy topological spaces. Their characterizations, examples and relationship with other notions of continuous functions in this space are provided.

  16. Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) Project Overview (United States)

    Carlisle, Candace; Wedge, Ronnice; Wu, Dong; Stello, Harry; Robinson, Renee


    The main objective of the Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is to acquire measurements to determine the direct and indirect effects of solar radiation on climate. TSIS total solar irradiance measurements will extend a 37-year long uninterrupted measurement record of incoming solar radiation, the dominant energy source driving the Earths climate and the most precise indicator of changes in the Suns energy output. TSIS solar spectral irradiance measurements will determine the regions of the Earths multi-layered atmosphere that are affected by solar variability, from which the solar forcing mechanisms causing changes in climate can be quantified. TSIS includes two instruments: the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM), integrated into a single payload. The TSIS TIM and SIM instruments are upgraded versions of the two instruments that are flying on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission launched in January 2003. TSIS was originally planned for the nadir-pointing National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) spacecraft. The TSIS instrument passed a Critical Design Review (CDR) for NPOESS in December 2009. In 2010, TSIS was re-planned for the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Polar Free Flyer (PFF). The TSIS TIM, SIM, and associated electronics were built, tested, and successfully completed pre-ship review as of December 2013.In early 2014, NOAA and NASA agreed to fly TSIS on the International Space Station (ISS). In the FY16 Presidents Budget, NASA assumes responsibility for the TSIS mission on ISS. The TSIS project includes requirements, interface, design, build and test of the TSIS payload, including an updated pointing system, for accommodation on the ISS. It takes advantage of the prior development of the TSIS sensors and electronics. The International Space Station (ISS) program contributions include launch services and robotic installation of the TSIS payload

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.


    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

  18. Totally implantable catheter embolism: two related cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaves Ribeiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Long-term totally implantable catheters (e.g. Port-a-Cath® are frequently used for long-term venous access in children with cancer. The use of this type of catheter is associated with complications such as infection, extrusion, extravasation and thrombosis. Embolism of catheter fragments is a rare complication, but has potential for morbidity. The aim here was to report on two cases in which embolism of fragments of a long-term totally implantable catheter occurred. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series study at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective review of catheter embolism in oncological pediatric patients with long-term totally implantable catheters. RESULTS: The first patient was a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with stage IV Wilms' tumor. Treatment was started with the introduction of a totally implantable catheter through the subclavian vein. At the time of removal, it was realized that the catheter had fractured inside the heart. An endovascular procedure was necessary to remove the fragment. The second case was a boy diagnosed with stage II Wilms' tumor at the age of two years. At the time of removal, it was noticed that the catheter had disconnected from the reservoir and an endovascular procedure was also necessary to remove the embolized catheter. CONCLUSION: Embolism of fragments of totally implantable catheters is a rare complication that needs to be recognized even in asymptomatic patients.

  19. Solution to causality paradox upon total reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-min; CAO Zhuang-qi; ZHU Peng-fei; SHEN Qi-shun


    A dispute about the existence of an additional time (named as the Goos-H(a)nchen time) associated with the Goos-H(a)nchen shift in total reflection has recently arisen.At the same time,an inconsistency between the optical ray model and the electromagnetic theory also appears in the optical planar waveguide.By analyzing light propagation in an optical planar waveguide with both the zigzag-ray model and the electromagnetic theory,this paper shows that the Goos-H(a)nchen time really exists,and the total time delay upon total reflection upon an ideal nonabsorbing plasma mirror is the sum of the group-delay time and the Goos-H(a)nchen time.The causality paradox of total reflection of a TM wave upon an ideal nonabsorbing plasma mirror is also solved taking into consideration the negative Goos-H(a)nchen shift.Finally,the expression of the group velocity of the guided mode in optical planar waveguide was obtained,which clearly shows that the time delay upon total reflection is the sum of the group-delay time and the Goos-H(a)nchen time at given any time.

  20. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Concerning the european community, two meetings occurred during october 2008, the group on the nuclear safety and the waste management at Brussels and the meeting of W.E.N.R.A. (Western european nuclear regulator association). At the international level, the commission on safety standards took place in september 2008 at Vienna, a general conference of IAEA and the senor regulator meeting in september at Vienna. The worldwide conference of radiation protection (International radiation protection association -I.R.P.A.) took place under IAEA aegis at Buenos Aires in october 2008. Bilateral relations between France and South Africa, Germany, China, United States and Japan took place in october 2008 and were about information exchanges. (N.C.)

  1. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna


    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  2. Beijing International Sculpture Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Inauguration of the 2002 Beijing International Urban Sculptural Art Exhibition also saw the opening of the Beijing International Sculpture Park on Yuquan Road, Beijing. The park houses 140 statues.This exhibition is aimed at promoting exchanges and cooperation among sculptors across the world, integrating urban sculpture into everyday life, and encouraging innovation in this sector. It is expected to bring inspiration to Beijing as regards new concepts in urban construction, through exchanges with other nations. This exhibition constitutes interaction between the public and art, and dialogue between China and the world.The works on display are Beijing’s latest attraction, and add a touch of modernity to this ancient city. Some are to be placed in sports stadiums during the 2008 Olympics.

  3. Interne eller eksterne ledere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne


    built on previous research that developed the contingency model of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has......How family firms succeed in transferring strategically relevant knowledge from one generation to the next is the core question in this paper. In this context we differentiate between situations in which a family member takes over and such situations where an external successor is selected. Here we...... used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed...

  4. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...... the different purposes of theory, how theory can be used to shape your analytical strategy and some of the pitfalls you need to be aware of. Throughout I refer to theories and concepts from across the module that you will be fairly familiar with by now. But I will also make some new distinctions to give...

  5. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible...... concepts in the field. The book brings together a select group of leading IR scholars who draw on both theoretical and empirical insights from Bourdieu. Each chapter covers one central concept in IR: Methodology, Knowledge, Power, Strategy, Security, Culture, Gender, Norms, Sovereignty and Integration....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  6. International Water Center (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  7. Geneva international synergies

    CERN Multimedia


    Geneva has a long history of hosting international organizations, which is part of the reason why CERN is here, and it makes the canton an ideal place to forge links between such organizations. Over recent weeks, CERN has signed agreements with the ITU, WIPO and the WMO. At first sight, there may not seem to be much common ground between CERN and, say, the World Meteorological Organization, but scratch the surface, and you’ll soon find a common thread. All of these organizations have a vocation to stimulate technological innovation, and together we’re stronger.   Let’s start with ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. There, the synergies are evident. When ITU organized the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003, CERN provided a significant side event examining the Role of Science in the Information Society. The current agreement builds on that, allowing our two organizations to work together on important societal issues such as the extension of b...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Third Shanghai International Industrial Fair was held in New International Fair Center in Pudong Area in late November. This industrial fair titled "Information and Industrialization" aimed at highlighting China's high technology and industrial achievements in the new century. The sponsors for this session of industrial fair include China State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Foreign Economic and Trade Relations, Ministry of Information Industry, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Government.CNPC and Sinopec participated in the exhibition displaying a number of the latest technologies such as PetroChina's model for state land resources and Sinopec's model for 300,000-ton ethylene project.

  9. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko


    . Then, progres- sively, this cooperative approach was combined with non-cooperative elements such as the stability analysis of the agreements. Finally, partition function games, which model coalition formation endogenously, were introduced and became the standard approach to study the formation......This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...

  10. International operations networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Sami; Cheng, Yang


    Although the area of International Manufacturing Network (IMN) and International Operations Network (ION) has received considerable attention in the literature, most of studies appear multifaceted and interdisciplinary, and thereby require thorough investigation from both academic and practical perspectives, in order to deepen our related understanding. The book seeks advanced contributions that will combine theoretical insights and empirical experience by offering a detailed examination of IMN and, further, ION from various perspectives. This book can be used as a reference material for scholarpractitioners, business executives, and university researchers who need to deepen their understanding on the importance and influence of IMN and ION as well as their development. The book is important because there are few reference/resource materials available related to IMN and ION.

  11. Celebrities in International Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima


    , media, and NGOs, then considers exemplary cases of Angelina Jolie in Burma, Ben Affleck in the Democractic Republic of Congo, and Madonna in Malawi. These celebrity practices as diplomats, experts, and humanitarians in international affairs illustrate the diverse and contradictory forms of engagement......Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...... that celebrities are acting as other elite actors in international affairs: investing considerable capital into processes that are highly political. It traces the emergence and practices of the elite politics of celebrities in North-South relations, an evolution made possible by recent changes in aid practices...

  12. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  13. Total Dose Effects on Bipolar Integrated Circuits at Low Temperature (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.


    Total dose damage in bipolar integrated circuits is investigated at low temperature, along with the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters of internal transistors. Bandgap narrowing causes the gain of npn transistors to decrease far more at low temperature compared to pnp transistors, due to the large difference in emitter doping concentration. When irradiations are done at temperatures of -140 deg C, no damage occurs until devices are warmed to temperatures above -50 deg C. After warm-up, subsequent cooling shows that damage is then present at low temperature. This can be explained by the very strong temperature dependence of dispersive transport in the continuous-time-random-walk model for hole transport. For linear integrated circuits, low temperature operation is affected by the strong temperature dependence of npn transistors along with the higher sensitivity of lateral and substrate pnp transistors to radiation damage.

  14. An Assessment of Three Northeast Asian Economies’ Total Factor Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU


    Full Text Available East Asian economies have achieved spectacular growth rates in a relatively short timespan outstripping the rest of the developing world. Hence the concern of both scholarly and policymaking circles for their peculiar development strategies. Both their spectacular rise and provisional decline after the Asian financial crisis (AFC were explained from three major perspectives: statism, neoliberalism, and neoconfucianism.The paper purports to quantify and interpret the pre-crisis total factor productivity (TFP of three Northeast Asian economies by using the Solow Model. The interdependencies between their TFP dynamics were investigated via a VAR Model. The findings suggest that labour contribution has decreased over time in favour of capital inputs and/or TFP as speedy industrialisation, and a gradual refinement of international specialisation proceeded. However low or even negative TFP during the 1990s signal the emergence of structural problems that decelerate growth, and increase these economies’ vulnerability to exogenous shocks.

  15. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau (United States)

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G


    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed.

  16. International Masterclass at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lapka, M


    The CMS collaboration welcomed a class of French high school students to the CERN facility in Meyrin, Switzerland on the 12 of March, 2012. Students spent the day meeting with physicists, hearing talks, asking questions, and participating in a hands-on exercise using real data collected by the CMS experiment on the Large Hadron Colider. Talks and other resources are available here:

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  18. Project: Internal communications (United States)

    Black, Lydia


    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  19. Internal mail envelopes

    CERN Multimedia


    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unusual stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  20. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia


    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  1. USSR Report, International Affairs (United States)


    newspaper JORNADA notes, "Washington has gone over to kindling a conflict between Honduras and Nicaragua, which opens the way for direct U.S...transport-economic ties are to a significant degree found in a more rational international socialist division of labor ; organization of optimal...Intensifying cooperation and increasing the effectiveness of the mutual division of labor of the CEMA nations on the whole will make a significant

  2. Roget's international thesaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Robert L


    A classic reference book that has been used by millions all over the world, Roget's International Thesaurus is the product of more than a century and a half of continuous expansion, reorganization, and improvement. Today, this book is not only the most time-tested and bestselling thesaurus ever, but, newly revised, it is also the most up-to-date and comprehensive reflection of the English language as it is currently used.

  3. International markets for CCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriter, J.P. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)


    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Some Thoughts on Renminbi Internationalization The objectives of RMB internationalization include less need for China to hold US dollar assets so as to avoid risking capital losses, the elimination of exchange-rate risks for Chinese firms, greater funding efficiency for Chinese financial institutions and the promotion of Shanghai as an international financial center. However, the progress in China' s RMB internationalization so far has failed to achieve the above-mentioned objectives.

  5. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13


    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As the Shanghai Cooperation Organization celebrates its fifth anniversary, experts at home and abroad are invited to comment on the organization's development at a seminar co-sponsored by International Review magazine and Fudan University in Shanghai. Excerpts follow: Achievements and drawbacks Pan Guang (Consultant at the Center for Russian and Central Asian Studies, Fudan University, and Director of the Center for Shanghai Cooperation Organization Studies under the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences):...

  7. The international joint commission


    Clamens, Murray


    For over 92 years the International Joint Commission (IJC), United States and Canada, has effectively served the two nations in approving and providing continuous oversight of water resource projects along the 5000-mile common border, in assisting the governments in preventing and resolving issues and disagreements regarding the use of these waters, and in addressing other environmental issues affecting or potentially affecting one or both of the countries. During the first years of the 20th...

  8. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe


    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  9. International diversity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob


    While the concern with demographic diversity in organizations has increased during recent years, international diversity management still remains an understudied area. This is unfortunate since the transfer of diversity management practices within multinational corporations faces particular...... challenges in balancing between global integration and local responsiveness. The aim of this paper is to illustrate some of the central problems that multinational corporations need to deal with when transferring diversity management practices from headquarters to local subsidiaries. This is illustrated...

  10. Internal control system


    Pavésková, Ivana


    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  11. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.


    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  12. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben


    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed.......Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  13. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.


    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  14. Fuzzballs with internal excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We construct general 2-charge D1-D5 horizon-free non-singular solutions of IIB supergravity on T{sup 4} and K3 describing fuzzballs with excitations in the internal manifold; these excitations are characterized by arbitrary curves. The solutions are obtained via dualities from F1-P solutions of heterotic and type IIB on T{sup 4} for the K3 and T{sup 4} cases, respectively. We compute the holographic data encoded in these solutions, and show that the internal excitations are captured by vevs of chiral primaries associated with the middle cohomology of T{sup 4} or K3. We argue that each geometry is dual to a specific superposition of R ground states determined in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the curves defining the supergravity solution. We compute vevs of chiral primaries associated with the middle cohomology and show that they indeed acquire vevs in the superpositions corresponding to fuzzballs with internal excitations, in accordance with the holographic results. We also address the question of whether the fuzzball program can be implemented consistently within supergravity.

  15. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach


    Full Text Available In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015. It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE has been flourishing. The general theory of entrepreneurship indicates that market opportunities are a common and dominant link for all entrepreneurial activities. The entrepreneurship theory refers to the identification or creation opportunities, their evaluation and exploitation. The expansion into new geographic markets is undoubtedly an important market opportunity for growth and development. The internationalisation as a response to the market opportunity takes diverse paths. Based on the in-depth literature search, this issue of our journal aims to determine whether, why and how, in the context of diverse environmental conditions, the pursuit of market opportunities contributes to the increase of internationalisation of the firm (Dimitratos & Plakoyiannaki, 2003; Dimitratos, Voudouris, Plakoyiannaki & Nakos,. 2012; Wach. 2015.

  16. Dictionary of international commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, William J


    International trade is vital to the well-being of the international market. No textbook suited virtually every nation, because no nation is my purpose, so I set about to write one. capable of satisfying its material needs beyond the subsistence level entirely from domestic My first task was to define my terms-tar­ iffs, non-tariff barriers, shipping terminology, resources. As a nation's technology advances and edu­ etc. As this labor progressed over many cational levels improve, heavy industry and months, it became evident there was need for manufacturing are often supplanted by serv­ an encyclopedic reference work which fo­ ice industries, as evidenced by the economies cused upon international trade. My enquiries of Europe, North America, and Japan. The having divulged no similar work in English, I shift to a service economy increases import decided to concentrate efforts upon an reliance, especially in the areas of consumer encyclopedia. products and basic industrial commodities, In selecting entries, i...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3302(c)-1 - Limit on total credits. (United States)


    ... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3302(c)-1 Limit on total... credits in respect of advances under title XII of the Social Security Act before September 13,...

  18. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei;


    was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...

  19. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda


    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  20. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Sjøbjerg, J.O.


    The incidence and location of heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty were evaluated in 58 Neer Mark-II total shoulder replacements. One year after surgery, 45% had developed some ectopic ossification. In six shoulders (10%) the ossifications roentgenographically bridged...... the glenohumeral and/or the glenoacromial space. There was no correlation between shoulder pain and the development of ossification. Shoulders with grade III heterotopic bone formation had a limited range of active elevation compared with shoulders without or with only a milder lesion. Men and patients...... with osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint were significantly disposed to the development of heterotopic bone. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty is frequent, but disabling heterotopic ossifications seem to be rare....

  1. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01 (United States)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.


    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  2. Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29 (United States)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.


    On 2006 March 29, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in Brazil and extends across the Atlantic, northern Africa, and central Asia where it ends at sunset in western Mongolia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the northern two thirds of Africa, Europe, and central Asia.Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  3. Totally Corrective Boosting for Regularized Risk Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chunhua; Barnes, Nick


    Consideration of the primal and dual problems together leads to important new insights into the characteristics of boosting algorithms. In this work, we propose a general framework that can be used to design new boosting algorithms. A wide variety of machine learning problems essentially minimize a regularized risk functional. We show that the proposed boosting framework, termed CGBoost, can accommodate various loss functions and different regularizers in a totally-corrective optimization fashion. We show that, by solving the primal rather than the dual, a large body of totally-corrective boosting algorithms can actually be efficiently solved and no sophisticated convex optimization solvers are needed. We also demonstrate that some boosting algorithms like AdaBoost can be interpreted in our framework--even their optimization is not totally corrective. We empirically show that various boosting algorithms based on the proposed framework perform similarly on the UCIrvine machine learning datasets [1] that we hav...

  4. Noise measurement in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas A Holzer


    Full Text Available Few studies have been performed to analyze noise levels produced by various surgical instruments in the operating room (OR. The highest levels of noise that have been described were due to instruments used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA. These high levels of noise might be a potential health hazard for patients and medical staff. Therefore, we aimed to measure noise levels of current instruments that are widely used worldwide. During a conventional primary TKA the levels of noise in the OR were measured using a Class 1 integrating-averaging sound level meter. The highest A-weighted equivalent level was produced when using a hammer during the implantation of the femoral and tibial components with 90.2 dBA. In total surgical instruments were used for about 10% of the total time of surgery. Noise exposure due to instrument use during TKA does not seem to be a potential health hazard for medical staff or patients.

  5. Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Dodds


    Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.

  6. Primary total hip arthroplasty for acetabular fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-ming; SUN Hong-zhen; WANG Ai-min; DU Quan-yin; WU Siyu; ZHAO Yu-feng; TANG Ying


    Objective: To explore the operative indications and operative methods of primary total hip arthroplasty for acetabular fracture and to observe the clinical curative effect.Methods: We retrospectively summarized and analyzed the traumatic conditions, fracture types, complications,operative time, operative techniques, and short-term curative effect of 11 patients( 10 males and 1 female, with a mean age of 42. 4 years ) with acetabular fracture who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty.Results: The patients were followed up for 6-45 months ( mean = 28 months). Their average Harris score of postoperative hip joint was 78.Conclusion: Under strict mastery of indications,patients with acetabular fracture may undergo primary total hip arthroplasty, but stable acetabular components should be made.

  7. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay


    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  8. Total Solar Eclipse of 2001 June 21 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay


    On 2001 June 21, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and Madagascar, and ends at sunset in the Indian Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern South America and the southern two thirds of Africa. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  9. Total Solar Eclipse of 2002 December 04 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay


    On 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, and ends at sunset in southern Australia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the southern two thirds of Africa, Antarctica, Indian Ocean and Australia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  10. Total Solar Eclipse of 1999 August 11 (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay


    On 1999 August 11, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Eastern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the Atlantic and crosses central Europe, the Middle East, and India, where it ends at sunset in the Bay of Bengal. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, all of Europe, northern Africa, and the western half of Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 1400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  11. Chambolle's Projection Algorithm for Total Variation Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Duran


    Full Text Available Denoising is the problem of removing the inherent noise from an image. The standard noise model is additive white Gaussian noise, where the observed image f is related to the underlying true image u by the degradation model f=u+n, and n is supposed to be at each pixel independently and identically distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable. Since this is an ill-posed problem, Rudin, Osher and Fatemi introduced the total variation as a regularizing term. It has proved to be quite efficient for regularizing images without smoothing the boundaries of the objects. This paper focuses on the simple description of the theory and on the implementation of Chambolle's projection algorithm for minimizing the total variation of a grayscale image. Furthermore, we adapt the algorithm to the vectorial total variation for color images. The implementation is described in detail and its parameters are analyzed and varied to come up with a reliable implementation.

  12. The Role of Information Systems in Implementing Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Z. Siam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to identify the extent to which Information Technology (IT has been used to support TQM in order to identify the role of IT in implementing Total Quality Management (TQM. The primary emphasis of this study was on how IT provides help and supports in TQM processes rather than on TQM performance. This has many policy implications for different firms that are welling to enhance the role of IT in different aspects of their TQM. Approach: The questionnaire survey was used as the data collection method. Data were analysed using SPSS programme. This study is limited only to the managers of operations departments in different companies at Sohar Industrial Estate in Oman. Results: The results of the research indicate that the usage of IT is not the same among the different TQM dimensions. The highest level of IT support was used in information and analysis, output quality assurance and important innovation. While the lowest level of IT support was used in quality results and supplier quality assurance. Conclusion/Recommendations: As IT role should be enhanced in modifying work processes in order to improve product quality and productivity. Value and international implications: This study is the first to be applied in Gulf area, an area that exhibits arapid groth and presence of international companies.

  13. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo


    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  14. An Operational Perspective of Total Lightning Information (United States)

    Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.


    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In order to reach the objective of supplying some relevant information regarding the liquidity inflows and outflows during a financial exercise, the total cash flow analysis must include the analysis of result cashable from operation, of payments and receipts related to the investment and of financing decisions of the last exercise, as well as the analysis of treasury variation (of cash items. The management of total cash flows ensures the correlation of current liquidness flows as consequence of receipts with the payments ’flows, in order to provide payment continuity of mature obligations.

  16. Modelling total energy costs of sports centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussabaine, A.H.; Kirkham, R.J.; Grew, R.J. [Liverpool Univ., School of Architecture and Building Engineering, Liverpool (United Kingdom)


    Providing and maintaining safe and comfortable conditions in sport centres raises many issues, particularly cost. The paper gives an overview of the factors associated with sport centre servicing and attempts to highlight the governing factors associated with this, particularly energy costs. A total of 19 sport centres in the City of Liverpool in the UK are investigated, using data elicited from the Liverpool Leisure Services Directorate. The energy operating costs were analysed using statistical methods. Six models were developed to predict total energy costs. Testing and validation results showed a high level of model accuracy. The models would be of use to professionals involved in feasibility studies at the design stage. (Author)

  17. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations (United States)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.


    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  18. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network (United States)

    ... Place Explore the past, the present and help build a promising future for the world’s polio survivors. ... Polio Health International (PHI) Including International Ventilator Users Network 4207 Lindell Blvd., #110, Saint Louis, MO 63108- ...

  19. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)


    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...