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Sample records for aromatase complex cyp19

  1. Inhibition of human aromatase complex (CYP19) by antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Birkved, Franziska Maria A Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs and epilepsy are often associated with sexual disorder in women such as hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and ovarian cysts. In children, until puberty, a hormone imbalance may influence many aspects of development, e.g. growth and sexual maturation. The aromatase complex...... is the enzyme system that converts androgens to estrogens and consequently an inhibition may induce a hormone imbalance. Twelve antiepileptic drugs, used in mono or polytherapy for the treatment of children, were tested for their ability to inhibit aromatase (CYP19) with commercially available microsomes from...

  2. Ekspresi Gen CYP19 Aromatase, Estrogen, Androgen pada penderita Periodontitis Agresif

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    Dahlia Herawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kepadatan tulang tubuh ditentukan oleh gen CYP19 aromatase, hormon estrogen dan androgen. Pada periodontitis agresif terjadi perkembangan cepat kerusakan tulang alveolar, dan kerusakan tulang alveoler tersebut tidak diimbangioleh regenerasi tulang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menunjukkan ekspresi gen CYP19 aromatase, estrogen, androgen pada penderita periodontitis agresif agar dapat untuk menjadi pertimbangan pada saat melakukan perawatan periodontal. Metode penelitian, pemeriksaan ekspresi gen aromatse CYP19 berasal dari spesimen tulang alveolar menggunakan imunohistokimia, pengukuran hormon estrogen dan androgen dari serum menggunakan Vidas: Elfa. Hasil penelitian ekspresi gene CYP19 aromatase pada periodontitis agresif menunjukkan gambaran lebih rendah densitasnya dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Estrogen dan androgen pad aperiodontitis agresif ada kecenderungan lebih rendah dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Kesimpulan regenerasi tulang alveoler pad a periodontitis agresif terhambat karena sedikitnya gen CYP19 aromatase dan hormon estrogen dan androgen yang berperan pada pembentukan tulang alveoler kurang memadai.

  3. Neural stem cell sex dimorphism in aromatase (CYP19 expression: a basis for differential neural fate

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    Jay Waldron

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay Waldron1, Althea McCourty1, Laurent Lecanu1,21The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, McGill University, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Neural stem cell (NSC transplantation and pharmacologic activation of endogenous neurogenesis are two approaches that trigger a great deal of interest as brain repair strategies. However, the success rate of clinical attempts using stem cells to restore neurologic functions altered either after traumatic brain injury or as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease remains rather disappointing. This suggests that factors affecting the fate of grafted NSCs are largely understudied and remain to be characterized. We recently reported that aging differentially affects the neurogenic properties of male and female NSCs. Although the sex steroids androgens and estrogens participate in the regulation of neurogenesis, to our knowledge, research on how gender-based differences affect the capacity of NSCs to differentiate and condition their neural fate is lacking. In the present study, we explored further the role of cell sex as a determining factor of the neural fate followed by differentiating NSCs and its relationship with a potential differential expression of aromatase (CYP19, the testosterone-metabolizing enzyme.Results: Using NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone of three-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats and maintained as neurospheres, we showed that differentiation triggered by retinoic acid resulted in a neural phenotype that depends on cell sex. Differentiated male NSCs mainly expressed markers of neuronal fate, including ßIII-tubulin, microtubule associated protein 2, growth-associated protein 43, and doublecortin. In contrast, female NSCs essentially expressed the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Quantification of the expression of aromatase showed a very low level of expression in undifferentiated female NSCs

  4. Analysis of the rs10046 Polymorphism of Aromatase (CYP19 in Premenopausal Onset of Human Breast Cancer

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    Karin Zins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CYP19 gene encodes aromatase, an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Studies analyzing associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP19 and breast cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. The rs10046 polymorphism is located in the 3' untranslated region of the CYP19 gene, but the influence of this polymorphism on breast cancer risk is unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of rs10046 SNP on breast cancer risk, age at onset and association with clinical characteristics in an Austrian population of 274 breast cancer patients and 253 controls. The results show that a significantly increased fraction of patients with the TT genotype of rs10046 develop breast cancer under the age of 50 (41.8% of TT patients, compared to 26.6% of C carriers; p = 0.018, Chi-square test. No rs10046 genotypes were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk or patient characteristics other than age at onset. These results suggest that the rs10046 polymorphism in the CYP19 gene may have an effect on breast cancer susceptibility at an age under 50 in the investigated population.

  5. Effects of Neonicotinoids on Promoter-Specific Expression and Activity of Aromatase (CYP19) in Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma (H295R) and Primary Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Denison, Michael S; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (CYP19; cytochrome P450 19) in humans undergoes highly tissue- and promoter-specific regulation. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, aromatase is over-expressed via several normally inactive promoters (PII, I.3, I.7). Aromatase biosynthesizes estrogens, which stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation. The placenta produces estrogens required for healthy pregnancy and the major placental CYP19 promoter is I.1. Exposure to certain pesticides, such as atrazine, is associated with increased CYP19 expression, but little is known about the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on CYP19. We developed sensitive and robust RT-qPCR methods to detect the promoter-specific expression of CYP19 in human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) and primary umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, and determined the potential promoter-specific disruption of CYP19 expression by atrazine and the commonly used neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. In H295R cells, atrazine concentration-dependently increased PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase catalytic activity. Thiacloprid and thiamethoxam induced PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase activity at relatively low concentrations (0.1-1.0 µM), exhibiting non-monotonic concentration-response curves with a decline in gene induction and catalytic activity at higher concentrations. In HUVEC cells, atrazine slightly induced overall (promoter-indistinct) CYP19 expression (30 µM) and aromatase activity (≥ 3 µM), without increasing I.1 promoter activity. None of the neonicotinoids increased CYP19 expression or aromatase activity in HUVEC cells. Considering the importance of promoter-specific (over)expression of CYP19 in disease (breast cancer) or during sensitive developmental periods (pregnancy), our newly developed RT-qPCR methods will be helpful tools in assessing the risk that neonicotinoids and other chemicals may pose to exposed women. © The Author 2015

  6. A loss of aggressive behaviour and its reinstatement by oestrogen in mice lacking the aromatase gene (Cyp19).

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    Toda, K; Saibara, T; Okada, T; Onishi, S; Shizuta, Y

    2001-02-01

    Aromatase P450 (CYP19) is an enzyme responsible for conversion of androgens to oestrogens. We generated CYP19 knockout (ArKO) mice by targeting disruption of the CYP19 gene and observed that the ArKO males exhibited a complete loss of aggressive behaviour against intruder mice when examined using a resident-intruder paradigm. The defect in the behaviour of ArKO males was reinstated when the mice received supplements of 17beta-oestradiol soon after birth. Nevertheless, the cumulative duration of the behaviour displayed by the treated mice during the test period of 15 min was 19+/-10 s, which was much shorter than that displayed by wild-type males, 90+/-17 s. When the supplementation was started at 7 days after birth, the defect was not restored. These findings illustrate an absolute requirement for oestrogen during the neonatal stage of a male's life for the development of the potential for aggression observed in adulthood. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that ArKO males are a useful model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour is controlled.

  7. Screening of selected pesticides for inhibition of CYP19 aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Hnida, C.; Breinholt, V.

    2000-01-01

    than 50 mu M. The positive control 4-hydroxyandrostendione (1 mu M) caused an inhibition of aromatase activity by 74%. The compounds, which did not affect the aromatase activity, were bromopropylate, chlorfenvinphos. chlorobenzilate, chlorpyrifos, diuron, heptachlor, iprodion, linuron, pentachlorphenol...

  8. Effects of xenoestrogens on the expression of vitellogenin (vtg) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19a and b) genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

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    Wang, Jingxian; Shi, Xiongjie; Du, Yongbin; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, expression levels of vitellogenin (vtg) and cytochrome P450 aromatase genes (cyp19a and cyp19b) in zebrafish larvae during the early stages of development were investigated by quantitative real time-PCR assay. The results indicated that vtg gene transcription was induced seven days after zebrafish larvae fertilization, whereas the expression of cyp19a and cyp19b genes was detected as early as 3 and 4 days post-fertilization (dpf). Investigations into the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on the expression of these genes showed that both vtg and cyp19b were upregulated by E2 in zebrafish larvae as early as four dpf, whereas no variation was observed in cyp19a gene expression. The estrogenic potential of pharmaceutical estrogen (DES), phenol estrogen (BPA) and the brominated flame retardants, TBBPA, DE-71 and 4-BP, were evaluated by analyzing the expression of these three genes in zebrafish larvae. The results demonstrated that natural estrogen, endocrine disrupting compounds and brominated flame retardants act as endocrine disrupters through different mechanisms. We have demonstrated for the first time that the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71, acts as an endocrine disrupter by upregulation of cyp19b gene expression at a relatively low concentration. These results indicate that analysis of vtg and cyp19b gene expression in zebrafish during early embryogenesis and organogenesis represents the basis of a sensitive and fast bioassay for the routine assessment of xenoestrogen effects.

  9. DNA methylation of the gonadal aromatase (cyp19a promoter is involved in temperature-dependent sex ratio shifts in the European sea bass.

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    Laia Navarro-Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb, a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a, the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  10. Screening of selected pesticides for inhibition of CYP19 aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Hnida, C.; Breinholt, V.

    2000-01-01

    Many pesticides are able to block or activate the steroid hormone receptors and/or to affect the levels of sex hormones, thereby potentially affecting the development or expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. This emphasizes the relevance of screening pesticides for a wide......, and triadimenol were identified as weak aromatase inhibitors. In conclusion, seven out of 22 tested pesticides turned out to be weak to moderate aromatase inhibitors in vitro, indicating the relevance of elucidating the endocrine effects in vivo of these compounds....

  11. Simple tandem repeat (TTTAn polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase gene and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women

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    Ferrell Robert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. The incidence of the disease is increasing globally and this increase is occurring at a faster rate in population groups that hirtherto enjoyed low incidence. This study was designed to evaluate the role of a simple tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP in the aromatase (CYP19 gene in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women, a population of indigenous sub-Saharan African ancestry. Methods A case-control study recruiting 250 women with breast cancer and 250 women without the disease from four University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria was carried out between September 2002 and April 2004. Participants were recruited from the surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of the Nigerian institutions. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay was employed for genotyping and product sizes were detected with an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer. Results Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that harboring the putative high risk genotypes conferred a 29% increased risk of breast cancer when all women in the study were considered (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–2.00, although this association was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis based on menopausal status showed similar results among premenopausal women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.76–2.41 and postmenopausal women (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.64–2.49. The data also demonstrated marked differences in the distribution of (TTTAn repeats in Nigerian women compared with other populations. Conclusion This study has shown that harboring 10 or more repeats of the microsatellite (TTTAn repeats of the CYY19 gene is associated with a modest increased risk of breast cancer in Nigerian women.

  12. Temperature Shift Alters DNA Methylation and Histone Modification Patterns in Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1 Gene in Species with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination.

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    Yuiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1 gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta subjected to a temperature shift during development. Shifting embryos from a male-producing temperature (MPT to a female-producing temperature (FPT at the beginning of the temperature-sensitive period (TSP resulted in an increase in aromatase mRNA expression while a shift from FPT to MPT resulted in decreased expression. DNA methylation levels at CpG sites in the promoter of the aromatase gene were high (70-90% at the beginning of TSP, but decreased in embryos that were incubated at constant FPT and those shifted from MPT to the FPT. This decrease in methylation in the promoter inversely correlated with the expected increase in aromatase expression at the FPT. The active demethylation under the FPT was especially prominent at the CpG site upstream of the gonad-specific TATA box at the beginning of TSP and spread downstream of the gene including exon1 as the gonad development progressed. In embryos incubated at FPT, the promoter region was also labeled by canonical transcriptional activation markers, H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II. A transcriptional repression marker, H3K27me3, was observed in temperature-shifted gonads of both temperature groups, but was not maintained throughout the development in either group. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation and H3K4me3 modification at the aromatase promoter may be a primary mechanism that releases a transcriptional block of aromatase to

  13. Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study.

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    Shaban, N Z; Hegazy, W A; Abdel-Rahman, S M; Awed, O M; Khalil, S A

    2016-08-29

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide novel approaches to the adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. In this study, different plant extracts from Olea europaea leaves (OLE), Sonchus oleraceus L. (SOE) and Mangifera indica peels (MPE) were prepared to identify phytoconstituents and measure antioxidant capacities. The effects of these three extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of these extracts on tissue-specific promoter expression of CYP19A1 gene in cell culture model (MCF-7) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Results showed a concentration-dependent decrease in aromatase activity after treatment with OLE and MPE, whereas, SOE showed a biphasic effect. The differential effects of OLE, SOE and MPE on aromatase expression showed that OLE seems to be the most potent suppressor followed by SOE and then MPE. These findings indicate that OLE has effective inhibitory action on aromatase at both the enzymatic and expression levels, in addition to its cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Also, MPE may be has the potential to be used as a tissue-specific aromatase inhibitor (selective aromatase inhibitor) and it may be promising to develop a new therapeutic agent against ER+ breast cancer.

  14. Oestrogen at the neonatal stage is critical for the reproductive ability of male mice as revealed by supplementation with 17beta-oestradiol to aromatase gene (Cyp19) knockout mice.

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    Toda, K; Okada, T; Takeda, K; Akira, S; Saibara, T; Shiraishi, M; Onishi, S; Shizuta, Y

    2001-03-01

    Aromatase P450 (CYP19) is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. We generated CYP19 knockout (ArKO) mice by targeted disruption of Cyp19 and studied the role of oestrogens in male reproductive ability. Approximately 85% of ArKO males were unable to sire offspring. However, no obvious difference was found in testicular and epididymal weights, numbers of sperm in the epididymis or the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in vitro between wild-type and ArKO males. An examination of mating behaviour demonstrated that ArKO males showed an impairment in mounting behaviour against sexually mature females. The inability of more than 90% of ArKO males to sire offspring was reversed by repeated subcutaneous injections of 17beta-oestradiol when initiated on the day of birth. The effects of 17beta-oestradiol on reproduction were concentration dependent and evident when supplementation was initiated on day 7, but not on day 15 after birth. These findings suggest that oestrogens acting during neonatal life are required for normal mating behaviour in adulthood.

  15. Epigenetic control of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1 in temperature-dependent sex determination of red-eared slider turtles.

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    Yuiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD, the expression of the aromatase gene during gonad development is strictly limited to the female-producing temperature. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the upstream 5'-flanking region of the aromatase gene, gonad-specific promoter, and the temperature-dependent DNA methylation signatures during gonad development in the red-eared slider turtle. The 5'-flanking region of the slider aromatase exhibited sequence similarities to the aromatase genes of the American alligator, chicken, quail, and zebra finch. A putative TATA box was located 31 bp upstream of the gonad-specific transcription start site. DNA methylation at the CpG sites between the putative binding sites of the fork head domain factor (FOX and vertebrate steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 and adjacent TATA box in the promoter region were significantly lower in embryonic gonads at the female-producing temperature compared the male-producing temperature. A shift from male- to female-, but not from female- to male-, producing temperature changed the level of DNA methylation in gonads. Taken together these results indicate that the temperature, particularly female-producing temperature, allows demethylation at the specific CpG sites of the promoter region which leads the temperature-specific expression of aromatase during gonad development.

  16. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letcher, Robert J.; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P.; Berg, Martin van den

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 μM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17β-estradiol (E2, 1 μM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 μM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 μM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 μM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 μM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 μM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 μM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 μM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 μM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100

  17. Association of a (TTTA)n microsatellite and a TCT del/ins polymorphisms in the aromatase gene (CYP19) with hip fracture risk in Mexican postmenopausal women.

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    Casas-Avila, Leonora; Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Ponce de León-Suárez, Valeria; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Rubio-Lightbourn, Julieta; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    A (TTTA)n polymorphism in the aromatase gene has been studied in relation to bone mineral density (BMD). The low number of TTTA repeats has been associated with low BMD and fracture risk. The aim of this study was to search for associations of TTTA copy number with hip fracture and lumbar spine osteoporosis in Mexican peri and postmenopausal women. The allele with seven repeats was present in the two reported versions, with or without a TCT deletion upstream of the microsatellite (A1 and A2, respectively). After adjustment by confounders, the A1 allele and the A1A1 genotype were significantly associated with an elevated risk of fracture (p = 0.034, OR = 3.2 [95% CI, 1.09-9.41] and p = 0.019, OR = 2.26 [95% CI, 1.14-4.49], respectively) and the A2 allele was associated with protection of hip fracture (p = 0.04, OR = 0.48, [95% CI, 0.22-1.05]) as the A2A2 genotype (p = 0.048, OR = 0.29 [95% CI, 0.06-1.16]). The analysis allowed us to defining the usefulness of the (TTTA)n polymorphism in the aromatase gene as an indicator of hip fracture risk in Mexican population.

  18. Estrogen-regulated expression of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b genes in swim-up fry of Labeo rohita.

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    Gupta, Shreyasi; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Pal, Puja; Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Guha, Payel; Juin, Subir Kumar; Panigrahi, Ashis Kumar; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2017-09-15

    P450 aromatase is the terminal enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway and catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The expression of cyp19a1 genes in brain and gonad of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita swim-up fry was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain-reaction. Results demonstrated that cyp19a1b and cyp19a1a predominate in brain and gonad respectively. Treatment of fry with an aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 6days attenuated brain cyp19a1b expression, but not cyp19a1a of gonad. Fadrozole also attenuated brain aromatase activity. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) for 6days resulted in up-regulation of brain cyp19a1b transcripts in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not cyp19a1a. Whole-body concentration of vitellogenin also increased in response to E2. Altogether, these results indicate L. rohita swim-up fry can be used to detect environmental estrogens either using vitellogenin induction or cyp19a1b gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

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    Guo, Jiajia [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Yuan, Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yang, Lijuan [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Liu, Wanli [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Xiaohong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Zhang, Guolin, E-mail: zhanggl@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: wangfei@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China)

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  20. Investigation of aromatase inhibitory activity of metal complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and uracil derivatives

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    Prachayasittikul V

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Veda Prachayasittikul,1 Ratchanok Pingaew,2 Chanin Nantasenamat,3 Supaluk Prachayasittikul,3 Somsak Ruchirawat,4,5 Virapong Prachayasittikul1 1Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Chulabhorn Research Institute, 5Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Estrogens play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer as well as estrogen-related diseases. Aromatase is a key enzyme in the rate-limiting step of estrogen production, in which its inhibition is one strategy for controlling estrogen levels to improve prognosis of estrogen-related cancers and diseases. Herein, a series of metal (Mn, Cu, and Ni complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ and uracil derivatives (4–9 were investigated for their aromatase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities. Methods: The aromatase inhibition assay was performed according to a Gentest™ kit using CYP19 enzyme, wherein ketoconazole and letrozole were used as reference drugs. The cytotoxicity was tested on normal embryonic lung cells (MRC-5 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: Only Cu complexes (6 and 9 exhibited aromatase inhibitory effect with IC50 0.30 and 1.7 µM, respectively. Cytotoxicity test against MRC-5 cells showed that Mn and Cu complexes (5 and 6, as well as free ligand 8HQ, exhibited activity with IC50 range 0.74–6.27 µM. Conclusion: Cu complexes (6 and 9 were found to act as a novel class of aromatase inhibitor. Our findings suggest that these 8HQ–Cu–uracil complexes are promising agents that could be potentially developed as a selective anticancer agent for breast cancer

  1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 μg/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells

  2. Triclocarban and Triclosan Inhibit Human Aromatase via Different Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huitao; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Lanlan; Su, Ying; Li, Xiaoheng; Jin, Lixu; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Human aromatase (CYP19A1) is an important enzyme, which produces estrogen from androgen for maintaining the female reproductive function and pregnancy. Triclocarban and triclosan are antimicrobial chemicals added to personal care, household, and industrial products. They could be endocrine disruptors and may disrupt human CYP19A1 activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of triclocarban and triclosan on estradiol production and human CYP19A1 activity in JEG-3 cells. Tricloca...

  3. Ekspresi Gen CYP19 dalam Kultur Sel Osteoblas dari Periodontitis Tulang Alveolar Agresif Distimulasi dengan Vitamin D dan atau Deksametason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Herawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Estrogen mengatur homeostasis tulang dan disekresikan oleh gonad dan ekstragonad. Selain itu,androgen diubah menjadiestrogen oleh enzim aromatase P450 yang dihasilkan oleh sitokrom P450 aromatase. Ini diproduksi oleh gen sitokrom CYP19. Vitamin D berperan dalam mengatur homeostasis kalsium dan ekspresi gen aromatase langsung. Deksametason bertindak sebagai anti inflamasi, menghentikan peradangan dan meningkatkan kecepatan penyem6uhan. Kerusakan parah tulang alveolar di periodontitis agresif dapat terjadi di usia muda. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji ekspresi gen CYP19daiam kultur sel osteoblas periodontitis agresif tulang alveolar pasien dengan stimulasi vitamin D dan atau deksametason. Metode. Fragmen tulang alveolar dari pasien periodontitis agresif dikultur dalam dimodifikasi F-12 medium dilengkapi dengan serum janin sapi (FBS 20%, antibiotik (penisilin streptomisin 5%, dan fungizone 2%. Sel-sel osteoblas yang tumbuh dalam kultur dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok 1: kultur diperlakukan non, kelompok 2: diperlakukan dengan vitamin D 10-6 moVL,kelompok 3: diperlakukan dengan deksametason 10.7mol/L, dan kelompok 4: diperlakukan dengan kombinasi vitamin D den deksametason pada dosis yang sarna. Setelah 24 jam perlakuan dihentikan, semua kelompok kultur yang diamati dengan teknik imunositokimia dan menghitung persentase CYP19 ekspresi gen dan sel oeteoblas dalam kultur. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa persentase rata-rata CYP19 ekspresi gen untuk kelompok 1, 2, 3, dan 4 adalah 44.18, 38.66,35.26 dan 31.13%, masing-masing, dan perbedaan yang signifikan antara perlakuan dengan p<0.05. Disimpulkan bahwa perlakuan terbaik untuk meningkatkan jumlah sel osteoblas, adalh kombinasi vitamin D dan deksametason, walaupun persentase ekspresi gen CYP19 adalah nilai terendah di antara kelompok.

  4. CYP19A1 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland-Jones, Brian; Gray, Kathryn P; Abramovitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether CYP19A1 polymorphisms are associated with abnormal activity of aromatase and with musculoskeletal and bone side effects of aromatase inhibitors. DNA was isolated from tumor specimens of 4861 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1......-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Tumors were genotyped for six CYP19A1 polymorphisms using PCR-based methods. Associations with breast cancer-free interval (BCFI), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI), musculoskeletal and bone adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox...... proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were two-sided. No association between the CYP19A1 genotypes and BCFI or DRFI was observed overall. A reduced risk of a breast cancer event for tamoxifen-treated patients with rs700518 variants was observed (BCFI CC/TC vs. TT: HR 0.53, 95 % CI 0...

  5. CYP19A1 gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer etiology in Saudi population: case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mukaynizi FB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatimah Basil Al-Mukaynizi,1 Mohammed Alanazi,1 Sooad Al-Daihan,1 Narasimha Reddy Parine,1 Majid Almadi,2 Abdulrahman Aljebreen,2 Nahla Azzam,2 Othman Alharbi,2 Maha Arafah,3 Arjumand Warsy4 1Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, 4Central Laboratory, Female Center for Scientific & Medical Colleges, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Considerable interest is directed toward the enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1 and the development of cancer, due to CYP19A1’s role in estrogen biosynthesis. Several cancers display excessive intra-tumor accumulation of estrogens, and aromatase inhibitors are used for treatment. The CYP19A1 gene exhibits polymorphism and mutations that can alter its expression or aromatase activity and influence estrogen production. We designed this study to investigate the link between CYP19A1 polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC development in Saudis. Patients and methods: Blood samples from 100 CRC patients and 100 healthy controls were drawn for DNA extractions. Three polymorphic sites, rs4774585, rs936308, and rs4775936, were genotyped using Taqman genotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Allelic and genotype frequencies were calculated and compared in the two groups. Results: All single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were polymorphic in Saudis, and comparison of allele frequencies showed several differences when compared to other populations. None of the SNPs were associated with the risk of CRC development in Saudis (P>0.05. Some gender and location (colon or rectal differences were observed. Discussion: The results of this study highlighted the genetic heterogeneity existing between populations in the prevalence of different SNPs and their relation to disease state. It showed that, although rs4774585, rs936308, and rs4775936 are involved in CRC development in several populations, their role

  6. Mutation of foxl2 or cyp19a1a Results in Female to Male Sex Reversal in XX Nile Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianbo; Li, Mengru; Ma, He; Liu, Xingyong; Shi, Hongjuan; Li, Minghui; Wang, Deshou

    2017-08-01

    It is well accepted that Forkhead box protein L2 (Foxl2) and aromatase (Cyp19a1; the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis) are critical for ovarian development in vertebrates. Knockouts of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1 in goat, mouse, and zebrafish have revealed similar but not identical functions across species. Functional analyses of these two genes in other animals are needed to elucidate their conserved roles in vertebrate sexual development. In this study, we established foxl2 and cyp19a1a mutant lines in Nile tilapia. Both foxl2-/- and cyp19a1a-/- XX fish displayed female-to-male sex reversal. Sf1, Dmrt1, and Gsdf were upregulated in the foxl2-/- and the cyp19a1a-/- XX gonads. Downregulation of Cyp19a1a and serum estradiol-17β level, and upregulation of Cyp11b2 and serum 11-ketotestosterone level were observed in foxl2-/- XX fish. The mutant phenotype of foxl2-/- XX individuals could be rescued by 17β-estradiol treatment from 5 to 30 days after hatching (dah). Upregulation of Star1, the enzyme involved in androgen production in tilapia, was also observed in the foxl2-/- XX gonad at 30 and 90 dah. In vitro promoter analyses consistently demonstrated that Foxl2 could suppress the transcription of star1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared with the control XX gonad, fewer germ cells were detected in the foxl2-/- XX, cyp19a1a-/- XX, and control XY gonads 10 dah. These results demonstrate that Foxl2 promotes ovarian development by upregulating Cyp19a1a expression and repressing male pathway gene expression. These results extend the study of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1a loss of function to a commercially important fish species. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  7. New Insights Into the Role of Estrogens in Male Fertility Based on Findings in Aromatase-Deficient Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haipei; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yun; Yin, Yike; Li, Gaofei; Guo, Yin; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Aromatase (encoded by CYP19) catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis. However, less is known about the role of aromatase in male fertility in nonmammalian species. Fish aromatase is encoded by two separate genes: the gonad-specific cyp19a1a and the brain-specific cyp19a1b. In a recent study, we used transcription activatorlike effector nucleases to systematically generate cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b mutant lines and a cyp19a1a;cyp19a1b double-mutant line in zebrafish and demonstrated that cyp19a1a was indispensable for sex differentiation. In this study, we focused on male fertility in these aromatase-deficient zebrafish. Our results showed that all aromatase-deficient male fish had normal fertility even at 1 year after fertilization. Interestingly, we observed more spermatozoa in the cyp19a1a and double-mutant males than in the wild-type and cyp19a1b mutant males. The whole-body androgen levels, follicle-stimulating hormone β and luteinizing hormone β protein levels in the pituitary, and transcript levels of genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in the testes were significantly higher in the cyp19a1a mutant and aromatase double-mutant males than in the wild-type and cyp19a1b mutant males. These results might explain why more spermatozoa were observed in these fish. Collectively, our findings indicate that estrogens are not needed to achieve and maintain normal fertility in male zebrafish. This finding challenges the traditional view that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Aromatase excess syndrome: a rare autosomal dominant disorder leading to pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Shozu, Makio; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2014-03-01

    Overexpression of CYP19A1 encoding aromatase results in a rare genetic disorder referred to as aromatase excess syndrome (AEXS). Male patients with AEXS manifest pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, gonadotropin deficiency, and advanced bone age, while female patients are mostly asymptomatic. To date, 30 male patients with molecularly confirmed AEXS have been reported. A total of 12 types of submicroscopic rearrangements, i.e., two simple duplications, four simple deletions, two simple inversions, and four complex rearrangements, have been implicated in AEXS. Clinical severity of AEXS primarily depends on the types of the rearrangements. AEXS appears to account for a small number of cases of pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, and should be suspected particularly when gynecomastia is associated with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, characteristic hormone abnormalities and/or advanced bone age. Treatment with an aromatase inhibitor appears to benefit patients with AEXS, although long-term safety of this class of drugs remains unknown.

  9. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women – effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Cohen, Arieh; Sommer, Helle Molgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tjonneland, Anne; Hougaard, David Michael; Vogel, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and interaction with aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) may also affect circulating sex-hormone levels by modifying PPARγ activity. In the present study we assessed whether genetic variation in CYP19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish “Diet, Cancer and Health” cohort (n cases = 687 and n controls = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions. Association between the CYP19A1 polymorphisms and hormone levels was also examined among 339 non-HRT users. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox’ proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we performed a pilot randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the PPARG Pro 12 Ala polymorphism and the PPARγ stimulator Ibuprofen on sex-hormone levels following alcohol intake in postmenopausal women (n = 25) using linear regression. Genetic variations in CYP19A1 were associated with hormone levels (estrone: P rs11070844 = 0.009, estrone sulphate: P rs11070844 = 0.01, P rs749292 = 0.004, P rs1062033 = 0.007 and P rs10519297 = 0.03, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG): P rs3751591 = 0.03) and interacted with alcohol intake in relation to hormone levels (estrone sulphate: P interaction/rs2008691 = 0.02 and P interaction/rs1062033= 0.03, and SHBG: P interaction/rs11070844 = 0.03). CYP19A1/rs3751591 was both associated with SHBG levels (P = 0.03) and with risk of BC (Incidence Rate Ratio = 2.12; 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.02–4.43) such that homozygous

  10. Molecular Bases and Phenotypic Determinants of Aromatase Excess Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Fukami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase excess syndrome (AEXS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by gynecomastia. This condition is caused by overexpression of CYP19A1 encoding aromatase, and three types of cryptic genomic rearrangement around CYP19A1, that is, duplications, deletions, and inversions, have been identified in AEXS. Duplications appear to have caused CYP19A1 overexpression because of an increased number of physiological promoters, whereas deletions and inversions would have induced wide CYP19A1 expression due to the formation of chimeric genes consisting of a noncoding exon(s of a neighboring gene and CYP19A1 coding exons. Genotype-phenotype analysis implies that phenotypic severity of AEXS is primarily determined by the expression pattern of CYP19A1 and the chimeric genes and by the structural property of the fused exons with a promoter function (i.e., the presence or the absence of a natural translation start codon. These results provide novel information about molecular mechanisms of human genetic disorders and biological function of estrogens.

  11. Triclocarban and Triclosan Inhibit Human Aromatase via Different Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huitao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human aromatase (CYP19A1 is an important enzyme, which produces estrogen from androgen for maintaining the female reproductive function and pregnancy. Triclocarban and triclosan are antimicrobial chemicals added to personal care, household, and industrial products. They could be endocrine disruptors and may disrupt human CYP19A1 activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of triclocarban and triclosan on estradiol production and human CYP19A1 activity in JEG-3 cells. Triclocarban and triclosan reduced estradiol production in JEG-3 cells. Triclocarban and triclosan inhibited human CYP19A1 with IC50 values of 15.81 and 6.26 μM, respectively. Triclosan competitively inhibited CYP19A1, while triclocarban noncompetitively inhibited this enzyme. Docking study showed that triclosan bound to the steroid-binding pocket of CYP19A1, while triclocarban was off this target, suggesting a different mechanism. In conclusion, triclocarban and triclosan are inhibitors of human CYP19A1.

  12. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Fatemeh; Khazali, Homayoun; Hedayati, Mehdi; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10) and PCOS (n=30). Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT), and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR) groups (n=10 per group). The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (PStAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632). EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  13. Aromatase, brain sexualization and plasticity: the fish paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yann; Diotel, Nicolas; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Anglade, Isabelle; Mérot, Yohann; Kah, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    In contrast to mammals, teleost fish have a very labile genetic sex determination. Sex differentiation is influenced by a combination of hormonal, social and environmental factors and teleost fishes exhibit many examples of hermaphroditism. This means that the brain of fish is not irreversibly sexualized early in life. This review aims at highlighting some unique features of fish that may explain their brain sexual plasticity. Unlike mammals, in which brain aromatase activity decreases after birth, adult teleosts exhibit an intense aromatase activity due to strong expression of one of two aromatase genes (aromatase A or cyp19a1a and aromatase B or cyp19a1b) that arose from a gene duplication event. Interestingly, aromatase B is only expressed in radial glial cells (RGC) of adult fish. These cells persist throughout life and act as progenitors in the brain of both developing and adult fish. In agreement with the fact that brain aromatase activity is correlated with sex steroid levels, the high expression of cyp19a1b is due to an autoregulatory loop through which estrogens and aromatizable androgens upregulate aromatase expression. Given the well-established roles of estrogens and aromatase on brain sexualization, these features suggest that the brain of fish conserves properties of embryonic mammalian brain throughout life - high neurogenic activity and high aromatase expression in progenitor cells correlated with sex steroid levels. The permanent dialogue between the brain and the gonad would permit sex changes and thus the emergence of a variety of reproductive strategies. Other hypotheses are also discussed. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Comprehensive and Automated Linear Interaction Energy Based Binding-Affinity Prediction for Multifarious Cytochrome P450 Aromatase Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marc; Ter Laak, Antonius M; Wichard, Jörg D; Capoferri, Luigi; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Geerke, Daan P

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) plays a key role in the development of estrogen dependent breast cancer, and aromatase inhibitors have been at the front line of treatment for the past three decades. The development of potent, selective and safer inhibitors is ongoing with in silico screening

  15. (CYP19) gene in Iranian women with endometriosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hajar Saber

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... while anti-estrogenic influences (smoking, vigorous exercise) are associated with decreased risk [21]. Endometriosis implants synthesize large quantities of estradiol (E2) locally during the secretary phase than the dose endometrium from women with- out the disease [22]. Aromatase, which catalyzes the ...

  16. Inhibitory effect of Sphagnum palustre extract and its bioactive compounds on aromatase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jeong Eom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum palustre (a moss has been traditionally used in Korea for the cure of several diseases such as cardiac pain and stroke. In this research, the inhibitory effect of S. palustre on aromatase (cytochrome P450 19, CYP19 activity was studied. [1β-3H] androstenedione was used as a substrate and incubated with S. palustre extract and recombinant human CYP19 in the presence of NADPH. S. palustre extract inhibited aromatase in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value: 36.4 ± 8.1 µg/mL. To elucidate the major compounds responsible for the aromatase inhibitory effects of S. palustre extract, nine compounds were isolated from the extract and tested for their inhibition of aromatase activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 displayed aromatase inhibition, while the inhibition by the other compounds was negligible.

  17. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Aghaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR and aromatase (CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary exercise on these parameters. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10 and PCOS (n=30. Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT, and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR groups (n=10 per group. The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. Results: There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (P<0.001. Treadmill exercise (P=0.972 and running wheel exercise (P=0.839 had no significant effects on CYP19 mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group. mRNA expression of StAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810. We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632. Conclusion: EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions.

  18. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  19. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  20. Aromatase, oestrogens and human male reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Serge; Wolczynski, Slaweck; Galeraud-Denis, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In most mammalian species aromatase is encoded by a single gene (Cyp19), which contains 18 exons, nine of them being translated. In man, the presence of a biologically active aromatase and oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) has been reported in Leydig cells, and also in immature germ cells and ejaculated spermatozoa. Concerning aromatase, the amount of transcript and enzymatic activity are decreased in immotile compared with motile sperm. We have amplified aromatase mRNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction in spermatozoa from asthenospermic, teratospermic and asthenoteratospermic men and recorded, respectively, 44, 52 and 67 per cent decreases of the amount of transcripts compared with fertile donors. A high degree of correlation (r = −0.64) between the abnormal spermatozoa (especially microcephaly and acrosome malformations) and aromatase/GAPDH transcript ratio has been observed. Idiopathic infertility is a wide health problem and no treatment is currently available. In humans, even if the role of oestrogens in spermatogenesis is still a matter of debate, the observations of decreased sperm number and motility in men genetically deficient in aromatase, together with our data and those reported in the literature, may suggest a role for aromatase/oestrogens not only during the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis but also in the final maturation of spermatozoa. PMID:20403870

  1. Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Akira; Grumbach, M.M.; Simpson, E.R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The aromatase enzyme complex catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in a wide variety of tissues, including the ovary, testis, placenta, brain, and adipose tissue. Only a single human gene encoding aromatase P450 (CYP19) has been isolated; tissue-specific regulation is controlled in part by alternative promoters in a tissue-specific manner. We report a novel mutation in the CYP19 gene in a sister and brother. The 28-yr-old XX proband, followed since infancy, exhibited the cardinal features of the aromatase deficiency syndrome as recently defined. She had nonadrenal female pseudohermaphrodism at birth and underwent repair of the external genitalia, including a clitorectomy. Her adult height is 177.6 cm (+2.5 SD). Her only sibling, and XY male, was studied at 24 yr of age. During both pregnancies, the mother exhibited signs of progressive virilization that regressed postpartum. The height of the brother was 204 cm (+3.7 SD) with eunuchoid skeletal proportions, and the weight was 135.1 kg (+2.1 SD). He was sexually fully mature and had macroorchidism. The bone age was 14 yr at a chronological age of 24 3/12 yr. Bone mineral densitometric indexes of the lumbar spine (cancellous bone) and distal radius (cortical bone) were consistent with osteoporosis; the distal radius was -4.7 SD below the mean value for age- and sex-matched normal men; indexes of bone turnover were increased. Analysis of genomic DNA in transformed lymphoblasts from both the sister and brother indicated a homozygous single base change at base pair 1123 (C{r_arrow}T) in exon IX of the CYP19 gene, a highly conserved region, that results in a cysteine instead of an arginine at position 375 (R375C). The parents are obligate heterozygotes in this consanguineous pedigree. Expression of the mutant complementary DNA showed that the R375C mutation had 0.2% the aromatase activity of the wild-type enzyme. 44 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Effect-directed analysis for estrogenic compounds in a fluvial sediment sample using transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Eva; Krauss, Martin; Brion, François; Kah, Olivier; Scholz, Stefan; Brack, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Xenoestrogens may persist in the environment by binding to sediments or suspended particulate matter serving as long-term reservoir and source of exposure, particularly for organisms living in or in contact with sediments. In this study, we present for the first time an effect-directed analysis (EDA) for identifying estrogenic compounds in a sediment sample using embryos of a transgenic reporter fish strain. In the tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) transgenic zebrafish strain, the expression of GFP (green fluorescent protein) in the brain is driven by an oestrogen responsive element in the promoter of the cyp19a1b (aromatase) gene. The selected sediment sample of the Czech river Bilina had already been analysed in a previous EDA using the yeast oestrogen screening assay and had revealed fractions containing estrogenic compounds. When normal phase HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fractionation was used for the separation of the sediment sample, the biotest with transgenic fish embryos revealed two estrogenic fractions. Chemical analysis of candidate compounds in these sediment fractions suggested alkylphenols and estrone as candidate compounds responsible for the observed estrogenic effect. Alkylphenol concentrations could partially explain the estrogenicity of the fractions. However, xenoestrogens below the analytical detection limit or non-targeted estrogenic compounds have probably also contributed to the sample's estrogenic potency. The results indicated the suitability of the tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) fish embryo for an integrated chemical-biological analysis of estrogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP19, and androgen in Brazilian women with uterine leiomyomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; Canevari, Renata de Azevedo; Ambrosio, Eliane Papa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas are common, benign, smooth muscle tumors representing a significant public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate CYP17A1, CYP19, and androgen (AR) polymorphisms, their relative risks for uterine leiomyomas and possible associations with clinical p...

  4. Contribution of polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-03-04

    Mar 4, 2016 ... mone (FSH) stimulation through the FSH receptor (FSHR). High FSH levels and low oestrogen levels have been asso- ciated with the improvement of migraine in postmenopausal women (Wang et al. 2003). Cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1 or enzyme aro- matase) is ...

  5. Efficacy and mechanism of action of Proellex, an antiprogestin in aromatase overexpressing and Letrozole resistant T47D breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Mehta, Rajeshwari; Alimirah, Fatouma; Peng, Xinjian; Murillo, Genoveva; Wiehle, Ronald; Mehta, Rajendra G

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are considered as a first line therapy for ER+PR+ breast cancers. However, many patients acquire resistance to AI. In this study, we determined the response of antiprogestin CDB-4124 (Proellex) on the aromatase overexpressing and Letrozole resistant cell lines and also studies its mechanism of action in inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. For these studies we generated aromatase overexpressing T47D (T47Darom) and respective control (T47Dcon) breast cancer cell lines by stable transfection with plasmid containing CYP19A1 gene, or empty vector respectively. Letrozole resistant cell line (T47DaromLR) was generated by incubating T47Darom for 75 weeks in the presence of 10 μM Letrozole. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT or crystal violet assays. Gene expressions were quantified by QRT-PCR whereas proteins were identified by western blot analyses, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Aromatase activity was determined by estradiol ELISA. The effects of Proellex on the anchorage independent growth were measured by soft agar colony formation. Statistical differences between the various groups were determined by Student's 't' test or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. Results showed that T47Darom and T47DaromLR cell lines had significantly higher aromatase expression (mRNA; 80-90 fold and protein) and as a result exhibited increased aromatization of testosterone to estradiol as compared to T47Dcon. Both these cell lines showed enhanced growth in the presence of Testosterone (50-60%). In T47DaromLR cells increased PR-B and EGFR expression as compared to T47Dcon cells was observed. Proellex and other known aromatase inhibitors (Letrozole, Anastrozole, and Exemestane) inhibited testosterone induced cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth of T47Darom cells. Cell growth inhibition was significantly greater when cells were treated with Proellex alone or in combination with other AIs as compared to AIs

  6. CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Glubb, Dylan M

    2016-01-01

    -significant association between endometrial cancer and a CYP19A1 SNP (rs727479 in intron 2, P=4.8×10−11). SNP rs727479 was also among those most strongly associated with circulating E2 concentrations in 2767 post-menopausal controls (P=7.4×10−8). The observed endometrial cancer odds ratio per rs727479 A-allele (1.15, CI...

  7. Association study of ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 genes and MtF transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Esteva, Isabel; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Rumbo, Teresa; Almaraz, Mari Cruz; Roda, Ester; Haro-Mora, Juan-Jesús; Guillamón, Antonio; Pásaro, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism is unknown. Both genetic and neurological factors may play an important role. To investigate the possible influence of the genetic factor on the etiology of MtF transsexualism. We carried out a cytogenetic and molecular analysis in 442 MtFs and 473 healthy, age- and geographical origin-matched XY control males. The karyotype was investigated by G-banding and by high-density array in the transsexual group. The molecular analysis involved three tandem variable regions of genes estrogen receptor β (ERβ) (CA tandem repeats in intron 5), androgen receptor (AR) (CAG tandem repeats in exon 1), and CYP19A1 (TTTA tandem repeats in intron 4). The allele and genotype frequencies, after division into short and long alleles, were obtained. We investigated the association between genotype and transsexualism by performing a molecular analysis of three variable regions of genes ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 in 915 individuals (442 MtFs and 473 control males). Most MtFs showed an unremarkable 46,XY karyotype (97.96%). No specific chromosome aberration was associated with MtF transsexualism, and prevalence of aneuploidy (2.04%) was slightly higher than in the general population. Molecular analyses showed no significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution of the genes examined between MtFs and controls. Moreover, molecular findings presented no evidence of an association between the sex hormone-related genes (ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1) and MtF transsexualism. The study suggests that the analysis of karyotype provides limited information in these subjects. Variable regions analyzed from ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 are not associated with MtF transsexualism. Nevertheless, this does not exclude other polymorphic regions not analyzed. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Dienogest, a synthetic progestin, down-regulates expression of CYP19A1 and inflammatory and neuroangiogenesis factors through progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in endometriotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichioka, Masayuki; Mita, Shizuka; Shimizu, Yutaka; Imada, Kazunori; Kiyono, Tohru; Bono, Yukiko; Kyo, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    Dienogest (DNG) is a selective progesterone receptor (PR) agonist and oral administration of DNG is used for the treatment of endometriosis. DNG is considered to act on PR to down-regulate pathophysiological factors associated with endometriosis. PR exists as two major isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, and their physiological functions are mostly distinct. It was suggested that PR isoform expression patterns are altered in endometriosis, but it is unknown whether the pharmacological effects of DNG are exerted through PR-A, PR-B or both. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of DNG through these PR isoforms on the expression of CYP19A1 which encodes aromatase and inflammatory and neuroangiogenesis factors associated with the pain and progression of endometriosis. We used immortalized human endometriotic epithelial cell lines that specifically express PR-A or PR-B in a spheroid cell culture system, and treated them with DNG. We evaluated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CYP19A1, prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthase (cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1) and neuroangiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, PGE2 production was measured by enzyme immunoassay. We found that DNG down-regulated mRNA expression of CYP19A1, COX-2, mPGES-1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, NGF and VEGF, and PGE2 production in human endometriotic epithelial cell lines that specifically express either PR-A or PR-B. These results demonstrate that DNG activates both PR-A and PR-B and down-regulates the expression of pathophysiological factors associated with pain and progression of endometriosis. Our results suggest that DNG exerts therapeutic efficacy against the pain and progression of endometriosis regardless of PR isoform expression patterns. Copyright © 2014

  9. Direct Regulation of Aromatase B Expression by 17β-Estradiol and Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist in Adult Radial Glial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lei; Esau, Crystal; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450arom (cyp19) is the only enzyme that has the ability to convert androgens into estrogens. Estrogens, which are produced locally in the vertebrate brain play many fundamental roles in neuroendocrine functions, reproductive functions, socio-sexual behaviors, and neurogenesis. Radial glial cells (RGCs) are neuronal progenitor cells that are abundant in fish brains and are the exclusive site of aromatase B expression and neuroestrogen synthesis. Using a novel in vitro RGC...

  10. The effect of orexin A on CYP17A1 and CYP19A3 expression and on oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone secretion in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy and the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezun, Marta; Smolinska, Nina; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Rytelewska, Edyta; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Orexin A (OXA) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide known for its role in the regulation of food intake and arousal. It is also considered as a link between energy homeostasis and reproduction. Nevertheless, very little is known on the role of this peptide in the uterus. The objective of this study was to investigate OXA effect on oestradiol (E 2 ), oestrone (E 1 ), and testosterone (T) secretion by porcine endometrial and myometrial explants and gene expression of key steroidogenic enzymes involved in steroid production, namely cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A3), on days 10-11, 12 to 13, 15 to 16 and 27 to 28 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the cycle. In endometrium, OXA increased E 1 secretion on days 10-11 and 15 to 27 of gestation, and T release on days 12-13. A decrease in E 2 , E 1 and T secretion was noted on days 27-28, 12 to 13 and 10 to 11 of gestation, respectively. OXA enhanced CYP17A1 and CYP19A3 expression on days 15-28 of pregnancy, whereas decreased their expression on days 10-13. In the myometrium, OXA increased E 1 secretion on days 10-16 of pregnancy, whereas inhibited the release of E 2 and T on days 10-11. CYP17A1 and CYP19A3 genes expression was enhanced on days 27-28 and 12 to 13 of pregnancy, respectively. The expression of both genes was suppressed on days 10-11 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that OXA, via its influence on steroidogenesis, may play a regulatory role in the uterus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary administration of the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin deters the growth of MCF-7 cells overexpressing aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lan; Gho, Wai M; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

    2009-03-01

    Licorice is the sweet-tasting rhizomes of a bean plant and is quite commonly used in Western countries for culinary purposes, while it is a medicinal herb in China. Many flavonoids have been isolated from licorice, and their pharmacological properties may be applicable in preventive medicine. Overexposure to estrogen has been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme, or aromatase, catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction. Phytocompounds that are able to inhibit this enzyme may potentially suppress breast cancer development. In the present study the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ILN) was shown to be an aromatase inhibitor in recombinant protein and MCF-7 cells stably transfected with CYP19 (MCF-7aro). ILN displayed a K(i) value of around 3 muM, and it also blocked the MCF-7aro cell growth pertaining to the enzyme activity in vitro. Subsequently, the compound administered in diet was given to ovariectomized athymic mice transplanted with MCF-7aro cells. This mouse model is widely accepted for studying postmenopausal breast cancer. The phytochemical significantly deterred the xenograft growth without affecting the body weight. Subsequently, the flavonoid's effect on CYP19 transcriptional control in vitro was also investigated. At the mRNA level, ILN could also suppress the expression in wild-type MCF-7 cells. Reporter gene assay and real-time PCR verified that the transactivity of CYP19 driven by promoters I.3 and II was suppressed in these cells. Deactivation of C/EBP could be the underlying molecular mechanism. Our study demonstrated that ILN was an inhibitor of aromatase and a potential chemopreventive agent against breast cancer.

  12. Effects of octylphenol on the expression of StAR, CYP17 and CYP19 in testis of Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao; Li, Xin-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Hui

    2017-04-01

    It has been proposed that a decline in sperm quality is associated with exposure to environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity. Seeking possible explanations for this effect, this study investigated the effects of octylphenol (OP) on the synthesis of steroid hormones in amphibian. Rana chensinensis were exposed to 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 mol/L OP after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The cDNA fragments of StAR (274bp), CYP17 (303bp) and CYP19 (322bp) were cloned. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals of StAR, CYP17, CYP19 mRNA and proteins mainly in the Leydig cells of testes. Real-time PCR showed that up-regulation of StAR and CYP19, and down-regulation of CYP17 after exposure to 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 mol/L OP. The results suggest that OP can alter transcriptions of StAR, CYP17 and CYP19, thus disturb the expressions of StAR, P450c17 and P450arom, thereby adversely affect steroid synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of the standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21) and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4). Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL) showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1) related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer. PMID:27188280

  14. The effects of the standardized extracts of on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijie Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761 induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21 and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4. Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1 related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer.

  15. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome......19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort (ncases = 687 and ncontrols = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions....... Association between the CYP19A1 polymorphisms and hormone levels was also examined among 339 non-HRT users. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we performed a pilot randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the PPARG Pro(12)Ala polymorphism...

  16. Frequency of Polymorphism in Aromatase Enzyme Coding Gene with Prostate Cancer Risk in North Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Onsory

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of biochemical reactions are involved in the endogenous production of estrogens. Their final and rate-limiting step is catalyzed by aromatase belonging to the class XIX of cytochrome P450. CYP19 is a key enzyme for estrogen synthesis in males. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol-17β, respectively. Aromatase P450 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-reproducing cells in which it is expressed. The effects of the resulting estrogens are mediated through the estrogen receptor. One of the most important polymorphism, is a C to T variation in exon 7 resulting in an Arg264Cys amino acid exchange, has been shown to be very common in Asia. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of CYP19 gene polymorphism with the prostate cancer risk among the studied population. Methods: PCR-RFLP analysis of CYP19 gene was on 100 prostate cancer patients and an equal number of matching controls. The data was analyzed using the computer software SPSS for windows (version 19. Results: The frequency of CT genotype was higher in patients (37% as compared to controls (21.2% and this incidence was statistically significant (OR, 2.10; 95 % CI, 1.02-4.34; P=0.044. Stratification of patients according to the risk factors, resulted in a slightly improved OR in individuals carrying CT compared to CC genotype (OR, 2.35 95% CI, 1.11-4.96; P=0.024. The TT genotype was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.16-2.50; P=0.519. Conclusion: It seems that CT genotype is more associated with cancer prostate compare with other genotypes. It appears to be an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with the Arg264Cys substitution in the CYP19 gene.

  17. In Silico Prediction of Chemicals Binding to Aromatase with Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hanwen; Cai, Yingchun; Yang, Hongbin; Zhang, Hongxiao; Xue, Yuhan; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun; Li, Weihua

    2017-05-15

    Environmental chemicals may affect endocrine systems through multiple mechanisms, one of which is via effects on aromatase (also known as CYP19A1), an enzyme critical for maintaining the normal balance of estrogens and androgens in the body. Therefore, rapid and efficient identification of aromatase-related endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is important for toxicology and environment risk assessment. In this study, on the basis of the Tox21 10K compound library, in silico classification models for predicting aromatase binders/nonbinders were constructed by machine learning methods. To improve the prediction ability of the models, a combined classifier (CC) strategy that combines different independent machine learning methods was adopted. Performances of the models were measured by test and external validation sets containing 1336 and 216 chemicals, respectively. The best model was obtained with the MACCS (Molecular Access System) fingerprint and CC method, which exhibited an accuracy of 0.84 for the test set and 0.91 for the external validation set. Additionally, several representative substructures for characterizing aromatase binders, such as ketone, lactone, and nitrogen-containing derivatives, were identified using information gain and substructure frequency analysis. Our study provided a systematic assessment of chemicals binding to aromatase. The built models can be helpful to rapidly identify potential EDCs targeting aromatase.

  18. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  19. Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli Cell Tumors: Effects on Gynecomastia, Growth Velocity, and Bone Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCT) present in isolation or, especially in children, in association with Carney Complex (CNC) or Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). These tumors overexpress aromatase (CYP19A1), which leads to increased conversion of delta-4-androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. Prepubertal boys may present with growth acceleration, advanced bone age, and gynecomastia. Objective: To investigate the outcomes of aromatase inhibitor therapy (AIT) in prepubertal boys with LCCSCTs. Design: Case series of a very rare tumor and chart review of cases treated at other institutions. Setting: Tertiary care and referral center. Patients: Six boys, five with PJS and one with CNC, were referred to the National Institutes of Health for treatment of LCCSCT. All patients had gynecomastia, testicular enlargement, and advanced bone ages, and were being treated by their referring physicians with AIT. Interventions: Patients were treated for a total of 6–60 months on AIT. Main Outcome Measures: Height, breast tissue mass, and testicular size were all followed; physical examination, scrotal ultrasounds, and bone ages were obtained, and hormonal concentrations and tumor markers were measured. Results: Tumor markers were negative. All patients had decreases in breast tissue while on therapy. Height percentiles declined, and predicted adult height moved closer to midparental height as bone age advancement slowed. Testicular enlargement stabilized until entry into central puberty. Only one patient required unilateral orchiectomy. Conclusions: Patients with LCCSCT benefit from AIT with reduction and/or elimination of gynecomastia and slowing of linear growth and bone age advancement. Further study of long-term outcomes and safety monitoring are needed but these preliminary data suggest that mammoplasty and/or orchiectomy may be foregone in light of the availability of medical therapy. PMID:25226294

  20. Glucocorticoid-induction of hypothalamic aromatase via its brain-specific promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D C; Zhao, H; Yilmaz, M B; Coon V, J S; Bulun, S E

    2012-10-15

    In the brain, a 36-kb distal promoter (I.f) regulates the Cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis. Local estrogen production in the brain regulates critical functions such as gonadotropin secretion and sexual behavior. The mechanisms that control brain aromatase production are not well understood. Here we show that the glucocorticoid dexamethasone robustly increases aromatase mRNA and protein by up to 98-fold in mouse hypothalamic cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Using deletion mutants of the brain-specific promoter I.f and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR, we isolated a distinct region (-500/-200 bp) which becomes enriched in bound glucocorticoid receptor upon dexamethasone stimulation. A glucocorticoid antagonist or siRNA based knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor ablated dexamethasone stimulation of aromatase expression. Our findings demonstrate how glucocorticoids alter aromatase expression in the hypothalamus and might indicate a mechanism whereby glucocorticoid action modifies gonadotropin pulses and the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Variants in Candidate Genes with Lipid Profiles in Women with Early Breast Cancer on Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Maria, Cesar A; Blackford, Amanda; Nguyen, Anne T; Skaar, Todd C; Philips, Santosh; Oesterreich, Steffi; Rae, James M; Desta, Zeruesenay; Robarge, Jason; Henry, Norah Lynn; Storniolo, Anna M; Hayes, Daniel F; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S; Flockhart, David A; Stearns, Vered

    2016-03-15

    Aromatase inhibitors can exert unfavorable effects on lipid profiles; however, previous studies have reported inconsistent results. We describe the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes with lipid profiles in women treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. We conducted a prospective observational study to test the associations between SNPs in candidate genes in estrogen signaling and aromatase inhibitor metabolism pathways with fasting lipid profiles during the first 3 months of aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer randomized to adjuvant letrozole or exemestane. We performed genetic association analysis and multivariable linear regressions using dominant, recessive, and additive models. A total of 303 women had complete genetic and lipid data and were evaluable for analysis. In letrozole-treated patients, SNPs in CYP19A1, including rs4646, rs10046, rs700518, rs749292, rs2289106, rs3759811, and rs4775936 were significantly associated with decreases in triglycerides by 20.2 mg/dL and 39.3 mg/dL (P < 0.00053), respectively, and with variable changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) from decreases by 4.2 mg/dL to increases by 9.8 mg/dL (P < 0.00053). Variants in CYP19A1 are associated with decreases in triglycerides and variable changes in HDL-C in postmenopausal women on adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. Future studies are needed to validate these findings, and to identify breast cancer survivors who are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease with aromatase inhibitor therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Pretentious genomic selection signatures in CYP19A1 gene associated with silent estrous behavior in water buffalo in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Imran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor reproductive efficiency of river buffalos hampers the production capabilities of animals. Buffalos are mainly considered poor breeders owing to the constrained expression of estrus behavior. Failure to display heat signs is an indication of improper functionality of signaling peptides to trigger on a series of behavioral changes, which can be detectable by breeders for timely insemination of females. This might cause an animal to be a repeat breeder. Genomic variations underlying synthesis of signaling peptides can be a useful marker to select superior animals with better reproductive efficiency. In this context, the current study was designed to analyze the CYP19A1 gene in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Results: A total of 97 animals were selected and were divided into two groups on the basis of their heat score. PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplicons were performed using the specific sets of primer, and then, sequences were analyzed for novel variants. A total of 11 polymorphic sites were identified illustrating phenotypic variation in the heat score. Most of the loci were found homologous. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs were analyzed for association with silent estrus. A three-dimensional protein model was also generated to locate the position of exonic SNPs. Conclusion: This study illustrated that polymorphic sites in the CYP19A1 gene provided potential markers for selection of buffalos with better estrus behavior. Keywords: Association, CYP19A1 (cytochrome P450, Estrous behavior, Heat signs, Insemination, PCR amplification, Poor breeders, River buffalo, Sequencing of amplicons, Signaling peptides, Silent heat, SNPs

  3. Pharmacogenetics and aromatase inhibitor induced side effects in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sini, Valentina; Botticelli, Andrea; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Gori, Stefania; Marchetti, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    This paper reviews genetic variations mainly related to the onset of adverse events during aromatase inhibitors in early breast cancer. Genetic variability could occur at different steps. The analysis included studies that involved breast cancer patients, treated with an aromatase inhibitor, genotyped for CYP19A1 and/or CYP17A1 and/or CYP27B1 and/or TCLA1, and/or RANK/RANKL/OPG and/or ESR1/ESR2, and assessed for toxicity profile. Twenty-two articles were included for the analysis. Three studies evaluated outcomes and adverse events; 19 studies assessed only side effects. Functional variations may be useful in predicting the onset of toxicities. The identification of polymorphisms at increased risk of toxicity may enable patient management. However, more data are needed to be applied in the individualization of treatment in daily practice.

  4. Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Vinggaard, Anne; Rasmussen, Thomas Høj

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four pesticides were tested for interactions with the estrogen receptor (ER) and the androgen receptor (AR) in transactivation assays. Estrogen-like effects on MCF-7 cell proliferation and effects on CYP19 aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were also investigated. Pesticides...... to their frequent use in Danish greenhouses. In addition, the metabolite mercaptodimethur sulfoxide, the herbicide tribenuron-methyl, and the organochlorine dieldrin, were included. Several of the pesticides, dieldrin, endosulfan, methiocarb, and fenarimol, acted both as estrogen agonists and androgen antagonists....... Prochloraz reacted as both an estrogen and an androgen antagonist. Furthermore, fenarimol and prochloraz were potent aromatase inhibitors while endosulfan was a weak inhibitor. Hence, these three pesticides possess at least three different ways to potentially disturb sex hormone actions. In addition...

  5. Effect of low dose exposure to the herbicide atrazine and its metabolite on cytochrome P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor-1 mRNA levels in the brain of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Mark P; Veldhoen, Nik; Skirrow, Rachel C; Macnab, Magnus K; Ding, Wei; van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C

    2011-03-01

    The transcriptional regulator steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and the enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) play a central role in modulation of a broad range of tissue-specific developmental processes associated with hormone homeostasis that includes differentiation of the central nervous system. SF-1 and CYP19 expression may be targeted by a variety of endocrine disruptive agents prevalent within the environment. In the present study, we cloned and characterized partial sequences for bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) SF-1 and CYP19 and examined the effects of a 48h exposure to 1 and 100μg/l of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) and its major metabolite desethylatrazine (DEA), as well as 5ng/l of the estrogenic chemical, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), and 673ng/l of the thyroid hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)), on SF-1 and CYP19 mRNA abundance in the brains of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed an increase in CYP19 mRNA following a 48h exposure to EE(2) but not T(3) while no significant changes in SF-1 transcript levels occurred. We observed a strong positive correlation between CYP19 and SF-1 transcript abundance in the ATZ-exposed animals which was not evident with DEA- or hormone-exposed tadpoles. Our results are intriguing in light of reported behavioral changes in ATZ-exposed frogs and suggest that further research is warranted to examine the relationship and role of CYP19 and SF-1 in amphibian brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potencial inibitório in vitro de biflavonoides de Garcinia gardneriana : um estudo sobre monoamina oxidades e CYP19 (aromatase)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Angélica Recalde Gil

    2015-01-01

    The plant Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi, popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari" has traditionally been used for various types of inflammatory diseases and the evaluation of their chemical composition, mainly of leaves, has resulted in biflavonoids as major compounds. These phenolic compounds have shown anti-inflammatory activity validating the popular use of the plant. In this work was isolated from dried branches of Garcinia gardneriana the biflavonoids: morelloflavone, that...

  7. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eBiegon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking are sexually dimorphic. Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product. Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  8. Variants in estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 and CYP19 and breast cancer risk: a family-based genetic association study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, Habibul; Whittemore, Alice S; Chen, Yu; Senie, Ruby T; Hamilton, Steven P; Wang, Qiao; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M

    2005-01-01

    Case-control studies have reported inconsistent results concerning breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that control endogenous estrogen biosynthesis. We report findings from the first family-based association study examining associations between female breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in two key estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 (T→C promoter polymorphism) and CYP19 (TTTA repeat polymorphism). We conducted the study among 278 nuclear families containing one or more daughters with breast cancer, with a total of 1123 family members (702 with available constitutional DNA and questionnaire data and 421 without them). These nuclear families were selected from breast cancer families participating in the Metropolitan New York Registry, one of the six centers of the National Cancer Institute's Breast Cancer Family Registry. We used likelihood-based statistical methods to examine allelic associations. We found the CYP19 allele with 11 TTTA repeats to be associated with breast cancer risk in these families. We also found that maternal (but not paternal) carrier status of CYP19 alleles with 11 repeats tended to be associated with breast cancer risk in daughters (independently of the daughters' own genotype), suggesting a possible in utero effect of CYP19. We found no association of a woman's breast cancer risk either with her own or with her mother's CYP17 genotype. This family-based study indicates that a woman's personal and maternal carrier status of CYP19 11 TTTA repeat allele might be related to increased breast cancer risk. However, because this is the first study to report an association between CYP19 11 TTTA repeat allele and breast cancer, and because multiple comparisons have been made, the associations should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation in future family-based studies

  9. Computational drug designing of fungal pigments as potential aromatase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Fatima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing aromatase inhibitors produced unwelcome effects impose the discovery of novel drugs with privileged selectivity, a reduced amount of toxicity and humanizing potency. In this study, we illuminate the binding mode of polyketide azaphilanoid pigments monascin, ankaflavin, monascorubrin and monascorubramine isolated from Monascus fungus to the aromatase by molecular docking. The 3-dimensional structure of aromatase enzyme (PDB: 4KQ8 was obtained from the Protein Data Bank. PatchDock docking software was used to analyze structural complexes of the aromatase with monascus pigments. Comparatively, the AutoGrid model presented the most briskly constructive binding mode of monascin to aromatase. Docked energies in kcal/mol are: monascin;-13.2; monascorubramine:-12.8, monascorubrin:-12.3; ankaflavin: -10.5. These outcomes exposed these ligands could be potential drugs to treat hormone dependent breast cancer.

  10. The effect of aromatase inhibitors on bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Bjarnason, Nina H; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors increase the disease-free survival in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme complex catalysing the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. These properties cause a significant increase in bone loss. In this MiniReview, we present...... data from the aromatase inhibitor studies and the studies designed to investigate aromatase inhibitor effect on bone metabolism. At the cellular level, oestrogen has profound effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Oestrogen decreases the osteoblastic production of resorptive cytokines...... in comparison with tamoxifen. We conclude that treatment with aromatase inhibitors leads to an increased bone loss and thus an increase in the risk of fractures in women with breast cancer....

  11. Germline genetic predictors of aromatase inhibitor concentrations, estrogen suppression and drug efficacy and toxicity in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-04-01

    The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, are highly effective for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. AIs inhibit the aromatase (CYP19A1)-mediated production of estrogens. Most patients taking AIs achieve undetectable blood estrogen concentrations resulting in drug efficacy with tolerable side effects. However, some patients have suboptimal outcomes, which may be due, in part, to inherited germline genetic variants. This review summarizes published germline genetic associations with AI treatment outcomes including systemic AI concentrations, estrogenic response to AIs, AI treatment efficacy and AI treatment toxicities. Significant associations are highlighted with commentary about prioritization for future validation to identify pharmacogenetic predictors of AI treatment outcomes that can be used to inform personalized treatment decisions in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  12. Inhibition of aromatase activity by methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites in primary culture of human mammary fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. van den; Heneweer, M.; Geest, M. de; Sanderson, T. [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences and Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Jong, P. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) are persistent contaminants and are ubiquitously present in humans and the environment. Lipophilicity of MeSO2- PCB metabolites is similar to the parent compounds and they have been detected in human milk, adipose, liver and lung tissue. 4- MeSO2-PCB-149 is the most abundant PCB metabolite in human adipose tissue and milk at a level of 1.5 ng/g lipids. Human blood concentration of 4-MeSO2-PCB-149 is approximately 0.03 nM. 3- MeSO2-PCB-101 is the predominant PCB metabolite in muscle and blubber in wildlife, such as otter, mink and grey seal. In the environment, they have been linked to chronic and reproductive toxicity in exposed mink. Additionaly, some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been shown to be glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists. Since approximately 60% of all breast tumors are estrogen responsive, exposure to compounds that are able to alter estrogen synthesis through interference with the aromatase enzyme, can lead to changes in estrogen levels and possibly to accelerated or inhibit breast tumor growth. Therefore, it is important to identify exogenous compounds that can alter aromatase activity in addition to those compounds which have direct interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Aromatase (CYP19) comprises the ubiquitous flavoprotein, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and a unique cytochrome P450 that is exclusively expressed in estrogen producing cells. Previous studies have revealed that expression of the aromatase gene is regulated in a species- and tissue specific manner. In healthy breast tissue, the predominantly active aromatase promoter region I.4 is regulated by glucocorticoids and class I cytokines. Therefore, it is important to investigate possible aromatase inhibiting properties of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs (as anti glucocorticoids?) in relevant human tissues. We used primary human mammary fibroblasts because of their role in breast cancer development. We compared the results in primary fibroblasts with

  13. Molecular basis of aromatase deficiency in an adult female with sexual infantilism and polycystic ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Fisher, C.R.; Simpson, E.R. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Conte, F.A.; Grumbach, M.M. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1993-11-15

    The authors identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C[yields]T) and bp 1310 (G[yields]A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had [approx]1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To the authors' knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease.

  14. CYP19 Genetic Polymorphism Haplotype AASA Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis in Premenopausal Women with Lymph Node-Negative, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, we investigated the influence of CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of lymph node- (LN- negative, hormone receptor- (HR- positive early breast cancers. Genotyping for the CYP19 polymorphisms rs4646 (A/C, rs1065779 (A/C, CYP19 (TTTAn (short allele/long (S/L allele using the 7 TTTA repeat polymorphism as the cut-off, and rs1870050 (A/C was performed on 296 patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers. All patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Associations were examined between these 4 genotypes and 6 common haplotypes of CYP19 and distant disease-free survival (DDFS, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Patients were divided into the 6 subhaplotypes of CCLA (41.1%, AASA (17.1%, CASA (11.9%, CCLC (8.9%, CCSA (7.5%, AASC (8.9%, and others (4.6%. In premenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was significantly associated with a poor DDFS (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 3.3; P=0.001, DFS (aHR, 2.5; P=0.0008, and OS (aHR, 2.9; P=0.0004 after adjusting for age, tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, chemotherapy, pathology, adjuvant hormone therapy, menopausal status, and radiotherapy. Furthermore, haplotype AASA remained a negative prognostic factor for premenopausal patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of DDFS (aHR, 4.5; P=0.0005, DFS (HR, 3.2; P=0.003, and OS (HR, 6.4; P=0.0009. However, in postmenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was not associated with a poor prognosis, whereas the AASC haplotype was significantly associated with a poor DFS (aHR, 3.1; P=0.03 and OS (aHR, 4.4; P=0.01. Our results indicate that, in patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers, genetic polymorphism haplotype AASA is associated with poor survival of premenopausal women but does not affect survival of postmenopausal women.

  15. Testosterone treatment increases androgen receptor and aromatase gene expression in myotubes from patients with PCOS and controls, but does not induce insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun

    2014-01-01

    is conserved in cultured myotubes (in vitro) from patients with PCOS, but the effect of testosterone on this insulin sensitivity is unknown. We investigated the effect of 7days testosterone treatment (100nmol/l) on glucose transport and gene expression levels of hormone receptors and enzymes involved...... in the synthesis and conversion of testosterone (HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP19A1, SRD5A1-2, AR, ER-α, HSD17B6 and AKR1-3) in myotubes from ten patients with PCOS and ten matched controls. Testosterone treatment significantly increased aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression levels in patients and controls....... Glucose transport in myotubes was comparable in patients with PCOS vs. controls and was unchanged by testosterone treatment (p=0.21 PCOS vs. controls). These results suggest that testosterone treatment of myotubes increases the aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression without affecting insulin...

  16. Direct regulation of aromatase B expression by 17β-estradiol and dopamine D1 receptor agonist in adult radial glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eXing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase cytochrome P450arom (cyp19 is the only enzyme that has the ability to convert androgens into estrogens. Estrogens, which are produced locally in the vertebrate brain play many fundamental roles in neuroendocrine functions, reproductive functions, socio-sexual behaviors and neurogenesis. Radial glial cells (RGCs are neuronal progenitor cells that are abundant in fish brains and are the exclusive site of aromatase B expression and neuroestrogen synthesis. Using a novel in vitro RGC culture preparation we studied the regulation of aromatase B by 17β-estradiol (E2 and dopamine (DA. We have established that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R by SKF 38393 up-regulates aromatase B gene expression most likely through the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB. This up-regulation can be enhanced by low concentration of E2 (100 nM through increasing the expression of D1R and the level of p-CREB protein. However, a high concentration of E2 (1 μM and D1R agonist together failed to up-regulate aromatase B, potentially due to attenuation of esr2b expression and p-CREB levels. Furthermore, we found the up-regulation of aromatase B by E2 and DA both requires the involvement of esr1 and esr2a. The combined effect of E2 and DA agonist indicates that aromatase B in the adult teleost brain is under tight control by both steroids and neurotransmitters to precisely regulate neuroestrogen levels.

  17. New steroidal aromatase inhibitors: Suppression of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and induction of cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roleira Fernanda MF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatase, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP19 responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is an important target for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In fact, the use of synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AI, which induce suppression of estrogen synthesis, has shown to be an effective alternative to the classical tamoxifen for the treatment of postmenopausal patients with ER-positive breast cancer. New AIs obtained, in our laboratory, by modification of the A and D-rings of the natural substrate of aromatase, compounds 3a and 4a, showed previously to efficiently suppress aromatase activity in placental microsomes. In the present study we have investigated the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and induction of cell death using the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line stably transfected with the aromatase gene, MCF-7 aro cells. Results The new steroids inhibit hormone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells in a time and dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and inducing cell death with features of apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our in vitro studies showed that the two steroidal AIs, 3a and 4a, are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, it was also shown that the antiproliferative effects of these two steroids on MCF-7aro cells are mediated by disrupting cell cycle progression, through cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of cell death, being the dominant mechanism autophagic cell death. Our results are important for the elucidation of the cellular effects of steroidal AIs on breast cancer.

  18. PSA and androgen-related gene (AR, CYP17, and CYP19) polymorphisms and the risk of adenocarcinoma at prostate biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos; de Jesus, Carlos Márcio Nóbrega; Trindade Filho, José Carlos Souza

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen-related genes (AR, CYP17, and CYP19) on prostate cancer (PCa) risk in selected high-risk patients who underwent prostate biopsy. Blood samples and prostate tissues were obtained...... for DNA analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 50-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the PSA (substitution A>G at position-158) and CYP17 (substitution T>C at 50-UTR) genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. The CAG and TTTA repeats...... in the AR and CYP19 genes, respectively, were genotyped by PCR-based GeneScan analysis. Patients with the GG genotype of the PSA gene had a higher risk of PCa than those with the AG or AA genotype (OR=3.79, p=0.00138). The AA genotype was associated with lower PSA levels (6.44 +/- 1.64 ng=mL) compared...

  19. Abnormal lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and high plasma testosterone levels in male but not female aromatase-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Akiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Machida, Shuichi; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Takaoka, Osamu; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-05-15

    Sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are believed to play important roles in lipid metabolism. To elucidate the effects of estrogen depletion on lipid metabolism in male and female mice, we used aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, in which Cyp19 gene disruption prevented estrogen synthesis in vivo. These mice were divided into the following 4 groups: male and female ArKO mice and male and female wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were fed a normal-fat diet (13.6% fat) ad libitum. At 159 days after birth, the mice were tested for liver and plasma lipid content and hepatic hormone receptor- and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism-related gene expression. Interestingly, we found that hepatic steatosis was accompanied by markedly elevated plasma testosterone levels in male ArKO mice but not in female ArKO mice. Plasma lipoprotein profiles exhibited concurrent decreases in LDL- and small dense LDL-triglyceride (TG) levels in male ArKO mice. Moreover, male mice, but not female mice, exhibited marked elevations in androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and CD36 expression. These results strongly suggest that Cyp19 gene disruption, which induces a sexually dimorphic response and high plasma testosterone levels in male mice, also induces hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Depsidones inhibit aromatase activity and tumor cell proliferation in a co-culture of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and T47D breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chottanapund, Suthat; Van Duursen, M B M; Zwartsen, Anne; Timtavorn, Supatchaya; Navasumrit, Panida; Kittakoop, Prasat; Sureram, Sanya; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Van den Berg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring depsidones from the marine fungus Aspergillus unguis are known to have substantial anti-cancer activity, but their mechanism of action remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-aromatase activity of two common depsidones, unguinol and aspergillusidone A, in a co-culture system of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and hormonal responsive T47D breast tumor cells. Using this in vitro model it was shown that these depsidones inhibit the growth of T47D tumor cells most likely via inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity. The IC 50 values of these depisidones were compared with the aromatase inhibitors letrozole and exemestane. Letrozole and exemestane had IC 50 values of respectively, 0.19 and 0.14 μM, while those for Unguinol and Aspergillusidone A were respectively, 9.7 and 7.3 μM. Our results indicate that among the depsidones there maybe aromatase inhibitors with possible pharmacotherapeutical relevance.

  1. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  2. Evidence for an Elevated Aspartate pKa in the Active Site of Human Aromatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Breitner, Maximilian; Bandino, Andrea; Ghosh, Debashis; Jennings, Gareth K.; Hackett, John C.; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, is of significant mechanistic and therapeutic interest. Crystal structures and computational studies of this enzyme shed light on the critical role of Asp309 in substrate binding and catalysis. These studies predicted an elevated pKa for Asp309 and proposed that protonation of this residue was required for function. In this study, UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics were used to study the impact of pH on aromatase structure and androstenedione binding. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that androstenedione binding is pH-dependent, whereas, in contrast, the D309N mutant retains its ability to bind to androstenedione across the entire pH range studied. Neither pH nor mutation perturbed the secondary structure or heme environment. The origin of the observed pH dependence was further narrowed to the protonation equilibria of Asp309 with a parallel set of spectroscopic studies using exemestane and anastrozole. Because exemestane interacts with Asp309 based on its co-crystal structure with the enzyme, its binding is pH-dependent. Aromatase binding to anastrozole is pH-independent, consistent with the hypothesis that this ligand exploits a distinct set of interactions in the active site. In summary, we assign the apparent pKa of 8.2 observed for androstenedione binding to the side chain of Asp309. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental assignment of a pKa value to a residue in a cytochrome P450. This value is in agreement with theoretical calculations (7.7–8.1) despite the reliance of the computational methods on the conformational snapshots provided by crystal structures. PMID:25425647

  3. The rs4646 and rs12592697 Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 Are Associated with Disease Progression among Patients with Breast Cancer from Different Racial/ethnic Backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Armamento-Villareal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer, we evaluated the association between CYP19A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on disease progression in women with breast cancer from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 327 women with breast cancer in the Expanded Breast Cancer Registry program of the University of New Mexico. Stored DNA samples were analyzed for CYP19A1 SNPs using a custom designed microarray panel. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analyzed. Of the 384 SNPs, 2 were associated with clinically significant outcomes, the rs4646 and rs12592697. The T allele for the rs4646 was associated with advanced stage of the disease at the time of presentation (odds ratio OR:1.8, confidence intervals CI: 1.05-3.13, p<0.05 and a more progressive disease (OR: 2.1 CI: 1.1-4.0, p=0.04. For the rs12592697, the variant T allele was more frequent in Hispanic women and associated with a more progressive disease (OR: 2.05 CI: 1.0-4.0, p=0.04. However, further analysis according to menopausal status showed that the association between these 2 SNPs with disease progression or the stage at diagnosis are confined only to postmenopausal women. The odds ratios of disease progression among postmenopausal women carrying the T allele for the rs4646 and rs12592697 are 3.05 (1.21, 7.74, p=0.02 and 3.80 (1.24, 11.6, p=0.02, respectively. Regardless, differences in disease progression among the different genotypes for both SNPs disappeared after adjustment for treatment. In summary, the rs4646 and the rs12592697 SNPs in CYP19A1 are associated with differences in disease progression in postmenopausal women. However, treatment appears to mitigate the differences in genetic risk.ClinicalTrials.govs Identifier: NCT00322894(https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00322894?term=new+mexico+breast+cancer+registry&rank=1

  4. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, Inna S [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-11-30

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C{sub 19}-steroids into C{sub 18}-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  5. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Inna S.

    1998-11-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C19-steroids into C18-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  6. CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, M; García-Giralt, N; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Servitja, S; Balcells, S; Pecorelli, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Tusquets, I; Nogués, X

    2015-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (Pbone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Effect of β-agonist on the dexamethasone-induced expression of aromatase by the human monocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatada Watanabe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA and facilitation of the (hypothalamus–sympathetic–adrenomedullary system (SAM attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes. Based on this hypothesis, we tested aromatase expression in the human peripheral monocyte-derived cell line THP-1 in response to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex, the synthetic β-agonist isoproterenol (Iso and the β-antagonist propranolol (Pro. Dex mimics glucocorticoid secreted during excitation of the HPA, and Iso mimics catecholamine secreted during excitation of the SAM. We found that aromatase activity and the CYP19A1 gene transcript were both upregulated in THP-1 cells in the presence of Dex. Addition of Iso induced their downregulation and further addition of Pro rescued aromatase expression. These results may suggest that attenuation of estrogen secretion from peripheral monocytes could be a part of the pathology of stress-caused deterioration of atopic dermatitis. Further examination using an in vitro human skin model including THP-1 cells might be a valuable tool for investigating the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of estrogen treatment for skin health.

  8. The use of a unique co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis as a screening tool for endocrine disruptors: The effects of neonicotinoids on aromatase activity and hormone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Beaudoin, Elyse; Viau, Rachel; Hudon-Thibeault, Andrée-Anne; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy is dependent on the collaboration between the fetus producing the androgen precursors, and the placenta expressing the enzyme aromatase (CYP19). Disruption of estrogen production by contaminants may result in serious pregnancy outcomes. We used our recently developed in vitro co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis to screen the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides on the catalytic activity of aromatase and the production of steroid hormones. A co-culture of H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells with fetal characteristics and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells which display characteristics of the villous cytotrophoblast was exposed for 24h to various concentrations of three neonicotinoids: thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid. Aromatase catalytic activity was determined in both cell lines using the tritiated water-release assay. Hormone production was measured by ELISA. The three neonicotinoids induced aromatase activity in our fetoplacental co-culture and concordingly, estradiol and estrone production were increased. In contrast, estriol production was strongly inhibited by the neonicotinoids. All three pesticides induced the expression of CYP3A7 in H295R cells, and this induction was reversed by co-treatment of H295R cells with exogenous estriol. CYP3A7 is normally expressed in fetal liver and is a key enzyme involved in estriol synthesis. We suggest that neonicotinoids are metabolized by CYP3A7, thus impeding the 16α-hydroxylation of fetal DHEA(-sulfate), which is normally converted to estriol by placental aromatase. We successfully used the fetoplacental co-culture as a physiologically relevant tool to highlight the potential effects of neonicotinoids on estrogen production, aromatase activity and CYP3A7 expression during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Probing the active site of aromatase with 2-methyl-substituted androstenedione analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Watari, Yoko; Yamada, Keiko; Umemura, Nao; Handa, Wakako

    2003-08-01

    To gain insight into the spatial nature of the androstenedione (AD) binding (active) site of aromatase in relation to the catalytic function of the enzyme, we synthesized 2,2-dimethylAD (4), 2beta- and 2alpha-methylADs (5 and 6), 19-oxygenated derivatives of compounds 4 and 6, and 2-methyleneAD (17), and we then tested their inhibitory activity as well as their aromatase reaction (aromatization for 2-methyl and 2-methylene analogs or 19-oxygenation for 2,2-dimethyl steroids) with human placental aromatase. 2-Methyl and 2-methylene steroids 5, 6, and 17 were good competitive inhibitors of aromatase (K(i)=22-68nM), but less effective compared to the 2,2-dimethyl analog 4 (K(i)=8.8nM), indicating that a combination of 2beta- and 2alpha-methyl moieties is essential for the formation of a thermodynamically stable inhibitor-aromatase complex. A series of 2alpha-methyl steroids were good substrates for aromatase, whereas 2beta-methyl steroid 5 was an extremely poor substrate, and a series of 2,2-dimethyl steroids did not serve as substrate, suggesting that a 2beta-methyl moiety of the 2,2-dimethyl and 2beta-methyl steroids would prevent the aromatase reaction probably due to steric hindrance in each case. The 2-methylene compound 17 was also aromatized to produce 2-methylestrogen with a low conversion rate where the 1,4-diene structure may have been created before the C(10)-C(19) bond cleavage. Kinetic analysis of the aromatization of androgens revealed that a good substrate was not essentially a good inhibitor for aromatase.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In affected males, the increased aromatase and subsequent conversion of androgens to estrogen are responsible for the ... in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In some cases, an affected person inherits the ...

  11. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  12. Characterization of aromatase expression in the adult male and female mouse brain. I. Coexistence with oestrogen receptors α and β, and androgen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα-, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females.

  13. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of resveratrol analogues as aromatase and quinone reductase 2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin; Hoshino, Juma; Jermihov, Katie; Marler, Laura; Pezzuto, John M.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Cushman, Mark (Hawaii); (Purdue); (UIC)

    2012-07-11

    A series of new resveratrol analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibitory activities against aromatase were evaluated. The crystal structure of human aromatase (PDB 3eqm) was used to rationalize the mechanism of action of the aromatase inhibitor 32 (IC{sub 50} 0.59 {mu}M) through docking, molecular mechanics energy minimization, and computer graphics molecular modeling, and the information was utilized to design several very potent inhibitors, including compounds 82 (IC{sub 50} 70 nM) and 84 (IC{sub 50} 36 nM). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds are much more potent than that for the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC{sub 50} of 80 {mu}M. In addition to aromatase inhibitory activity, compounds 32 and 44 also displayed potent QR2 inhibitory activity (IC{sub 50} 1.7 {mu}M and 0.27 {mu}M, respectively) and the high-resolution X-ray structures of QR2 in complex with these two compounds provide insight into their mechanism of QR2 inhibition. The aromatase and quinone reductase inhibitors resulting from these studies have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  14. Aromatase is abundantly expressed by neonatal rat penis but downregulated in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, S; Mowa, C N; Sakuma, I; Matsuda, N; Togashi, H; Yoshioka, M; Hattori, Y; Kitabatake, A

    2004-10-01

    Although synthesis of estrogen by male gonads has been well documented for over half a century, it is only recently that the role of estrogen in male reproductive events has gained appreciation. We recently reported abundant expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta in different cell types of the rat penis, whose levels diminished with advancing age. The present study, which builds on data from the ER study, was designed to determine whether the penis is capable of generating its own local estrogen by examining evidence of the expression of aromatase, a microsomal enzymatic complex which irreversibly converts androgens to estrogens, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analyses. Secondly, the effects of sex steroid hormones on penile aromatase were examined. Discrete aromatase immunoreactive cells were localized in primordial corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosus and os penis, blood vessels and sensory corpuscle of glans penis. In situ hybridization signals corresponded with immunohistochemical findings. Western blot, enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR analyses of rat penile samples revealed an age-dependent expression of aromatase and estrogen, with levels at week 1 almost resembling those of the ovary, but they decreased sharply by week 8, and decreased further by week 35. This expression pattern was strikingly similar to that of ER-alpha reported previously. Testosterone and diethylstilbesterol administered prenatally upregulate levels of aromatase mRNA and protein, and estrogen postnatally. Dihydrotestosterone upregulated aromatase mRNA and protein, but not estrogen. We conclude that estrogen acts via ER in a paracrine and/or autocrine manner to regulate penile events, particularly during development, and that estrogen synthesis is regulated by estrogen and androgens.

  15. Aromatase reaction of 3-deoxyandrogens: steric mode of the C-19 oxygenation and cleavage of the C10-C19 bond by human placental aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Nagaoka, Masao; Sohtome, Norishige

    2005-08-16

    Aromatase is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to estrone and formic acid through three sequential oxygenations of the 19-methyl group. To gain insight into the catalytic function of aromatase as well as the mechanism of the hitherto uncertain third oxygenation step, we focused on the aromatase-catalyzed 19-oxygenation of 3-deoxyandrogens: 3-deoxy-AD (1), which is a very powerful competitive inhibitor but poor substrate of aromatase, and its 5-ene isomer 4, which is a good competitive inhibitor and effective substrate of the enzyme. In incubations of their 19S-(3)H-labeled 19-hydroxy derivatives 2 and 5 and the corresponding 19R-(3)H isomers with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under air, the radioactivity was liberated in both water and formic acid. The productions of (3)H(2)O and (3)HCOOH were blocked by the substrate AD or the inhibitor 4-hydroxy-AD, indicating that these productions are due to a catalytic function of aromatase. A comparison of the (3)H(2)O production from S-(3)H substrates 2 and 5 with that from the corresponding R-(3)H isomers revealed that the 19-pro-R hydrogen atom was stereospecifically (pro-R:pro-S = 100:0) removed in the conversion of 5-ene substrate 5 into the 19-oxo product 6, whereas 75:25 stereoselectivity for the loss of the pro-R and pro-S hydrogen atoms was observed in the oxygenation of the other substrate, 2. The present results reveal that human placental aromatase catalyzes three sequential oxygenations at C-19 of 3-deoxyandrogens 1 and 4 to cause the cleavage of the C(10)-C(19) bond through their 19-hydroxy (2 and 5) and 19-oxo (3 and 6) intermediates, respectively, where there is a difference in the stereochemistry between the two androgens in the second 19-hydroxylation. It is implied that the aromatase-catalyzed 19-oxygenation of 5-ene steroid 4 but not the 4-ene isomer 1 would proceed in the same steric mechanism as that involved in the AD

  16. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Humaidan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been introduced as a new treatment modality that could challenge clomiphene citrate as an ovulation induction regiment in patients with PCOS. Although several randomized trials have been conducted regarding their use as ovulation induction agents, only few trials are ava...

  17. Structure-activity relationships of 2-, 4-, or 6-substituted estrogens as aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Ando, Momoko; Watari, Yoko; Tominaga, Takako; Hayata, Yasuko; Yoshimura, Akiko

    2005-06-01

    Aromatase, which is responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is a potential therapeutic target for the selective lowering of estrogen levels in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer. To develop a novel class of aromatase inhibitors, we tested series of 2- and 4-substituted (halogeno, methyl, formyl, methoxy, nitro, and amino) estrones (7 and 9), as well as series of 6alpha- and 6beta-substituted (alkyl, phenalkyl, and alkoxy) estrones (13 and 14), and their estradiol analogs (8, 10, 11, and 12) as aromatase inhibitors. All of the inhibitors examined blocked the androstenedione aromatization in a competitive manner. Introduction of halogeno and methyl functions at C-2 of estrone as well as that of a phenalkyl or methyl function at the C-6alpha or C-6beta position markedly increased affinity to aromatase (apparent K(i) value=0.10-0.66 microM for the inhibitors versus 2.5 microM for estrone). 6alpha-Phenylestrone (13c) was the most powerful inhibitor among the estrogens studied, and its affinity was comparable to that of the androgen substrate androstenedione. Estradiol analogs were much weaker inhibitors than the corresponding estrone compounds in each series, indicating that the 17-carbonyl group plays a critical role in the formation of a thermodynamically stable enzyme-inhibitor complex.

  18. Aromatase and neuroinflammation in rat focal brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu H; Dhawan, Jasbeer; Kovoor, Joel A; Sullivan, John; Zhang, Wei X; Choi, Dennis; Biegon, Anat

    2017-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that expression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is transiently upregulated in rat stroke models. It was further suggested that increased aromatase expression is linked to neuroinflammation and that it is neuroprotective in females. Our goal was to investigate aromatase upregulation in male rats subjected to experimental stroke in relationship to neuroinflammation, infarct and response to treatment with different putative neuroprotective agents. Intact male rats were subjected to transient (90min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and administered selfotel (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor competitive antagonist), TPEN (a zinc chelator), a combination of the two drugs or vehicle, injected immediately after reperfusion. Animals were killed 14days after MCAO and consecutive brain sections used to measure aromatase expression, cerebral infarct volume and neuroinflammation. Quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstrated increased brain aromatase expression in the peri-infarct area relative to contralesional area, which was partially abrogated by neuroprotective agents. There was no correlation between aromatase expression in the peri-infarct zone and infarct volume, which was reduced by neuroprotective agents. Microglial activation, measured by quantitative autoradiography, was positively correlated with infarct and inversely correlated with aromatase expression in the peri-infarct zone. Our findings indicate that focal ischemia upregulates brain aromatase in the male rat brain at 14days post surgery, which is within the time frame documented in females. However, the lack of negative correlation between aromatase expression and infarct volume and lack of positive correlation between microgliosis and aromatase do not support a major role for aromatase as a mediator of neuroprotection or a causal relationship between microglial activation and increased aromatase

  19. Rapid Modulation of Aromatase Activity in the Vertebrate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry D. Charlier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous steroid hormones, including 17β-estradiol (E2, activate rapid and transient cellular, physiological, and behavioral changes in addition to their well-described genomic effects. Aromatase is the key-limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens, and the rapid modulation of this enzymatic activity could produce rapid changes in local E2 concentrations. The mechanisms that might mediate such rapid enzymatic changes are not fully understood but are currently under intense scrutiny. Recent studies in our laboratory indicate that brain aromatase activity is rapidly inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration resulting from potassium-induced depolarization or from the activation of glutamatergic receptors. Phosphorylating conditions also reduce aromatase activity within minutes, and this inhibition is blocked by the addition of multiple protein kinase inhibitors. This rapid modulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylating conditions is a general mechanism observed in different cell types and tissues derived from a variety of species, including human aromatase expressed in various cell lines. Phosphorylation processes affect aromatase itself and do not involve changes in aromatase protein concentration. The control of aromatase activity by multiple kinases suggests that several amino acids must be concomitantly phosphorylated to modify enzymatic activity but site-directed mutagenesis of several amino acids alone or in combination has not to date revealed the identity of the targeted residue(s. Altogether, the phosphorylation processes affecting aromatase activity provide a new general mechanism by which the concentration of estrogens can be rapidly altered in the brain.

  20. Ovarian aromatase loss-of-function mutant medaka undergo ovary degeneration and partial female-to-male sex reversal after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Shibata, Yasushi; Ohno, Kaoru; Usami, Takeshi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Todo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Young, Graham; Swanson, Penny; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-15

    Although estrogens have been generally considered to play a critical role in ovarian differentiation in non-mammalian vertebrates, the specific functions of estrogens during ovarian differentiation remain unclear. We isolated two mutants with premature stops in the ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1) gene from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-based gene-driven mutagenesis library of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. In XX mutants, gonads first differentiated into normal ovaries containing many ovarian follicles that failed to accumulate yolk. Subsequently, ovarian tissues underwent extensive degeneration, followed by the appearance of testicular tissues on the dorsal side of ovaries. In the newly formed testicular tissue, strong expression of gsdf was detected in sox9a2-positive somatic cells surrounding germline stem cells suggesting that gsdf plays an important role in testicular differentiation during estrogen-depleted female-to-male sex reversal. We conclude that endogenous estrogens synthesized after fertilization are not essential for early ovarian differentiation but are critical for the maintenance of adult ovaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence of aromatase inhibitors in cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M T; Itzhak, Y; Puett, D

    1995-07-28

    Cycads, the most primitive of the living gymnosperms, have been used and continue to be used for food and medicinal purposes by many cultures, although toxins must be removed before ingestion. In our quest to identify tropical plants that contain inhibitors of the cytochrome P-450 aromatase and thus may be efficacious in treating estrogen-dependent tumors, we have screened extracts from 5 species of cycad folia encompassing 3 genera: Cycas cairnsiana F. Muell., Cycas revoluta Thunb., Cycas rumphii Miq., Dioon spinulosum Dyer and Encephalartos ferox Bertol. All extracts were found to contain inhibitors of the human enzyme.

  2. Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Rahimi, Zohreh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Khazaie, Habibolah; Farhangdoost, Hashem; Mehrpour, Masoud

    2017-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Moreover, two SNPs (CYP17 -34 T:C (MSP AI) and CYP19 T:C (Trp:Arg)) of cytochrome P450, which is involved in steroid metabolism pathways, were analysed between the groups. Our results showed significantly higher levels of testosterone, DHT, and oestradiol in CWS in comparison with CWNS. The severity of stuttering was positively correlated with the serum levels of testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol, whereas no association was seen between the stuttering and digit ratio, progesterone, or SHBG. The CYP17CC genotype was significantly associated with the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 6beta,19-Bridged androstenedione analogs as aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Sachiko; Yaguchi, Ayaka; Yamashita, Kouwa; Nagaoka, Masao; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2009-11-01

    Inhibition of aromatase is an efficient approach for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. New 6beta,19-bridged steroid analogs of androstenedione, 6beta,19-epithio- and 6beta,19-methano compounds 11 and 17, were synthesized starting from 19-hydroxyandrostenedione (6) and 19-formylandrost-5-ene-3beta,17beta-yl diacetate (12), respectively, as aromatase inhibitors. All of the compounds including known steroids 6beta,19-epoxyandrostenedione (4) and 6beta,19-cycloandrostenedione (5) tested were weak to poor competitive inhibitors of aromatase and, among them, 6beta,19-epoxy steroid 4 provided only moderate inhibition (K(i): 2.2 microM). These results show that the 6beta,19-bridged groups of the inhibitors interfere with binding in active site of aromatase.

  4. Teratogenicity and brain aromatase-induction of monosodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teratogenicity and brain aromatase-induction of monosodium glutamate in estrogen-responsive mosaic transgenic zebra fish Danio rerio. Tamer Said Abdelkader, Chang Seo-Na, Kim Tae-Hyun, Song Juha, Kim Dongso, Jae-Hak Park ...

  5. [Development of aromatase inhibitors and analysis of their inhibitory activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, M

    1998-12-01

    Inhibitors of aromatase are of interest in the treatment of advanced estrogen-dependent breast cancers. In addition, the inhibitors are promising to play as conformational and catalytic probes for the active site of this enzyme, aromatase. There fore, we synthesized a number of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, including suicide substrates, and also studied the mechanism for a time-dependent inactivation of aromatase by the suicide substrates. The mechanism for the aromatase inactivation by 6-oxo-androstenedione (AD) (1), one of the first discovered suicide substrates, was explored using the 19-substituted analogs 2-5 as well as stereo- and/or regio-specifically labeled [3H, 14C]-compound 1. The results indicated that the 4 beta,5 beta-epoxy-19-oxo derivative 7 is a reactive electrophile that irreversibly binds to the active site of aromatase. Studies on the aromatase inhibition by regioisomers of AD, 4-en-6-one 17, 5-en-4-one 18 and 5-en-7-one 19, revealed that the C-3 carbonyl function is not essential for the tight binding of an inhibitor to the active site. 3-Deoxy AD (22) and its 6 alpha,7 alpha-cyclopropano steroid 24 as well as some of 6-alkyl-ADs are among the most potent competitive inhibitors reported so for (K(m) for AD/Ki > 6). Structure-activity relationships of the 6-alkyl-ADs and their 3-deoxy-, delta 1-, delta 6-, and delta 1,6-analogs as aromatase inhibitors showed that aromatase has a hydrophobic binding pocket with a limited accessible volume in the active site in the region corresponding to the beta-side rather than the alpha-side of the C-6 position of the substrate. The 6-alkyl-ADs and their delta 1-analogs were converted into the corresponding estrogens with human placental aromatase, whereas the 3-deoxy steroids 22 and 25 were metabolized to the corresponding 19-oxygenated compounds. The relative apparent K(m) values for the androgens are different from the relative Ki values, indicating that there is a difference between the ability to serve

  6. A syndrome of female pseudohermaphrodism, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and multicystic ovaries associated with missense mutations in the gene encoding aromatase (P450arom)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, F.A.; Grumbach, M.M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ito, Y.; Fisher, C.R.; Simpson, E.R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The authors report the features of a new syndrome of aromatase deficiency due to molecular defects in the CYP19 (P450arom) gene in a 46,XX female. At birth, the patient presented with a nonadrenal form of female pseudohermaphrodism. At 17 months of age, laparotomy revealed normal female internal genital structures; the histological appearance of the ovaries was normal. FSH concentrations were markedly elevated at 9.4 ng/mL LER 869, and estrone and estradiol levels were undetectable (<37 pmol/L). By 14 yr of age, she had failed to exhibit breast development. The clitoris has enlarged to 4 x 2 cm, and pubic hair was Tanner stage IV. The plasma concentration of testosterone was elevated at 3294 pmol/L, as was androstenedione at 9951 pmol/L. Plasma estradiol levels were below 37 pmol/L. ACTH and dexamethasone tests indicated a nonadrenal source of testosterone and androstenedione. Plasma gonadotropin levels were in the castrate range. Pelvic sonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple 4- to 6-cm ovarian cysts bilaterally. Despite increased circulating androgens and clitoral growth, the bone age was 10 yr at chronologic age 14 2/12 yr. Estrogen replacement therapy resulted in a growth spurt, breast development, menarche, suppression of gonadotropin levels, and resolution of the cysts. The clinical findings suggested the diagnosis of P450arom deficiency. Analyses of genomic DNA from ovarian fibroblasts demonstrated two single base changes in the coding region of the P450arom gene, one at 1303 basepairs (C-T), R435C, and the other at 1310 basepairs (G-A), C437Y, in exon 10. The molecular genetic studies indicate that the patient is a compound heterozygote for these mutations. Expression of these mutations showed that the R435C mutation had 1.1% the activity of the wild-type P450arom enzyme, whereas the C437Y mutation demonstrated no activity. 32 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Which patients benefit most from adjuvant aromatase inhibitors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viale, G; Regan, M M; Dell'Orto, P

    2011-01-01

    On average, aromatase inhibitors are better than tamoxifen when used as initial or sequential therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Because there may be contraindications to their use based on side-effects or cost, we investigated subgroups in which aroma...

  8. Comment. The Comparative and Evolutionary Biology of Vertebrate Aromatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens from androgens. It is doubtful that there are many other genes that have such a broad and profound influence on reproduction and survival of species. The expression of this enzyme in various tissues controls both directly and indirec...

  9. Insight into the binding interactions of CYP450 aromatase inhibitors with their target enzyme: a combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Roberta; Massaccesi, Luca

    2012-03-01

    CYP450 aromatase catalyzes the terminal and rate-determining step in estrogen synthesis, the aromatization of androgens, and its inhibition is an efficient approach to treating estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Insight into the molecular basis of the interaction at the catalytic site between CYP450 aromatase inhibitors and the enzyme itself is required in order to design new and more active compounds. Hence, a combined molecular docking-molecular dynamics study was carried out to obtain the structure of the lowest energy association complexes of aromatase with some third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and with other novel synthesized letrozole-derived compounds which showed high in vitro activity. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the role of the pharmacophore groups present in the azaheterocyclic inhibitors (NSAIs)-namely the triazolic ring and highly functionalized aromatic moieties carrying H-bond donor or acceptor groups. In particular, it was pointed out that all of them can contribute to inhibition activity by interacting with residues of the catalytic cleft, but the amino acids involved are different for each compound, even if they belong to the same class. Furthermore, the azaheterocyclic group strongly coordinates with the Fe(II) of heme cysteinate in the most active NSAI complexes, while it prefers to adopt another orientation in less active ones.

  10. The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Eric A; Graddy, Logan G; Li, Tang; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Simmen, Frank A; Schreiber, David R; Liberles, David A; Janis, Christine M; Benner, Steven A

    2004-08-17

    Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is emerging as a broad strategy for generating hypotheses concerning function in a post-genomic world. This strategy expands systems biology to a planetary context, necessary for a notion of fitness to underlie (as it must) any discussion of function within a biomolecular system. Here, we report an example of such an expansion, where tools from planetary biology were used to analyze three genes from the pig Sus scrofa that encode cytochrome P450 aromatases-enzymes that convert androgens into estrogens. The evolutionary history of the vertebrate aromatase gene family was reconstructed. Transition redundant exchange silent substitution metrics were used to interpolate dates for the divergence of family members, the paleontological record was consulted to identify changes in physiology that correlated in time with the change in molecular behavior, and new aromatase sequences from peccary were obtained. Metrics that detect changing function in proteins were then applied, including KA/KS values and those that exploit structural biology. These identified specific amino acid replacements that were associated with changing substrate and product specificity during the time of presumed adaptive change. The combined analysis suggests that aromatase paralogs arose in pigs as a result of selection for Suoidea with larger litters than their ancestors, and permitted the Suoidea to survive the global climatic trauma that began in the Eocene. This combination of bioinformatics analysis, molecular evolution, paleontology, cladistics, global climatology, structural biology, and organic chemistry serves as a paradigm in planetary biology. As the geological, paleontological, and genomic records improve, this approach should become widely useful to make systems biology statements about

  11. Cytochrome P450 aromatase expression in human seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanaro Daniela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase, catalysing the conversion of androgens into estrogens, has been detected in normal human testicular cells suggesting a physiological role of local estrogen biosynthesis on spermatogenesis control. Estrogens, regulating cell growth and apoptosis, can also be involved in tumorigenesis process, but the possible link between estrogens and testicular neoplastic process is, up to now, scarcely known. This study examined aromatase expression in human seminoma, which is the most common germ cell tumour of the testis. Methods The tumour-bearing testes were obtained from 20 patients with classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy. Paraffin embedded tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry using a mouse monoclonal antibody generated against human placental cytochrome P450 arom, as primary antibody, and a biotinylated goat-anti-mouse IgG, as secondary antibody. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of seminoma extracts was carried out. Results Intense P450 arom immunoreactivity was observed in the seminoma cells and Western blot analysis confirmed the immunodetection. A strong immunostaining was also detected in cells of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN, adjacent to seminoma. Conclusion The present study demonstrated, for the first time in human, aromatase expression in neoplastic cells of seminoma suggesting a relation between local estrogen biosynthesis and germ cell tumorigenesis. The P450 arom immunolocalization in the cells of IGCN, representing the common precursor of most germ cell tumors, seems to support these findings.

  12. data for aromatase 3D qsar modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — computational chemistry data (very complex; need to be an expert to understand and use. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lee, S., and M....

  13. Somatic and psychological effects of low-dose aromatase inhibition in men with obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypotestosteronemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loves, S.; Jong, J. de; Sorge, A. van; Telting, D.; Tack, C.J.J.; Hermus, A.R.; Westerterp, K.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reduced testosterone levels are frequently observed in obese men. Increased aromatase activity may be an etiological factor. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluate the clinical effects of aromatase inhibition in obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypotestosteronemia (OrHH). METHODS:

  14. Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

  15. Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzko, C; Elliott, S; Lam, W

    2007-12-01

    Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements-all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement-most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)-may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be

  16. Imaging of aromatase distribution in rat and rhesus monkey brains with [{sup 11}C]vorozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kayo [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)]. E-mail: kayo.takahashi@uppsala.imanet.se; Bergstroem, Mats [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Fraendberg, Pernilla [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Vesstroem, Eva-Lotta [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi [Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens and may play a role in mood and mental status. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that brain aromatase distribution could be evaluated with a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [{sup 11}C]vorozole. Vorozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that reversibly binds to the heme domain of aromatase. In vitro experiments in rat brain, using frozen section autoradiography, illustrated specific binding in the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and the preoptic area (POA) of male rat brain. Specific binding in female rat brain was found in the MA and the BST; however, the signals were lower than those of males. The K {sub d} of [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding to aromatase in MA was determined to be 0.60{+-}0.06 nM by Scatchard plot analysis using homogenates. An in vivo PET study in female rhesus monkey brain demonstrated the uptake of [{sup 11}C]vorozole in the amygdala, where the uptake was blocked by the presence of excess amounts of unlabeled vorozole. Thus, this tracer has a high affinity for brain aromatase and could have a potential for in vivo aromatase imaging. This technique might enable the investigation of human brain aromatase in healthy and diseased persons.

  17. Relation among Aromatase P450 and Tumoral Growth in Human Prolactinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José García-Barrado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland is part of hypothalamic-pituitary–gonadal axis, which controls development, reproduction, and aging in humans and animals. In addition, the pituitary gland is regulated mainly by hormones and neurotransmitters released from the hypothalamus and by systemic hormones secreted by target glands. Aromatase P450, the enzyme responsible for the catabolization of aromatizable androgens to estrogens, is expressed in different parts of body, including the pituitary gland. Moreover, aromatase P450 is involved in sexual dimorphism where alteration in the level of aromatase can initiate a number of diseases in both genders. On the other hand, the direct actions of estrogens, mainly estradiol, are well known for stimulating prolactin release. Numerous studies have shown that changes in the levels of estrogens, among other factors, have been implicated in the genesis and development of prolactinoma. The pituitary gland can produce estradiol locally in several types of endocrine cells, and it is possible that aromatase could be responsible for the maintenance of the population of lactotroph cells and the modulation of the action of central or peripheral regulators. Aromatase overexpression due to inappropriate gene regulation has clinical effects such as the pathogenesis of prolactinomas. The present study reports on the synthesis of pituitary aromatase, its regulation by gonadal steroids, and the physiological roles of aromatase on pituitary endocrine cells. The involvement of aromatase in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors, mainly prolactinomas, through the auto-paracrine production of estradiol is reviewed.

  18. Aromatase Expression in the Hippocampus of AD Patients and 5xFAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Prange-Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies show that 17β-estradiol (E2 protects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD induced neurodegeneration. The E2-synthesizing enzyme aromatase is expressed in healthy hippocampi, but although the hippocampus is severely affected in AD, little is known about the expression of hippocampal aromatase in AD. To better understand the role of hippocampal aromatase in AD, we studied its expression in postmortem material from patients with AD and in a mouse model for AD (5xFAD mice. In human hippocampi, aromatase-immunoreactivity was observed in the vast majority of principal neurons and signal quantification revealed higher expression of aromatase protein in AD patients compared to age- and sex-matched controls. The tissue-specific first exons of aromatase I.f, PII, I.3, and I.6 were detected in hippocampi of controls and AD patients by RT-PCR. In contrast, 3-month-old, female 5xFAD mice showed lower expression of aromatase mRNA and protein (measured by qRT-PCR and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry than WT controls; no such differences were observed in male mice. Our findings stress the importance of hippocampal aromatase expression in neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Uso de inibidores da aromatase no tratamento do câncer de mama e osteoporose = The use of aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer treatment and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol, Lina Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Conclusão: Estratégias diagnósticas, preventivas e, eventualmente, terapêuticas de osteoporose devem ser empregadas precocemente em pacientes com câncer de mama tratadas com inibidores da aromatase

  20. Endocrine disrupting potentials of Bisphenol A, Bisphenol A dimethacrylate, 4-n-Nonyl-phenol and 4-Octylphenol assessed in cell model systems for effects on the estrogen-, androgen-, aryl hydrocarbon-receptor and aromatase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Long, Manhai; Hofmeister, Marlene V

    (RLU). Effects on the Androgen receptor (AR) trans-activation were investigated by co-transfection of the CHO-K1 hamster cells using the reporter vector MMTV-LUC and the AR expression vector pSVAR0. Effects on the CYP19 aromatase, an important enzyme in the steroid synthesis pathway involved...... of endogenous steroid metabolism potentially alters neuronal and reproductive system development: effects of environmental plasticizers. Program "Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources". (Contract no. QLK4-CT-2002-02637). http://endomet.bham.ac.uk                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ....

  1. The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaucher Eric A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology, and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is emerging as a broad strategy for generating hypotheses concerning function in a post-genomic world. This strategy expands systems biology to a planetary context, necessary for a notion of fitness to underlie (as it must any discussion of function within a biomolecular system. Results Here, we report an example of such an expansion, where tools from planetary biology were used to analyze three genes from the pig Sus scrofa that encode cytochrome P450 aromatases–enzymes that convert androgens into estrogens. The evolutionary history of the vertebrate aromatase gene family was reconstructed. Transition redundant exchange silent substitution metrics were used to interpolate dates for the divergence of family members, the paleontological record was consulted to identify changes in physiology that correlated in time with the change in molecular behavior, and new aromatase sequences from peccary were obtained. Metrics that detect changing function in proteins were then applied, including KA/KS values and those that exploit structural biology. These identified specific amino acid replacements that were associated with changing substrate and product specificity during the time of presumed adaptive change. The combined analysis suggests that aromatase paralogs arose in pigs as a result of selection for Suoidea with larger litters than their ancestors, and permitted the Suoidea to survive the global climatic trauma that began in the Eocene. Conclusions This combination of bioinformatics analysis, molecular evolution, paleontology, cladistics, global climatology, structural biology, and organic chemistry serves as a paradigm in planetary biology. As the geological, paleontological, and genomic records improve, this approach should

  2. New insights about the evaluation of human sperm quality: the aromatase example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male contribution to the couple's infertility is at first evaluated by the routine examination of semen parameters upon optical microscopy providing valuable information for a rational initial diagnosis and for a clinical management of infertility. But the different forms of infertility defined according to the WHO criteria especially teratozoospermia are not always related to the chromatin structure or to the fertilization capacity. New investigations at the molecular level (transcript and protein could be developed in order to understand the nature of sperm malformation responsible of human infertility and thus to evaluate the sperm quality. The profile analysis of spermatozoal transcripts could be considered as a fingerprint of the past spermatogenic events. The selection of representative transcripts of normal spermatozoa remains complex because a differential expression (increased, decreased or not modified levels of specific transcripts has been revealed between immotile and motile sperm fractions issued from normozoospermic donors. Microarrays tests or real-time quantitative PCR could be helpful for the identification of factors involved in the male infertility. Differences in the expression of specific transcripts have been reported between normal and abnormal semen samples. With the aromatase example, we have noted a negative strong correlation between the amount of transcript and the percentage of abnormal forms especially in presence of head defects. Immunocytochemical procedures using fluorescent probes associated with either confocal microscopy or flow cytometry can be also helpful to proceed with further investigations about the localization of proteins in the compartmentalized spermatozoa or the acrosome reaction. The dual location of aromatase both in the equatorial segment, the mid-piece and the tail could explain the double role of this enzyme in acrosome reaction and motility.

  3. Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of deep endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferrero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent case reports and pilot studies suggested that aromatase inhibitors might be effective in treating pain symptoms related to the presence of endometriosis. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who suffered dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, and dyschezia caused by rectovaginal endometriosis. Pain symptoms recurred after treatment with the oral contraceptive pill; the patient refused surgery. Therefore a double-drug regimen including letrozole (2.5 mg/day and norethisterone acetate (2.5 mg/day was offered to the patient. The scheduled length of treatment was six months. This double-drug regimen determined a quick and significant improvement in all pain symptoms. During treatment, the patient complained mild arthralgia. After the interruption of treatment, pain symptoms quickly recurred and at 6-month follow-up their intensity was similar to baseline values. Operative laparoscopy was performed, the presence of rectovaginal endometriosis was confirmed and all visible endometriotic lesions were excised. Aromatase inhibitors might be offered when pain symptoms caused by endometriosis persist during the administration of other hormonal therapies and the patient refuses surgery. However, women must be informed that these drugs determine only a temporary relief of pain symptoms and might cause adverse effects (such as arthralgia.

  4. Aromatase expression increases the survival and malignancy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya De Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, local estrogen produced by adipose stromal cells in the breast is believed to support estrogen receptor alpha (ERα positive breast cancer cell survival and growth. This raises the question of how the ERα positive metastatic breast cancer cells survive after they enter blood and lymph circulation, where estrogen level is very low in postmenopausal women. In this study, we show that the aromatase expression increased when ERα positive breast cancer cells were cultured in suspension. Furthermore, treatment with the aromatase substrate, testosterone, inhibited suspension culture-induced apoptosis whereas an aromatase inhibitor attenuated the effect of testosterone suggesting that suspended circulating ERα positive breast cancer cells may up-regulate intracrine estrogen activity for survival. Consistent with this notion, a moderate level of ectopic aromatase expression rendered a non-tumorigenic ERα positive breast cancer cell line not only tumorigenic but also metastatic in female nude mice without exogenous estrogen supplementation. The increased malignant phenotype was confirmed to be due to aromatase expression as the growth of orthotopic tumors regressed with systemic administration of an aromatase inhibitor. Thus, our study provides experimental evidence that aromatase plays an important role in the survival of metastatic ERα breast cancer cells by suppressing anoikis.

  5. Potential role of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hashim H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hatem Abu HashimDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptAbstract: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory disease affecting 5%–10% of reproductive-age women, with a prevalence of 5%–50% in infertile women and >33% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs are approved adjuvants for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Molecular studies have revealed the presence of aromatase P450, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ovarian estradiol, inside the endometriotic tissue, indicating local synthesis of estradiol. Thereby, AIs represent an appealing medical option for the management of different aspects of this enigmatic disease, especially pelvic pain and infertility. Accordingly, this review aims to evaluate the potential role of AIs in the treatment of endometriosis-associated symptoms, mainly pain and infertility. Notably, several studies have demonstrated that the combination of AIs with conventional therapy as oral contraceptive pills, progestins, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be used to control endometriosis-associated pain and pain recurrence in premenopausal women, particularly those with pain due to rectovaginal endometriosis refractory to other medical or surgical treatment. Some case reports have shown promising results in the treatment of postmenopausal endometriosis as first-line treatment, when surgery is contraindicated, or as second-line treatment in the case of postoperative recurrence. Third-generation AIs, especially letrozole, have challenged clomiphene citrate as an ovulation-induction agent in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and in cases of unexplained infertility. However, few studies are available regarding the use of AIs to treat endometriosis-associated infertility. Therefore, larger multicenter randomized trials using AIs for the treatment of endometriosis

  6. Probing the binding pocket of the active site of aromatase with 2-phenylaliphatic androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Madoka; Yamashita, Kouwa; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2010-04-01

    A series of 2-phenylaliphatic-substituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones (6) as well as their androstenedione derivatives (5) were synthesized as aromatase inhibitors to gain insights of structure-activity relationships of varying the alkyl moiety (C(1) to C(4)) of the 2-phenylaliphatic substituents as well as introducing a methyl- or trifluoromethyl function to p-position of a phenethyl moiety to the inhibitory activity. The inhibitors examined showed a competitive type inhibition. The 2-phenpropylandrosta-1,4-diene 6c was the most powerful inhibitor (K(i): 16.1nM) among them. Compounds 6c along with the phenethyl derivative 6b caused a time-dependent inactivation of aromatase (k(inact): 0.0293 and 0.0454min(-1) for 6b and 6c, respectively). The inactivation was prevented by the substrate androstenedione, and no significant effect of l-cysteine on the inactivation was observed in each case. Molecular docking of the phenpropyl compound 6c to aromatase was conducted to demonstrate that the phenpropyl group orients to a hydrophobic binding pocket in the active site to result in the formation of thermodynamically stable enzyme-inhibitor complex.

  7. Structure-activity relationships of estrogen derivatives as aromatase inhibitors. Effects of heterocyclic substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Komatsu, Sachiko; Tominaga, Takako; Yamashita, Kouwa

    2008-09-01

    Aromatase, which is responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is a potential therapeutic target for the selective lowering estrogen level in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer. We prepared and tested series of the pyridine- and other heterocyclic ring-containing derivatives of 2- and 4-aminoestrones, estrone, and estradiol, compounds 5, 10, 12 and 15. The isonicotinyl derivatives of 2- and 4-aminoestrone, compounds 5c and 10c, were fairly potent competitive inhibitors of aromatase (K(i), 2.1+/-0.14 and 1.53+/-0.08 microM for 5c and 10c, respectively) and other compounds did not show, to a significant extent, the aromatase inhibitory activity. This result suggests that the isonicotinyl-substituted derivatives 5c and 10c would be accessible to the active site of aromatase.

  8. Correlation between aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium of symptomatic patients and the presence of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Jr H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1,2, Julio Casoy11CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate whether aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium correlates with the presence and severity of endometriosis in patients with infertility and/or dysmenorrhea undergoing laparoscopy and hysteroscopy.Patients: The study involved 106 patients of reproductive age with symptoms of dysmenorrhea and infertility. Sixteen endometriosis-free asymptomatic patients were used as a control group.Methods: Concomitant laparoscopy and hysteroscopy was carried out in all cases. An endometrial biopsy was taken to determine aromatase p450 expression by immunohistochemistry. Endometriosis was staged according to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification.Results: Endometriosis was diagnosed by laparoscopy in 92/106 symptomatic patients. In this group, aromatase expression was detected in the eutopic endometrium of 66/92 patients with endometriosis (72% and in 13/14 (95% patients in the symptomatic, endometriosis-free group (P = 0.09. Aromatase expression was not detected in any patients from the control group. In the endometriosis group, aromatase expression was detected in the eutopic endometrium of 28/45 patients (62% with American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification stage 1 of the disease, in 11/14 patients (78% with stage II, 14/20 patients (70% with stage III, and in 12/13 patients (92% with stage IV; however, the difference was only statistically significant between stages I and IV (P = 0.04.Conclusion: Aromatase expression in the endometrium was associated with the presence of dysmenorrhea and infertility irrespective of the presence of endometriosis. When endometriosis was present, however, there was a tendency for aromatase expression to be positively correlated with dysmenorrhea severity.Keywords: aromatase, endometrium, endometriosis, Cox-2, dysmenorrhea

  9. Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Derzko, C.; Elliott, S.; Lam, W.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cys...

  10. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter; (HWMRI)

    2009-03-06

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a frontline therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O{sub 2}, 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17{beta}-oestradiol and 17{beta},16{alpha}-oestriol, respectively. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme's androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors.

  11. Aromatase inhibitor treatment limits progression of peritoneal endometriosis in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langoi, David; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Gurates, Bilgin; Chai, Daniel; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Bulun, Serdar E

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of inhibiting aromatase activity on endometrial lesion growth and aromatase expression in a baboon model of induced endometriosis. Prospective study. Primate research institute. Sixteen olive baboons. Sixteen olive baboons with induced endometriosis were examined with laparoscopy 10 months after disease inoculation. Animals in group 1 (n = 10) were treated with 1.25 mg/d of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole, and animals in group 2 (n = 6) were given a placebo for a total of 6 months. Total number of endometriotic lesions, morphology, and volume of lesions, as well as semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for levels of aromatase cytochrome messenger RNA were measured. Ovarian volumes were evaluated before treatment initiation and every 2 months during the study. Treatment of group 1 animals with an AI significantly decreased lesion volume from baseline measurements, whereas the placebo-treated animals showed an increase in lesion volume. Aromatase messenger RNA levels in lesions in the AI-treated animals were significantly lower compared with the placebo-treated animals. Ovarian volumes were significantly increased at 6 months of AI treatment compared with pretreatment volumes. These findings suggest that suppression of aromatase cytochrome P450 may inhibit the in vivo growth of endometriotic lesions in baboons. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uso de inibidores da aromatase no tratamento do câncer de mama e osteoporose = The use of aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer treatment and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol, Lina Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Nos últimos anos, os inibidores da aromatase têm emergido como uma alternativa ao tamoxifen no tratamento hormonal de pacientes pósmenopáusicas com câncer de mama, expressando receptores hormonais. Apesar de os inibidores da aromatase possuírem, em geral, um perfil de efeitos colaterais favorável, existem preocupações sobre seu impacto em longo prazo sobre a massa óssea e o desenvolvimento de osteoporose. Essa revisão descreve a relação dos estrógenos com o metabolismo ósseo, o mecanismo de ação e dados clínicos sobre os principais inibidores da aromatase, o impacto dessas drogas no desenvolvimento de osteoporose e as estratégias diagnósticas, preventivas e terapêuticas de osteoporose que devem ser aplicadas em pacientes com câncer de mama recebendo inibidores da aromatase. Fonte dos dados: A presente revisão baseou-se em artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos, selecionados a partir de uma busca no Medline e de referências da bibliografia selecionada. Síntese dos dados: O tratamento com inibidores da aromatase associa-se a aumento na incidência de osteoporose e fraturas. Conclusão: Estratégias diagnósticas, preventivas e, eventualmente, terapêuticas de osteoporose devem ser empregadas precocemente em pacientes com câncer de mama tratadas com inibidores da aromatase

  13. Quantitative analysis of long-form aromatase mRNA in the male and female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatadze, Nino; Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies show that estrogens acutely modulate synaptic function in both sexes. These acute effects may be mediated in vivo by estrogens synthesized within the brain, which could fluctuate more rapidly than circulating estrogens. For this to be the case, brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens should be capable of synthesizing them. To investigate this question, we used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of mRNA for the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase, in different brain regions of male and female rats. Importantly, because brain aromatase exists in two forms, a long form with aromatase activity and a short form with unknown function, we targeted a sequence found exclusively in long-form aromatase. With this approach, we found highest expression of aromatase mRNA in the amygdala followed closely by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and preoptic area (POA); we found moderate levels of aromatase mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex; and aromatase mRNA was detectable in brainstem and cerebellum, but levels were very low. In the amygdala, gonadal/hormonal status regulated aromatase expression in both sexes; in the BNST and POA, castration of males down-regulated aromatase, whereas there was no effect of estradiol in ovariectomized females. In the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex, there were no differences in aromatase levels between males and females or effects of gonadal/hormonal status. These findings demonstrate that long-form aromatase is expressed in brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens, such as the dorsal hippocampus, and that gonadal/hormonal regulation of aromatase differs among different brain regions.

  14. Leptin, its receptor and aromatase expression in deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helder F; Zendron, Carolina; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Aiceles, Verônica; Oliveira, Marco Aurélio P; Manaia, Jorge Henrique M; Babinski, Márcio A; Ramos, Cristiane F

    2015-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) and the protein expression in three different peritoneal ectopic implants in patients who underwent surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis. All patients had been treated at the Department of Gynecology of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro. The study group consisted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for adnexal masses and infertility, while the control group consisted of ten women who underwent surgery for tubal ligation. Peritoneal fluid and samples tissues were collected during surgery. Serum samples were obtained before anesthesia. In this study, the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) were evaluated by ELISA. The protein expression of leptin and its receptors (ObR) and aromatase enzyme were evaluated by Western blot analysis of the intestine, uterosacral ligament and vaginal septum in the ectopic implants. The t-test and one-way ANOVA with Holm-Sìdak post-test were used, and p endometriosis = 19.2 ng/mL ± 1.84, p endometriosis = 7.71 ng/mL ± 0.59, p = 0.18). Comparing women with and without ovarian implants, the leptin levels in both the serum and PF were significantly higher in women without ovarian implants (serum: with ovarian implant = 15.85 ± 1.99; without ovarian implant = 23.14 ± 2.60; ng/mL, p = 0.04; PF: with ovarian implant = 4.28 ± 1.30; without ovarian implant = 11.18 ± 2.98;ng/mL, p = 0.048). The leptin, ObR and aromatase protein expression levels were increased in lesions in the vaginal septum and were decreased in the intestine lesions. This study reports several interesting associations between the leptin levels in serum, peritoneal fluid, and tissue samples and the localization of the ectopic endometrium. Although this study does not provide a clear picture of the role of leptin in the development and progression of peritoneal implants

  15. Diabetes alters aromatase enzyme levels in sciatic nerve and hippocampus tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Pekiner, Can; Kelicen, Pelin

    2010-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased risk of impaired cognitive function. Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common and important complications of DM. Estrogens prevent neuronal loss in experimental models of neurodegeneration and accelerate nerve regeneration. Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and expressed in a variety of tissues including neurons. Although insulin is known to regulate the activity of aromatase there is no study about the effects of diabetes on this enzyme. Present study was designed to investigate the effects of experimental diabetes on aromatase expression in nervous system. Gender-based differences were also investigated. Rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. At the end of 4 and 12 weeks sciatic nerve and hippocampus homogenates were prepared and evaluated for aromatase proteins. Aromatase expressions in sciatic nerves of both genders were decreased in 4 weeks of diabetes, but in 12 weeks the enzyme levels were increased in females and reached to control levels in male animals. Aromatase levels were not altered in hippocampus at 4 weeks but increased at 12 weeks in female diabetic rats. No significant differences were observed at enzyme levels of hippocampus in male diabetic rats. Insulin therapy prevented all diabetes-induced changes. In conclusion, these results indicated for the first time that, DM altered the expression of aromatase both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Peripheral nervous system is more vulnerable to damage than central nervous system in diabetes. These effects of diabetes differ with gender and compensatory neuroprotective mechanisms are more efficient in female rats.

  16. ( CYP19 ) gene in Iranian women with endometriosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory, estrogen dependent disease that affects up to 10% of all women of fertile age. It is characterized by the presence and proliferation of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. The aim of this study was to assess whether intron 4 (TTTA)n repeat and TCT ...

  17. Relevance of pituitary aromatase and estradiol on the maintenance of the population of prolactin-positive cells in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barrado, María José; Blanco, Enrique J; Catalano-Iniesta, Leonardo; Sanchez-Robledo, Virginia; Iglesias-Osma, María Carmen; Carretero-Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Cobos, Javier; Burks, Deborah Jane; Carretero, José

    2016-07-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated the expression of aromatase in pituitary cells. This expression is gender related, and is also associated with the presence of prolactinomas. To ascertain the relevance of aromatase in modulating the populations of prolactin-positive pituitary cells an immunocytochemical and morphometric study of prolactin-positive pituitary cells was carried out using the pituitary glands of adult male and female aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice. Additionally has been determined if pituitary aromatase is involved in a gender-linked differentiated regulation of the prolactin-producing pituitary cells. Compared to wild-type mice, the knockout animals of both genders showed a significant decrease (pprolactin cells, as well as in the percentages of the prolactin-positive cells and the proliferating prolactin cells. Our results suggest that estradiol is responsible for the maintenance of the population of prolactin cell in males and, so as not to disturb the endocrine reproductive environment, estradiol is synthesized inside the pituitary by circulating testosterone via means of aromatase P450, which acts in paracrine way. This new role for pituitary aromatase may well explain the previous findings establishing that the pituitary expression of aromatase is higher in males than in females, and the association between the development of prolactinomas and the increased expression of aromatase in tumours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3D-QSAR Study of Steroidal and Azaheterocyclic Human Aromatase Inhibitors using Quantitative Profile of Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatase is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens. As estrogens are involved in the control of important reproduction-related processes, including sexual differentiation and maturation, aromatase is a potential ta...

  19. Aromatase Inhibitor-Induced Erythrocytosis in a Patient Undergoing Hormonal Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are most commonly used for breast cancer patients with hormone receptor positive disease. Although the side effect profile of aromatase inhibitors is well known, including common side effects like arthralgia, bone pain, arthritis, hot flashes, and more serious problems like osteoporosis, we present a case of an uncommon side effect of these medications. We report the case of a postmenopausal woman on adjuvant hormonal therapy with anastrozole after completing definitive therapy for stage IIIB estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, who was referred to hematology service for evaluation of persistent erythrocytosis. Primary and known secondary causes of polycythemia were ruled out. On further evaluation, we found that her erythrocytosis began after initiation of anastrozole and resolved after it was discontinued. We discuss the pathophysiology of aromatase inhibitor-induced erythrocytosis and reference of similar cases reported in the literature.

  20. Dynamics of Aromatase and Physiological Indexes in Male Fish as Potential Biomarkers of Anthropogenic Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyón, N F; Roggio, M A; Amé, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Bistoni, M A

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine disruption on aquatic wildlife is being increasingly reported, and the changes in gene aromatase expression are used as indicators. However, natural fluctuations in brain and gonadal aromatase expression and physiological indexes have not been previously measured in a fish species (Jenynsia multidentata) throughout a complete reproductive cycle, nor the biological effects of anthropogenic inputs on these responses. Accordingly, males were monthly collected over a year in both, a reference and a contaminated site. Physicochemical analyses of water samples were done and reflected a strong anthropogenic impact. Brain aromatase fluctuates along the reproductive cycle of this species and, noticeably, the increase of brain gene expression begins with a 1 month delay in the contaminated site. This mismatch is also evidenced for testes weight. Hepatosomatic index also revealed adverse effects in the polluted site. In turn, the alterations observed in biological responses could be affecting the reproduction of this fish species.

  1. Effects of transferrin on aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Duda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cells have an absolute requirement for iron, which is delivered by transferrin with subsequent intracellular transport via the transferrin receptor. Recent studies have reported that transferrin plays a crucial role in the local regulation of ovarian function, apart from its iron-binding characteristic. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of transferrin in porcine granulosa cells function by examining its influence on aromatase activity, the most important indicator of follicular cell differentiation. In the first series of studies, pig granulosa cells isolated from small, immature follicles were cultured in the presence of transferrin alone (10 microg/ml or 100 microg/ml or with the addition of FSH (100ng/ml. The second series of studies was undertaken to determine transferrin-stimulated granulosa cells ability to aromatize exogenous testosterone (1x10(-7M. One hour after the establishment of cultures an aromatase inhibitor CGS16949A was added to test its influence on estradiol production. After 48 hours, cultures were terminated and cells were processed for immunocytochemical staining of aromatase. Media were frozen for further estradiol level analysis. Positive immunostaining for aromatase was found in all granulosa cell cultures. The intensity of immunostaining was always stronger in cultures supplemented with FSH whereas the addition of transferrin had no effect. Granulosa cells in vitro synthesized the highest amount of estradiol after the addition of FSH and exogenous testosterone as measured radioimmunologically. Concomitant treatment with FSH and transferrin caused an inhibition of FSH-stimulated aromatase activity. The production of estradiol also declined in the presence of FSH, testosterone and transferrin. This study demonstrates that transferrin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on FSH-stimulated aromatase activity, which was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate

  2. Dienogest inhibits aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E₂ production in human endometriotic stromal cells in spheroid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Kaoruko; Xu, Bing; Suganuma, Izumi; Kusuki, Izumi; Mita, Shizuka; Shimizu, Yutaka; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi; Kitawaki, Jo

    2012-02-01

    To determine the effect of dienogest (DNG) on the expression of aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). Experimental study in vitro. University hospital. Seventeen patients with ovarian endometrioma. ESCs from chocolate cyst linings of ovaries were treated with DNG. Expression of aromatase and COX-2 evaluated in spheroid cultures of human ESCs by real-time quantitative polymerase chain-reaction and immunocytochemistry, production of PGE(2) quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) DNA-binding examined by ELISA and immunocytochemistry. The pharmaceutical actions of DNG on the expression of aromatase and COX-2 and the production of PGE(2) were examined using spheroid cultures of human ESCs. More aromatase, COX-2, and PGE(2) were expressed in spheroid cultures than in conventional ESCs monolayers. In the spheroid cultures, DNG (10(-7) M) and progesterone (10(-7) M) inhibited the expression of aromatase, COX-2, and PGE(2). DNG also inhibited NF-κB DNA-binding activity and reduced the immunocytochemical protein expression of aromatase, COX-2, and NF-κB p50 nuclear localization. Because DNG inhibits aromatase and COX-2 expression as well as PGE(2) production in ESCs, these pharmacologic features might contribute to a therapeutic effect of DNG on endometriosis. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dienogest reduces proliferation, aromatase expression and angiogenesis, and increases apoptosis in human endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mariko; Koga, Kaori; Takamura, Masashi; Izumi, Gentaro; Nagai, Miwako; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Hirota, Yasushi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Dienogest is a novel progestin that is highly selective for progesterone receptors and inhibits endometriosis. However, it remains unknown how the administration of dienogest to patients with endometriosis impacts on their lesion tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effect of dienogest on endometriosis tissue. We collected endometrioma tissues from patients treated with dienogest (N = 7) or not treated (N = 11, controls). Cell proliferation, aromatase expression and blood vessel density were evaluated by staining for Ki67, aromatase and the von Willebrand factor, respectively. Apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL assay. The proportion of Ki67 and aromatase positive epithelial cells was significantly lower in the dienogest group than in controls (p dienogest group (p dienogest group compared with controls (p = 0.20). Our study demonstrates that endometrioma taken from patients treated with dienogest show remarkable histological features such as reduction of proliferation, aromatase expression and angiogenesis, and increase of apoptosis. This study clarified the impact of dienogest on local histological events that explain its therapeutic effect on endometriosis.

  4. Genome-wide epigenetic profiling of breast cancer tumors treated with aromatase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nevedomskaya, E.; Wessels, L.; Zwart, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are extensively used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, however resistance to AI treatment is commonly observed. Apart from Estrogen receptor (ER?) expression, no predictive biomarkers for response to AI treatment are clinically applied. Yet,

  5. Discrete Fourier Transform-Based Multivariate Image Analysis: Application to Modeling of Aromatase Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, Stephen J; Freitas, Matheus P; Ausina, Priscila; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Castillo-Garit, Juan A

    2018-02-12

    We recently generalized the formerly alignment-dependent multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure-activity relationships (MIA-QSAR) method through the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), allowing for its application to noncongruent and structurally diverse chemical compound data sets. Here we report the first practical application of this method in the screening of molecular entities of therapeutic interest, with human aromatase inhibitory activity as the case study. We developed an ensemble classification model based on the two-dimensional (2D) DFT MIA-QSAR descriptors, with which we screened the NCI Diversity Set V (1593 compounds) and obtained 34 chemical compounds with possible aromatase inhibitory activity. These compounds were docked into the aromatase active site, and the 10 most promising compounds were selected for in vitro experimental validation. Of these compounds, 7419 (nonsteroidal) and 89 201 (steroidal) demonstrated satisfactory antiproliferative and aromatase inhibitory activities. The obtained results suggest that the 2D-DFT MIA-QSAR method may be useful in ligand-based virtual screening of new molecular entities of therapeutic utility.

  6. 4- and 6-(p-Sulphamoylphenyl)androstenediones: Studies of aromatase inhibitor-based oestrone sulphatase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Madoka; Nagaoka, Masao; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2010-12-01

    4-(p-Sulphamoylphenyl)androstenedione (3) and 6alpha-p-sulphamoylphenyl analogues 12-14 were synthesised and tested as aromatase inhibitors as well as oestrone sulphatase inhibitors in human placental microsomes. All of the p-sulphamoylphenyl compounds synthesised were powerful inhibitors of aromatase with apparent K(i) values ranging between 30 and 97nM. In addition, the aromatase inhibitory activities of 6alpha-p-hydroxyphenyl compounds 9-11, which may be produced from their respective sulphamoylphenyl compounds by action of oestrone sulphatase, were also high in a range of 23 and 75nM of the K(i) values. On the other hand, all of the sulphamoylphenyl compounds were poor inhibitors of oestrone sulphatase with more than about 200microM of IC(25) values. Although the present findings of the oestrone sulphatase inhibition are disappointing, such attempts may be valuable to develop a new class of drugs having a dual function, aromatase inhibitor and oestrone sulphatase inhibitor, for the treatment of oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular cloning of P450 aromatase from the leopard gecko and its expression in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we identified the cDNA of P450 aromatase in the leopard gecko, a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. The cDNA encodes a putative protein of 505 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of leopard gecko aromatase cDNA showed 80% identity with that of turtles, 70% with humans and 77% with chickens. This is the first report of the identification of P450 aromatase cDNA in squamata species. It has been reported that this gene is expressed in different layers of cells in the ovary of mammalian species and avian species. Thus, we also investigated cells expressing the mRNA of this gene in the ovary of the leopard gecko by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The mRNA expression of leopard gecko P450 aromatase was localized in both the thecal and granulosa cell layers in the ovary. The expression in thecal and granulosa cell layers was examined in the largest follicle, second largest follicle and third largest follicle by RT-PCR. A higher level of mRNA expression was observed in the granulosa cell layer of the second largest follicle than in other cell layers. This result may reflect the characteristics of follicles in species with automonochronic ovulation.

  8. DIFERENSIASI KELAMIN TIGA GENOTIPE IKAN NILA YANG DIBERI BAHAN AROMATASE INHIBITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Ariyanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan hormon sintetik 17 a-metiltestosterone untuk sex reversal ikan konsumsi sudah dilarang. Salah satu bahan yang terbukti efektif dalam sex reversal adalah bahan aromatase inhibitor. Bahan ini dapat digunakan dalam proses pembalikan kelamin karena menghambat sekresi enzim aromatase yang bertanggung jawab dalam konversi hormon androgen menjadi estrogen. Tingginya kadar androgen dalam tubuh akan mengarahkan proses diferensiasi kelamin ke arah kelamin jantan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemberian bahan aromatase inhibitor terhadap diferensiasi kelamin tiga genotipe ikan nila. Bahan utama yang digunakan adalah larva ikan nila genotipe XX, XY, dan YY yang diberi bahan aromatase inhibitor, khususnya imidazole. Penambahan hormon sintetik 17a-metiltestosterone digunakan sebagai kontrol (+. Pemberian imidazole dilakukan melalui pakan pada larva ikan nila yang berumur 7 hari setelah menetas, selama 28 hari. Selanjutnya benih dipelihara dalam hapa pendederan selama 60 hari di kolam tanah. Pada akhir pendederan dilakukan identifikasi jenis kelamin, bobot individu rata-rata, dan sintasan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa imidazole efektif meningkatkan rasio kelamin jantan pada ikan nila genotipe XX dan YY, tetapi tidak pada genotipe XY. Sampai akhir tahap pendederan, semua genotipe dan perlakuan yang berbeda tidak memberikan efek yang berbeda nyata terhadap laju pertumbuhan maupun nilai sintasan, kecuali pada genotipe YY

  9. Is aromatase cytochrome P450 involved in the pathogenesis of endometrioid endometrial cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, VHWM; Thijssen, JHH; Hollema, H; Donker, GH; Santema, JG; Van Der Zee, AGJ; Heineman, MJ

    2005-01-01

    Prospectively, the relationship between androgen levels in the utero-ovarian circulation, aromatase activity in endometrial and body fat tissue, and the presence or absence of endometrioid endometrial cancer was studied in postmenopausal women. In 43 women with endometrioid endometrial cancer and 8

  10. Menopause Is a Determinant of Breast Aromatase Expression and Its Associations With BMI, Inflammation, and Systemic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristy A; Iyengar, Neil M; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Gucalp, Ayca; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Wang, Hanhan; Giri, Dilip D; Morrow, Monica; Falcone, Domenick J; Wendel, Nils K; Winston, Lisle A; Pollak, Michael; Dierickx, Anneloor; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Most estrogen-dependent breast cancers occur after menopause, despite low levels of circulating estrogens. Breast expression of the estrogen-biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, is proposed to drive breast cancer development after menopause. However, the effects of menopause on breast aromatase expression are unknown. To determine the effect of menopause on breast aromatase expression in relation to body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue inflammation (WATi), and systemic markers of metabolic dysfunction. Cross-sectional study of 102 premenopausal (age 27 to 56) and 59 postmenopausal (age 45 to 74) women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer treatment/prevention. Breast tissue was assessed for the presence of crown-like structures and the expression and activity of aromatase. Systemic markers examined include interleukin (IL)-6, insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), cholesterol, and triglycerides. Multivariable analysis was performed for aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to BMI, WATi, and blood markers. Postmenopausal women had higher BMI and more breast WATi than premenopausal women. Fasting levels of IL-6, glucose, leptin, hsCRP, and homeostatic model assessment 2 insulin resistance score were higher in the postmenopausal group. BMI was positively correlated with aromatase mRNA in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Aromatase levels were higher in breast tissue of postmenopausal women, with levels being higher in inflamed vs noninflamed, independent of BMI. Adipocyte diameter and levels of leptin, hsCRP, adiponectin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were more strongly correlated with aromatase in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Elevated aromatase in the setting of adipose dysfunction provides a possible mechanism for the higher incidence of hormone-dependent breast cancer in obese women after menopause. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Andrew; Johnson, Sarah J; Nicol, Moira R; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Evans, Dean B; Vaikkakara, Suresh; Mason, J Ian; Quinton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor. We describe a case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a consequence of aberrant aromatase expression in a patient with adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. A 54 year-old man presented with a two month history of gynecomastia and reduced libido. Endocrine biochemistry at presentation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (LH 2.4 U/L, FSH E(1), 821 pmol/L) and estradiol (E(2), 797 pmol/L) and subclinical ACTH-independent hypercortisolism (serum cortisol post 1mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test, 291 nmol/L). A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy. Post-operative evaluation showed normalization of serum levels of E(1) (95 pmol/L), E(2 )(109 pmol/L), testosterone (11.4 nmol/L), LH (4.1 U/L) and FSH (5.9 IU/L), and of cortisol dynamics. Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells. Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA. This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor. Even in males, gonadotropin secretion is subject to predominantly estrogen-mediated feedback-inhibition. The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.

  12. Studies directed towards a mechanistic evaluation of inactivation of aromatase by the suicide substrates androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones and its 6-ene derivatives aromatase inactivation by the 19-substituted derivatives and their enzymic aromatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Nagaoka, Masao; Handa, Wakako; Ogawa, Yoko; Matsuoka, Satomi

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanistic features for aromatase inactivation by the typical suicide substrates, androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD, 1) and its 6-ene derivative 2, we synthesized 19-substituted (methyl and halogeno) ADD and 1,4,6-triene derivatives 8 and 10 along with 4,6-diene derivatives 9 and tested for their ability to inhibit aromatase in human placental microsomes as well as their ability to serve as a substrate for the enzyme. 19-Methyl-substituted steroids were the most powerful competitive inhibitors of aromatase (K(i): 8.2-40 nM) in each series. Among the 19-substituted inhibitors examined, 19-chloro-ADD and its 6-ene derivatives (7b and 9b) inactivated aromatase in a time-dependent manner in the presence of NADPH in air while the other ones did not. The time-dependent inactivation was blocked by the substrate AD and required NADPH. Only the time-dependent inactivators 7b and 9b in series of 1,4-diene and 1,4,6-triene steroids as well as all of 4,6-diene steroids 9, except for the methyl compound 9a, served as a substrate for aromatase to yield estradiol and/or its 6-ene estradiol with lower conversion rates compared to the corresponding parent steroids 1,4-diene, 1,4,6-triene and 4,6-diene derivatives. The present findings strongly suggest that the aromatase reaction, 19-oxygenation, at least in part, would be involved in the time-dependent inactivation of aromatase by the suicide substrates 1 and 2, where the 19-substitutent would play a critical role in the aromatase reaction probably though steric and electronic reasons.

  13. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with (11)C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: (11)C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole.Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced (11)C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with (11)C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels in

  14. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-11C]vorozole PET in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S

    2015-04-01

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with (11)C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aimed to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathologic situations can be studied. (11)C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected intravenously in 13 men and 20 women (age range, 23-67 y). PET data were acquired over a 90-min period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2 per day separated by 2-6 wk, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned after pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Time-activity curves were obtained, and standardized uptake values (SUV) were calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone, and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole-body radiation exposures were calculated using OLINDA software. Liver uptake was higher than uptake in any other organ but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs were higher in men than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than SUVs in any other organ (ranging from 0.48 ± 0.05 in lungs to 1.5 ± 0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08 ± 0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than in any other organ. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs in young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, whereas aging and cigarette smoking reduced (11)C-vorozole uptake. PET with (11)C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiologic changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels

  15. Managing Aromatase Inhibitors in Breast Cancer Survivors: Not Just for Oncologists

    OpenAIRE

    Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    The role of the general internist in the care of breast cancer survivors is increasing as the number of women living with breast cancer continues to rise. Most breast cancers occurring in women older than 50 years are estrogen receptor– and/or progesterone receptor–positive, and adjuvant endocrine therapy plays an important role in the treatment plan. Aromatase inhibitors are becoming the preferred endocrine therapy, and general internists caring for breast cancer survivors need to be familia...

  16. Studies on the catalytic function of aromatase: aromatization of 6-alkoxy-substituted androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Ando, Momoko; Zennyoji, Rika

    2002-09-01

    To gain insight into the catalytic function of aromatase, we studied aromatization of a series of 6alpha- and 6beta-ether-substituted (methoxy, ethoxy, and n-butoxy) androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) steroids (1 and 2) and their androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) derivatives (3 and 4) with human placental aromatase by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the steroids examined, 6beta-methoxy and 6beta-ethoxyADDs (4a and 4b) are suicide substrates of aromatase. All of the steroids were found to be converted into the corresponding 6-alkoxy estrogens. Introduction of the alkoxy groups at C-6 of AD or ADD decreased the ability of these to serve as a substrate of aromatase. In 6alpha-alkoxy steroid series, compounds 1 and 3, the aromatization rate increased by elongating the 6-methoxy group up to the n-butoxy group whereas, in the 6beta-isomers series, 2 and 4, the rate decreased due to this structural modification. 6beta-Alkoxy steroids, 2 and 4, including the suicide substrates, were extremely poor substrates for the aromatization reaction. Apparent K(m) values obtained for 6alpha-alkoxy compounds 1 and 3 were similar to each other, ranging from 92 to 111nM, as shown by their previously-obtained K(i) values. The findings indicate that the stereochemistry as well as the bulkiness of the 6-ether-substituent play an important role in the ability to serve as a substrate. It is also predicted that the aromatization reaction and the mechanism-based inactivation reaction would be related and have a definite partition number which is characteristic to the compound in a series of suicide substrates.

  17. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Susan R. Mendley; Fotios Spyropoulos; Debra R. Counts

    2015-01-01

    We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correc...

  18. Diminished androgen and estrogen receptors and aromatase levels in hypogonadal diabetic men: reversal with testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Husam; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Abuaysheh, Sanaa; Batra, Manav; Kuhadiya, Nitesh D; Makdissi, Antoine; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dandona, Paresh

    2018-03-01

    One-third of males with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have hypogonadism, characterized by low total and free testosterone concentrations. We hypothesized that this condition is associated with a compensatory increase in the expression of androgen receptors (AR) and that testosterone replacement reverses these changes. We also measured estrogen receptor and aromatase expression. This is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-two hypogonadal and 32 eugonadal men with T2DM were recruited. Hypogonadal men were randomized to receive intramuscular testosterone or saline every 2 weeks for 22 weeks. We measured AR, ERα and aromatase expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC), adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in hypogonadal and eugonadal males with T2DM at baseline and after 22 weeks of treatment in those with hypogonadism. The mRNA expression of AR, ERα (ESR1) and aromatase in adipose tissue from hypogonadal men was significantly lower as compared to eugonadal men, and it increased significantly to levels comparable to those in eugonadal patients with T2DM following testosterone treatment. AR mRNA expression was also significantly lower in MNC from hypogonadal patients compared to eugonadal T2DM patients. Testosterone administration in hypogonadal patients also restored AR mRNA and nuclear extract protein levels from MNC to that in eugonadal patients. In the skeletal muscle, AR mRNA and protein expression are lower in men with hypogonadism. Testosterone treatment restored AR expression levels to that comparable to levels in eugonadal men. We conclude that, contrary to our hypothesis, the expression of AR, ERα and aromatase is significantly diminished in hypogonadal men as compared to eugonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Following testosterone replacement, there is a reversal of these deficits. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Limonoids and their anti-proliferative and anti-aromatase properties in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-02-01

    Lemons are a widely used citrus crop and have shown several potential health benefits. In the present study, the mechanism and effectiveness of the anti-cancer and anti-aromatase properties of limonoids were investigated for the first time. Defatted lemon (Citrus lemon L. Burm) seed powder was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) for 16 h each, successively. These extracts were fractionated using 1D (silica) and 2D (ion exchange and SP-70 columns) column chromatography to obtain nine limonoids. The compounds were identified by TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS techniques. A panel of 9 purified limonoids, including limonin, nomilin, obacunone, limonexic acid (LNA), isolimonexic acid (ILNA), nomilinic acid glucoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid glucoside (DNAG), limonin glucoside (LG) and obacunone glucoside (OG) as well as 4 modified compounds such as limonin methoxime (LM), limonin oxime (LO), defuran limonin (DL), and defuran nomilin (DN), were screened for their cytotoxicity on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (MCF-7) or ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. We further tested the mechanism of the anti-proliferative activity of limonoids using an in vitro aromatase enzyme assay and western blot with anti-caspase-7. Among the tested limonoids, 11 limonoids exhibited cytotoxicity on MCF-7 whereas 8 limonoids showed cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Although most of the limonoids showed anti-aromatase activity, the inhibition of proliferation was not related to the anti-aromatase activity. On the other hand, the anti-proliferative activity was significantly correlated with caspase-7 activation by limonoids. Our findings indicated that the citrus limonoids may have potential for the prevention of estrogen-responsive breast cancer (MCF-7) via caspase-7 dependent pathways.

  20. Metabolism of 19-methyl-substituted steroids by human placental aromatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beusen, D.D.; Carrell, H.L.; Covey, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The 19-methyl analogues of androstenedione and its aromatization intermediates (19-hydroxyandrostenedione and 19-oxoandrostenedione) were evaluated as substrates of microsomal aromatase in order to determine the effect of a 19-alkyl substituent on the enzyme's regiospecificity. Neither the androstenedione analog [10-ethylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione (1c) nor the 19-oxoandrostenedione analog [10-acetylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione (3c)] was converted to estrogens or oxygenated metabolites by placental microsomes. In contrast, both analogues of 19-hydroxyandrostenedione [10-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl] extr-4-ene-3,17-dione (2c) and 10-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (2e)] were converted to the intermediate analog 3c in a process requiring O 2 and either NADH or NADPH. No change in enzyme regiospecificity was detected. The absolute configuration of 2e was determined by X-ray crystallography. Experiments with 18 O 2 established that 3c generated from 2c retained little 18 O ( 18 O (≅ 70%). All four 19-methyl steroids elicited type I difference spectra from placental microsomes in addition to acting as competitive inhibitors of aromatase. Pretreatment of microsomes with 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (a suicide inactivator of aromatase) abolished the metabolism of 2c and 2e to 3c, as well as the type I difference spectrum elicited by 2c and 2e. The failure of 2c, 2e, and 3c to undergo aromatization was rationalized in the context of a mechanistic proposal for the third oxygenation of aromatase requiring hydrogen abstraction at C 1 of 19,19-dihydroxyandrostenedione, homolytic cleavage of the C 10 -C 19 bond, and oxygen rebound at C 19

  1. Neoadjuvant therapy of endometrial cancer with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole: endocrine and clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev; Maximov, Sergei; Gershfeld, Eduard; Meshkova, Irina; Gamajunova, Vera; Tsyrlina, Evgenia; Larionov, Alexei; Kovalevskij, Anatolii; Vasilyev, Dmitry

    2002-11-15

    To investigate the short-term hormonal and clinical effects of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara) in patients with endometrial cancer. Ten previously untreated, post-menopausal patients (mean age 59 years) with endometrial cancer, predominantly stage I disease, received letrozole 2.5mg per day for 14 days before surgery. Clinical, sonographic, morphologic, cytologic, and hormonal-metabolic parameters (blood estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), glucose, and cholesterol by radioimmunoassay, enzyme immune assay, or enzyme-colorimetric methods; tumor progesterone receptors by ligand-binding assay; and aromatase activity by 3H-water release assay) were evaluated before and after treatment. Treatment was well-tolerated in all patients. In two patients, pain relief in the lower part of the belly and/or decrease in intensity of uterine discharge was reported. In the three cases, substantial decreases in endometrial M-echo (ultrasound) signal were noted; the mean value of this parameter after treatment was 31.1% lower than before treatment. Blood estradiol concentration decreased by an average of 37.8% after letrozole therapy, and tumor progesterone receptor levels and aromatase activity decreased by 34.4 and 17.5%, respectively. Treatment with letrozole did not influence surgery. These data show that short-term treatment with letrozole in the neoadjuvant setting resulted in some positive clinical changes. Longer-term and larger-scale trials of neoadjuvant letrozole in endometrial cancer are warranted.

  2. PENGARUH RANGSANGAN HORMON AROMATASE INHIBITOR DAN OODEV TERHADAP PERUBAHAN KELAMIN DAN PERKEMBANGAN GONAD IKAN KERAPU SUNU, Plectropomus leopardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirmawan Tirta Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan utama yang dihadapi dalam penyediaan calon induk ikan kerapu sunu Plectropomus leopardus hasil budidaya yang bersifat hermaprodit sekuensial adalah keterlambatan dalam perkembangan gonad dan perubahan gonad dari betina menjadi jantan. Manipulasi hormonal merupakan cara yang paling efektif dan efisien dalam memacu perkembangan reproduksi dan pematangan gonad. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan dosis hormon aromatase inhibitor dan oodev yang tepat untuk memacu perubahan kelamin dan perkembangan gonad ikan kerapu sunu. Ikan uji yang digunakan sebanyak 35 ekor F-1 dengan bobot rerata 2,3 ± 0,28 kg. Penelitian dilakukan selama dua bulan. Induksi hormon dilakukan melalui penyuntikan setiap dua minggu sekali dengan empat dosis aromatase inhibitor dan oodev yang berbeda; A (aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan, O (oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, AO1 (aromatase inhibitor 0,1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, AO2 (aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan, dan K (plasebo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan dan oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan efektif untuk merangsang perubahan kelamin. Perlakuan tersebut dapat meningkatkan konsentrasi testosteron dalam darah (2,819 ng/mL setelah delapan minggu pemeliharaan. Berdasarkan hasil histologi gonad dan observasi terhadap ekspresi gen terkait reproduksi menggunakan gen target DMRT1 dan SOX3 menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan hormon AO2 (Aromatase inhibitor 1 mg kg-1 ikan + oodev 1 mL kg-1 ikan terbukti dapat memacu perubahan kelamin dari betina menjadi jantan dan kematangan gonad pada ikan kerapu sunu Plectropomus leopardus. The main problems faced in providing prospective broodstock of protogynous hermaphrodite coral trout grouper Plectropomus leopardus are lateness of gonadal development and gonadal sex reversal from female to male. Hormonal manipulation is the most effective way to induce reproductive development and gonadal maturation. The present

  3. Synthesis and PET studies of [11C-cyano]letrozole (Femara), an aromatase inhibitor drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kil K. E.; Biegon A.; Kil, K.-E.; Biegon, A.; Ding, Y.-S.; Fischer, A.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Kim, S.-W.; Pareto, D.; Schueller, M.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    2008-11-10

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole, Femara{reg_sign}) is a high affinity aromatase inhibitor (K{sub i}=11.5 nM) which has FDA approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11 labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile, 3) were prepared in two-step syntheses from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [{sup 11}C]cyano group was introduced via the tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) catalyzed coupling of [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the bromo-precursor (3). PET studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. The free fraction of letrozole in the plasma, log D, and the [{sup 11}C-cyano]letrozole fraction in the arterial plasma were also measured. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79-80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16 {+-} 2.21 Ci/{micro}mol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain with no difference between brain regions. The brain kinetics was not affected by co-injection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9% and log D was 1.84. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction with [{sup 11}C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase as revealed by the absence of regional specificity and saturability in brain regions, such as amygdala, which are known

  4. Synthesis and PET studies of [(11)C-cyano]letrozole (Femara), an aromatase inhibitor drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Kun-Eek; Biegon, Anat; Ding, Yu-Shin; Fischer, Andre; Ferrieri, Richard A; Kim, Sung Won; Pareto, Deborah; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S

    2009-02-01

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol, respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole; Femara) is a high-affinity aromatase inhibitor (K(i)=11.5 nM) that has Food and Drug Administration approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile) were prepared in a two-step synthesis from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [(11)C]cyano group was introduced via tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling of [(11)C]cyanide with the bromo precursor. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. Log D, the free fraction of letrozole in plasma and the [(11)C-cyano]letrozole fraction in arterial plasma were also measured. [(11)C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79-80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16+/-2.21 Ci/mumol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance, followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain, with no difference between brain regions. Brain kinetics was not affected by coinjection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9%, and log D was 1.84. [(11)C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction with [(11)C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase, as revealed by the absence of regional specificity and saturability in brain regions such as amygdala, which are known to

  5. Testosterone-induced adult neurosphere growth is mediated by sexually-dimorphic aromatase expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ian Ransome

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We derived adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs from the sub-ventricular zone of male and female mice to examine direct responses to principal sex hormones. In the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 NSPCs of both sexes expressed nestin and sox2 and could be maintained as neurospheres without addition of any sex hormones. The reverse was not observed; neither testosterone (T, 17β-oestradiol (E2 nor progesterone (P4 was able to support neurosphere growth in the absence of EGF and FGF2. 10nM T, E2 or P4 induced nestin(+ cell proliferation within 20 minutes and enhanced neurosphere growth over 7 days irrespective of sex, which was abolished by Erk inhibition with 20M U0126. Maintaining neurospheres with each sex hormone did not affect subsequent neuronal differentiation. However, 10nM T, E2 or P4 added during differentiation increased III tubulin(+ neuron production with E2 being more potent compared to T and P4 in both sexes. Androgen receptor (AR inhibition with 20M flutamide but not aromatase inhibition with 10M letrozole reduced basal and T-induced neurosphere growth in females, while only concurrent inhibition of AR and aromatase produced the same effect in males. This sex-specific effect was supported by higher aromatase expression in male neurospheres compared to females measured by Western blot and green fluorescent protein reporter. 10M menadione induced oxidative stress, impaired neurosphere growth and up-regulated aromatase expression in both sexes. However, under oxidative stress letrozole significantly exacerbated impaired neurosphere growth in males only. While both E2 and T could prevent oxidative stress-induced growth reduction in both sexes, the effects of T were dependent on innate aromatase activity. We show for the first time that intrinsic androgen and estrogen signalling may impact the capacity of NSPCs to produce neural progenitors under pathological conditions of

  6. Synthesis and PET studies of [{sup 11}C-cyano]letrozole (Femara), an aromatase inhibitor drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Kun-Eek [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Biegon, Anat [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ding, Yu-Shin [Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); Fischer, Andre [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ferrieri, Richard A.; Kim, Sung Won; Pareto, Deborah; Schueller, Michael J. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)], E-mail: fowler@bnl.gov

    2009-02-15

    Introduction: Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol, respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole; Femara) is a high-affinity aromatase inhibitor (K{sub i}=11.5 nM) that has Food and Drug Administration approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Methods: Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile) were prepared in a two-step synthesis from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [{sup 11}C]cyano group was introduced via tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling of [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the bromo precursor. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. Log D, the free fraction of letrozole in plasma and the [{sup 11}C-cyano]letrozole fraction in arterial plasma were also measured. Results: [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79-80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16{+-}2.21 Ci/{mu}mol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance, followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain, with no difference between brain regions. Brain kinetics was not affected by coinjection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9%, and log D was 1.84. Conclusion: [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction with [{sup 11}C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase, as revealed by the absence of regional specificity

  7. Des-acyl ghrelin inhibits the capacity of macrophages to stimulate the expression of aromatase in breast adipose stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, CheukMan C; Docanto, Maria M; Zahid, Heba; Raffaelli, Francesca-Maria; Ferrero, Richard L; Furness, John B; Brown, Kristy A

    2017-06-01

    Des-acyl ghrelin is the unacylated form of the well-characterized appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin. It affects a number of physiological processes, including increasing adipose lipid accumulation and inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation. Breast adipose tissue inflammation in obesity is associated with an increase in the expression of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and is hypothesized to create a hormonal milieu conducive to tumor growth. We previously reported that des-acyl ghrelin inhibits the expression and activity of aromatase in isolated human adipose stromal cells (ASCs), the main site of aromatase expression in the adipose tissue. The current study aimed to examine the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on the capacity of mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and human adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to stimulate aromatase expression in primary human breast ASCs. RAW264.7 cells were treated with 0, 10 and 100pM des-acyl ghrelin following activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and cells and conditioned media were collected after 6 and 24h. The effect of des-acyl ghrelin on macrophage polarization was examined by assessing mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory M1-specific marker Cd11c and anti-inflammatory M2-specific marker Cd206, as well as expression of Tnf and Ptgs2, known mediators of the macrophage-dependent stimulation of aromatase. TNF protein in conditioned media was assessed by ELISA. The effect of RAW264.7 and ATM-conditioned media on aromatase expression in ASCs was assessed after 6h. Results demonstrate des-acyl ghrelin significantly increases the expression of Cd206 and suppresses the expression of Cd11c, Tnf and Ptgs2 in activated RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 and ATMs with des-acyl ghrelin also significantly reduces the capacity of these cells to stimulate aromatase transcript expression in human breast ASCs. Overall, these findings suggest that in addition to direct effects on aromatase in ASCs, des-acyl ghrelin also

  8. Managing arthralgia in a postmenopausal woman taking an aromatase inhibitor for hormonesensitive early breast cancer: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, Jane; Bauer, Martina; Hadji, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of recurrence, adjuvant treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) is recommended for postmenopausal women following surgery for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. AIs are associated with improved disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen. The adverse events associated with AIs resemble those of menopause, such as bone density loss and musculoskeletal symptoms. We examine the case of a postmenopausal woman who was prescribed anastrozole, a nonsteroidal AI, as adjuvant therapy following surgery for estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (ER and PgR+) breast cancer. A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman diagnosed with ER and PgR+ breast cancer was prescribed anastrozole as adjuvant therapy following a right-inferior quadrantectomy. After experiencing joint pain and stiffness, she was prescribed paracetamol and a topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. She was also counseled on nonpharmacological interventions. However, she continued to experience symptoms, and reported that she was not taking anastrozole regularly. The case study patient ultimately found relief by switching to letrozole, another aromatase inhibitor. This approach is supported by recent studies examining the benefits of switching strategies between aromatase inhibitors in order to relieve symptoms of arthralgia/myalgia. Both adherence and strategies for managing aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia are key to deriving maximal clinical benefit from AI therapy. Switching from one aromatase inhibitor to another may provide a viable option in managing adverse events and enhancing adherence to medication

  9. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric study of 19-oxygenation of the aromatase inhibitor 19-methylandrostenedione with human placental microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Nagaoka, Masao; Handa, Wakako; Yamada, Akane

    2006-06-01

    To gain insight into the catalytic function of aromatase, we studied 19-oxygenation of 19-methyl-substituted derivative of the natural substrate androstenedione (AD), compound 1, with human placental aromatase by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Incubation of the 19-methyl derivative 1 with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under an aerobic condition did not yield a detectable amount of [19S]19-hydroxy product 2 or its [19R]-isomer 3 when the product was analyzed as the bis-methoxime-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative by GC-MS; moreover, the production of estrogen was not detected as the bis-TMS derivative of estradiol (detection limit: about 3 ng and 10 pg per injection for the 19-ol and estradiol, respectively). The results reveal that the 19-methyl steroid 1 does not serve as a substrate of aromatase, although it does serve as a powerful inhibitor of the enzyme.

  11. Estrogens and male reproduction: a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carreau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian testis serves two main functions: production of spermatozoa and synthesis of steroids; among them estrogens are the end products obtained from the irreversible transformation of androgens by a microsomal enzymatic complex named aromatase. The aromatase is encoded by a single gene (cyp19 in humans which contains 18 exons, 9 of them being translated. In rats, the aromatase activity is mainly located in Sertoli cells of immature rats and then in Leydig cells of adult rats. We have demonstrated that germ cells represent an important source of estrogens: the amount of P450arom transcript is 3-fold higher in pachytene spermatocytes compared to gonocytes or round spermatids; conversely, aromatase activity is more intense in haploid cells. Male germ cells of mice, bank voles, bears, and monkeys express aromatase. In humans, we have shown the presence of a biologically active aromatase and of estrogen receptors (alpha and ß in ejaculated spermatozoa and in immature germ cells in addition to Leydig cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the amount of P450arom transcripts is 30% lower in immotile than in motile spermatozoa. Alterations of spermatogenesis in terms of number and motility of spermatozoa have been described in men genetically deficient in aromatase. These last observations, together with our data showing a significant decrease of aromatase in immotile spermatozoa, suggest that aromatase could be involved in the acquisition of sperm motility. Thus, taking into account the widespread localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors in testicular cells, it is obvious that, besides gonadotrophins and androgens, estrogens produced locally should be considered to be physiologically relevant hormones involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

  12. Cellular Expression of Cyclooxygenase, Aromatase, Adipokines, Inflammation and Cell Proliferation Markers in Breast Cancer Specimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Basu

    Full Text Available Current evidences suggest that expression of Ki67, cyclooxygenase (COX, aromatase, adipokines, prostaglandins, free radicals, β-catenin and α-SMA might be involved in breast cancer pathogenesis. The main objective of this study was to compare expression/localization of these potential compounds in breast cancer tissues with tissues collected adjacent to the tumor using immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical pathology. The breast cancer specimens were collected from 30 women aged between 49 and 89 years who underwent breast surgery following cancer diagnosis. Expression levels of molecules by different stainings were graded as a score on a scale based upon staining intensity and proportion of positive cells/area or individually. AdipoR1, adiponectin, Ob-R, leptin, COX-1, COX-2, aromatase, PGF2α, F2-isoprostanes and α-SMA were localised on higher levels in the breast tissues adjacent to the tumor compared to tumor specimens when considering either score or staining area whereas COX-2 and AdipoR2 were found to be higher considering staining intensity and Ki67 on score level in the tumor tissue. There was no significant difference observed on β-catenin either on score nor on staining area and intensity between tissues adjacent to the tumor and tumor tissues. A positive correlation was found between COX-1 and COX-2 in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, these suggest that Ki67, COXs, aromatase, prostaglandin, free radicals, adipokines, β-catenin and α-SMA are involved in breast cancer. These further focus the need of examination of tissues adjacent to tumor, tumor itself and compare them with normal or benign breast tissues for a better understanding of breast cancer pathology and future evaluation of therapeutic benefit.

  13. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  14. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  15. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of steroid aromatase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I.; García, Angel E.

    1996-06-01

    Inhibition of aromatase, a cytochrome P450 that converts androgens to estrogens, is relevant in the therapeutic control of breast cancer. We investigate this inhibition using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) method known as Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA [Cramer III, R.D. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 110 (1988) 5959]. We analyzed the data for 50 steroid inhibitors [Numazawa, M. et al., J. Med. Chem., 37 (1994) 2198, and references cited therein] assayed against androstenedione on human placental microsomes. An initial CoMFA resulted in a three-component model for log(1/Ki), with an explained variance r2 of 0.885, and a cross-validated q2 of 0.673. Chemometric studies were performed using GOLPE [Baroni, M. et al., Quant. Struct.-Act. Relatsh., 12 (1993) 9]. The CoMFA/GOLPE model is discussed in terms of robustness, predictivity, explanatory power and simplicity. After randomized exclusion of 25 or 10 compounds (repeated 25 times), the q2 for one component was 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, while r2 was 0.674. We demonstrate that the predictive r2 based on the mean activity (Ym) of the training set is misleading, while the test set Ym-based predictive r2 index gives a more accurate estimate of external predictivity. Using CoMFA, the observed differences in aromatase inhibition among C6-substituted steroids are rationalized at the atomic level. The CoMFA fields are consistent with known, potent inhibitors of aromatase, not included in the model. When positioned in the same alignment, these compounds have distinct features that overlap with the steric and electrostatic fields obtained in the CoMFA model. The presence of two hydrophobic binding pockets near the aromatase active site is discussed: a steric bulk tolerant one, common for C4, C6-alpha and C7-alpha substitutents, and a smaller one at the C6-beta region.

  16. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Mendley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correction of height deficit. This strategy may be appropriate for children with chronic kidney disease and short stature who are in puberty.

  17. Sex-Dependent Regulation of Aromatase-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Roland A; Zhou, Lepu; Vierk, Ricardo; Brandt, Nicola; Keller, Alexander; Gee, Christine E; Schäfer, Michael K E; Rune, Gabriele M

    2017-02-08

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) integrates sensory input from cortical and subcortical regions, a function that requires marked synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that cytochrome P450 aromatase (AROM), the enzyme converting testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), contributes to the regulation of this plasticity in a sex-specific manner. We show that AROM is expressed in the BLA, particularly in the basolateral nucleus (BL), in male and female rodents. Systemic administration of the AROM inhibitor letrozole reduced spine synapse density in the BL of adult female mice but not in the BL of male mice. Similarly, in organotypic corticoamygdalar slice cultures from immature rats, treatment with letrozole significantly reduced spine synapses in the BL only in cultures derived from females. In addition, letrozole sex-specifically altered synaptic properties in the BL: in acute slices from juvenile (prepubertal) female rats, wash-in of letrozole virtually abolished long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas it did not prevent the generation of LTP in the slices from males. Together, these data indicate that neuron-derived E2 modulates synaptic plasticity in rodent BLA sex-dependently. As protein expression levels of AROM, estrogen and androgen receptors did not differ between males and females and were not sex-specifically altered by letrozole, the findings suggest sex-specific mechanisms of E2 signaling. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure of the fear circuit. This research reveals a sexually dimorphic regulation of synaptic plasticity in the BLA involving neuronal aromatase, which produces the neurosteroid 17β-estradiol (E2). As male and female neurons in rodent BLA responded differently to aromatase inhibition both in vivo and in vitro , our findings suggest that E2 signaling in BLA neurons is regulated sex-dependently, presumably via mechanisms that have been established during sexual determination. These findings could be

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of oxidative reactions of [19,19-(2)H(2)]19-hydroxy-3-deoxy androgens by placental aromatase. bsence of a deuterium-isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Masao; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2005-11-01

    Aromatase is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to estrone through three sequential oxidations of the 19-methyl group. 3-DeoxyAD (1) and its 5-ene isomer 4 are potent and good competitive aromatase inhibitors, which are converted by aromatase to the aldehyde derivatives 3 and 6, respectively, through 19-hydroxy intermediates 2 and 5, respectively. To study the deuterium isotope effect on the conversions of 19-ols 2 and 5 into the corresponding 19-als 3 and 6, we initially synthesized [19,19-(2)H(2)]19-ols 2 and 5 starting from the corresponding non-labeled 19-als 3 and 6 through NaB(2)H(4) reduction of the 19-aldehyde group, followed by oxidation with pyridinium dichromate, and a subsequent NaB(2)H(4) reduction. Approximately 1:1 mixtures of non-labeled (d(0)) and deuterated (d(2)) 19-ols 2 and 5 were separately incubated with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under an air atmosphere, and deuterium contents of the recovered substrates and the 19-aldehyde products were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In each experiment, the ratio of d(0) to d(2) of the recovered substrate along with that of d(0) to d(1) of the product were identical to the d(0) to d(2) ratio of the employed substrate irrespective of the incubation time, indicating that the 19-oxygenations of the 3-deoxy steroids 2 and 5 proceeded without a detectable isotope effect, as seen in the aromatization sequence of the natural substrate AD.

  19. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa S. Atta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60 were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg, Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg orally once daily, and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  20. Immunoexpression of androgen receptors and aromatase in testes of patient with Klinefelter's syndrome.

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    Stanisław Fracki

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter's syndrome (47, XXY is the most common chromosome aneuploidy in men and is usually characterized by underdeveloped testes and sterility. The aim of the present study was to detect cellular distribution of androgen receptors (AR and aromatase in testes of patient with KS. The tissue sections were processed for morphological and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, levels of FSH, LH, PRL, estradiol, and testosterone were measured in the plasma. Morphological analysis revealed a complete absence of spermatogenesis. No germ cells were present in seminiferous tubules. In some tubules, nests of apparently degenerating Sertoli cells were found. In the interstitium, Leydig cell hyperplasia was observed. Using immunohistochemistry, nuclear AR staining was detected in Sertoli cells and peritubular cells, whereas in Leydig cells the staining was exclusively cytoplasmic. The immunostaining of aromatase was detected in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Increased levels of gonadotropins and decreased level of testosterone concomitantly with the cytoplasmic localization of AR in Leydig cells might contribute to the impaired testicular function in patient with KS.

  1. Long-term safety of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc A Nabholtz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Marc A NabholtzBreast Cancer Research Institute La Prandie, Valojoulx, FranceAbstract: Following promising data for metastatic breast cancer in terms of efficacy and safety profile, third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AI, anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane, underwent a full development in early setting. If recent results consistently show the superiority of these agents over tamoxifen, the therapeutic strategies of AIs in adjuvant setting are still debated. Beyond the choice of clinical strategy, the long duration of exposure to AI in adjuvant setting required a full determination of the long-term toxicity profile of these agents. While all three AIs have either favorable (decreased incidence of hot flashes, gynecologic and thromboembolic side-effects or unfavorable (skeletal complications, arthralgia, musculoskeletal pain, sexual dysfunction class adverse events, some variability between AIs has been reported in side-effects as well as gastrointestinal, urogenital, neurologic, and visual disturbances, confirming the lack of interchangeability between the three AIs. The overall therapeutic index of AIs appears today superior to that of tamoxifen with proven improved efficacy and better toxicity profile. This review will explore the results from the available adjuvant AIs trials with a particular emphasis on safety profiles, quality of life, and therapeutic index, helping to define the present role of AIs in the adjuvant management of postmenopausal patients with breast cancer.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, adjuvant, safety profile

  2. Inhibition of estrone sulfatase by aromatase inhibitor-based estrogen 3-sulfamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Tominaga, Takako; Watari, Yoko; Tada, Yasue

    2006-05-01

    Our rationale is based on the finding that estrone 3-sulfamate (EMATE, 2d), a typical estrone sulfatase (ES) inhibitor, can be hydrolyzed and the pharmacological effect of the free estrogen contributes to the bioactivity of the sulfamate. A number of 3-sulfamoylated derivatives of the good aromatase inhibitors, 2- and 4-halogeno (F, Cl, and Br) estrones and their estradiol analogs as well as 6beta-methyl and phenyl estrones, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of ES in human placental microsomes in comparison with the lead compound EMATE. Among them, 2-chloro- and 2-bromoestrone 3-sulfamates (2b and 2c), along with their estradiol analogs 3b and 3c, were powerful competitive inhibitors with K(i)'s ranging between 4.0 and 11.3 nM (K(i) for EMATE, 73 nM). These four sulfamates as well as the 2-fluoro analogs 2a and 3a inactivated ES in a time-dependent manner more efficiently than EMATE, and 2-halogeno estrone sulfamates 2 also caused a concentration-dependent loss of ES activity. The results may be useful for developing a new class of drugs having a dual function, ES inhibition and aromatase inhibition, for the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Study on the effect of aromatase inhibitors and antiestrogens on the sex differentiation of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Valizadeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During the development of chick embryo, the genotype of the zygote determines the nature of the gonads, which thereafter creates the male or female phenotype. Differentiation of gonads during the period called “critical period for sexual differentiation “is accompanied with beginning of secretion of sexual hormones. Every change in the rate of steroidal hormones concentration during this critical period, affects on the structure of gonads. Therefore, injection of aromatase inhibitors (which blocks the synthesis of estrogen from testostron in 5th day of incubation into the eggs, causes the production of males with female genotype. These sex reversal females have bilateral testes with complete spermatogenesis, having normal physical appearance and behavior. In this study, 14-α-hydroxy 3,6,17, androstan-trion inhibitor (1mg/egg was injected into the eggs. Furthermore, the effect of three anti-estrogens (which blocks the estrogen receptor Tamoxifen, and Clomiphen Citrate and GAR79 were studied. Injection of aromatase inhibitors into the eggs during incubation period caused statistically significant (p

  4. Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, M J; de Bournonville, C; Balthazart, J; Cornil, C A

    2014-02-01

    Estradiol-17β (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone, changes in aromatase enzymatic activity (AA) are often utilized as a proxy to describe E2 concentrations. Utilizing two types of stimuli (sexual interactions and acute restraint stress) that have been demonstrated to reliably alter AA within minutes in opposite directions (sexual interactions=decrease, stress=increase), we tested in Japanese quail whether rapid changes in AA are paralleled by changes in E2 concentrations in discrete brain areas. In males, E2 in the pooled medial preoptic nucleus/medial portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (POM/BST) positively correlated with AA following sexual interactions. However, following acute stress, E2 decreased significantly (approximately 2-fold) in the male POM/BST despite a significant increase in AA. In females, AA positively correlated with E2 in both the POM/BST and mediobasal hypothalamus supporting a role for local, as opposed to ovarian, production regulating brain E2 concentrations. In addition, correlations of individual E2 in POM/BST and measurements of female sexual behavior suggested a role for local E2 synthesis in female receptivity. These data demonstrate that local E2 in the male brain changes in response to stimuli on a time course suggestive of potential non-genomic effects on brain and behavior. Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy

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    Melissa Dahir, DNP, IF

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AIs. Dahir M and Travers‐Gustafson D. Breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor therapy, and sexual functioning: A pilot study of the effects of vaginal testosterone therapy. Sex Med 2014;2:8–15.

  6. Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowsett, M.; Forbes, J. F.; Bradley, R.; Ingle, J.; Aihara, T.; Bliss, J.; Boccardo, F.; Coates, A.; Coombes, R. C.; Cuzick, J.; Dubsky, P.; Gnant, M.; Kaufmann, M.; Kilburn, L.; Perrone, F.; Rea, D.; Thurlimann, B.; van de Velde, C.; Pan, H.; Peto, R.; Davies, C.; Gray, R.; Burrett, J.; Clarke, M.; Duane, F.; Evans, V.; Gettins, L.; Godwin, J.; Liu, H.; McGale, P.; MacKinnon, E.; McHugh, T.; James, S.; Morris, P.; Read, S.; Taylor, C.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Bergh, J.; Pritchard, K.; Albain, K.; Anderson, S.; Arriagada, R.; Barlow, W.; Bergsten-Nordstrom, E.; Buyse, M.; Cameron, D.; Coleman, R.; Correa, C.; Costantino, J.; Davidson, N.; Di Leo, A.; Ewertz, M.; Forbes, J.; Gelber, R.; Geyer, C.; Gianni, L.; Goldhirsch, A.; Hayes, D.; Hill, C.; Janni, W.; Martin, M.; Norton, L.; Ohashi, Y.; Paik, S.; Perez, E.; Piccart, M.; Pierce, L.; Raina, V.; Ravdin, P.; Robertson, J.; Rutgers, E.; Sparano, J.; Swain, S.; Viale, G.; von Minckwitz, G.; Wang, X.; Whelan, T.; Wilcken, N.; Winer, E.; Wolmark, N.; Wood, W.; Abe, O.; Abe, R.; Enomoto, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Koyama, H.; Masuda, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakai, K.; Sugimachi, K.; Toi, M.; Tominaga, T.; Uchino, J.; Yoshida, M.; Haybittle, J. L.; Leonard, C. F.; Calais, G.; Garaud, P.; Collett, V.; Delmestri, A.; Sayer, J.; Harvey, V. J.; Holdaway, I. M.; Kay, R. G.; Mason, B. H.; Bartsch, R.; Fesl, C.; Fohler, H.; Greil, R.; Jakesz, R.; Lang, A.; Luschin-Ebengreuth, G.; Marth, C.; Mlineritsch, B.; Samonigg, H.; Singer, C. F.; Steger, G. G.; Stoger, H.; Canney, P.; Yosef, H. M. A.; Focan, C.; Peek, U.; Oates, G. D.; Powell, J.; Durand, M.; Mauriac, L.; Dolci, S.; Larsimont, D.; Nogaret, J. M.; Philippson, C.; Piccart, M. J.; Masood, M. B.; Parker, D.; Price, J. J.; Lindsay, M. A.; Mackey, J.; Hupperets, P. S. G. J.; Bates, T.; Blamey, R. W.; Chetty, U.; Ellis, I. O.; Mallon, E.; Morgan, D. A. L.; Patnick, J.; Pinder, S.; Olivotto, I.; Ragaz, J.; Berry, D.; Broadwater, G.; Cirrincione, C.; Muss, H.; Weiss, R. B.; Abu-Zahra, H. T.; Portnoj, S. M.; Bowden, S.; Brookes, C.; Dunn, J.; Fernando, I.; Lee, M.; Poole, C.; Spooner, D.; Barrett-Lee, P. J.; Mansel, R. E.; Monypenny, I. J.; Gordon, N. H.; Davis, H. L.; Sestak, I.; Lehingue, Y.; Romestaing, P.; Dubois, J. B.; Delozier, T.; Griffon, B.; Mace Lesec'h, J.; Brain, E.; de La Lande, B.; Mouret-Fourme, E.; Mustacchi, G.; Petruzelka, L.; Pribylova, O.; Owen, J. R.; Harbeck, N.; Janicke, F.; Meisner, C.; Schmitt, M.; Thomssen, C.; Meier, P.; Shan, Y.; Shao, Y. F.; Zhao, D. B.; Chen, Z. M.; Pan, H. C.; Howell, A.; Swindell, R.; Burrett, J. A.; Cutter, D.; Kerr, A.; Mannu, G.; Albano, J.; de Oliveira, C. F.; Gervasio, H.; Gordilho, J.; Ejlertsen, B.; Jensen, M.-B.; Johansen, H.; Mouridsen, H.; Palshof, T.; Gelman, R. S.; Harris, J. R.; Henderson, C.; Shapiro, C. L.; Christiansen, P.; Moller, S.; Mouridsen, H. T.; Trampisch, H. J.; Dalesio, O.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Rodenhuis, S.; van Tinteren, H.; Comis, R. L.; Davidson, N. E.; Robert, N.; Sledge, G.; Solin, L. J.; Sparano, J. A.; Tormey, D. C.; Dixon, J. M.; Forrest, P.; Jack, W.; Kunkler, I.; Rossbach, J.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Treurniet-Donker, A. D.; van Putten, W. L. J.; Rotmensz, N.; Veronesi, U.; Bartelink, H.; Bijker, N.; Bogaerts, J.; Cardoso, F.; Cufer, T.; Julien, J. P.; van de Velde, C. J. H.; Cunningham, M. P.; Huovinen, R.; Joensuu, H.; Costa, A.; Bonadonna, G.; Valagussa, P.; Goldstein, L. J.; Bonneterre, J.; Fargeot, P.; Fumoleau, P.; Kerbrat, P.; Luporsi, E.; Namer, M.; Eiermann, W.; Hilfrich, J.; Jonat, W.; Kreienberg, R.; Schumacher, M.; Bastert, G.; Rauschecker, H.; Sauer, R.; Sauerbrei, W.; Schauer, A.; Blohmer, J. U.; Costa, S. D.; Eidtmann, H.; Gerber, B.; Jackisch, C.; Loibl, S.; de Schryver, A.; Vakaet, L.; Belfiglio, M.; Nicolucci, A.; Pellegrini, F.; Pirozzoli, M. C.; Sacco, M.; Valentini, M.; McArdle, C. S.; Smith, D. C.; Stallard, S.; Dent, D. M.; Gudgeon, C. A.; Hacking, A.; Murray, E.; Panieri, E.; Werner, I. D.; Carrasco, E.; Segui, M. A.; Galligioni, E.; Leone, B.; Vallejo, C. T.; Zwenger, A.; Lopez, M.; Erazo, A.; Medina, J. Y.; Horiguchi, J.; Takei, H.; Fentiman, I. S.; Hayward, J. L.; Rubens, R. D.; Skilton, D.; Scheurlen, H.; Sohn, H. C.; Untch, M.; Dafni, U.; Markopoulos, C.; Fountzilas, G.; Mavroudis, D.; Klefstrom, P.; Blomqvist, C.; Saarto, T.; Gallen, M.; Tinterri, C.; Margreiter, R.; de Lafontan, B.; Mihura, J.; Roche, H.; Asselain, B.; Salmon, R. J.; Vilcoq, J. R.; Andre, F.; Delaloge, S.; Koscielny, S.; Michiels, S.; Rubino, C.; A'Hern, R.; Ellis, P.; Yarnold, J. R.; Benraadt, J.; Kooi, M.; van de Velde, A. O.; van Dongen, J. A.; Vermorken, J. B.; Castiglione, M.; Colleoni, M.; Collins, J.; Gelber, R. D.; Lindtner, J.; Price, K. N.; Regan, M. M.; Rudenstam, C. M.; Senn, H. J.; Thuerlimann, B.; Bliss, J. M.; Chilvers, C. E. D.; Hall, E.; Marty, M.; Possinger, K.; Schmid, P.; Wallwiener, D.; Foster, L.; George, W. D.; Stewart, H. J.; Stroner, P.; Borovik, R.; Hayat, H.; Inbar, M. J.; Peretz, T.; Robinson, E.; Bruzzi, P.; del Mastro, L.; Pronzato, P.; Sertoli, M. R.; Venturini, M.; Camerini, T.; de Palo, G.; Di Mauro, M. G.; Formelli, F.; Amadori, D.; Martoni, A.; Pannuti, F.; Camisa, R.; Cocconi, G.; Colozza, A.; Passalacqua, R.; Aogi, K.; Takashima, S.; Ikeda, T.; Inokuchi, K.; Sawa, K.; Sonoo, H.; Sadoon, M.; Tulusan, A. H.; Kohno, N.; Miyashita, M.; Takao, S.; Ahn, J.-H.; Jung, K. H.; Korzeniowski, S.; Skolyszewski, J.; Ogawa, M.; Yamashita, J.; Bastiaannet, E.; van de Water, W.; van Nes, J. G. H.; Christiaens, R.; Neven, P.; Paridaens, R.; van den Bogaert, W.; Braun, S.; Martin, P.; Romain, S.; Janauer, M.; Seifert, M.; Sevelda, P.; Zielinski, C. C.; Hakes, T.; Hudis, C. A.; Wittes, R.; Giokas, G.; Kondylis, D.; Lissaios, B.; de la Huerta, R.; Sainz, M. G.; Ro, J.; Altemus, R.; Camphausen, K.; Cowan, K.; Danforth, D.; Lichter, A.; Lippman, M.; O'Shaughnessy, J.; Pierce, L. J.; Steinberg, S.; Venzon, D.; Zujewski, J. A.; D'Amico, C.; Lioce, M.; Paradiso, A.; Chapman, J.-A. W.; Gelmon, K.; Goss, P. E.; Levine, M. N.; Meyer, R.; Parulekar, W.; Pater, J. L.; Pritchard, K. I.; Shepherd, L. E.; Tu, D.; Ohno, S.; Bass, G.; Brown, A.; Bryant, J.; Dignam, J.; Fisher, B.; Mamounas, E. P.; Redmond, C.; Wickerham, L.; Hozumi, Y.; Baum, M.; Jackson, I. M.; Palmer, M. K.; Ingle, J. N.; Suman, V. J.; Bengtsson, N. O.; Emdin, S.; Jonsson, H.; Lythgoe, J. P.; Kissin, M.; Erikstein, B.; Hannisdal, E.; Jacobsen, A. B.; Varhaug, J. E.; Gundersen, S.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Host, H.; Nissen-Meyer, N. N.; Mitchell, A. K.; Robertson, J. F. R.; Ueo, H.; Di Palma, M.; Mathe, G.; Misset, J. L.; Levine, M.; Morimoto, K.; Takatsuka, Y.; Crossley, E.; Harris, A.; Talbot, D.; Taylor, M.; di Blasio, B.; Ivanov, V.; Paltuev, R.; Semiglazov, V.; Brockschmidt, J.; Cooper, M. R.; Falkson, C. I.; Hadji, P.; Makris, A.; Parton, M.; Pennert, K.; Powles, T. J.; Smith, I. E.; Gazet, J. C.; Browne, L.; Graham, P.; Corcoran, N.; Clack, G.; van Poznak, C.; Businico, A.; Deshpande, N.; di Martino, L.; Douglas, P.; Lindtner, A.; Notter, G.; Bryant, A. J. S.; Ewing, G. H.; Firth, L. A.; Krushen-Kosloski, J. L.; Nissen-Meyer, R.; Anderson, H.; Killander, F.; Malmstrom, P.; Ryden, L.; Arnesson, L.-G.; Carstensen, J.; Dufmats, M.; Fohlin, H.; Nordenskjold, B.; Soderberg, M.; Carpenter, J. T.; Murray, N.; Royle, G. T.; Simmonds, P. D.; Crowley, J.; Gralow, J.; Hortobagyi, G.; Livingston, R.; Martino, S.; Osborne, C. K.; Ravdin, P. M.; Adolfsson, J.; Bondesson, T.; Celebioglu, F.; Dahlberg, K.; Fornander, T.; Fredriksson, I.; Frisell, J.; Goransson, E.; Iiristo, M.; Johansson, U.; Lenner, E.; Lofgren, L.; Nikolaidis, P.; Perbeck, L.; Rotstein, S.; Sandelin, K.; Skoog, L.; Svane, G.; af Trampe, E.; Wadstrom, C.; Maibach, R.; Hakama, M.; Holli, K.; Isola, J.; Rouhento, K.; Saaristo, R.; Safra, T.; Brenner, H.; Hercbergs, A.; Yoshimoto, M.; Paterson, A. H. G.; Fyles, A.; Meakin, J. W.; Panzarella, T.; Bahi, J.; Reid, M.; Spittle, M.; Bishop, H.; Bundred, N. J.; Forsyth, S.; Pinder, S. E.; Deutsch, G. P.; Kwong, D. L. W.; Pai, V. R.; Senanayake, F.; Martin, A. L.; Rubagotti, A.; Hackshaw, A.; Houghton, J.; Ledermann, J.; Monson, K.; Tobias, J. S.; Carlomagno, C.; de Laurentiis, M.; de Placido, S.; Williams, L.; Bell, R.; Coleman, R. E.; Dodwell, D.; Hinsley, S.; Marshall, H. C.; Solomayer, E.; Fehm, T.; Horsman, J. M.; Lester, J.; Winter, M. C.; Broglio, K.; Buzdar, A. U.; Hsu, L.; Love, R. R.; Ahlgren, J.; Garmo, H.; Holmberg, L.; Liljegren, G.; Lindman, H.; Warnberg, F.; Asmar, L.; Jones, S. E.; Aft, R.; Gluz, O.; Liedtke, C.; Nitz, U.; Litton, A.; Wallgren, A.; Karlsson, P.; Linderholm, B. K.; Chlebowski, R. T.; Caffier, H.; Brufsky, A. M.; Llombart, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal ways of using aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen as endocrine treatment for early breast cancer remains uncertain. Methods We undertook meta-analyses of individual data on 31 920 postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive early breast cancer in the randomised trials

  7. Review of hormone-based treatments in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Knoop, Ann S; Jessing, Christina A R

    2016-01-01

    . However, overall survival was not significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Conventional treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant may be an adequate treatment option for most patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition and cyclin...

  8. Aromatase inactivation by 2-substituted derivatives of the suicide substrate androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Madoka; Handa, Wakako; Umeta, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Saki; Yamashita, Kouwa; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2009-09-01

    To gain the structure-activity relationship of Delta(1)-androstenediones (Delta(1)-ADs) as mechanism-based inactivator of aromatase, series of 2-alkyl- and 2-alkoxy-substituted Delta(1)-ADs (6 and 9) as well as 2-bromo-Delta(1)-AD (14) were synthesized and tested. All of the inhibitors examined blocked aromatase in human placental microsomes in a competitive manner. In a series of 2-alkyl-Delta(1)-ADs (6), n-hexyl compound 6f was the most powerful inhibitor with an apparent K(i) value of 31 nM. The inhibitory activities of 2-alkoxy steroids 9 decreased in relation to length of the alkyl chain up to n-hexyloxy group (K(i): 95 nM for methoxy 9a). All of the alkyl steroids 6 along with the alkoxy steroid 9, except for the ethyl and n-propyl compounds 6b and 6c, caused a time-dependent inactivation of aromatase. The inactivation rates (k(inact): 0.020-0.084 min(-1)) were comparable to that of the parent compound Delta(1)-AD. The inactivation was prevented by the substrate AD, and no significant effect of l-cysteine on the inactivation was observed in each case. The results indicate that the 2-hexyl compound 6f act as the most powerful mechanism-based inactivator of aromatase among Delta(1)-AD analogs and may be submitted to the preclinical study in estrogen-dependent breast cancer.

  9. Structure-activity relationships of 2alpha-substituted androstenedione analogs as aromatase inhibitors and their aromatization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako; Hasegawa, Chie; Takahashi, Madoka

    2005-12-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione (1a, AD) to estrone through three sequential oxygenations of the 19-methyl group. To gain insight into the spatial nature of the AD binding (active) site of aromatase in relation to the catalytic function of the enzyme, we tested for the ability of 2alpha-substituted (halogeno, alkyl, hydroxy, and alkoxy) ADs (1b-1i) to inhibit aromatase in human placental microsomes as well as their ability to serve as a substrate for the enzyme. All of the steroids inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner with the apparent K(i)'s ranging from 45 to 1150 nM. 2alpha-Halogeno (F, Cl, and Br) and 2alpha-alkyl (CH3 and CH2CH3) steroids 1b-1f were powerful to good inhibitors (Ki=45-171 nM) whereas steroids 1g-1i, having an oxygen function (hydroxy or alkoxy) at C-2alpha, were poor inhibitors (Ki=670-1150 nM). Aromatization of some of the steroids with placental microsomes was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating that the aromatization rate of the bromide 1d was about two-fold that of the natural substrate AD and that of 2alpha-methoxide 1h was similar to that of AD. Kinetic analysis of the aromatization of androgens revealed that a good substrate was not essentially a good inhibitor for aromatase.

  10. Expression of aromatase in the embryonic brain of the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), and the effect of bisphenol-A in sexually differentiated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Picos, Patsy; Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Hernández-Cornejo, Rubí; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Brain aromatase participates in several biological processes, such as regulation of the reproductive-endocrine axis, memory, stress, sexual differentiation of the nervous system, male sexual behavior, and brain repair. Here we report the isolation and expression of brain aromatase in olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) embryos incubated at male- and female-promoting temperatures (MPT and FPT, respectively), at the thermosensitive period (TSP) and the sex-differentiated period. Also, aromatase expression was assessed in differentiated embryos exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the TSP. BPA is a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and is considered an endocrine-disrupting compound. Normal aromatase expression was measured in both forebrain and hindbrain, showing higher expression levels in the forebrain of differentiated embryos at both incubation temperatures. Although no significant differences were detected in the hindbrain, expression was slightly higher at MPT. BPA did not affect aromatase expression neither in forebrains or hindbrains from embryos incubated at MPT, whereas at FPT an inverted U-shape curve was observed in forebrains with significant differences at lower concentrations, whereas in hindbrains a non-significant increment was observed at higher concentrations. Our data indicate that both incubation temperature and developmental stage are critical factors affecting aromatase expression in the forebrain. Because of the timing and location of aromatase expression in the brain, we suggest that brain aromatase may participate in the imprinting of sexual trends related to reproduction and sexual behavior at the onset of sex differentiation, and BPA exposure may impair aromatase function in the female forebrain.

  11. Modulation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth by cyclooxygenase and aromatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shuso; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), a major constituent of marijuana, has been shown to stimulate the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through cannabinoid receptor-independent signaling [Takeda, S., Yamaori, S., Motoya, E., Matsunaga, T., Kimura, T., Yamamoto, I., Watanabe, K., 2008. Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol enhances MCF-7 cell proliferation via cannabinoid receptor-independent signaling. Toxicology 245, 141-146]. Although the growth of MCF-7 cells is known to be stimulated by 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), the interaction of Δ 9 -THC and E 2 in MCF-7 cell growth is not fully clarified so far. In the present study, by using E 2 -sensitive MCF-7 cells that have expressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytochrome P450 19 (aromatase), we studied whether or not COX-2 and aromatase are involved in Δ 9 -THC-mediated MCF-7 cell proliferation. It was shown that Δ 9 -THC-induced MCF-7 cell growth was inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors and was stimulated by arachidonic acid (a COX substrate). However, the growth of MCF-7 cells induced by Δ 9 -THC was not stimulated by PGE 2 , and the expression of aromatase was not affected by COX-2 inhibitors, arachidonic acid, and PGE 2 , suggesting that there is a disconnection between COX-2 (PGE 2 ) and aromatase in Δ 9 -THC-mediated MCF-7 cell proliferation. On the other hand, Δ 9 -THC-induced MCF-7 cell growth was elevated by two kinds of aromatase inhibitors. Taken together with the evidence that Δ 9 -THC-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation was interfered with testosterone (an aromatase substrate) and exogenously provided E 2 , it is suggested that (1) the growth stimulatory effects of Δ 9 -THC are mediated by the product(s) of COX-2 except for PGE 2 , (2) the action of Δ 9 -THC is modulated by E 2 , and (3) COX-2 and aromatase are individually engaged in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells induced by Δ 9 -THC.

  12. Management of adenomyosis in infertile women: comparison between laparotomic resection and administration of aromatase inhibitor (Experience in 55 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajuddin Rajuddin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the results of adenomyosis mangement with resection and administration of aromatase inhibitor. Cases of ademyosis in infertile women were collected for three years (January 1999 to December 2001 and the diagnoses were confirmed using transvaginal USG. Cases were grouped into two groups, i.e. group 1 (undergoing laparotomic resection and group 2 (receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitor of anastrozole. Both groups were evaluated for changes in clinical symptoms, rate of successful pregnancy, and postoperative recurrency rate. During three years as many as 1619 infertility cases were managed, and among which 66 (4.07% cases of adenomyosis were diagnosed with transvaginal USG. As many as 55 cases were analyzed, i.e., 32 cases underwent resection and 23 cases received aromatase inhibitor. Of 32 cases of surgical resection, the histopathological results showed 30 (93.75% cases of adenomyosis and 2 (6.25% cases of uterus myoma. In the group undergoing resection three cases (9.4% were successfully pregnant, i.e., two cases had live birth, one case ended up with 6-week abortion. Moreover, 25 (78.1% cases were not pregnant and 4 (12.5% cases had recurrency, while 24 (75.35% cases experienced disappearance of symptoms yet not pregnant. On the other hand, of 23 cases in the group receiving aromatase inhibitor 2 (8.6% cases were able to be pregnant, one case had live birth and another case ended up with abortion, while 14 (59.1% cases had disappearance of symptoms yet not pregnant. During three months of treatment with aromatase inhibitor, a reduction in the lesion size between 7.31 mm3 and 25.90 mm3 were observed with CI 95% (p < 0.001. In conclusion, treatment with aromatase inihibitor did not heal lesions, but only reduced the size of adenomyosis lesions. On the other hand, resection could heal lesions, yet recurrency of disease may occur (12.5% after one postoperative year. (Med J Indones 2006; 15

  13. The interaction between aromatase, metalloproteinase 2,9 and cd44 in breast cancer A interação entre aromatase, metalloproteinase 2, 9 e cd44 no câncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bagnoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study intends to verify the expression levels and correlation of aromatase, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and CD44 in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC when both are found in the same breast. METHODS: One hundred and ten cases were evaluated by tissue microarray (TMA and immunohistochemically screened with anti-aromatase polyclonal antibodies, anti-MMP-2 monoclonal antibodies, anti-MMP-9 policlonal antibodies and anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Aromatase was expressed in IDC and DCIS in 63 (57.3% and 60 (67% of the cases respectively; MMP-2 was similarly expressed in IDC and DCIS in 15 (13.60% cases; MMP-9 was positively expressed in IDC and DCIS in 83 (75.50% and 82 (74.50% cases, respectively; CD44 was positively expressed in IDC and DCIS in 49 (44.50% and 48 (42.60% of the cases, respectively; all of them were highly correlated (pOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo é verificar as expressões e correlações da aromatase, metalloproteinase 2 da matriz (MMP2, metalloproteinase 9 da matriz (MMP-9 e CD44 no carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS e carcinoma ductal infiltrativo (CDI quando ambos estão presentes simultaneamente na mesma mama. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 110 casos pelo método de tissue microarray (TMA e através da utilização de anticorpos policlonais antiaromatase, anticorpos monoclonais anti-MMP-2, anticorpos policlonais anti-MMP-9 e anticorpos monoclonais anti-CD44. RESULTADOS: A aromatase estava expressa de forma positiva no CDI e CDIS em 63 (57,3% e 60 (67% casos, respectivamente. A expressão de MMP-2 estava expressa de forma positiva em 15 (13,6% casos tanto no CDI, quanto no CDIS. A expressão da MMP-9 estava expressa de forma positiva em 83 (75,5% e 82 (74,5% casos de CDI e CDIS, respectivamente. A expressão de CD44 estava expressa de forma positiva em 49 (44,5% e 48 (42,6% casos de CDI e CDIS, respectivamente. Todos eles

  14. Aromatase inhibitors - a viable option for recurrent granulosa cell tumour of ovary: overview and case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munem, A.A.; Bahrani, B.A.; Mehdi, I.

    2012-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumour of the ovary in adults is a rare tumour of low malignant potential affecting middle aged peri or post menopausal patients. These tumours are often diagnosed at an early stage, due to their hormonally active nature. They, however, have unique distinguishing histologic features and behaviour of frequent and late local or systemic relapses. The diagnosis can be challenging with unusual presentations. There is high association of endometrial carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of management in early low risk disease, while radiotherapy and systemic platinum based chemotherapy are employed in higher stage with poor prognostic indices. Survival is good in early stage disease. Recurrent, progressive, and treatment refractory disease is not infrequent and poses management challenge. Endocrine manipulation and hormone treatment are employed in few cases with equivocal results, as reported in literature. We present a case of recurrent and treatment refractory GCT in a postmenopausal patient, managed by aromatase inhibitor Anastrozole with reasonable efficacy. (author)

  15. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  16. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  17. Central Administration of Indomethacin Mitigates the Injury-Induced Upregulation of Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Content in the Zebra Finch Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Alyssa L; Brownrout, Jenna L; Saldanha, Colin J

    2017-08-01

    Injury to the vertebrate brain causes neuroinflammation, characterized in part by increases in prostaglandins. In rodents and songbirds, brain injury also induces the transcription and translation of aromatase in reactive astrocytes around the site of damage. Interestingly, this induction is more rapid in female zebra finches relative to males. Induced aromatization is neuroprotective, as inhibition of aromatase and estrogen replacement, increases and decreases the extent of damage, respectively. Although the consequences of induced astrocytic aromatization are intensely studied, little is known about what factors induce aromatase. Inflammation is sufficient to induce astrocytic aromatase suggesting that the link between inflammation and aromatase expression may be causal. To test this hypothesis, adult male and female zebra finches received bilateral mechanical injuries through which either the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin or vehicle was administered into contralateral hemispheres. Subjects were killed either 6 or 24 hours after injury. In both sexes, an enzyme immunoassay for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) revealed that indomethacin decreased PGE2 relative to the contralateral hemisphere at both time points, suggesting that the dose and mode of administration used were successful in affecting neuroinflammation locally. Indomethacin reduced aromatase expression and 17β-estradiol (E2) content at 6 hours but not 24 hours following injury in females. However, in males, the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on aromatase and E2 was apparent at 24 but not 6 hours after treatment. These data suggest that COX activity, perhaps via consequent prostaglandin secretion, may induce aromatase expression and central E2, an effect that is detectable in temporally distinct patterns between sexes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  18. Unique distribution of aromatase in the human brain: in vivo studies with PET and [N-methyl-11C]vorozole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung Won; Alexoff, David L; Jayne, Millard; Carter, Pauline; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S

    2010-11-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-(11)C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V(T)) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced V(T) in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from ∼70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to ∼10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  19. Local Transformations of Androgens into Estradiol by Aromatase P450 Is Involved in the Regulation of Prolactin and the Proliferation of Pituitary Prolactin-Positive Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero Hernández, Marta; Iglesias Osma, María Carmen; Carretero, Manuel; Herrero, Julio J.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated the immunohistochemical expression of aromatase in pituitary cells. In order to determine whether pituitary aromatase is involved in the paracrine regulation of prolactin-producing pituitary cells and the physiological relevance of pituitary aromatase in the control of these cells, an in vivo and in vitro immunocytochemical and morphometric study of prolactin-positive pituitary cells was carried out on the pituitary glands of adult male rats treated with the aromatase antagonist fadrozole. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of mRNA for the enzyme in pituitary cells of male adult rats by in situ hybridization. The aromatase-mRNA was seen to be located in the cytoplasm of 41% of pituitary cells and was well correlated with the immunocytochemical staining. After in vivo treatment with fadrozole, the size (cellular and nuclear areas) of prolactin cells, as well as the percentage of prolactin-positive cells and the percentage of proliferating-prolactin cells, was significantly decreased. Moreover, fadrozole decreased serum prolactin levels. In vitro, treatment with fadrozole plus testosterone induced similar effects on prolactin-positive cells, inhibiting their cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that under physiological conditions aromatase P450 exerts a relevant control over male pituitary prolactin-cells, probably transforming testosterone to estradiol in the pituitary gland. PMID:24978194

  20. Unique Distribution of Aromatase in the Human Brain: In Vivo Studies With PET and [N-Methyl-11C]Vorozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Millard, J.; Carter, P.; Hubbard, B.; King, P.; Logan, J.; Muench, L.; Pareto, D.; Schlyer, D.; Shea, C.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Xu, Y.; Fowler, J.

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V{sub T}) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from {approx}70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to {approx}10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  1. Improved synthesis and molecular modeling of 4beta,19-dihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one, an excellent inhibitor of aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Yamada, Keiko; Watari, Yoko; Ando, Momoko

    2002-05-01

    4Beta,19-dihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one (6) is an excellent competitive inhibitor of estrogen synthetase (aromatase). Alternate, improved synthesis of this inhibitor was established. Treatment of 19-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)androst-4-en-17-one (8) with m-chloroperbenzoic acid gave a 1.4:1 mixture of 4alpha,5alpha-epoxide 9 and its 4beta,5beta-isomer 10. The mixture was reacted with diI. HClO4 in dioxane to produce principally 4beta,5alpha-diol 11 (80%) of which acetylation followed by dehydration with SOCl2 yielded 4beta,19-diacetoxy-5-ene compound 14 in good yield. Alkaline hydrolysis of diacetate 14 gave 4beta,19-diol 6. The minimum energy conformation of the powerfull aromatase inhibitor 6 was obtained with the PM3 method and compared with that of the structurally related diol steroid, 4-ene-5beta,19-diol 3, a weak competitive inhibitor.

  2. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  3. Expression of estrogen receptors (α, β), cyclooxygenase-2 and aromatase in normal endometrium and endometrioid cancer of uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, P; Chabowski, A; Błachnio-Zabielska, A; Walentowicz-Sadłecka, M; Grabiec, M; Knapp, P A

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract, but the etiology, especially its metabolism is still investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and relative expression of Estrogen Receptors (α, β), Cyclooxygenase-2 and Aromatase in both endometrial cancer and normal mucosa. Two groups of women were selected for the study: 1) patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (FIGO I; G1 - G3) (n=35) and 2) subjects with normal endometrial tissue (control group, n=29). The expression of Estrogen Receptors (ERα, β), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Aromatase were estimated by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the associations between FIGO classification (stage: Ia, Ib), tumor grade (G) and expression of ERα, β, COX-2, aromatase proteins were evaluated. Overall and disease-free survival curves were generated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Median follow-up time of the patients examined in this study was 39 months. The relative expression of each examined protein was markedly higher in the endometrial cancer tissue as compared to the healthy endometrium. The trends towards greater expression along with a tumor progression was noticed (FIGO stage: Ia vs. Ib). Analysis of endometrial cancer risk factors and their influence on survival curves showed only an inverse significant correlations between obesity (BMI: 36.2; n=21) and disease-free survival in EC group (p=0.00872), but there was no significant association between obesity and overall survival (p=0.358). Endometrioid endometrial cancer shows relatively higher expression of either ER, COX-2 and aromatase comparing to healthy mucosa, suggesting their involvement in tumor development and progression.

  4. A pilot randomized trial to prevent sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors starting adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Pragati; Brewster, Abenaa M; Baum, George P; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-08-01

    A randomized pilot trial evaluated the hypothesis that early intervention lessens sexual dysfunction in the first year on aromatase inhibitors. A secondary aim was comparing the efficacy of two vaginal moisturizers. Fifty-seven postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer starting aromatase inhibitors were randomized to three treatment groups. All received a handout on managing sexual and other side effects. The Usual Care group received no additional therapy. The Active Treatment groups received a 6-month supply of a vaginal moisturizer (hyaluronic acid-based in Active Group-H and prebiotic in Active Group-P) and a vaginal lubricant and dilator, plus access to an educational website and phone coaching. Questionnaires completed at baseline, 6, and 12 months included the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R), and a menopausal symptom scale. Forty-nine women (86%) provided follow-up data. Mean age was 59 and 77% were non-Hispanic Caucasian. Sexual function was impaired at baseline, but remained stable over 12 months for all groups. The combined active treatment group had less dyspareunia (P = 0.07) and sexual distress (P = 0.02) at 6 months than the Usual Care group. At 6 months, the Active-H group improved significantly more than the Active-P group on FSFI total score (P = 0.04). Sexual counseling helped women maintain stable sexual function on aromatase inhibitors. Active intervention resulted in better outcomes at 6 months. This promising pilot trial suggests a need for more research on preventive counseling to maintain sexual function during aromatase inhibitor treatment.

  5. Structure-activity relationships and docking studies of synthetic 2-arylindole derivatives determined with aromatase and quinone reductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Allan M; Yu, Xufen; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Lin, Yan; Pezzuto, John M; Sun, Dianqing

    2017-12-15

    In our ongoing effort of discovering anticancer and chemopreventive agents, a series of 2-arylindole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated toward aromatase and quinone reductase 1 (QR1). Biological evaluation revealed that several compounds (e.g., 2d, IC 50  = 1.61 μM; 21, IC 50  = 3.05 μM; and 27, IC 50  = 3.34 μM) showed aromatase inhibitory activity with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values in the low micromolar concentrations. With regard to the QR1 induction activity, 11 exhibited the highest QR1 induction ratio (IR) with a low concentration to double activity (CD) value (IR = 8.34, CD = 2.75 μM), while 7 showed the most potent CD value of 1.12 μM. A dual acting compound 24 showed aromatase inhibition (IC 50  = 9.00 μM) as well as QR1 induction (CD = 5.76 μM) activities. Computational docking studies using CDOCKER (Discovery Studio 3.5) provided insight in regard to the potential binding modes of 2-arylindoles within the aromatase active site. Predominantly, the 2-arylindoles preferred binding with the 2-aryl group toward a small hydrophobic pocket within the active site. The C-5 electron withdrawing group on indole was predicted to have an important role and formed a hydrogen bond with Ser478 (OH). Alternatively, meta-pyridyl analogs may orient with the pyridyl 3'-nitrogen coordinating with the heme group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pemodelan Molekul Turunan p-Metoksi sinnamoil Hidrazida Sebagai Inhibitor Checkpoint Kinase 1 dan Inhibitor Aromatase secara In silico

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    Galih Satrio Putra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of anticancer drugs from ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC derivatives continues to obtain compounds that have high ability of cancer cells apoptosis and minimal side effects. p-Methoxycinnamoyl hydrazide derivate compounds from EPMC structure modification were docked into the ligand-binding pocket of Check point kinase 1 enzymes (2YWP and the aromatase enzyme (3S7S using software Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD Ver.5.5. We compared the Rerank score of native ligand with derivate compounds of p-Methoxycinnamoyl hydrazide. Rerank scores of compounds 4b and 4c (-99.98 Kcal/mol and -99.80 Kcal/mol were lower than the native ligand A42 in inhibiting the enzyme checkpoint kinase 1. Rerank values of p-Methoxycinnamoyl hydrazide derivate compounds were greater than the native ligand EXM in inhibiting the enzyme aromatase. p-Methoxycinnamoyl hydrazide derivate compounds, especially compounds 4b and 4c, had anticancer mechanism by inhibiting the enzyme pathway checkpoint kinase 1 and had not activity in inhibiting the aromatase enzyme.

  7. Use of aromatase inhibitors to treat endometriosis-related pain symptoms: a systematic review

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    Venturini Pier L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This systematic review aims to assess the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors (AIs in treating pain symptoms caused by endometriosis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all the published studies evaluating the efficacy of type II nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole and letrozole in treating endometriosis-related pain symptoms. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane System Reviews were searched up to October 2010. This review comprises of the results of 10 publications fitting the inclusion criteria; these studies included a total of 251 women. Five studies were prospective non-comparative, four were randomized controlled trials (RCTs and one was a prospective patient preference trial. Seven studies examined the efficacy of AIs in improving endometriosis-related pain symptoms, whilst three RCTs investigated the use of AIs as post-operative therapy in preventing the recurrence of pain symptoms after surgery for endometriosis. All the observational studies demonstrated that AIs combined with either progestogens or oral contraceptive pill reduce the severity of pain symptoms and improve quality of life. One patient preference study demonstrated that letrozole combined with norethisterone acetate is more effective in reducing pain and deep dyspareunia than norethisterone acetate alone. However, letrozole causes a higher incidence of adverse effects and does not improve patients' satisfaction or influence recurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of treatment. A RCT showed that combining letrozole with norethisterone acetate causes a lower incidence of adverse effects and lower discontinuation rate than combining letrozole with triptorelin. Two RCTs demonstrated that, after surgical treatment of endometriosis, the administration of AIs combined with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue for 6 months reduces the risk of endometriosis recurrence when compared with gonadotropin

  8. Time-dependent aromatase inactivation by 4 beta,5 beta-epoxides of the natural substrate androstenedione and its 19-oxygenated analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Yoshimura, Akiko; Tachibana, Mii; Shelangouski, Momoko; Ishikawa, Maya

    2002-03-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens through three sequential oxygenations. To gain insight into the catalytic function of aromatase and its aromatization mechanism, we studied the inhibition of human placental aromatase by 4 beta,5 beta-epoxyandrostenedione (5) as well as its 19-hydroxy and 19-oxo derivatives (6 and 7, respectively), and we also examined the biochemical aromatization of these steroids. All of the epoxides were weak competitive inhibitors of aromatase with apparent K(i) values ranging from 5.0 microM to 30 microM. The 19-methyl and 19-oxo compounds 5 and 7 inactivated aromatase in a time-dependent manner with k(inact) of 0.048 and 0.110 min(-1), respectively, in the presence of NADPH. In the absence of NADPH, only the former inhibited aromatase with a k(inact) of 0.091 min(-1). However, 19-hydroxy steroid 6 did not cause irreversible inactivation either in the presence or absence of NADPH. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the metabolite produced by a 5-min incubation of the three epoxides with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under air revealed that all three compounds were aromatized to produce estradiol with rates of 8.82, 0.51, and 1.62 pmol/min/mg protein for 5, 6, and 7, respectively. In each case, the aromatization was efficiently prevented by 19-hydroxyandrost-4-en-17-one, a potent aromatase inhibitor. On the basis of the aromatization and inactivation results, it seems likely that the two pathways, aromatization and inactivation, may proceed, in part, through a common intermediate, 19-oxo compound 7, although they may be principally different.

  9. Structure-activity relationships of 3-deoxy androgens as aromatase inhibitors. Synthesis and biochemical studies of 4-substituted 4-ene and 5-ene steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Masao; Watari, Yoko; Yajima, Hiromi; Tsukioka, Kaoru; Muroi, Yasuyo; Yamada, Keiko; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2003-08-01

    As part of our investigation into the structure-activity relationship of a novel class of aromatase inhibitors, two series of 3-deoxy androgens, androst-5-en-17-ones with a non-polar alkoxy (5 and 6), alkyl (20-22), or phenylalkyl (23 and 24) group at C-4beta and 4-acyloxyandrost-4-en-17-ones (29-32, and 34) were synthesized and evaluated. The 4beta-alkyl and 4beta-phenylalkyl compounds were obtained through reaction of 4alpha,5alpha-epoxy steroid (8) with RMgBr (R: alkyl and phenylalkyl) followed by dehydration of the 4beta-substituted 5alpha-hydroxy products (15-19) with SOCl(2) as key reactions. Acylation of 4alpha,5alpha-diol (25) with (RCO)(2)O in pyridine and subsequent dehydration with SOCl(2) gave the 4-acyloxy steroids. All of the steroids studied, except for 4-acetoxy-19-ol (34) that was a non-competitive inhibitor of human placental aromatase, blocked aromatase activity in a competitive manner. 4-Benzoyloxy- and 4-acetoxy steroids (31) and (32) were the most powerful inhibitors of aromatase (K(i)=70 and 60nM, respectively). Elongation of an acetoxy group in a series of 4-acyloxy steroids or a methyl group in a series of 4beta-alkyl steroids decreased affinity for aromatase principally in relation to carbon number of the acyl or alkyl function. The present findings are potentially useful for understanding the spatial and electronic nature of the binding site of aromatase as well as for developing effective aromatase inhibitors.

  10. Synthesis and PET studies of [11C-cyano]letrozole (Femara®), an aromatase inhibitor drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Kun-Eek; Biegon, Anat; Ding, Yu-Shin; Fischer, Andre; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Kim, Sung Won; Pareto, Deborah; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole, Femara®) is a high affinity aromatase inhibitor (Ki=11.5 nM) which has FDA approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11 labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Methods Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile, 3) were prepared in two-step syntheses from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [11C]cyano group was introduced via the tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) catalyzed coupling of [11C]cyanide with the bromo-precursor (3). PET studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. The free fraction of letrozole in the plasma, log D, and the [11C-cyano]letrozole fraction in the arterial plasma were also measured. Results [11C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79–80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16±2.21 Ci/μmol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain with no difference between brain regions. The brain kinetics was not affected by co-injection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9% and log D was 1.84. Conclusion [11C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction with [11C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase as revealed by the absence of regional specificity and saturability in brain regions, such as amygdala, which are known to contain

  11. Enzymic aromatization of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive and mechanism-based inhibitors of aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A; Oshibe, M

    1998-01-01

    To gain insight into the relationships between the aromatase inhibitory activity of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive inhibitors, and their ability to serve as a substrate of aromatase, we studied the aromatization of a series of 6alpha- and 6beta-alkyl (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-pentyl and n-heptyl)-substituted androst-4-ene-3,17-diones (ADs) and their androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) derivatives with human placental aromatase, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the inhibitors examined, ADD and its 6alpha-alkyl derivatives with alkyl functions less than three carbons long, together with 6beta-methyl ADD, are suicide substrates of aromatase. All of the steroids, except for 6beta-n-pentyl ADD and its n-heptyl analogue as well as 6beta-n-heptyl AD, were found to be converted into the corresponding 6-alkyl oestrogens. The 6-methyl steroids were aromatized most efficiently in each series, and the aromatization rate essentially decreased in proportion to the length of the 6-alkyl chains in each series, where the 6alpha-alkyl androgens were more efficient substrates than the corresponding 6beta isomers. The Vmax of 6alpha-methyl ADD was approx. 2.5-fold that of the natural substrate AD and approx. 3-fold that of the parent ADD. On the basis of this, along with the facts that the rates of a mechanism-based inactivation of aromatase by ADD and its 6alpha-methyl derivative are similar, it is implied that alignment of 6alpha-methyl ADD in the active site could favour the pathway leading to oestrogen over the inactivation pathway, compared with that of ADD. The relative apparent Km values for the androgens obtained in this study are different from the relative Ki values obtained previously, indicating that there is a difference between the ability to serve as an inhibitor and the ability to serve as a substrate in the 6-alkyl androgen series. PMID:9405288

  12. Genome-wide epigenetic profiling of breast cancer tumors treated with aromatase inhibitors

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    Ekaterina Nevedomskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AI are extensively used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, however resistance to AI treatment is commonly observed. Apart from Estrogen receptor (ERα expression, no predictive biomarkers for response to AI treatment are clinically applied. Yet, since other therapeutic options exist in the clinic, such as tamoxifen, there is an urgent medical need for the development of treatment-selective biomarkers, enabling personalized endocrine treatment selection in breast cancer. In the described dataset, ERα chromatin binding and histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 were assessed in a genome-wide manner by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP combined with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq. These datasets were used to develop a classifier to stratify breast cancer patients on outcome after AI treatment in the metastatic setting. Here we describe in detail the data and quality control metrics, as well as the clinical information associated with the study, published by Jansen et al. [1]. The data is publicly available through the GEO database with accession number GSE40867.

  13. Sexual dimorphism in the glucose homeostasis phenotype of the Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sinderen, Michelle; Steinberg, Gregory; Jorgensen, Sebastian B; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D Y; Simpson, Evan R; Jones, Margaret E E; Boon, Wah Chin

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis using the Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) mouse, which is unable to convert androgens into estrogens. The ArKO mouse is a model of total estrogen ablation which develops symptoms of metabolic syndrome. To determine the development and progression of whole body state of insulin resistance of ArKO mice, comprehensive whole body tolerance tests were performed on WT, ArKO and estrogen administrated mice at 3 and 12 months of age. The absence of estrogens in the male ArKO mice leads to hepatic insulin resistance, glucose and pyruvate intolerance from 3 to 12 months with consistent improvement upon estrogen treatment. Estrogen absence in the female ArKO mice leads to glucose intolerance without pyruvate intolerance or insulin resistance. The replacement of estrogens in the female WT and ArKO mice exhibited both insulin sensitizing and resistance effects depending on age and dosage. In conclusion, this study presents information on the sexually dimorphic roles of estrogens on glucose homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal changes of trabecular bone score after estrogen deprivation: effect of menopause and aromatase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzoni, M; Casola, A; Verzicco, I; Abbate, B; Vescovini, R; Sansoni, P

    2014-09-01

    To examine the effects of the menopausal transition and treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AI) on trabecular bone score (TBS, a newly proposed index of bone architecture derived from DXA vertebral scans) and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). Retrospective cohort study on 29 women who became postmenopausal during a mean follow-up of 2.9 years (MP group) and 34 women treated with AI during a mean follow-up of 2.1 years (AI group). BMD was measured by DXA and TBS with a specific software. TBS decreased after menopause, but the change was significantly lower than that of the lumbar BMD (-4.6 vs. -6.8 %; mean difference: 2.2 %; p = 0.016). An even larger difference was observed in the AI group (-2.1 vs. -5.9 %; mean difference: 3.8 %; p = 0.002). The decrease of TBS induced by menopause or treatment with AI is significantly lower than that of lumbar BMD.

  15. Aromatase inhibitors for prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Lucy Ann; Amir, Eitan; Casper, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer (BC) worldwide has resulted in widespread interest in primary prevention therapies. A number of large randomized trials have shown that selective estrogen receptor modulators can reduce the relative risk for BC by 30% to 40% in high-risk women. In early-stage BC, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) showed a 35% relative reduction in the risk of contralateral BCs compared with tamoxifen. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of AIs in the primary prevention of BC and novel research on combination hormone therapy-medical therapy for the primary prevention of BC. Using PubMed/Medline, we comprehensively searched for studies of BC primary prevention using AIs, including studies of novel methods of prevention using combination hormone therapy-BC prevention. Two large multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have evaluated AIs--anastrozole (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study II) and exemestane (Mammary Prevention 3)--for BC risk reduction in women at increased risk for BC, which we summarize. We identified five studies (three completed and two ongoing) of combination AI-hormone therapy that are undergoing investigation for BC risk reduction. AIs are effective at BC risk reduction, although long-term follow-up data are required to assess whether this risk reduction will result in reduced mortality. Combination hormone therapy-AI for BC risk reduction is experimental and warrants further investigation.

  16. PERFORMANSI TIGA GENOTIPE IKAN NILA YANG DIBERI PAKAN AROMATASE INHIBITOR PADA TAHAP PEMBESARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Ariyanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan nila jantan XY mempunyai laju pertumbuhan lebih cepat dibanding ikan betina XX, sehingga budidaya ikan nila tunggal kelamin jantan lebih menguntungkan. Salah satu metode produksi massal benih ikan nila tunggal kelamin jantan adalah melalui sex reversal, yaitu dengan menambahkan hormon sintetik 17a-metiltestosteron (mt atau dapat juga dengan memberikan bahan aromatase inhibitor (AI. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi performansi benih tiga genotipe (XX, XY, dan YY ikan nila yang diberi bahan AI pada tahap pembesaran. Bahan utama adalah benih ikan nila genotipe XX, XY, dan YY yang diberi bahan AI. Benih dengan penambahan hormon mt digunakan sebagai kontrol (+. Sebagai pembanding digunakan populasi campuran antara jantan dan betina. Benih berumur 95 hari setelah menetas dengan bobot rata-rata 20 g/ekor dipelihara dalam jaring yang ditempatkan di kolam pembesaran selama 120 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi tunggal kelamin jantan genotipe XY maupun jantan hasil sex reversal genotipe XX mempunyai laju pertumbuhan dan hasil panen lebih baik dibandingkan populasi campuran XX-XY. Semua perlakuan dan genotipe yang berbeda tidak memberikan dampak yang berbeda nyata terhadap nilai keragaman ukuran, sintasan, maupun nilai food conversion ratio, kecuali pada genotipe YY. Organ reproduksi pada semua genotipe dan perlakuan berkembang normal

  17. Aromatase inhibitors induced autoimmune disorders in patients with breast cancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zarkavelis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE is characterized by particular cutaneous manifestations such as non-scaring plaques mainly in sunlight exposed parts of the body along with specific serum autoantibodies (i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA, Ro/SSa, La/SSb. It is considered either idiopathic or drug induced. The role of chemotherapeutic agents in causing SCLE has been investigated with the taxanes being the most common anticancer agents. However, recent data emerging point toward antiestrogen therapies as a causative factor not only for SCLE but also for a variety of autoimmune disorders. This is a report of a case of a 42 year old woman who developed clinical manifestations of SCLE after letrozole treatment in whom remission of the cutaneous manifestations was noticed upon discontinuation of the drug. In addition, an extensive review of the English literature has been performed regarding the association of antiestrogen therapy with autoimmune disorders. In conclusion, Oncologists should be aware of the potential development of autoimmune reactions in breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors.

  18. Increased Sclerostin Levels after Further Ablation of Remnant Estrogen by Aromatase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonjin Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs, which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to treat endocrine-responsive breast cancer. As AIs lower estrogen levels, they increase bone turnover and lower bone mass. We analyzed changes in serum sclerostin levels in Korean women with breast cancer who were treated with an AI.MethodsWe included postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (n=90; mean age, 57.7 years treated with an AI, and compared them to healthy premenopausal women (n=36; mean age, 28.0 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg alendronate with 0.5 µg calcitriol (n=46, or placebo (n=44 for 6 months.ResultsPostmenopausal women with breast cancer had significantly higher sclerostin levels compared to those in premenopausal women (27.8±13.6 pmol/L vs. 23.1±4.8 pmol/L, P0.05.ConclusionSerum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss.

  19. Expression of P450-aromatase in the goat placenta throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon, J A; Ocadiz-Delgado, R; Miranda, C; Valencia, J; Rosales, A M; Gariglio, P; Romano, M C

    2007-09-01

    The enzyme P450-aromatase (P450-Aro) is essential for the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The objective was to study the expression and distribution of P450-Aro in goat placentae throughout pregnancy. For this purpose, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers derived from the ovarian cDNA sequence found by our group. The expression of P450-Aro mRNA was first detected by in vitro RT-PCR in cotyledons at 4 months and was still present at term. Based on in situ RT-PCR, cotyledon microvilli expressed P450-Aro mRNA early in pregnancy; the signal was detected in the syncytiotrophoblast and in non-fused cytotrophoblasts inside the microvilli, but was scarce in the interstitial cells of the villous core. In the last 2 months of pregnancy (including at term), the expression of P450-Aro mRNA was still detected in the syncytiotrophoblast. However, P450-Aro was never detected in the caruncule (regardless of stage of pregnancy). In conclusion, P450-Aro was expressed in the goat placenta microvilli starting early in pregnancy; the expression and distribution of the enzyme increased throughout pregnancy and was still present at term.

  20. Celecoxib increases miR-222 while deterring aromatase-expressing breast tumor growth in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tsz Yan; Li, Fengjuan; Lin, Shu-mei; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in women. Inhibiting the synthesis of estrogen is effective in treating patients with estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that use of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. In the present study, we employed an established mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer to evaluate the potential mechanisms of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Aromatase-expressing MCF-7 cells were transplanted into ovariectomized athymic mice. The animals were given celecoxib at 1500 ppm or aspirin at 200 ppm by oral administration with androstenedione injection. Our results showed that both COX inhibitors could suppress the cancer xenograft growth without changing the plasma estrogen level. Protein expression of ERα, COX-2, Cyclin A, and Bcl-xL were reduced in celecoxib-treated tumor samples, whereas only Bcl-xL expression was suppressed in those treated with aspirin. Among the breast cancer-related miRNAs, miR-222 expression was elevated in samples treated with celecoxib. Further studies in culture cells verified that the increase in miR-222 expression might contribute to ERα downregulation but not the growth deterrence of cells. Overall, this study suggested that both celecoxib and aspirin could prevent breast cancer growth by regulating proteins in the cell cycle and apoptosis without blocking estrogen synthesis. Besides, celecoxib might affect miR expression in an undesirable fashion

  1. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casas, Josefina [Department of Biomedicinal Chemistry, IQAC–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Lacorte, Sílvia, E-mail: slbqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Porte, Cinta, E-mail: cinta.porte@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  2. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  3. Dopaminergic regulation of mate competition aggression and aromatase-Fos colocalization in vasotocin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M; Goodson, James L

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to the BSTm. Although VT is known to facilitate mate competition aggression, the role of DA has not previously been examined. We now show that in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), mate competition aggression is inhibited by the D(2) agonist quinpirole, though not the D(1) agonist SKF-38393 or the D(4) agonist PD168077. The D(3) agonist 7-OH-DPAT also inhibited aggression, but only following high dose treatment that may affect aggression via nonspecific binding to D(2) receptors. Central VT infusion failed to restore D(2) agonist-inhibited aggression in a subsequent experiment, demonstrating that D(2) does not suppress aggression by inhibiting VT release from BSTm neurons. In a final experiment, we detected D(2) agonist-induced increases in immunofluorescent colocalization of the product of the immediate early gene c-fos and the steroid-converting enzyme aromatase (ARO) within VT neurons of the BSTm. Thus, although VT and DA appear to influence mate competition aggression independently, BSTm VT neurons are clearly influenced by the activation of D(2) receptors, which may modify future behaviors.

  4. [Effects of aromatase inhibitor on sexual differentiation of SDN-POA in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, E

    1994-03-01

    The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of male rats is larger than that of females, the difference being caused by the perinatal effect of estrogen converted from androgen. To investigate the role of estrogen formation in the SDN-POA during the critical period of this sexual differentiation, CGS16949A (0.5 mg/kg, sc) was injected into the mothers in the late gestational age(F) or into neonates for 14 days from birth(N). Animals were sacrificed on the 20th. day of gestation and 7 days after birth, and fetal and neonatal brain aromatase activities (AA) as well as serum levels of testosterone(T) and corticosterone(B) were measured. On the 30th day after birth, the offspring of treated mothers and neonatally treated rats were sacrificed and the cross-sectional areas of the SDN-POA were evaluated by image processor NEXUS 6800. In group F, CGS16949A markedly suppressed brain AA in vitro (fetal hypothalamus: IC50 1.4nM) and in vivo in both the hypothalamus and amygdala. However, the levels of T and B did not show any significant change in group F. The same depression of AA was also observed in group N on the 7th day after birth. In CGS-treated males in groups F and N, the SDN-POA area markedly decreased to that of control females. The area in males in group F was not significantly different from that in females. These results suggest that estrogen converted from androgen plays a dominant role in the development of sexual dimorphism of the SDN-POA, and that the brain AA in the pre- and postnatal period is important in this process.

  5. Patterns of bone density evaluation in a community population treated with aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; O'Malley, A James; Fisher, Maxine; Daniel, Gregory W; Winer, Eric P; Keating, Nancy L

    2012-08-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) increase the risk of bone loss and fracture. Guidelines recommend routine bone density screening for women on AIs, but there are few data regarding the incorporation of these guidelines into clinical practice. We assessed bone density testing in a community-based cohort of breast cancer patients treated with AIs. By means of encounter and pharmacy data from WellPoint plans in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, we assessed bone density testing among 9,138 women aged ≥50 years with breast cancer who were treated with AIs between 2002 and 2008. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with baseline bone density testing in women initiating an AI, and among a subset of 2,086 women treated with AIs for at least 2 years, with testing during the first 2 years of therapy. Only 41.6 % of women underwent bone density testing when initiating AI therapy. Rates of bone density testing increased over time, but were lower for women who were older, lived in the Northeast (vs. other regions), had been treated with prior proton pump inhibitor or tamoxifen therapy, lived in areas with lower educational attainment, or were enrolled in a health maintenance organization (vs. other insurance types) (all P < 0.05). Among women treated with AIs for at least 2 years, 59.9 % of women underwent bone density testing during the first 2 years of AI therapy. Rates of testing were lower for women living in the Midwest or West (vs. Northeast), living in areas with lower education levels, enrolled in health maintenance organizations (vs. other insurance types), and with prior tamoxifen use. In conclusion, most women initiating AI therapy, and 40 % of those on long-term therapy, did not undergo recommended bone density evaluation in this community-based population. Attention is needed to insure that unnecessary fractures are avoided in breast cancer patients taking AIs.

  6. Red versus white wine as a nutritional aromatase inhibitor in premenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Yang, YuChing; Kirschner, Joan; Polk, Donna; Stanczyk, Frank; Paul-Labrador, Maura; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2012-03-01

    An increased risk of breast cancer is associated with alcohol consumption; however, it is controversial whether red wine increases this risk. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) prevent the conversion of androgens to estrogen and occur naturally in grapes, grape juice, and red, but not white wine. We tested whether red wine is a nutritional AI in premenopausal women. In a cross-over design, 36 women (mean age [SD], 36 [8] years) were assigned to 8 ounces (237 mL) of red wine daily then white wine for 1 month each, or the reverse. Blood was collected twice during the menstrual cycle for measurement of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), androstenedione (A), total and free testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Red wine demonstrated higher free T vs. white wine (mean difference 0.64 pg/mL [0.2 SE], p=0.009) and lower SHBG (mean difference -5.0 nmol/L [1.9 SE], p=0.007). E2 levels were lower in red vs. white wine but not statistically significant. LH was significantly higher in red vs. white wine (mean difference 2.3 mIU/mL [1.3 SE], p=0.027); however, FSH was not. Red wine is associated with significantly higher free T and lower SHBG levels, as well as a significant higher LH level vs. white wine in healthy premenopausal women. These data suggest that red wine is a nutritional AI and may explain the observation that red wine does not appear to increase breast cancer risk.

  7. Androgen priming using aromatase inhibitor and hCG during early-follicular-phase GnRH antagonist down-regulation in modified antagonist protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Andersen, A N; Loft, A

    2006-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically.......Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically....

  8. In Vitro Endocrine Disruption Screening of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    report; Appendix B. 6.3 Aromatase Assay The CYP19/Methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl- coumarin (MFC) High throughput Inhibition Screening Kit (Cat... coumarin (fluorescent substrate), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, cofactors, CYP19 enzyme, phosphate buffer- pH 7.4, positive control inhibitor...ketoconazole), and metabolite standard (7- hydroxy-4-trifluormethyl coumarin ). Briefly, on the day of the assay, reagents were removed from storage (-80 O

  9. Contribution of polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-03-04

    Mar 4, 2016 ... ica (10.6%) (World Health Organization 2011). Generally, two types of migraine, migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) are referred and about one-third of migraine patients describe an aura before or during the migraine headache. Patients are usually classified according to the criteria ...

  10. Contribution of polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These results suggested that rs10046 could play a potential role in migraine susceptibility in Turkish population. Also, the rare GG genotype of rs726281 appears to influence migraine susceptibility in a recessive manner in MRM subgroup of female patients. In addition, variant GG genotype of rs2229741 may reduce the risk ...

  11. In vivo imaging of brain aromatase in female baboons: [11C]vorozole kinetics and effect of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Biegon, Anat; Alexoff, David; Carter, Pauline; Shea, Coreen; Muench, Lisa; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S; Kim, Sunny W; Logan, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the brain distribution of the enzyme aromatase in the female baboon with positron emission tomography and the tracer [11C]vorozole using three different quantification methods for estimating the total distribution volume (V(T)): a graphical method, compartment modeling, and a tissue to plasma ratio. The graphical model and the compartment modeling gave similar estimates to the data and similar values (correlation R  =  .988; p  =  .0001). [11C]Vorozole shows a rapid uptake by the brain followed by a relatively constant accumulation, suggesting the possibility of using the tissue to plasma ratio as an estimate of V(T). The highest uptake of [11C]vorozole in the baboon brain was measured in the amygdala, followed by the preoptic area and hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cortical areas. Pretreatment studies with vorozole or letrozole showed a generalized decrease in brain accumulation and V(T). The results suggested that the physiologic changes in gonadal hormone levels accompanying the menstrual cycle had a significant effect on brain aromatase V(T).

  12. Social interaction influences blood cortisol values and brain aromatase genes in the protandrous false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Eri; Mikami, Kyohei; Manbo, Jun; Moriya-Ito, Keiko; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2012-12-01

    Anemonefish, Amphiprion spp., are socially controlled, protandrous sex changers with a monogamous mating system. Under certain conditions, sexually immature anemonefish with ambisexual gonads differentiate directly into males or females. Formation and maintenance of social rank in a group are considered key requirements for the induction of sex change or differentiation. Generally, each animal living in a social group experiences a different level of social stress in accordance with its social rank, and we hypothesize that the stress situation of individual anemonefish influences its sex determination. Groups of three sexually immature anemonefish were placed into each of five experimental tanks and kept for 10 days to allow for social rank formation and behavioral observation. The fish were then euthanized, and blood and brain samples were collected from each fish. The social rank of each individual was distinguishable from day 1 of the experiment. Aggressive behaviors were most frequent and blood Cortisol values were higher in dominant individuals. The transcription of mRNA for stress-related genes, i.e., those encoding for glucocorticoid and arginine vasotocin receptors, was higher in the brains of dominant individuals than in other social ranks. Furthermore, we detected higher transcription levels of gonad and brain aromatase genes, which encode the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens, in the brains of dominant individuals. These results suggest that social rank reflects the blood Cortisol value, which in turn leads to sex differentiation by manipulating transcription of genes, including aromatase genes, in the brain.

  13. Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eXing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGCs are abundant stem-like non-neuronal progenitors that are important for adult neurogenesis and brain repair, yet little is known about their regulation by neurotransmitters. Here we provide evidence for neuronal-glial interactions via a novel role for dopamine to stimulate RGC function. Goldfish were chosen as the model organism due to the abundance of RGCs and regenerative abilities of the adult central nervous system. A close anatomical relationship was observed between tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cell bodies and axons and dopamine-D1 receptor expressing RGCs along the ventricular surface of telencephalon, a site of active neurogenesis. A primary cell culture model was established and immunofluorescence analysis indicates that in vitro RGCs from female goldfish retain their major characteristics in vivo, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and brain lipid binding protein. The estrogen synthesis enzyme aromatase B is exclusively found in RGCs, but this is lost as cells differentiate to neurons and other glial types in adult teleost brain. Pharmacological experiments using the cultured RGCs established that specific activation of dopamine D1 receptors up-regulates aromatase B mRNA through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent molecular mechanism. These data indicate that dopamine enhances the steroidogenic function of this neuronal progenitor cell.

  14. Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Defarge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH, the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18–2000 times for co-formulants, 8–141 times for formulations, and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine—POEA and alkyl polyglucoside—APG and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.

  15. Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defarge, Nicolas; Takács, Eszter; Lozano, Verónica Laura; Mesnage, Robin; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Székács, András

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18–2000 times for co-formulants, 8–141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine—POEA and alkyl polyglucoside—APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone. PMID:26927151

  16. Effects of the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole on serum immunoglobulin and lysozyme levels in immunized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Akbary

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Letrozole is a synthetic aromatase inhibitor and interfere in the committed step in the synthesis of endogenous estrogens from androgens. Also estrogens regulate the immune system in teleost. Changes of 17- β- esrtradiol (E2, serum immunoglobulin and lysozyme levels were measured using a method based on the ability of lysozyme to lyse the bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and ELISA respectively. Twelve broodstocks were injected weekly with 2.5 mg kg-1 letrozole (an endocrine disrupter component two months before spawning season and vaccinated intraperitoneally (i.p with a bacterin (inactivated L. garviae one month before spawning. Twelve broodstocks for vaccination and twelve female rainbow trout as control group were also immiunised (i.p with the bacterin and injected (i.p with PBS, respectively. In the group received 2.5 mg AI kg-1 per week, serum E2 levels were significantly lower than that of other groups. Total immunoglobulin level and lysozyme activity were significantly higher in the parents received 2.5 mg kg-1 per week and were immunized with 10-9 cells ml-1 Lactococcus garvieae  compared to the group which immunized with L. garvieae and the control (non- immunized. The present study, suggests that aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may be a potential tool to regulate the synthesis of E2, is involved in the hormone- immune system interaction in rainbow trout.

  17. Local feedback loop of ghrelin-GH in the pig ovary: action on estradiol secretion, aromatase activity and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Agnieszka; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2008-06-01

    Ghrelin is recognized as an important regulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion, food intake and a factor which controls reproduction. In the present studies, the effect of GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) on ghrelin synthesis and secretion and the effects of ghrelin on GH synthesis and secretion in cultured whole porcine follicles were studied. Ghrelin and GH levels were measured in the follicular wall and in the culture medium. Moreover, the action of combined treatment with ghrelin and GH on estradiol secretion, aromatase activity and cell apoptosis were examined. We demonstrated that ghrelin increased GH secretion but not GH synthesis by ovarian follicles. GH stimulated both ghrelin synthesis and secretion in the ovarian follicles. The increase in estradiol secretion, aromatase activity and the decrease in caspase-3 activity were noted in ghrelin alone- and ghrelin in combination with GH-treated cells. In culture treated with combination of both these hormones, all investigated parameters were similar to those noted in ghrelin alone-treated cells. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for the gonadal feedback loop between GH and ghrelin secretion in the ovary. However, results of the presented research suggest independent action of GH and ghrelin in the ovary.

  18. Aromatase Inhibitors and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Post-Menopausal Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrow-Khavar, F; Yin, H; Barkun, A; Bouganim, N; Azoulay, L

    2017-12-27

    A large trial of post-menopausal women with breast cancer reported an imbalance in colorectal cancer events with aromatase inhibitors (AIs), compared with tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. This unexpected signal was observed within 3 years of randomization. To date, no observational studies have examined this important safety question in the natural setting of clinical practice. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether AIs, when compared with tamoxifen, are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified women, at least 55 years of age, with breast cancer newly-treated with either AIs or tamoxifen between January 1, 1996 and September 31, 2015, with follow-up until September 31, 2016. High-dimensional propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident colorectal cancer associated with AIs when compared with tamoxifen overall, by cumulative duration of use, and time since initiation. All exposures were lagged by one year for latency considerations. A total of 9701 and 8893 patients initiated AIs and tamoxifen as first-line hormonal therapy (median follow-up of 2.4 and 2.9 years, respectively). Compared with tamoxifen, AIs were not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (incidence rates of 150 per 100,000 person-years in both groups; adjusted HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.53-1.52). Similarly, there was no evidence of an association with cumulative duration of use (p-heterogeneity=0.54), and time since initiation (p-heterogeneity=0.66). In this first population-based study, the use of AIs was not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. These findings should provide reassurance to the concerned stakeholders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  19. Testosterone vs. aromatase inhibitor in older men with low testosterone: effects on cardiometabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J P; Shardell, M D; Carlson, O D; Melvin, D; Caturegli, G; Ferrucci, L; Chia, C W; Egan, J M; Basaria, S

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone (T) replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related decline in testosterone levels. The effects of long-term testosterone replacement and aromatase inhibition (AI) on glucose homeostasis and cardiometabolic markers were determine in older non-diabetic men with low testosterone levels. Men ≥65 years, mean age 71 ± 3 years with serum total T testosterone gel (TT) (n = 10), 1 mg anastrozole (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9) daily for 12 months. Homeostatic Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR ) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included OGIS in response to OGTT, fasting lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adipokines, and abdominal and mid-thigh fat by computed tomography. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12 months. After 12 months, absolute changes in HOMA IR in both treatment arms (TT group: -0.05 ± 0.21); (AI group: 0.15 ± 0.10) were similar to placebo (-0.11 ± 0.26), as were CRP and fasting lipid levels. Adiponectin levels significantly decreased in the TT group (-1.8 ± 0.9 mg/L, p = 0.02) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (-60.34 ± 3.19 cm 2 , p = 0.003) and leptin levels (-1.5 ± 1.2 ng/mL, p = 0.04) were significantly lower with AI. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat was reduced in both treatment arms (TT group: -4.88 ± 1.24 cm 2 , p = 0.008); (AI group: -6.05 ± 0.87 cm 2 , p = 0.0002). In summary, in this proof-of-concept trial, changes in HOMA IR AI were similar in all three groups while the effects of intervention on subcutaneous fat distribution and adipokines were variable. Larger efficacy and safety trials are needed before AI pharmacotherapy can be considered as a treatment option for low T levels in older men. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Tracking evolution of aromatase inhibitor resistance with circulating tumour DNA analysis in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fribbens, C; Garcia Murillas, I; Beaney, M; Hrebien, S; O'Leary, B; Kilburn, L; Howarth, K; Epstein, M; Green, E; Rosenfeld, N; Ring, A; Johnston, S; Turner, N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of resistance mutations may play a major role in the development of endocrine resistance. ESR1 mutations are rare in primary breast cancer but have high prevalence in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI) for advanced breast cancer. We investigated the evolution of genetic resistance to the first-line AI therapy using sequential ctDNA sampling in patients with advanced breast cancer. Eighty-three patients on the first-line AI therapy for metastatic breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. Plasma samples were collected every 3 months to disease progression and ctDNA analysed by digital droplet PCR and enhanced tagged-amplicon sequencing (eTAm-Seq). Mutations identified in progression samples by sequencing were tracked back through samples before progression to study the evolution of mutations on therapy. The frequency of novel mutations was validated in an independent cohort of available baseline plasma samples in the Study of Faslodex versus Exemestane with or without Arimidex (SoFEA) trial, which enrolled patients with prior sensitivity to AI. Of the 39 patients who progressed on the first-line AI, 56.4% (22/39) had ESR1 mutations detectable at progression, which were polyclonal in 40.9% (9/22) patients. In serial tracking, ESR1 mutations were detectable median 6.7 months (95% confidence interval 3.7-NA) before clinical progression. Utilising eTAm-Seq ctDNA sequencing of progression plasma, ESR1 mutations were demonstrated to be sub-clonal in 72.2% (13/18) patients. Mutations in RAS genes were identified in 15.4% (6/39) of progressing patients (4 KRAS, 1 HRAS, 1 NRAS). In SoFEA, KRAS mutations were detected in 21.2% (24/113) patients although there was no evidence that KRAS mutation status was prognostic for progression free or overall survival. Cancers progressing on the first-line AI show high levels of genetic heterogeneity, with frequent sub-clonal mutations. Sub-clonal KRAS mutations are found at high frequency. The genetic

  1. Dienogest, a synthetic progestin, inhibits prostaglandin E2 production and aromatase expression by human endometrial epithelial cells in a spheroid culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Mita, Shizuka; Takeuchi, Takashi; Notsu, Tatsuto; Mizuguchi, Kiyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a major mediator in the pathophysiology, and pathogenesis of gynecological diseases associated with abnormal endometrial disease with proliferation and inflammation, such as endometriosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of dienogest, a selective progesterone receptor agonist, on PGE(2) production and the expression of aromatase, an estrogen synthase, in human immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. Compared with monolayer culture, the cells showed enhanced PGE(2) production and expression of the PGE(2) synthases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in a spheroid culture system. Dienogest inhibited PGE(2) production and this effect was reversed by RU486, a progesterone receptor antagonist. Dienogest inhibited the PGE(2) synthases mRNA and protein expression, and the nuclear factor-κB activation. Moreover, the suppressive effect of dienogest on PGE(2) production was sustained 24h after the drug was withdrawn. Dienogest but not COX inhibitors inhibited aromatase expression. These results suggest that progesterone receptor activation reduces the gene expressions of COX-2, mPGES-1, and aromatase. Our findings suggest that the pharmacological mechanism of dienogest includes the direct inhibition of PGE(2) synthase and aromatase expression and may contribute to the therapeutic effect on the progression of endometriosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from [1B-3H]androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures

  3. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top......-quality embryos after IVF/ICSI....

  4. Comparison of the effect of cortisol on aromatase activity and androgen metabolism in two human fibroblast cell lines derived from the same individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, B; Brünner, N; Dombernowsky, P

    1990-01-01

    with 14C-labeled substrate the cells were incubated in medium, charcoal stripped of steroids without Phenol Red. Preincubation from 6 to 36 h with cortisol in concentrations of 10(-8) - 10(-6) M showed maximal stimulation of aromatase activity after 12 h preincubation with cortisol in concentrations of 0...

  5. Synthesis and biochemical properties of 6-bromoandrostenedione derivatives with a 2,2-dimethyl or 2-methyl group as aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako; Yamada, Keiko

    2004-11-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism for irreversible inactivation of aromatase by 6beta-bromoandrostenedione (1), one of the earliest discovered suicide substrates, in relation to the catalytic function of the enzyme, the 2,2-dimethyl derivative of compound 1, steroid 4, and its 6alpha-isomer 5, as well as 2-methyl-1,4-diene steroid 8 and its 6alpha-bromide 10, were synthesized. All of the steroids inhibited aromatase activity in human placental microsomes with apparent K(i)'s ranging between 10 and 81 nM. The 2,2-dimethyl-6beta- and 6alpha-bromo steroids 4 and 5 were extremely powerful inhibitors (K(i): 14 and 10 nM, respectively), but these two did not cause a time-dependent inactivation of aromatase in the presence of NADPH; in contrast, the 2-methyl-1,4-diene steroids 8 and 10 caused time-dependent inactivation with apparent k(inact) of 0.035 and 0.071 min(-1), respectively, in a suicide manner. These results indicate that the 2,2-dimethyl function of the 6beta-bromide 4 would prevent the inactivation of aromatase caused by inhibitor 1 in a suicide manner, probably through steric activity, whereas the 2-methyl group of steroid 8 did not significantly affect the suicidal inactivation by the parent 1,4-diene steroid, a typical suicide substrate.

  6. Depsidones inhibit aromatase activity and tumor cell proliferation in a co-culture of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and T47D breast tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chottanapund, Suthat; Van Duursen, M. B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181957701; Zwartsen, Anne; Timtavorn, Supatchaya; Navasumrit, Panida; Kittakoop, Prasat; Sureram, Sanya; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring depsidones from the marine fungus Aspergillus unguis are known to have substantial anti-cancer activity, but their mechanism of action remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-aromatase activity of two common depsidones, unguinol and aspergillusidone A,

  7. Androgen priming using aromatase inhibitor and hCG during early-follicular-phase GnRH antagonist down-regulation in modified antagonist protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Andersen, A N; Loft, A

    2006-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically....

  8. Effects of testosterone and its metabolites on aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the quail brain: relationship with the activation of male reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, J; Foidart, A; Absil, P; Harada, N

    1996-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA) of male Japanese quail is a limiting step in the activation by T of copulatory behavior. Aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells of the POA are specifically localized within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the medial preoptic nucleus(POM), a sexually dimorphic and steroid-sensitive structure that is a necessary and sufficient site of steroid action in the activation of behavior. Stereotaxic implantation of aromatase inhibitors in but not around the POM strongly decreases the behavioral effects of a systemic treatment with T of castrated males. AA is decreased by castration and increased by aromatizable androgens and by estrogens. These changes have been independently documented at three levels of analysis: the enzymatic activity measured by radioenzymatic assays in vitro, the enzyme concentration evaluated semi-quantitatively by immunocytochemistry and the concentration of its messenger RNA quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies demonstrate that T acting mostly through its estrogenic metabolites regulates brain aromatase by acting essentially at the transcriptional level. Estrogens produced by central aromatization of T therefore have two independent roles: they activate male copulatory behavior and they regulate the synthesis of aromatase. Double label immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that estrogen receptors(ER) are found in all brain areas containing ARO-ir cells but the extent to which these markers are colocalized varies from one brain region to the other. More than 70% of ARO-ir cells contain detectable ER in the tuberal hypothalamus but less than 20% of the cells display this colocalization in the POA. This absence of ER in ARO-ir cells is also observed in the POA of the rat brain. This suggests that

  9. The anti-aromatase effect of progesterone and of its natural metabolites 20alpha- and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in the MCF-7aro breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, J R; Chetrite, G

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone is metabolized in the normal breast mainly into 4-ene-pregnenes (e.g. 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 20alphaDHP) but, in contrast, in breast cancer tissue the 5alpha-dihydropregnanes (e.g. 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 5alphaDHP) are prevalent. In the present study the effect of progesterone and its main metabolites 20alphaDHP and 5alphaDHP on the aromatase activity in a stable aromatase-expressing estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7aro, was explored. The MCF-7aro cells were stripped of endogenous steroids and incubated with physiological concentrations of [3H]-testosterone ([3H]-testos: 5 x 10(-9)M) alone or in the presence of progesterone, 20alphaDHP or 5alphaDHP (5 x 10(-6) or 5 x 10(-8)M) for 24 h at 37 degrees C. The cellular radioactivity uptake was determined in the ethanolic supernatant and the DNA content in the remaining pellet. [3H]-Estradiol (E2), [3H]-estrone (E1) and [3H]-testos were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. Aromatase activity was present at a high level in the MCF-7aro cells after incubation with [3H]-testos when the concentration of [3H]-E2 was 3.70 pmol/mg DNA; 20alphaDHP at concentrations of 5 x 10(-6)M or 5 x 10(-8)M significantly inhibited this conversion by 50.3% and 36.5%, respectively. No significant effect was found with the metabolite 5alphaDHP or the parent hormone, progesterone. The MCF-7aro cell line shows high detectable aromatase activity. The present data indicate that the progesterone metabolite 20alphaDHP, found mainly in normal breast tissue, can act as an anti-aromatase agent.

  10. Effect of a hormone-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and Cox-2 expression in patients with adenomyosis submitted or not, to endometrial resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1, Julio Casoy1, Rebeca Maia1, Nathanael Pinheiro3, Elsimar M Coutinho11Centro de Pesquisa e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 3IMAGEPAT, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate the effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression in the endometrium of patients with adenomyosis who were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of insertion, compared to a group not submitted to endometrial resection and a group of controls with adenomyosis not submitted to any previous hormonal treatment.Patients and methods: Patients with adenomyosis (n = 89 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients had been using Mirena® for 5 years but had not been submitted to endometrial resection prior to insertion of the device. Twenty-four patients were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of Mirena® insertion. The remaining 43 patients with adenomyosis had undergone no previous hormonal treatment and served as a control group. Cox-2 and aromatase expression were determined in the endometrium by immunohistochemistry.Results: Use of Mirena® for 5 years reduced aromatase expression in the endometrium; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the uteri previously submitted to endometrial resection. The reduction in Cox-2 expression was significant only in the uteri submitted to endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena®.Conclusion: Endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena® was associated with greater rates of amenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis, which in turn were associated with a more effective inhibition of aromatase and Cox-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: aromatase, Mirena®, adenomyosis, Cox-2, endometrium, levonorgestrel

  11. Reinvestigation of the synthesis and evaluation of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, a radiotracer targeting cytochrome P450 aromatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: swkim@bnl.gov; Biegon, Anat; Katsamanis, Zachary E. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ehrlich, Carolin W. [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Duesbergweg 10-14, Mainz (Germany); Hooker, Jacob M.; Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Bethesda, MD (United States); Xu Youwen; King, Payton; Carter, Pauline; Alexoff, David L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: We reinvestigated the synthesis of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, a radiotracer for aromatase, and discovered the presence of an N-methyl isomer which was not removed in the original purification method. Herein we report the preparation and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole. Methods: Norvorozole was alkylated with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide as previously described and also with unlabeled methyl iodide. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate the regioisomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ({sup 13}C and 2D-nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR) was used to identify and assign structures to the N-methylated products. Pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole and the contaminating isomer were compared by PET imaging in the baboon. Results: Methylation of norvorozole resulted in a mixture of isomers (1:1:1 ratio) based on new HPLC analysis using a pentafluorophenylpropyl bonded silica column, in which vorozole coeluted one of its isomers under the original HPLC conditions. Baseline separation of the three labeled isomers was achieved. The N-3 isomer was the contaminant of vorozole, thus correcting the original assignment of isomers. PET studies of pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole with and without the contaminating N-3 isomer revealed that only [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole binds to aromatase. [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]Vorozole accumulated in all brain regions with highest accumulation in the aromatase-rich amygdala and preoptic area. Accumulation was blocked with vorozole and letrozole consistent with reports of some level of aromatase in many brain regions. Conclusions: The discovery of a contaminating labeled isomer and the development of a method for isolating pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole combine to provide a new scientific tool for PET studies of the biology of aromatase and for drug research and development.

  12. High progesterone levels during the luteal phase related to the use of an aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, C; Marci, R; Vallone, R

    2017-01-01

    cancer, several studies have demonstrated that progesterone could expand a transformation-sensitive stem cell population in the mammary glands. The estrogen negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the disruption of steroid biosynthesis and could represent an intriguing reason......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hormonal profile in three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in the presence of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In IVF University referral center, a case series of three breast cancer patients who underwent...... behind this phenomenon. Our results highlight the need to evaluate further the increase in progesterone levels in the luteal phase in women with breast cancer undergoing COS with letrozole....

  13. Are previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis a predictor for vaginal symptoms in breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Malene R; Goukasian, Irina; Panduro, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with breast cancer exposed to aromatase inhibitors, and to investigate if the risk of vaginal symptoms is associated with previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis. Methods Patients from Rigshospitalet and Herlev...... University Hospital, Denmark, were identified through the register of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperation Group and 78 patients participated in the study. Semiquantitave questionnaires and telephone interview were used to assess the prevalence of vaginal symptoms and previous episode(s) of bacterial vaginosis....... Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between vaginal symptoms and previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis. Results Moderate to severe symptoms due to vaginal itching/irritation were experienced by 6.4% (95% CI: 2.8-14.1%), vaginal dryness by 28.4% (95% CI: 19...

  14. Bisphenol A exposure during adulthood alters expression of aromatase and 5α-reductase isozymes in rat prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Castro

    Full Text Available The high incidence of prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH in elderly men is a cause of increasing public health concern. In recent years, various environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA, have been shown to disrupt sexual organs, including the prostate gland. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Because androgens and estrogens are important factors in prostate physiopathology, our objective was to examine in rat ventral prostate the effects of adult exposure to BPA on 5α-Reductase isozymes (5α-R types 1, 2, and 3 and aromatase, key enzymes in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, respectively. Adult rats were subcutaneously injected for four days with BPA (25, 50, 300, or 600 µg/Kg/d dissolved in vehicle. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed lower mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R1 and 5α-R2 in BPA-treated groups versus controls but higher mRNA levels of 5α-R3, recently proposed as a biomarker of malignancy. However, BPA treatment augmented mRNA and protein levels of aromatase, whose increase has been described in prostate diseases. BPA-treated rats also evidenced a higher plasma estradiol/testosterone ratio, which is associated with prostate disease. Our results may offer new insights into the role of BPA in the development of prostate disease and may be of great value for studying the prostate disease risk associated with exposure to BPA in adulthood.

  15. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of newly discovered aromatase inhibitors by a cassette microdosing approach in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Takashima, Tadayuki; Fujii, Hisako; Takashima, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tazawa, Shusaku; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kayo; Tokai, Hidekichi; Yano, Tsuneo; Kataoka, Makoto; Inano, Akihiro; Yoshida, Suguru; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinji; Hojo, Taisuke; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics of our newly developed aromatase inhibitors (cetrozole and TMD-322) in healthy subjects by a cassette microdose strategy. A cocktail of cetrozole and TMD-322 was administered intravenously or orally (1.98 μg for each drug) to six healthy volunteers in a crossover fashion. Anastrozole (1.98 μg) was also included in the oral cocktail. Total body clearance and bioavailability were 12.1 ± 7.1 mL/min/kg and 34.9 ± 32.3% for cetrozole, and 16.8 ± 3.5 mL/min/kg and 18.4 ± 12.2% for TMD-322, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves of cetrozole and TMD-322 after oral administration was markedly lower than that of anastrozole because of their high hepatic clearance. Two subjects out of six exhibited 4- and 17-fold larger exposure of cetrozole than the others following intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Such variation was not observed for TMD-322 and anastrozole. Extensive metabolism of cetrozole and TMD-322 was observed in the CYP2C19 expression system among the test CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4). We report the first clinical investigation of our aromatase inhibitors by a cassette microdose strategy in healthy Japanese subjects. This strategy offers an optional approach for candidate selection as a phase zero study in drug development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Bisphenol A exposure during adulthood alters expression of aromatase and 5α-reductase isozymes in rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Beatriz; Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Preda, Ovidiu; del Moral, Raimundo G; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) in elderly men is a cause of increasing public health concern. In recent years, various environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been shown to disrupt sexual organs, including the prostate gland. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Because androgens and estrogens are important factors in prostate physiopathology, our objective was to examine in rat ventral prostate the effects of adult exposure to BPA on 5α-Reductase isozymes (5α-R types 1, 2, and 3) and aromatase, key enzymes in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, respectively. Adult rats were subcutaneously injected for four days with BPA (25, 50, 300, or 600 µg/Kg/d) dissolved in vehicle. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed lower mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R1 and 5α-R2 in BPA-treated groups versus controls but higher mRNA levels of 5α-R3, recently proposed as a biomarker of malignancy. However, BPA treatment augmented mRNA and protein levels of aromatase, whose increase has been described in prostate diseases. BPA-treated rats also evidenced a higher plasma estradiol/testosterone ratio, which is associated with prostate disease. Our results may offer new insights into the role of BPA in the development of prostate disease and may be of great value for studying the prostate disease risk associated with exposure to BPA in adulthood.

  17. Use of the granulosa cell aromatase bioassay for measurement of bioactive follicle-stimulating hormone in urine and serum samples of diverse species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, K D; Hsueh, A J

    1987-01-01

    Ovarian steroids and growth factors are intragonadal modulators which augment a key endpoint of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action in granulosa cells: the induction of aromatase activity. Studies of these paracrine hormones that enhance FSH-stimulated estrogen biosynthesis by cultured rat granulosa cells, have led to the development of a sensitive and specific in vitro bioassay for FSH. This newly developed granulosa cell aromatase bioassay (GAB) allows for the measurement of bioactive FSH levels in serum and urine of humans and animals with various physiological and pathological conditions. These studies have demonstrated that the GAB assay is useful in detecting possible changes in the molecular forms of FSH. The adaptation of this method for urine samples allows for the measurement of bio-FSH levels in situations where venipuncture is not practical or in species for which specific radioimmunoassays are not available.

  18. Effect of 6 Weeks of Resistance Training and Boldenone Supplementation on 5-alpha Reductase and Aromatase Gene Expression in Testes Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Using anabolic androgenic steroids by athletes has significant side effects on sex hormones and the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of resistance exercise and Boldenone supplements on the expression of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes of the testis tissue in Wistar rats. Material & Methods: In this experimental study, thirty 12-week old male Wistar rats with the average weight of 195.00±7.94 grams were divided randomly into 5 groups; control, sham, Boldenone supplements (2mg per each kilogram of body weight, resistance exercise and Boldenone exercise. Resistance exercise program was 5 sessions of climbing the ladder each week (3 sets of 5 repeats for 6 weeks that was started by 50% of one maximum repetition and reached 100% at the end. The level of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes expression were measured after the anesthesia and the removal of the testes tissue in the samples. Data was analyzed by paired T, ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests by using SPSS 22 software. Findings: The average weight of all groups’ mice were significantly increased in week 6 comparing to the first week (p=0.0001. There was significant increasing in 5-alpha-reductase expression in Boldenone and Boldenone exercise than the control group and also in the Boldenone exercise than resistance exercise group after the intervention. There was significant increasing in aromatase gene expression in resistance exercise and Boldenone exercise groups than the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Boldenone supplement along with 6 weeks of resistance exercise increases the levels of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes expression in testis tissue of Wistar rats.

  19. Osteonecrosis of the jaw during biyearly treatment with zoledronic acid for aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss in early breast cancer: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Antoun, Joelle; El Rassy, Elie; Rassy, Marc; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is one of the most relevant and specific complication of biphosphonates. ONJ in patients receiving zoledronic acid every 3 to 4 weeks is frequently described, but the ONJ biyearly regimen used to reduce aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss (AIBL), is rarely reported. A literature review, focusing on the important trials using zoledronic acid to reduce AIBL, found that the mean risk of developing ONJ when zoledronic acid is used biyearly varies between 0.12% ...

  20. Durable complete remission with aromatase inhibitor therapy in a patient with metastatic uterine carcinosarcoma with poor performance status and coagulation disorders: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Romano, P; Jurado, M; Idoate, M A; Arbea, L; Hernandez-Lizoain, J L; Cano, D; Paramo, J A; Martin-Algarra, S

    2017-04-19

    Chemotherapy is considered the most appropriate treatment for metastatic uterine sarcoma, despite its limited efficacy. No other treatment has been conclusively proved to be a real alternative, but some reports suggest that anti-hormonal therapy could be active in a small subset of patients. We report the case of a patient with metastatic uterine carcinosarcoma with positive hormonal receptors and a complete pathological response. A 54-year-old white woman presented to our emergency room with hypovolemic shock and serious vaginal bleeding. After stabilization, she was diagnosed as having a locally advanced uterine carcinosarcoma with lymph nodes and bone metastatic disease. In order to control the bleeding, palliative radiotherapy was administered. Based on the fact that positive hormone receptors were found in the biopsy, non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy with letrozole was started. In the following weeks, her general status improved and restaging imaging tests demonstrated a partial response of the primary tumor. Ten months after initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy, she underwent a radical hysterectomy and the pathological report showed a complete response. After completing 5 years of treatment, aromatase inhibitor therapy was stopped. She currently continues free of disease, without further therapy, and maintains a normal and active life. This case shows that patients with uterine carcinosarcoma and positive hormone receptors may benefit from aromatase inhibitor therapy. A multidisciplinary strategy that includes local therapies such as radiation and/or surgery should be considered the mainstay of treatment. Systemic therapies such as hormone inhibitors should be taken into consideration and deserve further clinical research in the era of precision medicine.

  1. Determination and confirmation of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors in bovine and porcine urine using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Thijs; Essers, Martien L; Kaklamanos, George; Sterk, Saskia S; van Ginkel, Leendert A

    2017-04-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors are prohibited in human sports doping. However, they also present a risk of being used illegally in animal husbandry for fattening purposes. A method was developed and validated using UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination and confirmation of SERMs, anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibiters in bovine and porcine urine. This method was used in a survey of more than 200 bovine and porcine urine samples from Dutch farms. In 18 out of 103 porcine urine samples (17%) and two out of 114 bovine samples (2%) formestane, an aromatase inhibitor, was detected. None of the other compounds was detected. From human doping control it is known that formestane can, in some cases, be of natural origin. Analyses of reference samples from untreated bovine and porcine animals demonstrated the presence of formestane in bovine animals, but not yet in porcine animals. Future research will focus on whether the detected formestane in porcine and bovine urine is from endogenous or exogenous origin, using GC-c-IRMS.

  2. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P 0.05). © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Attempted replication of SNPs in RANKL and OPG with musculoskeletal adverse events during aromatase inhibitor treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jacqueline M; Xi, Jingyue; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M; Hertz, Daniel L

    2018-02-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is highly efficacious in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer; however, in a subset of patients AI use is discontinued due to drug-induced musculoskeletal adverse events (MS-AE). Several studies have investigated the role of germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on patients' risk of MS-AEs; however, no associations have yet to be validated for translation into clinical practice. This study attempted to replicate SNPs in RANKL ( rs7984870 ) and OPG ( rs2073618 ) on the risk of AI-induced MS-AEs and screen for secondary associations with MS-AE-related treatment discontinuation and serum and urine markers of bone health. Previously reported associations were not replicated with our primary hypothesis, change in MS-AE from baseline to 3 mo; however, patients homozygous for the G allele of rs7984870 in RANKL had lower risk of MS-AE-associated treatment discontinuation in analyses of secondary phenotypes without statistical correction.

  5. Periodontal Health in Women With Early-Stage Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Newly on Aromatase Inhibitors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, L Susan; Inglehart, Marita R; Giannobile, William V; Braun, Thomas; Kolenic, Giselle; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) use results in low estrogen levels, which in turn affect bone mineral density (BMD). Periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, and tooth loss are associated with low BMD. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of periodontitis and perceived oral health and evaluate salivary biomarkers in postmenopausal women who are survivors of early-stage (I to IIIA) breast cancer (BCa) and receive adjuvant AI therapy. Participants included 58 postmenopausal women: 29 with BCa on AIs and 29 controls without BCa diagnoses. Baseline periodontal status was assessed with: 1) periodontal probing depth (PD); 2) bleeding on probing (BOP); and 3) attachment loss (AL). Demographic and dental utilization information was gathered by questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to analyze the outcomes. No differences were found in mean PD or number of teeth. The AI group had significantly more sites with BOP (27.8 versus 16.7; P = 0.02), higher worst-site AL (5.2 versus 4.0 mm; P tobacco use, dental insurance, and previous radiation and chemotherapy exposure demonstrated that AI use increased AL by >2 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 3.92). Median salivary osteocalcin and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in the AI group than the control group. This first investigation of the periodontal status of women initiating adjuvant AI therapy identifies this population as having an increased risk for periodontitis.

  6. Structural and functional analysis of two di-domain aromatase/cyclases from type II polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara-Festin, Grace; Jackson, David R; Barajas, Jesus F; Valentic, Timothy R; Patel, Avinash B; Aguilar, Stephanie; Nguyen, MyChi; Vo, Michael; Khanna, Avinash; Sasaki, Eita; Liu, Hung-Wen; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2015-12-15

    Aromatic polyketides make up a large class of natural products with diverse bioactivity. During biosynthesis, linear poly-β-ketone intermediates are regiospecifically cyclized, yielding molecules with defined cyclization patterns that are crucial for polyketide bioactivity. The aromatase/cyclases (ARO/CYCs) are responsible for regiospecific cyclization of bacterial polyketides. The two most common cyclization patterns are C7-C12 and C9-C14 cyclizations. We have previously characterized three monodomain ARO/CYCs: ZhuI, TcmN, and WhiE. The last remaining uncharacterized class of ARO/CYCs is the di-domain ARO/CYCs, which catalyze C7-C12 cyclization and/or aromatization. Di-domain ARO/CYCs can further be separated into two subclasses: "nonreducing" ARO/CYCs, which act on nonreduced poly-β-ketones, and "reducing" ARO/CYCs, which act on cyclized C9 reduced poly-β-ketones. For years, the functional role of each domain in cyclization and aromatization for di-domain ARO/CYCs has remained a mystery. Here we present what is to our knowledge the first structural and functional analysis, along with an in-depth comparison, of the nonreducing (StfQ) and reducing (BexL) di-domain ARO/CYCs. This work completes the structural and functional characterization of mono- and di-domain ARO/CYCs in bacterial type II polyketide synthases and lays the groundwork for engineered biosynthesis of new bioactive polyketides.

  7. Brief exposure of embryos to steroids or aromatase inhibitor induces sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, Vincent; Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick; Ulysse, Bernard; Akian Djétouan, Dieudonné; Bere Sompagnimdi, Frédéric; Tomson, Thomas; Mélard, Charles; Rougeot, Carole

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop sex reversal procedures targeting the embryonic period as tools to study the early steps of sex differentiation in Nile tilapia with XX, XY, and YY sexual genotypes. XX eggs were exposed to masculinizing treatments with androgens (17α-methyltestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) or aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole), whereas XY and YY eggs were subjected to feminizing treatments with estrogen analog (17α-ethynylestradiol). All treatments consisted of a single or double 4-hr immersion applied between 1 and 36 hour post-fertilization (hpf). Concentrations of active substances were 1000 or 2000 μg l(-1) in XX and XY, and 2000 or 6500 μg l(-1) in YY. Masculinizing treatments of XX embryos achieved a maximal sex reversal rate of 10% with an exposure at 24 hpf to 1000 μg l(-1) of 11-ketotestosterone or to 2000 μg l(-1) of Fadrozole. Feminization of XY embryos was more efficient and induced up to 91% sex reversal with an exposure to 2000 μg l(-1) of 17α-ethynylestradiol. Interestingly, similar treatments failed to reverse YY fish to females, suggesting either that a sex determinant linked to the Y chromosome prevents the female pathway when present in two copies, or that a gene present on the X chromosome is needed for the development of a female phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Aromatase inhibition by 4 beta,5 beta-epoxides of 16 alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione and its 19-oxygenated analogs, potential precursors of estriol production in the feto-placental unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Yoshimura, Akiko; Watari, Yoko; Matsuzaki, Hisao

    2002-12-01

    To gain insight into the nature of the substrate binding site and the catalytic function of aromatase, we studied the inhibition of androstenedione aromatization by 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (4) and its 19-hydroxy and 19-oxo derivatives, 5 and 6, as well as the biochemical aromatization of these steroids in human placental microsomes. The 19-methyl and 19-oxo compounds, 4 and 6, were weak competitive inhibitors of aromatase, with apparent K(i) values of 246 microM and 270 microM, respectively, whereas the 19-hydroxy compound 5 inhibited aromatase in a non-competitive manner with the K(i) of 135 microM. The 19-methyl compound 4 inactivated aromatase in a time-dependent manner with k(inact) of 0.213 min(-1) in the presence of NADPH in air, but the other two did not cause it. The conversion of the three epoxides into estrogen, as well as 19-oxygenation of 19-methyl steroid 4 with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH in air, were not detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present results are consistent with the two binding sites theory in the active site of aromatase.

  9. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based toxicity predictions effects of the fungicide imazalil on fathead minnow reproduction (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD. An intended application of the AOP framework is to support the use of me...

  10. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based toxicity predictions effects of the fungicide imazalil on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD (https://aopwiki.org/wiki/index.php/Aop:25). An intended application of t...

  11. Modulation of Adrenal Steroidogenesis by Environmental Chemicals and the Impact on reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was based upon outcomes from earlier work conducted under APM 465 to test the hypothesis that the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine (ATR), causes an increase in serum estrogens through an induction of aromatase (CYP19) gene expression. The current research has invol...

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxygenations in aromatization of androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione, a suicide substrate of aromatase, by placental microsomes. Isotope effect and stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Takahashi, Madoka; Nagaoka, Masao; Handa, Wakako; Yamashita, Kouwa

    2007-01-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione (AD) to estrone through three sequential oxygenations of the 19-methyl group. 6-OxoAD (1) is one of the typical suicide substrates of aromatase, which is converted by aromatase to 6-oxoestrone through 19-alcohol (19-ol) and 19-aldehyde (19-al) intermediates 2 and 3. To study the deuterium isotope effect on the conversion of 19-ol 2 to 19-al 3 as well as the stereochemistry of the 19-hydrogen removal in this conversion, we initially synthesized [19,19-(2)H(2)] and [19S- or 19R-(2)H] 19-ols 2, starting from the corresponding deuterium-labeled 19-hydroxyAD derivatives. In incubation of non-labeled and [19,19-(2)H(2)]-labeled 19-ol 2 or that of their 1:1 mixture with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under air, there was no significant deuterium-isotope effect on the production of the aromatized product 6-oxoestrone or on the conversion of 19-ol 2 to 19-al 3, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the estrogen product or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) analysis of the deuterium contents of the product 19-al 3 and the recovered 19-ol 2. Moreover, in the incubations of [19S-(2)H] 19-ol 2 and its 19R isomer, LC-MS analysis of the product 3 demonstrated that the 19-pro-R hydrogen atom was stereospecifically removed in the conversion of 19-ol 2 to 19-al 3. These findings indicate that the 19-oxygenation of 19-ol 2 would proceed in the same mechanism as that involved in the AD aromatization.

  13. Aromatase Inhibitors Are Associated With Low Sexual Desire Causing Distress and Fecal Incontinence in Women: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Penelope J; Bell, Robin J; Christakis, Marie K; Ivezic, Stephanie R; Davis, Susan R

    2017-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy on sexual and pelvic floor function. To document the prevalence of, and factors associated with, low desire, sexually related personal distress, hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD), and pelvic floor dysfunction in women 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. This was a prospective, observational, community-based cohort study of Australian women with invasive breast cancer recruited within 12 months of diagnosis. 1,053 of the 1,305 who completed the initial 5 years of study follow-up agreed to be re-contacted, and 992 of these women alive 10 years after diagnosis were sent the study questionnaire. The main outcome measure was HSDD determined by a score no higher than 5.0 on the desire domain of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) plus a score of at least 11.0 on the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (FSDS-R). Pelvic floor disorders, including urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, and pelvic organ prolapse, were assessed using validated questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with low desire, personal distress, and HSDD. 625 completed questionnaires were returned. The respondents' median age was 65.1 years (range = 36.4-95.5). Current AI use was reported by 10% and tamoxifen use was reported by 3.4%. 521 of the 608 women (85.7%; 95% CI = 82.9-88.5) who competed the FSFI desire domain had low sexual desire, and 246 of the 563 women (43.7%; 95% CI = 39.6-47.8%) who completed the FSDS-R had sexually related personal distress. 221 of the 559 women (39.5%; 95% CI = 35.5-43.6%) who completed the 2 questionnaires had HSDD. Current AI users were more likely to have HSDD than non-users (55.2% [95% CI = 42.2-68.1] vs 37.8% [95% CI = 33.5-42.0]; P = .01). HSDD was more prevalent in sexually active, current AI users (66.7%; 95% CI = 49.4-83.9) vs current non-users (43.6%; 95% CI = 37.0-50.2; P = .02). In a logistic regression model

  14. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  15. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xihe Zhao,1 Lei Liu,2 Kai Li,1 Wusheng Li,1 Li Zhao,1 Huawei Zou1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78, letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92, and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4. OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. Keywords: CV risk, breast cancer, AI, network meta-analysis

  16. Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, James E; Dodwell, David; Purohit, Omprakash P; Gutcher, Sandra A; Ellis, Susan P; Thorpe, Ruth; Horsman, Janet M; Brown, Janet E; Hannon, Rosemary A; Coleman, Robert E

    2008-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitor anastrozole is a highly effective well-tolerated treatment for postmenopausal endocrine-responsive breast cancer. However, its use is associated with accelerated bone loss and an increase in fracture risk. The ARIBON trial is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the impact of bisphosphonate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in women taking anastrozole. BMD was assessed in 131 postmenopausal, surgically treated women with early breast cancer at two U.K. centers. Of these, 50 patients had osteopenia (T score -1.0 to -2.5) at either the hip or lumbar spine. All patients were treated with anastrozole 1 mg once a day and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In addition, osteopenic patients were randomized to receive either treatment with ibandronate 150 mg orally every month or placebo. After 2 years, osteopenic patients treated with ibandronate gained +2.98% (range -8.9, +19.9) and +0.60% (range -9.0, +6.9) at the lumbar spine and hip, respectively. Patients treated with placebo, however, lost -3.22% (range -16.0, +4.3) at the lumbar spine and -3.90% (range -12.3, +7.2) at the hip. The differences between the two treatment arms were statistically significant at both sites (P < 0.01). At 12 months, urinary n-telopeptide, serum c-telopeptide, and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels declined in patients receiving ibandronate (30.9%, 26.3%, and 22.8%, respectively) and increased in those taking placebo (40.3%, 34.9%, and 37.0%, respectively). Monthly oral ibandronate improves bone density and normalizes bone turnover in patients treated with anastrozole.

  17. Activity of megestrol acetate in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor failure: a phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, J; Dienstmann, R; Obadia, R M; Branco, L G P; Quintella, D C; Castro, T M; Camacho, P G; Soares, F A; Costa, M E F

    2014-04-01

    As novel treatments carry substantial price tags and are mostly cost-prohibitive in low- and middle-income countries, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives, such as off-patent drugs. Megestrol acetate (MA) has a longstanding history in the treatment of breast cancer, but recently it is being used less often due to the advent of newer agents. This two-stage phase II trial evaluated the antitumor activity and toxicity of MA in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive advanced breast cancer who had experienced disease progression on a third-generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). Eligible patients had metastatic breast cancer treated with a NSAI with at least 6-month progression-free survival (PFS), or relapse after ≥1 year on adjuvant NSAI. Patients received MA at a single daily oral dose of 160 mg. Primary end point was clinical benefit rate (CBR). Forty-eight patients were enrolled. The CBR was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25% to 55%], and the median duration of clinical benefit was 10.0 (95% CI 8.0-14.2) months. The median PFS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0-4.8) months. The most common grade 3 adverse events were anemia (2%), dyspnea (2%), fatigue (2%), musculoskeletal pain (4%), deep vein thrombosis (10%), and weight gain (2%). This is the first study to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of MA in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease progressing on a NSAI. MA has demonstrated activity and acceptable tolerability in this setting, and therefore remains a reasonable treatment option in a cost-sensitive environment. These results also provide the background for further evaluation of progestins in the treatment of breast cancer. local trial number, related to the approval by the IRB: CEP 108/06.

  18. Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George Ho Man; Ho, Emmie Ngai Man; Leung, David Kwan Kon; Wong, Kin Sing; Wan, Terence See Ming

    2016-01-05

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. In addition, AASs with fast elimination times render the direct detection approach ineffective as the detection window is short. A targeted metabolomics approach is a plausible alternative to the conventional direct detection approach for controlling the misuse of AAS in sports. Because the administration of AAS of the same class may trigger similar physiological responses or effects in the body, it may be possible to detect such administrations by monitoring changes in the endogenous steroidal expression profile. This study attempts to evaluate the viability of using the targeted metabolomics approach to detect the administration of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, namely androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (6-OXO) and androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD), in horses. Total (free and conjugated) urinary concentrations of 31 endogenous steroids were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for a group of 2 resting and 2 in-training thoroughbred geldings treated with either 6-OXO or ATD. Similar data were also obtained from a control (untreated) group of in-training thoroughbred geldings (n = 28). Statistical processing and chemometric procedures using principle component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) have highlighted 7 potential biomarkers that could be used to differentiate urine samples obtained from the control and the treated groups

  19. Impact of an osteoporosis specialized unit on bone health in breast cancer survivals treated with aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Purificación; Galve, Elena; Arrazubi, Virginia; Sala, M Ángeles; Fernández, Seila; Pérez, Clara E; Arango, Juan F; Torre, Iñaki

    2017-10-11

    Considering the increased fracture risk in early breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI), we assessed the impact of a preventive intervention conducted by a specialized osteoporosis unit on bone health at AI treatment start. Retrospective cohort of postmenopausal women who started treatment with AI after breast cancer surgical/chemotherapy treatment and were referred to the osteoporosis unit for a comprehensive assessment of bone health. Bone densitometry and fracture screening by plain X-ray were performed at the baseline visit and once a year for 5 years. The final record included 130 patients. At AI treatment start, 49% had at least one high-risk factor for fractures, 55% had osteopenia, and 39% osteoporosis. Based on the baseline assessment, 79% of patients initiated treatment with bisphosphonates, 88% with calcium, and 79% with vitamin D. After a median of 65 (50-77) months, 4% developed osteopenia or osteoporosis, and 14% improved their densitometric diagnosis. Fifteen fractures were recorded in 11 (8.5%) patients, all of them receiving preventive treatment (10 with bisphosphonates). During the follow-up period, patients with one or more high-risk factors for fracture showed a greater frequency of fractures (15% vs. 3%) and experienced the first fracture earlier than those without high-risk factors (mean of 99 and 102 months, respectively; P=0.023). The preventive intervention of a specialized unit at the start of AI treatment in breast cancer survivors allows the identification of patients with high fracture risk and may contribute to preventing bone events in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteonecrosis of the jaw during biyearly treatment with zoledronic acid for aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss in early breast cancer: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampig Raphael Kourie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is one of the most relevant and specific complication of biphosphonates. ONJ in patients receiving zoledronic acid every 3 to 4 weeks is frequently described, but the ONJ biyearly regimen used to reduce aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss (AIBL, is rarely reported. A literature review, focusing on the important trials using zoledronic acid to reduce AIBL, found that the mean risk of developing ONJ when zoledronic acid is used biyearly varies between 0.12% and 0.7%.

  1. Osteonecrosis of the jaw during biyearly treatment with zoledronic acid for aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss in early breast cancer: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Antoun, Joelle; El Rassy, Elie; Rassy, Marc; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is one of the most relevant and specific complication of biphosphonates. ONJ in patients receiving zoledronic acid every 3 to 4 weeks is frequently described, but the ONJ biyearly regimen used to reduce aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss (AIBL), is rarely reported. A literature review, focusing on the important trials using zoledronic acid to reduce AIBL, found that the mean risk of developing ONJ when zoledronic acid is used biyearly varies between 0.12% and 0.7%.

  2. Comparison of the effect of cortisol on aromatase activity and androgen metabolism in two human fibroblast cell lines derived from the same individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, B; Brünner, N; Dombernowsky, P

    1990-01-01

    The effect of preincubation with cortisol on estrogen and androgen metabolism was investigated in human fibroblast monolayers grown from biopsies of genital and non-genital skin of the same person. The activity in the cells of aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase...... and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase was investigated by isolating estrone, estradiol, estriol, dihydrotestosterone, androstanedione, androsterone, 3 alpha-androstanediol, testosterone and androstenedione after incubation of the cells with [14C]testosterone or [14C]androstenedione. For experiments...

  3. Mapping of brain lipid binding protein (Blbp) in the brain of adult zebrafish, co-expression with aromatase B and links with proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diotel, Nicolas; Vaillant, Colette; Kah, Olivier; Pellegrini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult fish exhibit a strong neurogenic capacity due to the persistence of radial glial cells. In zebrafish, radial glial cells display well-established markers such as the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme (AroB) and the brain lipid binding protein (Blbp), which is known to strongly bind omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While Blpb is mainly described in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish, its expression in the remaining regions of the brain is poorly documented. The present study was designed to further investigate Blbp expression in the brain, its co-expression with AroB, and its link with radial glial cells proliferation in zebrafish. We generated a complete and detailed mapping of Blbp expression in the whole brain and show its complete co-expression with AroB, except in some tectal and hypothalamic regions. By performing PCNA and Blbp immunohistochemistry on cyp19a1b-GFP (AroB-GFP) fish, we also demonstrated preferential Blbp expression in proliferative radial glial cells in almost all regions studied. To our knowledge, this is the first complete and detailed mapping of Blbp-expressing cells showing strong association between Blbp and radial glial cell proliferation in the adult brain of fish. Given that zebrafish is now recognized models for studying neurogenesis and brain repair, our data provide detailed characterization of Blbp in the entire brain and open up a broad field of research investigating the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in neural stem cell activity in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The time since last menstrual period is important as a clinical predictor for non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Miyuki; Morimoto, Masami; Honda, Junko; Nagao, Taeko; Nakagawa, Misako; Takahashi, Masako; Tangoku, Akira; Sasa, Mitsunori

    2011-10-10

    The clinical predictors of aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia (AIA), a drug-related adverse reaction of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), remain unclear. AIA was prospectively surveyed every 4 months in 328 postmenopausal breast cancer patients administered a non-steroidal AI (anastrozole). Various clinicopathological parameters were recorded and analyzed (chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analysis). The mean observation period was 39.9 months. AIA manifested in 114 patients (34.8%), with peaks of onset at 4 (33.7%) and 8 months (11.4%) after starting AI administration. Some cases manifested even after 13 months. AIA tended to occur in younger patients (incidences of 46.3%, 37.4% and 28.0% for ages of 65 years, respectively (p = 0.063)) and decreased significantly with the age at menarche (53.3%, 35.3% and 15.4% for 15 years, respectively (p = 0.036)). The incidences were 45.1%, 46.3 and 25.1% for the time since the last menstrual period (LMP) 10 years, being significantly lower at > 10 years (p time since LMP > 10-year group versus the time since LMP became shorter ( 10 years since LMP. When the time since LMP was short, the onset of AIA was significantly earlier after starting AI administration.

  5. Inhibition of peripheral aromatization in baboons by an enzyme-activated aromatase inhibitor (MDL 18,962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, C.; Femino, A.; Johnston, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    The peripheral aromatization ([rho]BM) of androstenedione (A) and testosterone (T) was measured before and after administration of the aromatase inhibitor 10-(2 propynyl)estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (MDL-18,962) to five mature female baboons, Papio annubis. The measurements were made by infusing [3H]androstenedione/[14C]estrone or [3H]testosterone/[14C]estradiol for 3.5 h and collecting blood samples during the infusions and all urine for 96 h from the start of the infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for radioactivity as infused and product steroids, and the data were used to calculate MCRs. An aliquot of the pooled urine was analyzed for the glucuronides of estrone and estradiol and used to calculate the [rho]BM. MDL-18,962 was administered as a pulse in polyethylene glycol-400 (1-5 ml) either iv or via gastric tube 30 min before administration of the radiolabeled steroids. Control studies were done with and without polyethylene glycol-400 administration. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A was decreased 91.8 +/- 0.9% from the control value of 1.23 +/- 0.13% to 0.11 +/- 0.01%. At the same dose, aromatization of T was decreased 82.0 +/- 7.1%, from a control value of 0.20 +/- 0.03% to 0.037 +/- 0.018%. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at doses of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04, and 0.01 mg/kg, the values for aromatization of A were 0.16 +/- 0.03%, 0.18 +/- 0.06%, 0.37 +/- 11%, and 0.65 +/- 0.09%, respectively. The administration of MDL-18,962 via gastric tube at 4 mg/kg as a pulse decreased the aromatization of A from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.43 +/- 0.12%, an inhibition of 67.2 +/- 10.7%. When administered via gastric tube daily for 5 days at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A fell from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.063 +/- 0.003%, an inhibition of 84.4 +/- 0.5%

  6. A positive feedback pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in breast cancer cells is contained by resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Ye Lan; Leung, Lai K.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme or aromatase catalyses the rate-determining step of estrogen synthesis. The transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is highly specific in different cell types, for instance, Promoter I.3/II is commonly used for regulation in breast cancer cells. Recently, a positive feedback pathway for estrogen synthesis has been identified in ERα expressing SK-BR-3 cells. CYP19 mRNA abundance and activity are increased in this pathway and the promoter usage is switched from Promoter I.3/II to I.1 through a non-genomic process. In the present study, effect of the phytocompound resveratrol on this Promoter I.1-controlled expression of aromatase was investigated. Results indicated that resveratrol reduced the estradiol-induced mRNA abundance in SK-BR-3 cells expressing ERα. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol could also repress the transcriptional control dictated by Promoter I.1. Since the ERE-driven luciferase activity was not repressed by resveratrol, the nuclear events of estrogen were unlikely to be suppressed by resveratrol. Instead the phytochemical reduced the amount of ERK activated by estradiol, which could be the pathway responsible for Promoter I.1 transactivation and the induced CYP19 expression. The present study illustrated that resveratrol impeded the non-genomic induction of estrogen on CYP19

  7. Estrogenic effects of several BPA analogs in the developing zebrafish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eCano-Nicolau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA. The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4-day or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B, expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: 1 Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols ; 2 Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus; and 3 Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα. Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP did not show estrogenic activity in our model.

  8. Eurycomanone, the major quassinoid in Eurycoma longifolia root extract increases spermatogenesis by inhibiting the activity of phosphodiesterase and aromatase in steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bin-Seng; Choi, Sy-Bing; Abdul Wahab, Habibah; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2013-08-26

    inhibition by aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole or nifedipine at the respective steroidogenesis enzyme. The quassinoid was also non-responsive to the inhibition of oestrogen receptor by tamoxifen, but displayed improved formestane inhibition of aromatase in reducing oestrogen production. The molecular docking studies further supported that EN and formestane bound to aromatase with similar orientations and free energy binding values. Eurycomanone enhanced testosterone steroidogenesis at the Leydig cells by inhibiting aromatase conversion of testosterone to oestrogen, and at a high concentration may also involve phosphodiesterase inhibition. The quassinoid may be worthy for further development as a phytomedicine to treat testosterone-deficient idiopathic male infertility and sterility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for the prevention of bone loss in elderly and old early non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunmalm, V.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Abrahamsen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer amongst women worldwide. Bone health is emerging as an important issue for BC survivors. In this literature study, we focus on agents for preventing bone loss in early non-metastatic estrogen receptor positive BC in treatment with aromatase inhibitors...... (AI) and to assess the evidence for antiresorptive treatment of bone loss in early non-metastatic breast cancer. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's) comparing: (a) bisphosphonates and control; (b) different bisphosphonates; (c) denosumab and control and (d) bisphosphonates vs. denosumab...... in early non-metastatic BC women in AI treatment. Among antiresorptives, zoledronic acid currently has the highest evidence for prevention of AI associated bone loss in early non-metastatic BC. Data on fracture prevention among all patients, elderly and old is sparse. More randomized controlled studies...

  10. Genomic risk prediction of aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia in patients with breast cancer using a novel machine-learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbolt, Raquel E; Sonis, Stephen; Timmers, Cynthia D; Fernández-Martínez, Juan Luis; Cernea, Ana; de Andrés-Galiana, Enrique J; Hashemi, Sepehr; Miller, Karin; Pilarski, Robert; Lustberg, Maryam B

    2018-01-01

    Many breast cancer (BC) patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) develop aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia (AIA). Candidate gene studies to identify AIA risk are limited in scope. We evaluated the potential of a novel analytic algorithm (NAA) to predict AIA using germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) data obtained before treatment initiation. Systematic chart review of 700 AI-treated patients with stage I-III BC identified asymptomatic patients (n = 39) and those with clinically significant AIA resulting in AI termination or therapy switch (n = 123). Germline DNA was obtained and SNP genotyping performed using the Affymetrix UK BioBank Axiom Array to yield 695,277 SNPs. SNP clusters that most closely defined AIA risk were discovered using an NAA that sequentially combined statistical filtering and a machine-learning algorithm. NCBI PhenGenI and Ensemble databases defined gene attribution of the most discriminating SNPs. Phenotype, pathway, and ontologic analyses assessed functional and mechanistic validity. Demographics were similar in cases and controls. A cluster of 70 SNPs, correlating to 57 genes, was identified. This SNP group predicted AIA occurrence with a maximum accuracy of 75.93%. Strong associations with arthralgia, breast cancer, and estrogen phenotypes were seen in 19/57 genes (33%) and were functionally consistent. Using a NAA, we identified a 70 SNP cluster that predicted AIA risk with fair accuracy. Phenotype, functional, and pathway analysis of attributed genes was consistent with clinical phenotypes. This study is the first to link a specific SNP/gene cluster to AIA risk independent of candidate gene bias. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Markus; Kim, Wan Jong; Park, June-Woo; Murphy, Margaret B.; Villeneuve, Daniel; Coady, Katherine K.; Jones, Paul D.; Solomon, Keith R.; Kraak, Glen van der; Carr, James A.; Smith, Ernest E.; Preez, Louis du; Kendall, Ronald J.; Giesy, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 μg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 μg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), testicular aromatase activity and gonad growth expressed as the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Exposure to E2 caused significant changes both at the sub-cellular and biochemical levels. Exposure to E2 resulted in significantly fewer sperm cells, inhibition of meiotic division of germ cells, more lipid droplets that are storage compartments for the sex steroid hormone precursor cholesterol, and lesser plasma T concentrations. Although not statistically significant, frogs exposed to E2 had slightly smaller GSI values. These results may be indicative of an inhibition of gonad growth and disrupted germ cell development by E2. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were greater in frogs exposed to E2 in water. Exposure to neither concentration of atrazine caused effects on germ cell development, testicular aromatase activity or plasma hormone concentrations. These results suggest that atrazine does not affect testicular function. In contrast, exposure of male X. laevis to E2 led to sub-cellular events that are indicative of disruption of testicular development, and demasculinization processes (decrease of androgen hormone titers). These results indicate that atrazine does not cause responses that are similar to those caused by exposure to E2

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of fushi tarazu factor 1 in the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikipandla Sridevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor family 5A (NR5A which includes adrenal 4-binding protein or steroidogenic factor-1 (Ad4BP/SF-1 and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1 and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of aromatases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Present study was aimed to understand the importance of FTZ-F1 in relation to brain aromatase (cyp19a1b during development, recrudescence and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG induction. Initially, we cloned FTZ-F1 from the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus through degenerate primer RT-PCR and RACE. Its sequence analysis revealed high homology with other NR5A1 group members Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1, and also analogous to the spatial expression pattern of the latter. In order to draw functional correlation of cyp19a1b and FTZ-F1, we analyzed the expression pattern of the latter in brain during gonadal ontogeny, which revealed early expression during gonadal differentiation. The tissue distribution both at transcript and protein levels revealed its prominent expression in brain along with liver, kidney and testis. The expression pattern of brain FTZ-F1 during reproductive cycle and after hCG induction, in vivo was analogous to that of cyp19a1b shown in our earlier study indicating its involvement in recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our previous results on cyp19a1b and the present data, it is plausible to implicate potential roles for brain FTZ-F1 in ovarian differentiation and recrudescence process probably through regulation of cyp19a1b in teleosts. Nevertheless, these interactions would require primary coordinated response from ovarian aromatase and its related transcription factors.

  13. Assessment of xenoestrogens using three distinct estrogen receptors and the zebrafish brain aromatase gene in a highly responsive glial cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yann; Scholze, Martin; Kah, Olivier; Pakdel, Farzad

    2006-05-01

    The brain cytochrome P450 aromatase (Aro-B) in zebrafish is expressed in radial glial cells and is strongly stimulated by estrogens (E2); thus, it can be used in vivo as a biomarker of xenoestrogen effects on the central nervous system. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we first confirmed that the expression of Aro-B gene is robustly stimulated in juvenile zebrafish exposed to several xenoestrogens. To investigate the impact of environmental estrogenic chemicals on distinct estrogen receptor (ER) activity, we developed a glial cell-based assay using Aro-B as the target gene. To this end, the ER-negative glial cell line U251-MG was transfected with the three zebrafish ER subtypes and the Aro-B promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. E2 treatment of U251-MG glial cells cotransfected with zebrafish ER-alpha and the Aro-B promoter-luciferase reporter resulted in a 60- to 80-fold stimulation of luciferase activity. The detection limit was xenoestrogens leads to an enhancement of the estrogenic potency, even when each single agent might be present at low effect concentrations. In conclusion, we demonstrate that our bioassay provides a fast, reliable, sensitive, and efficient test for evaluating estrogenic potency of endocrine disruptors on ER subtypes in a glial context.

  14. Serum estradiol should be monitored not only during the peri-menopausal period but also the post-menopausal period at the time of aromatase inhibitor administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zembutsu Hitoshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatase inhibitor (AI therapy is being extensively used as postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer. On the other hand, it has been reported that ovarian function was restored when AI was administered to patients who had undergone chemical menopause with chemotherapy or tamoxifen. However, there have been no reports of comprehensive monitoring of estradiol (E2 in breast cancer patients with ordinary menopause who were being administered AI. Patients and Methods Beginning in March 2008, regular monitoring of the serum levels of E2, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was performed for 66 postmenopausal breast cancer patients who had been started on AI therapy. For this study, we chose anastrozole as the AI. The assays of those hormones were outsourced to a commercial clinical laboratory. Results In 4 of the 66 patients the serum E2 level was decreased at 3 months but had then increased at 6 months, while in 2 other patients E2 was decreased at both 3 and 6 months but had increased at 9 months. Conclusion The results indicate that, in some breast cancer patients with ordinary menopause, E2 rebounds following AI therapy. In the future, E2 monitoring should be performed for a larger number of patients being administered AI therapy. Trial registration Our trial registration number is 19-11-1211.

  15. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  16. Changes in the expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor α and β in mandibular condylar cartilage of rats induced by disordered occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shibin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens play an important role in modulating the morphology and function of temporomandibular joints (TMJs, which is suggested to act via estrogen receptors (ERs. The present study was to investigate the expression of aggrecan, collagen type II (Col II, Col X, aromatase, ERα and ERβ in degenerative changes of mandibular condylar cartilage. Methods Forty male and 40 female 8-week-old rats were enrolled in this study. In experimental groups, the disordered occlusion was created by moving the first molars mesially and the third ones distally. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were performed at the end of the second or fourth week. Results Degenerative changes, characterized by interrupted continuity of hypertrophic layer, pyknotic and eosinophilic lesion with few nuclei, areas filled with eosinophilic nuclei, were observed in more joints from female experimental groups than male ones. However, thickening changes in hypertrophic layer were only found in male experimental groups. The gene expression of Col II, Col X and aggrecan increased in 4-wk male experimental subgroup (both P Conclusions Mandibular condylar cartilage responses differently to the disordered occlusion in male and female rats. The levels of locally synthesized estrogen, ERα and ERβ may have limited attribution, if any, to the sex-specific cartilage response.

  17. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on steroidogenesis. The steroidogenic pathway is a series of hydroxylation and dehydrogenation steps carried out by CYP450 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, yet the only enzyme in the pathway for which a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay has been developed is aromatase (CYP19A1), responsible for the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Recently, the ToxCast HTS program adapted the OECD validated H295R steroidogenesis assay using human adrenocortical carcinoma cells into a high-throughput model to quantitatively assess the concentration-dependent (0.003-100 µM) effects of chemicals on 10 steroid hormones including progestagens, androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids. These results, in combination with two CYP19A1 inhibition assays, comprise a large dataset amenable to clustering approaches supporting the identification and characterization of putative mechanisms of action (pMOA) for steroidogenesis disruption. In total, 514 chemicals were tested in all CYP19A1 and steroidogenesis assays. 216 chemicals were identified as CYP19A1 inhibitors in at least one CYP19A1 assay. 208 of these chemicals also altered hormone levels in the H295R assay, suggesting 96% sensitivity in the

  18. Impact of the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in the prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-07-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Use of a web-based app to improve breast cancer symptom management and adherence for aromatase inhibitors: a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; McKillop, Caitlin N; Stepanski, Edward; Vidal, Gregory A; Anderson, Janeane N; Schwartzberg, Lee S

    2018-02-28

    For postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, long-term use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) significantly reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and improves survival. Still, many patients are nonadherent due to adverse side effects. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to test the use of a web-based application (app) designed with and without weekly reminders for patients to report real-time symptoms and AI use outside of clinic visits with built-in alerts to patients' oncology providers. Our goal was to improve symptom burden and medication adherence. Forty-four women with early-stage breast cancer and a new AI prescription were randomized to either an App+Reminder (weekly reminders to use app) or an App (no reminders) group. Pre- and post-assessment data were collected from all participants. Participants in the App+Reminder group had higher weekly app usage rate (74 vs. 38%, p App group compared to the App+Reminder group but did not reach statistical significance. Weekly reminders to use a web-based app to report AI adherence and treatment-related symptoms demonstrated feasibility and improved short-term AI adherence, which may reduce symptom burden for women with breast cancer and a new AI prescription. If short-term gains in adherence persist, this low-cost intervention could improve survival outcomes for women with breast cancer. A larger, long-term study should examine if AI adherence and symptom burden improvements persist for a 5-year treatment period.

  20. Effect of acupuncture on aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia in patients with breast cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lawrence; Lin, Chao-Chun; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Kuan, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yao-Hsien; Chen, Hung-Chou; Kao, Chun-Yu; Su, Chih-Ming; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-06-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-induced arthralgia (AIA) is a common side effect that may lead to premature discontinuation of effective hormonal therapy in patients with breast cancer. Acupuncture may relieve joint pain in patients with AIA. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in pain relief in AIA. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry were searched for studies published before February 2017. Individual effect sizes were standardized, and a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled effect size by using a random effect model. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at 3-4, 6-8, and 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included disability level, upper extremity function, physical performance, and quality of life. Five trials involving 181 patients were reviewed. Significant pain reduction was observed after 6-8 weeks of acupuncture treatment. Patients receiving acupuncture showed a significant decrease in the BPI worst pain score (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -3.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.15 to -2.47) and the WOMAC pain score (WMD: -130.77, 95% CI: -230.31 to -31.22) after 6-8 weeks of treatment. One of the 4 trials reported 18 minor adverse events in 8 patients during 398 intervention episodes. Acupuncture is a safe and viable nonpharmacologic treatment that may relieve joint pain in patients with AIA. Additional studies involving a higher number of RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Polymorphisms in the Long Noncoding RNA MIR2052HG Offer a Pharmacogenomic Basis for the Response of Breast Cancer Patients to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, James N; Xie, Fang; Ellis, Matthew J; Goss, Paul E; Shepherd, Lois E; Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Chen, Bingshu E; Kubo, Michiaki; Furukawa, Yoichi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Stearns, Vered; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Barman, Poulami; Carlson, Erin E; Goetz, Matthew P; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Kalari, Krishna R; Wang, Liewei

    2016-12-01

    Genetic risks in breast cancer remain only partly understood. Here, we report the results of a genome-wide association study of germline DNA from 4,658 women, including 252 women experiencing a breast cancer recurrence, who were entered on the MA.27 adjuvant trial comparing the aromatase inhibitors (AI) anastrozole and exemestane. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of top significance were identified in the gene encoding MIR2052HG, a long noncoding RNA of unknown function. Heterozygous or homozygous individuals for variant alleles exhibited a ∼40% or ∼63% decrease, respectively, in the hazard of breast cancer recurrence relative to homozygous wild-type individuals. Functional genomic studies in lymphoblastoid cell lines and ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines showed that expression from MIR2052HG and the ESR1 gene encoding estrogen receptor-α (ERα) was induced by estrogen and AI in a SNP-dependent manner. Variant SNP genotypes exhibited increased ERα binding to estrogen response elements, relative to wild-type genotypes, a pattern that was reversed by AI treatment. Further, variant SNPs were associated with lower expression of MIR2052HG and ERα. RNAi-mediated silencing of MIR2052HG in breast cancer cell lines decreased ERα expression, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent colony formation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that MIR2052HG sustained ERα levels both by promoting AKT/FOXO3-mediated ESR1 transcription and by limiting ubiquitin-mediated, proteasome-dependent degradation of ERα. Taken together, our results define MIR2052HS as a functionally polymorphic gene that affects risks of breast cancer recurrence in women treated with AI. More broadly, our results offer a pharmacogenomic basis to understand differences in the response of breast cancer patients to AI therapy. Cancer Res; 76(23); 7012-23. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Effects of transdermal testosterone gel or an aromatase inhibitor on serum concentration and pulsatility of growth hormone in older men with age-related low testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Carlson, Olga; Shardell, Michelle; Chia, Chee W; Melvin, Denise; Egan, Josephine M; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-04-01

    Growth hormone is the major regulator of growth and body composition. Pulsatile GH secretion declines exponentially with age. Testosterone replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related low testosterone. Testosterone administration has been shown to stimulate GH secretion. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone aromatization to estradiol on GH pulsatility and its impact on IGF-1 in older men. This randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial investigated the relative effects of testosterone and estradiol on GH pulsatility and IGF-1 in older men with low testosterone. Thirty-seven men, ≥65years with total testosterone testosterone gel (TT), 1mg oral aromatase inhibitor (AI) or placebo daily for 12months. Primary outcome was deconvolution and approximate entropy analyses of pulsatile including basal and entropic modes of secretion performed at baseline and 3months. Secondary outcomes included IGF-1 evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6months. At 3months, mean GH and in IGF-1 were similar between the three groups. At 6months, IGF-1 significantly increased by Δ 15.3±10.3ng/ml in the TT-group compared to placebo (P=0.03). Both intervention groups significantly increased GH pulse frequency (TT-group, P=0.04; AI-group, P=0.05) compared to placebo. The GH secretory-burst mode (duration) significantly decreased in the TT-group (P=0.0018) compared to placebo while it remained unchanged in the AI-group (P=0.059). In older men, testosterone increases GH pulse frequency while the aromatization to estradiol is involved in the rise of IGF-1 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone and Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole on Sex Reversal, Gonadal Structure, and Growth in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Qi-Xue; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Monosex populations are in demand in many fish species with sexual dimorphism, e.g., better growth performance, higher gonad value, superior ornamental value. From the point of view of research, a monosex population is one of the best materials for investigating sex-determining mechanisms, sex differentiation, and sex-linked markers. Sex reversal of females (phenotypic reversal from XX female to XX male) is the first step in all-female production in species with an XX/XY system for sex determination. In the present study, masculinization of yellow catfish, a species with XX/XY sex determination, was investigated by oral administration of various doses of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) or an aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (LZ); effects on survival, growth performance, sex ratio, and changes in gonadal structure were evaluated. Three doses (20, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) diet) of oral MT or LZ were administered to fry from 10 days post-hatching (DPH) to 59 DPH. Oral administration of MT at all doses did not significantly change the ratio of males (45.8%, 33.3%, and 50.0% respectively) compared to the control group (37.5%), while yielding intersex fish at all doses (4.2% to 8.3%). Oral administration of LZ produced a significantly higher proportion of males in all doses (75.5%, 83.3%, and 75.0%, respectively). Additionally, the lowest dose of LZ improved the growth of treated fish compared to the control, and all doses of LZ enhanced spermatogenesis in treated males. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  4. Aromatase inhibitor associated arthralgia: the importance of oncology provider-patient communication about side effects and potential management through physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F; Rini, Christine; Altpeter, Mary; Hackney, Betsy; DePue, Amy; Wilson, Anne; Schechter, Arielle; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitors (AI) often experience side effects of joint pain, stiffness, or achiness (arthralgia). This study presents findings from a qualitative study of survivors on an AI regarding their knowledge of potential joint pain side effects and how both AI side effects and their management through moderate physical activity could be discussed during routine visits with their oncology provider. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews were content analyzed for emergent themes. Descriptive statistics summarize sample characteristics. Our sample included 36 survivors, mean age of 67 (range 46-87); 86 % Caucasian and 70 % had education beyond high school. AI experience are as follows: 64 % anastrozole/Arimidex, 48 % letrozole/Femara, and 31 % exemestane/Aromasin. Participants expressed interest in having more information about potential joint pain side effects when the AI was prescribed so they could understand their joint symptoms when they appeared or intensified. They were relieved to learn that their joint symptoms were not unusual or "in their head." Participants would have been especially motivated to try walking as a way to manage their joint pain if physical activity had been recommended by their oncologist. Breast cancer survivors who are prescribed an AI as part of their adjuvant treatment want ongoing communication with their oncology provider about the potential for joint pain side effects and how these symptoms may be managed through regular physical activity. The prescription of an AI presents a "teachable moment" for oncologists to recommend and encourage their patients to engage in regular physical activity.

  5. Seasonal expression of androgen receptor, aromatase, and estrogen receptor alpha and beta in the testis of the wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal expression of androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in the wild ground squirrel (WGS testes. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature spermatozoa were identified in the breeding season (April, while spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were observed in the nonbreeding season (June, and spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were found in pre-hibernation (September. AR was present in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells and Sertoli cells in the breeding season and pre-hibernation with more intense staining in the breeding season, whereas AR was only found in Leydig cells in the nonbreeding season; P450arom was expressed in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells during the breeding season, whereas P450arom was found in Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during pre-hibernation, but P450arom was not present in the nonbreeding season; stronger immunohistochemical signal for ERα was present in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells during the breeding season; ERβ was only expressed in Leydig cells of the breeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, the mean mRNA level of AR, P450arom, ERα and ERβ were higher in the testes of the breeding season when compared to pre-hibernation and the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that the seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular recrudescence and regression process in WGSs might be correlated with expression levels of AR, P450arom and ERs, and that estrogen and androgen may play an important autocrine/paracrine role to regulate seasonal testicular function.

  6. Randomized, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Duloxetine Versus Placebo for Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Arthralgias in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: SWOG S1202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, N Lynn; Unger, Joseph M; Schott, Anne F; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Flynn, Patrick J; Prow, Debra M; Sharer, Carl W; Burton, Gary V; Kuzma, Charles S; Moseley, Anna; Lew, Danika L; Fisch, Michael J; Moinpour, Carol M; Hershman, Dawn L; Wade, James L

    2018-02-01

    Purpose Adherence to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy for early-stage breast cancer is limited by AI-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS). Duloxetine is US Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of multiple chronic pain disorders. We hypothesized that treatment of AIMSS with duloxetine would improve average joint pain compared with placebo. Methods This randomized, double-blind, phase III trial included AI-treated postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer and who had average joint pain score of ≥ 4 out of 10 that developed or worsened since AI therapy initiation. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to duloxetine or placebo for 13 weeks. The primary end point was average joint pain through 12 weeks, examined using multivariable linear mixed models, adjusted for stratification factors (baseline pain score of 4 to 6 v 7 to 10 and prior taxane use). Clinically significant change in average pain was defined as a ≥ 2-point decrease from baseline. Results Of 299 enrolled patients, 127 patients treated with duloxetine and 128 who received placebo were evaluable for the primary analysis. By 12 weeks, the average joint pain score was 0.82 points lower for patients who received duloxetine compared with those who received placebo (95% CI, -1.24 to -0.40; P = .0002). Similar patterns were observed for worst joint pain, joint stiffness, pain interference, and functioning. Rates of adverse events of any grade were higher in the duloxetine-treated group (78% v 50%); rates of grade 3 adverse events were similar. Conclusion Results of treatment with duloxetine for AIMSS were superior to those of placebo among women with early-stage breast cancer, although it resulted in more frequent low-grade toxicities.

  7. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  8. Stereochemistry of NaBH4 reduction of a 19-carbonyl group of 3-deoxy androgens. Synthesis of [19S-3H]- and [19R-3H]-labeled aromatase inhibitors having a 19-hydroxy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Sohtome, Norishige; Nagaoka, Masao

    2004-06-01

    To study the stereochemical aspects of the aromatase reaction of androst-4-en-17-one (1) and its 5-ene isomer 4, competitive inhibitors of aromatase, the [19S-(3)H]- and [19R-(3)H]-labeled 19-hydroxy derivatives 2 and 5, were synthesized through NaB(3)H(4) reduction of the corresponding 19-aldehydes 3 and 6 as a key reaction. The hitherto unknown stereochemistry of the NaB(3)H(4) reduction was established based on the deuterium-labeling experiments with NaB(2)H(4). A comparison of (1)H-NMR spectra of the NaB(2)H(4) reduction products of 19-als 3 and 6 with those of the respective authentic steroids revealed that the ratios of 19S-(2)H to 19R-(2)H were 90 : 10 for the 4-ene steroid 2 and 70 : 30 for the 5-ene isomer 5, respectively. Jones oxidation of the [19S-(2)H]19-ols, followed by the non-labeled NaBH(4) reduction, gave the corresponding [19R-(2)H]19-ols 2 and 5 (R-(2)H : S-(2)H=90 : 10 for steroid 2 and 70 : 30 for steroid 5). The stereoselectively (3)H-labeled compounds 2 and 5 were similarly obtained in these sequences.

  9. Protocol for Exercise Program in Cancer and Cognition (EPICC): A randomized controlled trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Amanda L; Erickson, Kirk I; Sereika, Susan M; Casillo, Frances E; Crisafio, Mary E; Donahue, Patrick T; Grove, George A; Marsland, Anna L; Watt, Jennifer C; Bender, Catherine M

    2018-04-01

    The Exercise Program in Cancer and Cognition (EPICC) Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cognitive function in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer during the first six months of aromatase inhibitor therapy. It is estimated that up to 75% of survivors of breast cancer experience cognitive impairment related to disease and treatment. At present, there are no known interventions to improve or manage cognitive function for women with breast cancer. Here, we describe a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with allocation of 254 postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer to a supervised six-month aerobic exercise intervention or usual care. Prior to beginning aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, participants complete baseline assessments of cognitive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood-based biomarkers, physical activity and sleep, and symptoms (fatigue, sleep problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety). A random subset of participants (n = 150) undergoes neuroimaging procedures that include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments. All participants maintain an activity diary; physical activity and sleep monitoring is repeated three and seven months post-randomization. The remaining baseline assessments are repeated seven months post-randomization. If successful, exercise could be a low-cost method to improve cognitive function in women with breast cancer that is easily adaptable to the home or community. Clinicaltrials.govNCT02793921. Registered 20 May 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  11. Vaginal Testosterone Cream vs Estradiol Vaginal Ring for Vaginal Dryness or Decreased Libido in Women Receiving Aromatase Inhibitors for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melisko, Michelle E; Goldman, Mindy E; Hwang, Jimmy; De Luca, Amy; Fang, Sally; Esserman, Laura J; Chien, Amy J; Park, John W; Rugo, Hope S

    2017-03-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are associated with significant urogenital atrophy, affecting quality of life and drug compliance. To evaluate safety of intravaginal testosterone cream (IVT) or an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring (7.5 μg/d) in patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC) receiving an AI. Intervention was considered unsafe if more than 25% of patients had persistent elevation in estradiol (E2), defined as E2 greater than 10 pg/mL (to convert to pmol/L, multiply by 3.671) and at least 10 pg/mL above baseline after treatment initiation on 2 consecutive tests at least 2 weeks apart. Postmenopausal (PM) women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive stage I to III BC taking AIs with self-reported vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, or decreased libido were randomized to 12 weeks of IVT or an estradiol vaginal ring. Estradiol was measured at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 using a commercially available liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry assay; follicle-stimulating hormone levels were measured at baseline and week 4. Gynecologic examinations and sexual quality-of-life questionnaires were completed at baseline and week 12. This randomized noncomparative design allowed safety evaluation of 2 interventions concurrently in the same population of patients, reducing the possibility of E2 assay variability over time and between the 2 interventions. The primary objective of this trial was to evaluate safety of IVT or an estradiol vaginal ring in patients with early-stage BC receiving an AI; secondary objectives included evaluation of adverse events, changes in sexual quality of life using the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System sexuality subscales, changes in vaginal atrophy using a validated 4-point scale, and comparison of E2 levels. Overall, 76 women signed consent (mean [range] age, 56 [37-78] years), 75 started treatment, and 69 completed 12 weeks of treatment. Mean (range) baseline E2 was 20 (10 pg/mL) in 28 of 76 women (37%). Persistent E2 elevation was

  12. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  13. phenanthroline complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHRANIL DE

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... complex in a unique binding motif and provide additional stability to the compound in the solid state. This iron(II) complex is able to catalyze the cleavage of aromatic C-C linkage of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid,. GA) in oxygen environment. The iron(II) complex in the presence of two equivalent ...

  14. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... androgens, including testosterone. In affected individuals, these abnormal hormone levels lead to impaired female sexual development, unusual bone growth, insulin resistance, and other signs and symptoms of ...

  16. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  18. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  19. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  1. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  2. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  3. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Alice and Bob are randomized agents. They exchange messages in order to compute a function f(x, y). We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  4. Obesity occurring in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice has mild effects on fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Dai, Pengyuan; Cheng, Dong; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Zijiang; Meng, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Fumiao; Han, Xiaoying; Liu, Jianwei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guiwen; Zhang, Cong

    2014-02-01

    The Apolipoprotein (Apo) family is implicated in lipid metabolism. There are five types of Apo: Apoa, Apob, Apoc, Apod, and Apoe. Apoe has been demonstrated to play a central role in lipoprotein metabolism and to be essential for efficient receptor-mediated plasma clearance of chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnant particles by the liver. Apoe-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice develop atherosclerotic plaques spontaneously, followed by obesity. In this study, we investigated whether lipid deposition caused by Apoe knockout affects reproduction in female mice. The results demonstrated that Apoe(-/-) mice were severely hypercholesterolemic, with their cholesterol metabolism disordered, and lipid accumulating in the ovaries causing the ovaries to be heavier compared with the WT counterparts. In addition, estrogen and progesterone decreased significantly at D 100. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that at D 100 the expression of cytochromeP450 aromatase (Cyp19a1), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd3b), mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor), and nuclear factor-κB (Nfkb) decreased significantly, while that of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (Bad) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2) increased significantly in the Apoe(-/-) mice. However, there was no difference in the fertility rates of the Apoe(-/-) and WT mice; that is, obesity induced by Apoe knockout has no significant effect on reproduction. However, the deletion of Apoe increased the number of ovarian follicles and the ratio of ovarian follicle atresia and apoptosis. We believe that this work will augment our understanding of the role of Apoe in reproduction.

  5. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  6. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  7. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  8. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Motivation . . . An abstract model to study the communicaiton required for computation. A tool for showing lower bounds in several computational models. The study often requires deep understanding of computation using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar ...

  9. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry, Xinyang 464000, 2Henan. Economy and Trade ... Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and ...

  10. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  11. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  12. Effect of ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli vaginal tablets (Gynoflor®) on inflammatory and infectious markers of the vaginal ecosystem in postmenopausal women with breast cancer on aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G; Bellen, G; Neven, P; Grob, P; Prasauskas, V; Buchholz, S; Ortmann, O

    2015-10-01

    This study was a detailed microscopic analysis of the changes of vaginal microflora characteristics after application of 0.03 mg estriol-lactobacilli combination on the vaginal ecosystem in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) survivors on aromatase inhibitors (AI) with severe atrophic vaginitis. A total of 16 BC women on AI applied daily one vaginal tablet of Gynoflor® for 28 days followed by a maintenance therapy of three tablets weekly for 8 weeks. During four follow up visits a smear from the upper lateral vaginal wall was analysed by phase contrast microscopy at 400 times magnification in order to classify the lactobacillary grades(LBG), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), proportional number of leukocytes and evidence of parabasal cells and epitheliolysis. LBG improved from 81% LBG-III at entry to 88% LBG-I&IIa after 2 weeks of initial therapy, which further improved upon follow up (p vaginal use of ultra-low dose estriol and lactobacilli results in rapid and enduring improvement of all markers of the vaginal microflora and epithelial vaginal cell quality in women with breast cancer on AI with dyspareunia. Candida may develop soon after its use, but rapidly disappears again upon their prolonged use. Due to its excellent safety profiles and clinical efficacy we recommend this product as first choice in women on AI with severe dyspareunia.

  13. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  14. Time complexity and gate complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Tatsuhiko; Okudaira, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    We formulate and investigate the simplest version of time-optimal quantum computation theory (TO-QCT), where the computation time is defined by the physical one and the Hamiltonian contains only one- and two-qubit interactions. This version of TO-QCT is also considered as optimality by sub-Riemannian geodesic length. The work has two aims: One is to develop a TO-QCT itself based on a physically natural concept of time, and the other is to pursue the possibility of using TO-QCT as a tool to estimate the complexity in conventional gate-optimal quantum computation theory (GO-QCT). In particular, we investigate to what extent is true the following statement: Time complexity is polynomial in the number of qubits if and only if gate complexity is also. In the analysis, we relate TO-QCT and optimal control theory (OCT) through fidelity-optimal computation theory (FO-QCT); FO-QCT is equivalent to TO-QCT in the limit of unit optimal fidelity, while it is formally similar to OCT. We then develop an efficient numerical scheme for FO-QCT by modifying Krotov's method in OCT, which has a monotonic convergence property. We implemented the scheme and obtained solutions of FO-QCT and of TO-QCT for the quantum Fourier transform and a unitary operator that does not have an apparent symmetry. The former has a polynomial gate complexity and the latter is expected to have an exponential one which is based on the fact that a series of generic unitary operators has an exponential gate complexity. The time complexity for the former is found to be linear in the number of qubits, which is understood naturally by the existence of an upper bound. The time complexity for the latter is exponential in the number of qubits. Thus, both the targets seem to be examples satisfyng the preceding statement. The typical characteristics of the optimal Hamiltonians are symmetry under time reversal and constancy of one-qubit operation, which are mathematically shown to hold in fairly general situations.

  15. Welding complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.K.; Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I.; Sakharnov, V.A.; Galyan, B.A.; Krivenko, V.G.; Asoyants, G.B.

    1992-10-27

    A welding complex for construction of a continuous underwater pipeline is adapted to be installed aboard a ship. The complex includes a welding machine positionable at a joint of the pipeline with a pipe section to be welded, burr-removing trimmers positionable coaxially with the pipeline for displacement relative to the pipeline in the joint area, and a support device for the end part of the pipeline. A rotatably mounted holding device for setting, holding, and retaining the pipe section to be welded, the welding machine, and the trimmers is axially aligned with the end part of the pipeline. An accumulator is provided for storing and delivering successive pipe sections at a loading position laterally offset from the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it. The holding device includes a platform movable along the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it by a resistance butt welding machine, and a plate with a means for carrying the pipe section to be welded which is mounted on a pivot carried by the platform for rotation between the loading position and the aligning position. The welding complex of the invention provides for implementing resistance butt welding in construction of continuous underwater pipelines and ensures the accuracy of alignment and permanence of the gap between the edges being welded. The welding complex's structure allows handling of longer pipe sections, thus reducing the overall number of joints to be welded. 7 figs.

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  17. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  18. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  20. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  1. Ultra-low-dose estriol and Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal tablets (Gynoflor(®)) for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors: pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy phase I clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert; Neven, Patrick; Moegele, Maximilian; Lintermans, Anneleen; Bellen, Gert; Prasauskas, Valdas; Grob, Philipp; Ortmann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Phase I pharmacokinetic (PK) study assessed circulating estrogens in breast cancer (BC) patients on a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) with vaginal atrophy using vaginal ultra-low-dose 0.03 mg estriol (E3) and Lactobacillus combination vaginal tablets (Gynoflor(®)). 16 women on NSAI with severe vaginal atrophy applied a daily vaginal tablet of Gynoflor(®) for 28 days followed by a maintenance therapy of 3 tablets weekly for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were serum concentrations and PK of E3, estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) using highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secondary outcomes were clinical measures for efficacy and side effects; microscopic changes in vaginal epithelium and microflora; and changes in serum FSH, LH, and sex hormone-binding globulin. Compared with baseline, serum E1 and E2 did not increase in any of the women at any time following vaginal application. Serum E3 transiently increased after the first application in 15 of 16 women, with a maximum of 168 pg/ml 2-3 h post-insertion. After 4 weeks, serum E3 was slightly increased in 8 women with a maximum of 44 pg/ml. The vaginal atrophy resolved or improved in all women. The product was well tolerated, and discontinuation of therapy was not observed. The low-dose 0.03 mg E3 and Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal tablets application in postmenopausal BC patients during AI treatment suffering from vaginal atrophy lead to small and transient increases in serum E3, but not E1 or E2, and therefore can be considered as safe and efficacious for treatment of atrophic vaginitis in BC patients taking NSAIs.

  2. Ki67 Proliferation Index as a Tool for Chemotherapy Decisions During and After Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1031 Trial (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew J; Suman, Vera J; Hoog, Jeremy; Goncalves, Rodrigo; Sanati, Souzan; Creighton, Chad J; DeSchryver, Katherine; Crouch, Erika; Brink, Amy; Watson, Mark; Luo, Jingqin; Tao, Yu; Barnes, Michael; Dowsett, Mitchell; Budd, G Thomas; Winer, Eric; Silverman, Paula; Esserman, Laura; Carey, Lisa; Ma, Cynthia X; Unzeitig, Gary; Pluard, Timothy; Whitworth, Pat; Babiera, Gildy; Guenther, J Michael; Dayao, Zoneddy; Ota, David; Leitch, Marilyn; Olson, John A; Allred, D Craig; Hunt, Kelly

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in estrogen receptor (ER) -positive primary breast cancer triaged to chemotherapy when the protein encoded by the MKI67 gene (Ki67) level was > 10% after 2 to 4 weeks of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. A second objective was to examine risk of relapse using the Ki67-based Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI). Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1031A trial enrolled postmenopausal women with stage II or III ER-positive (Allred score, 6 to 8) breast cancer whose treatment was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant AI therapy with anastrozole, exemestane, or letrozole. For the trial ACOSOG Z1031B, the protocol was amended to include a tumor Ki67 determination after 2 to 4 weeks of AI. If the Ki67 was > 10%, patients were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A pCR rate of > 20% was the predefined efficacy threshold. In patients who completed neoadjuvant AI, stratified Cox modeling was used to assess whether time to recurrence differed by PEPI = 0 score (T1 or T2, N0, Ki67 2) versus PEPI > 0 disease. Results Only two of the 35 patients in ACOSOG Z1031B who were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy experienced a pCR (5.7%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 19.1%). After 5.5 years of median follow-up, four (3.7%) of the 109 patients with a PEPI = 0 score relapsed versus 49 (14.4%) of 341 of patients with PEPI > 0 (recurrence hazard ratio [PEPI = 0 v PEPI > 0], 0.27; P = .014; 95% CI, 0.092 to 0.764). Conclusion Chemotherapy efficacy was lower than expected in ER-positive tumors exhibiting AI-resistant proliferation. The optimal therapy for these patients should be further investigated. For patients with PEPI = 0 disease, the relapse risk over 5 years was only 3.6% without chemotherapy, supporting the study of adjuvant endocrine monotherapy in this group. These Ki67 and PEPI triage approaches are being definitively studied in the ALTERNATE trial (Alternate Approaches for

  3. Management of Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Bone Loss (AIBL) in postmenopausal women with hormone sensitive breast cancer: Joint position statement of the IOF, CABS, ECTS, IEG, ESCEO IMS, and SIOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, Peyman; Aapro, Matti S; Body, Jean-Jacques; Gnant, Michael; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Reginster, Jean Yves; Zillikens, M Carola; Glüer, Claus-C; de Villiers, Tobie; Baber, Rod; Roodman, G David; Cooper, Cyrus; Langdahl, Bente; Palacios, Santiago; Kanis, John; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Nogues, Xavier; Eriksen, Erik Fink; Kurth, Andreas; Rizzoli, Rene; Coleman, Robert E

    2017-06-01

    Several guidelines have been reported for bone-directed treatment in women with early breast cancer (EBC) for averting fractures, particularly during aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Recently, a number of studies on additional fracture related risk factors, new treatment options as well as real world studies demonstrating a much higher fracture rate than suggested by randomized clinical controlled trials (RCTs). Therefore, this updated algorithm was developed to better assess fracture risk and direct treatment as a position statement of several interdisciplinary cancer and bone societies involved in the management of AI-associated bone loss (AIBL). A systematic literature review identified recent advances in the management of AIBL. Results with individual agents were assessed based on trial design, size, follow-up, and safety. Several fracture related risk factors in patients with EBC were identified. Although, the FRAX algorithm includes fracture risk factors (RF) in addition to BMD, it does not seem to adequately address the effects of AIBL. Several antiresorptive agents can prevent and treat AIBL. However, concerns regarding compliance and long-term safety remain. Overall, the evidence for fracture prevention is strongest for denosumab 60 mg s.c. every 6 months. Additionally, recent studies as well as an individual patient data meta-analysis of all available randomized trial data support additional anticancer benefits from adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal women with a 34% relative risk reduction in bone metastasis and 17% relative risk decrease in breast cancer mortality that needs to be taken into account when advising on management of AIBL. In all patients initiating AI treatment, fracture risk should be assessed and recommendation with regard to exercise and calcium/vitamin D supplementation given. Bone-directed therapy should be given to all patients with a T-score-1.5 SD and no risk factors should be managed based on BMD loss during

  4. Androgen Triggers the Pro-Migratory CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis in AR-Positive Breast Cancer Cell Lines: Underlying Mechanism and Possible Implications for the Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Azariadis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Reports regarding the role of androgen in breast cancer (BC are conflicting. Some studies suggest that androgen could lead to undesirable responses in the presence of certain BC tumor characteristics. We have shown that androgen induces C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12 in BC cell lines. Our aim was to identify the mechanisms regulating the phenotypic effects of androgen-induced CXCL12 on Androgen Receptor (AR positive BC cell lines. Methods: We analyzed the expression of CXCL12 and its receptors with qPCR and ELISA and the role of Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1 (NCOA1 in this effect. AR effects on the CXCL12 promoter was studied via Chromatin-immunoprecipitation. We also analyzed publically available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to verify AR-CXCL12 interactions and to identify the effect or Aromatase Inhibitors (AI therapy on CXCL12 expression and disease progression in AR positive cases. Results: CXCL12 induction occurs only in AR-positive BC cell lines, possibly via an Androgen Response Element, upstream of the CXCL12 promoter. The steroid receptor co-regulator NCOA1 is critical for this effect. Androgen only induced the motility of p53-mutant BC cells T47D cells via upregulation of CXCR4 expression while they had no effect on wild-type p53 MCF-7 cells. Loss of CXCR4 expression and depletion of CXCL12 abolished the effect of androgen in T47D cells while inhibition of p53 expression in MCF-7 cells made them responsive to androgen and increased their motility in the presence to androgen. Patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+/AR+ BC treated with AIs were at increased risk of disease progression compared to ER+/AR+ non-AI treated and ER+/AR- AI treated cases. Conclusion: AIs may lead to unfavorable responses in some ER/AR positive BC cases, especially in patients with AR+, p53 mutant tumors.

  5. Androgen Receptor Repeat Length Polymorphism Associated with Male-to-Female Transsexualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Lauren; Bernard, Pascal; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Baird, Paul N.; Vilain, Eric; Kennedy, Trudy; Harley, Vincent R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a likely genetic component to transsexualism, and genes involved in sex steroidogenesis are good candidates. We explored the specific hypothesis that male-to-female transsexualism is associated with gene variants responsible for undermasculinization and/or feminization. Specifically, we assessed the role of disease-associated repeat length polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and aromatase (CYP19) genes. Methods Subject-control analysis included 112 male-to-female transsexuals and 258 non-transsexual males. Associations and interactions were investigated between CAG repeat length in the AR gene, CA repeat length in the ERβ gene, and TTTA repeat length in the CYP19 gene and male-to-female transsexualism. Results A significant association was identified between transsexualism and the AR allele, with transsexuals having longer AR repeat lengths than non-transsexual male control subjects (p = .04). No associations for transsexualism were evident in repeat lengths for CYP19 or ERβ genes. Individuals were then classified as short or long for each gene polymorphism on the basis of control median polymorphism lengths in order to further elucidate possible combined effects. No interaction associations between the three genes and transsexualism were identified. Conclusions This study provides evidence that male gender identity might be partly mediated through the androgen receptor. PMID:18962445

  6. Hormonal influences in prostate cancer: an update of a complex subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biundo, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacists who are involved with patients and physicians have a tremendous opportunity to serve in the realm of prostate cancer, and there are numerous compounding opportunities. For example, compounded testosterone gels can help keep testosterone levels in the mid to upper range with proper dosing and patient counseling. Also, estradiol levels can be held in check or lowered by compounding aromatase-inhibitors such as anastrazole or letrazole into the lower doses that men require, rather than their more potent versions for female patients. Nutraceuticals such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, zinc, and selenium all play an important role in prostate health, as these agents have 5a-reductase inhibiting and anti-inflammatory properties. More than anything else, we see that the pathophysiology of prostate cancer, although quite complex, is being explored at an amazing rate. The author believes that hormonal balance is critical, and that it is largely hormonal imbalance that is involved in prostate disease. In that regard, the author concludes that the levels of testosterone, estradiol, and drotestosterone, experienced at a more youthful age are vital if we are to improve prostate health.

  7. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  8. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  9. Developmental programming: prenatal steroid excess disrupts key members of intraovarian steroidogenic pathway in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Salvetti, Natalia R; Matiller, Valentina; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases circulating estradiol levels as well as follicular recruitment and persistence culminating in multifollicular ovary similar to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We tested whether prenatal T excess, by androgenic or estrogenic action, disrupts the steroid biosynthetic machinery in sheep in a cell-, follicle stage-, age-, and treatment-specific manner consistent with the ovarian disruptions and increased estradiol release. Impact of T/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatments from days 30-90 of gestation on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 17α-hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase (CYP17A1), and cytochrome P-450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined on fetal day 90, 140 and 10 months (postpubertal), and 21 months (adult, no DHT group) of age by immunohistochemistry. All 4 markers changed in a cell-, follicle stage-, and age-specific manner. Both treatments increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in preantral follicles of postpubertal and adult females. Effects of prenatal T and DHT on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase differed in a follicle- and age-specific manner. CYP17A1 was reduced in the theca interna of antral follicles by T, but not DHT, in 10- and 21-month-old females. CYP19A1 was reduced by both T and DHT at all ages barring an increase on fetal day 140. Reduced granulosa CYP19A1 and thecal CYP17A1 in adults likely disrupt the intrafollicular androgen/estrogen balance contributing to follicular persistence. The reduced thecal CYP17A1 expression suggests that the hyperandrogenic ovarian phenotype may originate from increased enzyme activity or alternatively via a different isoform of CYP17. The reduced CYP19A1 in antral follicles of adults indicates that the increased circulating estradiol release likely arises from the increased number of persisting follicles.

  10. Effects of single and repeated in vitro exposure of three forms of parabens, methyl-, butyl- and propylparabens on the proliferation and estradiol secretion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Ł

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the dose- (0.2, 2, 20, 200 nM or 2 μM) and time- (48, 96, 144 and 196 h) dependent activity of a single or repeated exposure of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben on the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells. Additionally, the effect on estradiol secretion, gene and protein expression of aromatase (CYP19A1) was investigated. Cell proliferation was determined by AlamarBlue assay, and estradiol secretion by ELISA kits. Gene and protein expression of CYP19A1 was measurement using real time PCR and western blot, respectively. Stimulatory effect of a single exposure of all doses of tested parabens and time dependent effect of repeated exposure to methylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, the same as that of 17β-estradiol, on proliferation of MCF-7 cells was observed. Only at low doses methyl- and butylparabens increased MCF-10A cells proliferation after single exposure, but no effect of repeated exposure was noted. Exposure at low doses of all of the parabens significantly increased 17β-estradiol (E2) secretion in MCF-7 cells but had the opposite effect on MCF-10A cells. It was correlated with gene and protein expression of CYP19A1 in MCF-7 and MCF-10 cells. In summary, present study indicates a different mechanism of proliferative action of parabens in investigated cell lines. In MCF-7 breast cancer cell line it is probably due to stimulatory action on estradiol secretion and aromatase activity. In MCF-10A by an unknown mechanism, independent on stimulatory action on estradiol section, which requires further investigation.

  11. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  12. Genetic variants of estrogen beta and leptin receptors may cause gynecomastia in adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Erdal; Edgunlu, Tuba; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Cakir, Esra Deniz Papatya; Demir, Korcan; Cetin, Esin Sakalli; Celik, Sevim Karakas

    2014-05-15

    Gynecomastia is a benign breast enlargement in males that affects approximately one-third of adolescents. The exact mechanism is not fully understood; however, it has been proposed that estrogen receptors and aromatase enzyme activity may play important roles in the pathogenesis of gynecomastia. While many studies have reported that aromatase enzyme (CYP19) gene polymorphism is associated with gynecomastia, only one study has shown a relationship between estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta gene polymorphism and gynecomastia. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between CYP19 (rs2414096), ER alpha (rs2234693), ER beta (rs4986938), leptin (rs7799039), and leptin receptor (rs1137101) gene polymorphisms and gynecomastia. This study included 107 male adolescents with gynecomastia and 97 controls. Total serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured, and DNA was extracted from whole blood using the PCR-RFLP technique. The polymorphic distributions of CYP19, ER alpha, ER beta, leptin and leptin receptor genes were compared. The median E2 level was 12.41 (5.00-65.40) pg/ml in the control group and 16.86 (2.58-78.47) pg/ml in the study group (pgynecomastia and leptin receptor rs1137101 (p=0.002) and ER beta receptor rs4986938 gene polymorphisms (p=0.002). According to our results, increased E2 level and ER beta gene rs4986938 polymorphism might explain why some adolescents have gynecomastia. Leptin receptor gene rs1137101 polymorphism might affect susceptibility to gynecomastia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Mitochondrial Complex(Ity of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. Urra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence highlights that the cancer cell energy requirements vary greatly from normal cells and that cancer cells exhibit different metabolic phenotypes with variable participation of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and contributes about 40% of the proton motive force required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. In addition, Complex I plays an essential role in biosynthesis and redox control during proliferation, resistance to cell death, and metastasis of cancer cells. Although knowledge about the structure and assembly of Complex I is increasing, information about the role of Complex I subunits in tumorigenesis is scarce and contradictory. Several small molecule inhibitors of Complex I have been described as selective anticancer agents; however, pharmacologic and genetic interventions on Complex I have also shown pro-tumorigenic actions, involving different cellular signaling. Here, we discuss the role of Complex I in tumorigenesis, focusing on the specific participation of Complex I subunits in proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells.

  14. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Alexander S.; Thackray, Varykina G.; Ryan, Genevieve E.; Tolson, Kristen P.; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Semaan, Sheila J.; Poling, Matthew C.; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition. PMID:26203175

  15. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  16. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  17. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  18. Genes involved in sex determination and the influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review attempts to group the recent hypotheses involved in the complex system of determination and sex differentiation in fish. Based on recent literature, we relate the key genes involved in the genomic cascade as the Cyp19, Dmrt1, Sox9, Foxl2, Esr, Dax1, Sf1 and Amh1, and still little known action of temperature on ...

  19. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  20. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO ... INTERACTION PROBLEMS THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused ...

  1. Complex sulfides and thiosalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Different types of the structures of complex sulfides, thiosalts of alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, transition and actinide metals are considered in the review of the papers published before 1980 and devoted to the crystal structure of complex sulfides

  2. Holograms as complex media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-08-01

    Complex media can be grown, found in nature, or manufactured.. Holography is one way of fabricating such media. Here I review some examples of holographically manufactured complex media and speculate about some that could be made.

  3. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  4. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert

    1993-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  5. Complex fuzzy soft multisets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abd Ulazeez M.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we combine two definitions, namely fuzzy soft multiset and complex fuzzy set to construct the definition of a complex fuzzy soft multiset and study its properties. In other words, we study the extension of a fuzzy soft multiset from real numbers to complex numbers. We also introduce its basic operations, namely complement, union and intersection. Some examples are given.

  6. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  7. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  8. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  9. Avoiding Simplicity Is Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Eric

    It is a trivial observation that every decidable set has strings of length n with Kolmogorov complexity logn + O(1) if it has any strings of length n at all. Things become much more interesting when one asks whether a similar property holds when one considers resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. This is the question considered here: Can a feasible set A avoid accepting strings of low resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, while still accepting some (or many) strings of length n?

  10. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  11. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  12. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  13. The relevance of chemical interactions with CYP17 enzyme activity: Assessment using a novel in vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Maarke J.E., E-mail: m.j.e.roelofs@uu.nl [Endocrine Toxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Endocrine Toxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Berg, Martin van den; Duursen, Majorie B.M. van [Endocrine Toxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    The steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is the most abundant circulating endogenous sex steroid precursor. DHEA plays a key role in e.g. sexual functioning and development. To date, no rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available. In this study, a novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. Effects of twenty-eight suggested endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on CYP17 activity were compared with effects in the US EPA validated H295R (human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line) steroidogenesis assay. In the PACM assay DHEA production was higher compared with the H295R assay (4.4 versus 2.2 nmol/h/mg protein). To determine the additional value of a CYP17 assay, all compounds were also tested for interaction with CYP19 (aromatase) using human placental microsomes (HPMs) and H295R cells. 62.5% of the compounds showed enzyme inhibition in at least one of the microsomal assays. Only the cAMP inducer forskolin induced CYP17 activity, while CYP19 was induced by four test compounds in the H295R assay. These effects remained unnoticed in the PACM and HPM assays. Diethylstilbestrol and tetrabromobisphenol A inhibited CYP17 but not CYP19 activity, indicating different mechanisms for the inhibition of these enzymes. From our results it becomes apparent that CYP17 can be a target for EDCs and that this interaction differs from interactions with CYP19. Our data strongly suggest that research attention should focus on validating a specific assay for CYP17 activity, such as the PACM assay, that can be included in the EDC screening battery. - Highlights: ► DHEA, produced by CYP17, plays a key role in sexual functioning and development. ► No rapid screening assay for effects on CYP17 is available yet. ► A novel assay using porcine adrenal cortex microsomes (PACMs) was described. ► Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) targeting CYP17 interact differently with CYP19. ► A

  14. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  15. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  16. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    HL3, HL4 and HL5) respectively. These ligands are already reported as good donors for Mo(VI) state. The μ-oxo Mo(V) complexes reported here bears a distorted octahedral geometry around each Mo atom with either N2O2Cl or N2O2Br chromophores. Fine variations in the spectroscopic behaviour of the complexes.

  17. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  18. Complex Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Disruptive Basic Research Areas” – Metamaterials and Plasmonics – Quantum Information Science – Cognitive Neuroscience – Nanoscience and...function Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes Complex engineered materials and devices Devices based on quantum phenomena...fundamental quantum processes Quantum Electronic Solids (Weinstock) Photonics and Optoelectronics (Pomrenke) GHz-THz Electronics (Hwang) Natural

  19. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  20. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  1. Genetics of complex disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kere, Juha

    2010-05-21

    The success stories of identifying genes in Mendelian disorders have stimulated research that aims at identifying the genetic determinants in complex disorders, in which both genetics, environment and chance affect the pathogenetic processes. This review summarizes the brief history and lessons learned from genetic analysis of complex disorders and outlines some landscapes ahead for medical research. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is as if the stage is cleared from time to time to make for fresh beginnings, with major bouts of extinction. Humans are amongst the most complex products of evolution having in turn populated the world with ever growing numbers of complex artefacts. These artefacts are now threatening to overwhelm the diversity of life.

  3. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing ...

  4. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    complexes are not so common in literature. Because of a tendency of Mo(V) species to form oxo- ... enzymes such as DMSO reductase are common in microbial systems and are mononuclear in nature. 11 ..... ligands with centroid to centroid distances of 3⋅52 Å. 4. Conclusion. Ten new Mo(V) complexes are prepared which ...

  5. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  6. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  7. Quantum Entropy and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Oskouei, S. Khabbazi; Abad, A. Shafiei Deh

    We study the relations between the recently proposed machine-independent quantum complexity of P. Gacs [1] and the entropy of classical and quantum systems. On one hand, by restricting Gacs complexity to ergodic classical dynamical systems, we retrieve the equality between the Kolmogorov complexity rate and the Shannon entropy rate derived by A. A. Brudno [2]. On the other hand, using the quantum Shannon-McMillan theorem [3], we show that such an equality holds densely in the case of ergodic quantum spin chains.

  8. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  9. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  10. Complexity from the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Herbert Simon proposed that complexity is an emergent property that can result from the interaction of a simple mechanism within a complex environment. The Kielder context exhibits continual variation across many time scales and offers a rich resource for exploring the notions of novelty, variety......, specificity and complexity. By considering the design process as a continual iterative cycle in which the digital and analogue are closely coupled, we might imagine a construct that continually redefines itself in relation to its context, attempting to become increasingly specific to location and purpose over...

  11. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  12. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  13. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  14. Bitter Sweetness of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. K.; Wagener, C.

    Glycosylation of proteins, lipids and mucins has gained increasing complexity in the course of evolution. Metazoans and mammals exhibit extensively exploited pathways of N-glycan biosynthesis, with unique features that are not found in plants or protozoans.

  15. complexes of Ciprofloxacin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    2002). Magnesium, Calcium and Barium Percholate complexes of ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin. Acta. Chim. Slov. 49: 457-466. Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB (1993). Effects of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on ...

  16. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  17. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  18. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  19. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  20. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)

  1. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    the thesis that the aforesaid holds a fortiori for the living cell: Much of the essence of the live state depends more on the manner in which the molecules are organised than on the properties of single molecules. This is due to the phenomenon of 'Complexity'. BioComplexity is defined here as the phenomenon...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... with metabolic control analysis. Subsequently, the complexity of the control of the energy metabolism of E. coli will be analysed in detail. New control theorems will be derived for newly defined control coefficients. It will become transparent that molecular genetic experimentation will allow one to penetrate...

  2. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  3. An erupted complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  4. Complexity and Safety (FAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by...their error propagation potentials are Enable use of complexity as an indicator of risk , to be tracked using standard techniques Future research...into “How much can we discount the complexity of a system given that X% has been used before?” can be framed as “ credit for precedence” and ties to

  5. Simulation with complex measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Griffin, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of statistical and quantum systems suffers from the sign problem when the generating function measures are indefinite or are complex, such as lattice quantum chromodynamics with finite temperature and density and chiral gauge theory. A new approach is proposed which yields statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo using absolute values of the original measures. The one-dimensional complex-coupling Ising model is employed as an illustration. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  7. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  8. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  9. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: renz@acd.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  10. Organotin complexes with phosphines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B. de F.T.; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Abras, A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of organotin complexes was prepared involving phosphines bonded to the organotin moiety. The series include derivatives of SnCl x Ph 4-x (where x varied from zero to four with the phosphines Ph 3 P, (Ph 2 P)CH 2 , (Ph 2 P) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 , cis-(Ph 2 P)CH 2 , and CH 3 C(CH 2 PPh 2 ) 3 . A host of new complexes was obtained, showing different stoichiometries, bonding modes, and coordination numbers around the tin atom. These complexes were characterized by several different chemical and physical methods. The 119 Sn Moessbauer parameters varied differently. Whereas isomer shift values did not great variation for each group of complexs with the same organotin parent (SnCl x Ph 4-x ), reflecting a small change in s charge distribution on the Sn atom upon complexation, quadrupole splitting results varied widely, however, when the parent organotin compound was wholly symmetric (SnCl 4 and SnPPh 4 ), the complexes also tended to show quadrupole splitting values approaching zero. (author)

  11. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  12. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudis, C.

    1982-01-01

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  13. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  14. Complexes and imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  16. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  17. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  18. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  19. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  20. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  1. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  2. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  3. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    . This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total......The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  4. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  5. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  6. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... performance, engage with high degrees of interdependency and allow the emergence of design agency and feedback between the multiple scales of architectural construction. This paper presents examples for integrated design simulation from a series of projects including Lace Wall, A Bridge Too Far and Inflated...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  7. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  8. Entropy, Search, Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Katona, Gyula O H; Tardos, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding. The volume is recommended to experienced researchers as well as young scientists and students both in mathematics and computer science

  9. Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2006-08-25

    Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)

  10. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  11. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  12. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  13. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  14. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  15. Humic acid protein complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  16. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  17. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  18. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  19. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  20. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  1. Real and complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Apelian, Christopher; Taft, Earl; Nashed, Zuhair

    2009-01-01

    The Spaces R, Rk, and CThe Real Numbers RThe Real Spaces RkThe Complex Numbers CPoint-Set Topology Bounded SetsClassification of Points Open and Closed SetsNested Intervals and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Compactness and Connectedness Limits and Convergence Definitions and First Properties Convergence Results for SequencesTopological Results for Sequences Properties of Infinite SeriesManipulations of Series in RFunctions: Definitions and Limits DefinitionsFunctions as MappingsSome Elementary Complex FunctionsLimits of FunctionsFunctions: Continuity and Convergence Continuity Uniform Continuity Sequences and Series of FunctionsThe DerivativeThe Derivative for f: D1 → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RpThe Derivative for f: D → CThe Inverse and Implicit Function TheoremsReal IntegrationThe Integral of f: [a, b] → RProperties of the Riemann Integral Further Development of Integration TheoryVector-Valued and Line IntegralsComplex IntegrationIntroduction to Complex Integrals Fu...

  2. Nitrido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Abram, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this report synthesis, characterization and chemical behaviour of coordination compounds of the element technetium are reported containing a geminal nitrogen ligand. In addition, an evaluation of the in-vitro behaviour of the complexes is given as well as a list of all literature to this matter. (author)

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 40. It is uncommon in children and rare in the elderly. How is complex regional pain syndrome diagnosed? Your ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family ... Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End- ...

  4. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell protein...

  5. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CO. –. 2 radi- cals with [Co(III)(phendione)2Cl2]Cl (complex) have been studied by electron pulse radiolysis. Time resolved transient absorption spectra for all the four species show two peaks which match with those of phendione anion radical produced by the reaction of e. – aq with phendione. However, there are some ...

  6. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Life Complexity and Diversity Whither Diversity. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 17-25. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/12/0017-0025 ...

  7. Smoothed Complexity Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo

    Smoothed analysis is a new way of analyzing algorithms introduced by Spielman and Teng. Classical methods like worst-case or average-case analysis have accompanying complexity classes, such as P and Avg-P, respectively. Whereas worst-case or average-case analysis give us a means to talk about the

  8. Entropy and Kolmogorov complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriakov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to studying the theory of entropy and its relation to the Kolmogorov complexity. Originating in physics, the notion of entropy was introduced to mathematics by C. E. Shannon as a way of measuring the rate at which information is coming from a data source. There are, however,

  9. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  10. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  11. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast

  12. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  13. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  14. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  15. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society and t...

  16. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  17. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  18. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  19. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  20. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  1. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy vir...

  2. Energy momentum complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.

    2010-09-15

    We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)

  3. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ecoline-RE 104 thermostat. FT- .... refluxed for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The result- ing oil was grinded with n-hexane to extract impurities, ... diethyl ether into a solution of the metal complex in dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature ...

  4. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  5. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2017-04-12

    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  6. Accessibility in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  7. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  8. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research, Bangalore. His fascination for the .... largest being an egg of the ostrich, largely loaded with stored food. So, to achieve larger sizes .... viruses and fungi. Packing Species. The diversity of living organisms has exploded, hand in hand with the evolving complexity of their interactions in communi- ties. In the dance ...

  9. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1215-9. REGULAR ARTICLE. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and DNA-binding study of four cadmium(II) ...... be due to the presence of four non-planar ligand moi- eties in complexes (1), which probably play a key role to interact with DNA in electrostatic/covalent binding mode. 4.

  10. Query complexity in expectation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, T.; de Wolf, R.; Halldórsson, M.M.; Iwama, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Speckmann, B.

    2015-01-01

    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}n→R+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum

  11. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  12. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  13. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Life : Complexity and Diversity Growing Larger. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 15-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/04/0015-0022 ...

  14. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ln(III) complexes are also expected to be non-toxic in dark owing to the redox stability of the Ln(III) ions thus making them suitable for cellular applications in the presence of reducing cellular glutathione. The presence of heavy lanthanide metal is likely to facilitate the ISC due to heavy atom effect thereby contributing to the ...

  15. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, a short ring interaction between thiophene S1 and pyri- dine N1 of a symmetry related complex (centroid-to- centroid distance = 3.707(4) Ε; dihedral angle between planes = 2.3(3) ..... Changes in the Histology of Kidneys in Common Carp,. Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58 456. 10.

  16. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...

  17. Hormonal imbalance in two types of endometrial cancer and genetic polymorphism of steroidogenic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev; Zimarina, Tatjana; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Kovalevskij, Anatolij; Maximov, Sergei; Pujol, Pascal; Thijssen, Jos

    2006-07-20

    Modern data on endometrial cancer (EC) incidence demonstrate that it is one of the most prevalent gynecologic malignancies. It is possible that some allelic polymorphisms of the genes involved in steroidogenesis or steroid metabolism differently contribute into susceptibility to described types of this disease, namely to type I (which is considered to be hormone dependent) and type II. Distribution of allelic polymorphisms of CYP17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), CYP19 (aromatase), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and CYP1B1 (primarily, estrogen 4-hydroxylase) genes was compared totally in 156 endometrial cancer patients, approximately two-third of who belonged (on the basis of case history and some characteristics of host and tumor) to type I of the disease, and one-third to type II. Blood leukocytes were used as source of normal DNA for PCR-genotyping. No differences were found in distribution of CYP17 and CYP1B1 genotypes between patients belonging to type I or II of the disease. On the other side, in case of CYP19, the ratio of incidence of A6A6 genotype to the frequency of A1A6 and A3A6 genotypes was higher in type II patients (1.0) than in type I patients (0.3). Besides, incidence of high activity (HH) COMT genotype was higher among patients with type I of disease than in patients with type II of it (33.3% versus 14.7%, OR=2.9, z=1.96, p=0.05) revealing tendency to the lower inactivation of catecholestrogens in the latter group. It may be suggested that more aggressive clinically and frequently receptor-negative type II of endometrial cancer is associated with indirect signs of mainly intratumoral hyperproduction of estrogens (excess of CYP19 A6A6 genotype) without their sufficient inactivation into methoxyderivatives that warrants further study.

  18. Seasonal expression of arginine vasotocin mRNA and its correlations to gonadal steroidogenic enzymes and sexually dimorphic coloration during sex reversal in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tomassini, José J; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-06-01

    Arginine vasotocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus of teleost fish that has been shown to regulate gonad development and sexual behavior. To study the role of arginine vasotocin in the gonadal cycle of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, we cloned the seabream arginine vasotocin (avt) complementary DNA (cDNA). We investigated the expression of brain avt throughout the gonad cycle using real-time quantitative PCR and compared its expression levels to the expression levels of two key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes, cyp19a1a and cyp11b2. In July, when the process of sex reversal is thought to begin, avt expression was elevated over the previous 2 months. Avt in the brain remained at or above the level of July until November then peaked again in December. There was no difference between males and females in the expression levels of brain avt throughout the year. However, only in ambisexual fish was the expression of the cyp19a1a gonadal aromatase correlated to the expression of avt in the brain. Cyp11b2 did not show any correlation to brain avt expression. We also found that females had more intense body coloration than males and that this intensity peaked prior to spawning. Avt expression and female coloration were positively correlated. The fact that brain avt expression was lowest during gonad quiescence, together with the observation of a correlation between brain avt with gonadal cyp19a1a and body coloration during that time suggests that avt may play a role during the process of sex reversal and spawning of the gilthead seabream.

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis perturbation in the basis of bisphenol A (BPA) reproductive toxicity in female zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ana; Abril, Nieves; Morales-Prieto, Noelia; Monterde, José; Ayala, Nahúm; Lora, Antonio; Moyano, Rosario

    2018-03-14

    Thousands of safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. In recent years, BPA exposure has been shown to cause anovulation and infertility through irreversible alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in several organisms, including fish and mammals. Recently, the European Chemical Agency classified BPA as a "substance of very high concern" because of its endocrine-disrupting properties, which have serious effects on human health. Given the risk of exposure to BPA as a pollutant in the environment, food, and drinking water, the objective of our study was to assess the effects of this compound on the adeno-hypophysis by means of a histopathological and morphometric study of the gonadotroph cells. In addition, using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, we analyzed the changes in the expression of Cyp19b (an aromatase gene). Zebrafish were randomly distributed into five groups: a control group and 4 treated groups which were exposed to different BPA concentrations (1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/L). The effects of the different doses on Cyp19b mRNA molecules followed a non-monotonic curve, with the 1 and 1000 µg/L doses causing dramatic decreases in the number of Cyp19b transcripts while the doses of 10 and 100 µg/L caused important increases. The consequences might be deregulation of gonadotropic hormones causing degeneration of gonadotropic cells, as observed in BPA treated animals. This is the first study in which the gonadotroph cells have been evaluated using histomorphological endpoints after BPA exposure in zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  1. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  2. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  3. Complexes Tickling the $ubject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.

  4. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  5. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  6. On complex functions analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Karavashkin, S B

    2002-01-01

    We analyse here the conventional definitions of analyticity and differentiability of functions of complex variable. We reveal the possibility to extend the conditions of analyticity and differentiability to the functions implementing the non-conformal mapping. On this basis we formulate more general definitions of analyticity and differentiability covering those conventional. We present some examples of such functions. By the example of a horizontal belt on a plane Z mapped non-conformally onto a crater-like harmonic vortex, we study the pattern of trajectory variation of a body motion in such field in case of field power function varying in time. We present the technique to solve the problems of such type with the help of dynamical functions of complex variable implementing the analytical non-conformal mapping

  7. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...... polarization model of porous media in terms of relationship between the quadrature conductivity and the surface conductivity. We also investigate the relationship between the normalized chargeability (the difference of in phase conductivity between two frequencies) and the quadrature conductivity...

  8. Operational Shock Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US Army War College, July...Lens of Complexity Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” (Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US...planners managed to cause confusion in the enemy’s internal model by operating in an unexpected manner. 140 Glenn E. James, “Chaos Theory : The

  9. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  10. Modeling Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberg, M

    2004-01-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as 'complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a comprehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this 'wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany-Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success! (book review)

  11. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  12. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  13. COMPLEX QUERY AND METADATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Omori, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a search system DAISEn which integrates multiple search engines and generates a metasearch engine automatically. The target search engines of DAISEn are not general search engines, but are search engines specialized in some area. Integration of such engines yields efficiency and quality. There are search engines of new type which accept complex query and return structured data. Integration of such search engines is much harder than that of simple search engines which accept ...

  14. Volatile uranyl hexafluoroacetoacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dines, M.B.; Hall, R.B.; Kaldor, A.; Kramer, G.M.; Maas, E.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A composition of matter is described, characterized by the formula UO 2 (CF 3 COCHCOCF 3 ).L where L is a ligand selected from isopropanol, ethanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, dimethylformamide, n-propanol and ethyl acetate. A process for producing the complex comprises reacting uranyl chloride with a hexafluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in a ligand L: experimental details are given. (U.K.)

  15. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  16. Complexity of the Ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics. It p....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....

  17. The Complexity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fundamental challenge for the millennial genera- tion. Complexity, it appears, is all the rage. We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not...pan- opticism: surveillance creates “a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.”38 States do not...Oxford University Press, 1997), 124-125. 20. Ibid., 4, 246, 252. 21. Richard Price and Nina Tannenwald, “Norms and Deterrence: The Nuclear and Chemical

  18. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  19. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  20. The Emparassment of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...