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Sample records for aroma therapy

  1. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  2. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  3. Poikilodermatous changes on the forearms of a woman practicing aroma-therapy: extracervical poikiloderma of Civatte? *

    OpenAIRE

    Katoulis, Alexandros; Makris, Michalis; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Rallis, Eustathios; Kanelleas, Antonis; Stavrianeas, Nicolaos; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old, Caucasian female who presented with slowly progressing asymptomatic poikilodermatous changes of the extensor aspects of the forearms. She also had typical Poikiloderma of Civatte on the V of the neck and erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea of the central face. The patient had been practicing aroma-therapy for many years. Histologic examination revealed findings consistent with PC. Patch-testing revealed positive reactions to Fragrance mix and Nickel sulphate...

  4. The Application Principles of Aroma Inhalation Therapy%芳香吸入疗法的应用原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅家齐

    2010-01-01

    芳香吸入疗法,是以吸入挥发性芳香物质进入大脑及肺部来治疗、缓解或预防各种病症和感染的方法.鼻腔吸入香气后在心理方面起到作用,可以调动人体内的积极因素,抵抗一些致病的因子,达到治疗、减轻、预防疾病的目的.而由芳香疗法延伸出的"芳香心理学"(Aroma-Psychology),是专门研究人吸入香气与人的心理状态的内在关系的科学,可用实验和各种仪器的测量结果来证实芳香疗法的效果,能够定量表示,使芳香吸入疗法有据可循.而经过科学加工处理的专用芳香吸入疗法产品,有助于靶向给香,达到疗效目的.

  5. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  6. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    -MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, α-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete...... carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved......Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma...

  7. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  8. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  9. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  10. Food aroma affects bite size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Polet, I.A.; Boek, W.; Coenraad, S.; Bult, J.H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined b

  11. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2....... The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI...

  12. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release. PMID:27110762

  13. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  14. Aroma chemical emitted from Gerris paludum insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Toshirou; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2004-06-01

    An aroma chemical emitted from Gerris paludum insularis was analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. The main constituent was identified as iso amyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol). The chemical showed a characteristic aroma of Gerris paludum insularis.

  15. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  16. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

  17. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the MS-Nose as a tool to measure aroma release during food consumption. Subsequently, the MS-Nose was used to enhance understanding of the interaction between release and perception of aroma during con...

  18. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  19. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk Ian; Kettle Alec; Hofmeister Sonja; Virdie Amarjeet; Kenny Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew). Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discr...

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  1. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  2. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the

  3. Aroma: a larger than life experience?

    OpenAIRE

    Delphine DE SWARDT

    2015-01-01

    Aroma is today an essential part of our diet. Often used to reinforce the initial neutral taste of the food produced on an industrial scale, it is sometimes the main course, at the core of many edible products. First thought as accessory, it now takes the lead. From this observation and through the review of examples of the food industry, this article puts forward the hypothesis that the aroma supplants the food –in the relation of resemblance between the original model and its representation...

  4. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satia

  5. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  6. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1. PMID:26494283

  7. Aroma: a larger than life experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine DE SWARDT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is today an essential part of our diet. Often used to reinforce the initial neutral taste of the food produced on an industrial scale, it is sometimes the main course, at the core of many edible products. First thought as accessory, it now takes the lead. From this observation and through the review of examples of the food industry, this article puts forward the hypothesis that the aroma supplants the food –in the relation of resemblance between the original model and its representation, which falls under the inculcation – and eclipses it. Potentially strong on the palate, it is a promise of intense experience. This is particularly true in the case of flavors without pre-established references. Pure abstract aromatic constructions allow greater freedom of projection, and foster discursive emphasis. In these cases, the taste alone, uncorrelated with prerogatives of nutrition, becomes the support of a hyperesthesic experience.

  8. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial sufus by odour activity value, gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma recombination and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Shang, Yi; Chen, Feng; Niu, Yunwei; Gu, Yongbo; Liu, Shengjiang; Zhu, Jiancai

    2015-01-01

    Sufu is a solid-state fermented product made from soya beans. For the sake of quality control and regulation purposes, it is essential to be able to identify key odorants of various commercial sufus. To identify the aroma-active compounds in sufus, gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) was performed, and odour activity value (OAV) was estimated. The correlations between aroma profiles and identified aroma-active compounds were also investigated by principal component analysis. Results showed that 35 aroma-active compounds were detected through OAV calculation, while 28 compounds were identified by using GC-O/AEDA. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that aroma recombination model based on OAV calculation was more similar to original sufu in terms of aroma comparing to aroma recombination model based on GC-O/AEDA. Omission experiments further confirmed that the aroma compounds, such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, contributed most significantly to the characteristic aroma of a commercial sufu. PMID:25790084

  9. Healing of pain by music and aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To see the alteration and modification by music and aroma of the brain activity at the moment of pain stimulus, authors studied 3D images by dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with continuous intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) method that they had developed. The radiopharmaceutical was i.v. injected at a constant infusion rate of 1,110 MBq/30 ml/30 min and dynamic SPECT was performed for 30 min at every 2 min interval with the gamma camera GCA 7200A/UI 2-head SPECT system (Toshiba) to make the time-activity curve of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During the infusion, pain stimulus was given by clipping the tip of third finger for 3 sec repeatedly for 2 min. Subjects, healthy normal or with disease, were 18 cases with no healing, 14 with music and 32 with aroma. Pain alone or plus pop music induced rCBF increase in wide regions of the brain while slow-paced music or calm aroma (rose and lavender) suppressed the rCBF increase by pain in the lateral margin of frontal lobe. These changes were thought to be related to healing effects. (T.I.)

  10. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  11. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  12. Mechanism of Aroma Fixation and Aroma Fixer Preparation%定香机理及定香基的配制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翔云

    2011-01-01

    通过一系列实验确定:在一个香精体系中,高沸点物质可以令头香香料在一段时间内的挥发量减少,如果该物质本身没有香气,则没有留香或定香作用;有香气的高沸点物质则有一定的留香或定香作用;高沸点且香比强值大的香料留香或定香作用最强.列出了3个很有实际价值的香水用定香基为例说明.%A series of experiments to determine that in the perfume compound system, high boiling point substances allows top aroma components to reduce the amount of volatile in a period of time. Odorless substances couldn't make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. Odor substances with high boiling paint can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. The components with higher boiling point and stronger aroma can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation stronger. This paper sets out three aroma fixers with practical value as examples.

  13. Aroma biogenesis and distribution between olive pulps and seeds with identification of aroma trends among cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-11-01

    The two constitutive parts of four cultivars (Arbequina, Picual, Local and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in Spain were separately analysed in order to establish the role of pulp and seed in the biogenesis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) aroma through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. C6 and C5 volatile compounds responsible of EVOO aroma were produced by endogenous enzymes in both parts of olive fruits and the differences can be attributed to different enzymes distribution in pulp and seed. According to results, C6 and C5 volatile compounds have mainly their biogenesis in pulp (80-90%) vs. seed (20-10%), independently of the cultivar considered. A linear discriminant analysis was used to establish discriminant aroma compounds between pulp and seed related to the maturity index. A decrease in trans-2-hexen-1-al and an increase in 1-hexanol with ripeness were observed independently of the cultivar considered. Finally, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis between pulp and seed aroma compounds allowed to establish those volatile compounds that better describe each cultivar. PMID:23768404

  14. The Development of Aromas in Ruminant Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Campo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability.

  15. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel;

    2011-01-01

    the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  16. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  17. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  18. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  19. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  20. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

  1. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  2. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bramorski; Soccol, Carlos R.; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

  3. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica for aroma production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Adelaide; Belo, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare different materials for Y. lipolytica immobilization that could be used in the production of γ-decalactone (a peach-like aroma) in order to prevent the toxic effect both of the substrate and the aroma upon the cells. Therefore, cells adsorption onto pieces of methyl polymethacrylate and of DupUM(®) was studied and further used in the biotransformation of castor oil into γ-decalactone. The highest aroma concentration was obtained with immobilized cells in DupUM(®), where reconsumption of the aroma by the cells was prevented, contrarily to what happens with free cells. This is a very promising result for γ-decalactone production, with potential to be used at an industrial level since the use of immobilized cells system will facilitate the conversion of a batch process into a continuous mode keeping high cell density and allowing easier recovery of metabolic products.

  4. Volatile profile and sensory property of Gardenia jasminoides aroma extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2015-01-01

    The volatile profiles of aroma extracts prepared from the flower of Gardenia jasminoides by different methods were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enfleurage extraction using spermaceti wax and palm oil afforded the best aroma extract with a preference that was significantly (p 0.05) better sensed than male volunteers, age was significant (p perfumery and the field of phytochemistry. PMID:27125012

  5. The effect of dispersion mechanisms on aroma delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Kris S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersion of aroma compounds in food matrices is a common process in the production of many food products. However, the degrees of dispersion on the distribution and subsequent release of these compounds during consumption may have considerable consequences for perception of these flavours. This thesis investigates the effects of a range of dispersion techniques on the delivery and release of aroma compounds from several solid and semi-solid matrices which commonly contain added flavouri...

  6. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Chinese Zhima Aroma-Type Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Zhao, Mouming; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan; Sun, Jinyuan; Sun, Xiaotao; Li, Hehe

    2016-07-01

    Zhima aroma-type Baijiu with typical sesame aroma is particularly popular in northern China. To our knowledge, it is still uncertain which components are important to make contributions to its unique aroma, although a few pieces of research have reported many volatile compounds in this Baijiu. The aroma-active compounds from the Baijiu were researched in this paper. A total of 56 odorants were identified in Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Their odor activity values (OAVs) were determined by different quantitative measurements, and then 26 aroma compounds were further confirmed as important odorants due to their OAVs ≥ 1, and these had higher values, such as ethyl hexanoate (OAV 2691), 3-methylbutanal (2403), ethyl pentanoate (1019), and so on. The overall aroma of Zhima aroma-type Baijiu could be simulated by mixing of the 26 key odorants in their measured concentrations. The similarity of the overall aroma profiles between the recombination model and the commercial sample was judged to be 2.7 out of 3.0 points. Omission experiments further corroborated the importance of methional and ethyl hexanoate for the overall aroma of Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu. PMID:27263543

  7. Aroma Potential in Early- and Late-Maturity Pinot noir Grapes Evaluated by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-01-20

    Aroma potentials in early and late maturity Pinot noir grapes were investigated in two consecutive vintages. The grape samples were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and the released odorants were studied by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Forty-nine main odor-active compounds were detected in the AEDA. The odorants released with high flavor dilution values were 1-hexanal, β-damascenone, guaiacol, and vanillin, together with C6-aldehydes and -alcohols, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 1-octen-3-one. The concentrations of aroma-active compounds were further quantitated. Compared with early harvest grapes, late harvest grapes released more β-damascenone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol in both years according to both AEDA and quantitation results, suggesting they were important aroma compounds that contribute to the characteristic of matured Pinot noir grapes. PMID:26698292

  8. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  9. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages. PMID:25765533

  10. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol. PMID:24555295

  11. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  12. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-07-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages. PMID:25473493

  13. A protocol of measurement of In Vivo Aroma release from beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 1

  14. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes.

  15. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  16. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  17. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  18. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  19. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  20. Evaluation of aroma volatiles in a population of tangerine hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) production accounts for over 50 % of the US production, and is the third largest of all citrus fruit, following oranges and grapefruits. The tangerine fruit is well known for its pleasant aroma, flavor and ease of consumption. This study evaluated the aro...

  1. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allwood, J.W.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Xu, Y.; Mumm, R.; Vos, de C.H.; Deborde, C.; Biais, B.; Maucourt, M.; Berger, Y.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Moing, A.; Hall, R.D.; Goodacre, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting culti

  2. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucro

  3. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality.

  4. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. PMID:20812381

  5. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky. PMID:18582086

  6. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky.

  7. Aroma Stability of Lemon-Flavored Hard Iced Tea Assessed by Chirality and Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; He, Fei; Qian, Yanping; Zheng, Jia; Qian, Michael C

    2016-07-20

    The aroma of fresh and aged lemon-flavored hard tea was investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantitative comparison, and two-dimensional chirality analysis. Aroma extract dilution analysis of fresh hard tea samples showed 3-methylbutanal, isoamyl alcohol, β-damascenone, β-ionone, 2-phenylethanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and vanillin could be the most important aroma contributors to the hard tea due to their high FD values. The analysis of the aged hard tea samples did not reveal new compound formation during storage; however, compared with fresh samples, the flavor dilution value changed substantially in the aged samples. Both AEDA and quantitative analysis demonstrated that β-damascenone increased substantially in aged samples, whereas terpene aldehydes decreased substantially after storage. In addition, the FD value of linalool decreased dramatically in aged samples. Two-dimensional GC-MS chirality analysis revealed the FD value decrease of linalool in aged samples was largely due to the transformation of (R)-linalool to (S)-linalool, which has a higher sensory threshold. PMID:27319225

  8. Fruity aroma production in solid state fermentation by Ceratocystis fimbriata : influence of the substrate type and the presence of precursors

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTEN, Pierre; Meza, J.C.; Revah, S.

    1997-01-01

    Wheat bran, cassava bagasse and sugar cane bagasse were shown to be adequate substrates for the growth and aroma production by the mould #Ceratocystis fimbriata$. Among the nutritive media tested, sugar cane bagasse complemented with a synthetic medium containing glucose (200 g/l) gave a fruity aroma while the leucine or valine-containing medium gave a strong banana aroma. Aroma production was dependent on growth and the maximum aroma intensity was detected at about the time of the maximum re...

  9. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  10. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes.

  11. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Turkish olive oils from different geographic origins by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesen, Songul; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2014-01-15

    The aroma and aroma-active compounds of olive oils obtained from Nizip Yaglik (NY) and Kilis Yaglik (KY) cultivars and the effect of the geographical area (southern Anatolian and Aegean regions) on these compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). For this purpose, two oil samples were obtained from their native geographical area including NY from Nizip province and KY from Kilis province (southern Anatolian region of Turkey). Another two oils of the same cultivar, NY-Bornova (NY-B) and KY-Bornova (KY-B), were obtained from the Olive Oil Research Center-Bornova, Izmir province (Aegean region of Turkey) to compare geographical effect on aroma and aroma-active compounds. Simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with dichloromethane was used for extraction of volatile components. SDE gave a highly representative aromatic extract of the studied olive oil based on the sensory analysis. Totals of 61, 48, 59, and 48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in olive oils obtained from NY, NY-B, KY, and KY-B cultivars, respectively. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profile of native region oils was discriminately different from those of Bornova region oils. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil samples. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oils. The number of aroma-active compounds in native region oils was higher than in Bornova region oils. Within the compounds, aldehydes and alcohols were the largest aroma-active compounds in all olive oils.

  12. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

  13. Taste-Aroma-Matrix Interactions Determine Flavour Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Hollowood, Tracey Ann

    2002-01-01

    A newly recruited sensory panel was trained in magnitude estimation and time intensity sensory techniques. Sensory analysis was combined with instrumental analysis using MS Nose to investigate the relationship between stimulus and perception using simple model food systems. Volatile release data was collected after swallowing aqueous solutions containing a cocktail of aroma compounds. The compounds varied in their persistence during subsequent exhalations dependent on the degree of assoc...

  14. Aroma and perfume allergy: anathema for some epicurean appeal?

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Véronique; Nikkels, Arjen; Cornil, F.; Deleixhe-Mauhin, F.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; Pierard, Gérald

    2002-01-01

    Aromas and fragrances are present in many cosmetics, some topical drugs, food and various hygiene, household and industrial products. They can be responsible for contact dermatitis. Multiple sensitizations can even involve in various combinations some fragrance compounds, a given degradation product or a contaminant. The diagnosis relies on clinical examination and oriented anamnesis. A histological examination is sometimes necessary. Specific path testing brings insight on the culprit chemic...

  15. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  16. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  17. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  18. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of La Mancha Verdejo white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Alonso-Villegas, R; González Viñas, M A

    2015-04-15

    The aroma of Verdejo La Mancha white wines was studied by instrumental and sensory analysis across five consecutive vintages to determine their typicity and quality. Free and glycosidically-bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) to later be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-four (74) free aroma compounds and thirty-six (36) bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Verdejo wines oven this five year period. Based on the result, Verdejo white wines presents a complex chemical profile with a wealth of aromas in its aromatic composition. The sensory profile of Verdejo wines was evaluated by experienced wine-tasters and was characterised by fresh, citric, green apple, fruity and tropical fruit aroma descriptors. This study shows the first complete aromatic characterisation of La Mancha Verdejo white wines, also the data suggest that these wines present a great aromatic potential.

  19. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  20. Multiple Regression Analysis of Aroma Components and Sensory Evaluation of Miso

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Etsuko; SAIGA, Suguru; Kobayashi, Akio

    1994-01-01

    Among several sensory characteristics to evaluate the quality of miso (fermented bean paste), aroma is the most difficult one. If results of chemical analysis of miso aroma could be transformed into numerical terms, the evaluation of miso may become easier. Therefore we investigated relationship between aroma components and sensory scores of rice-miso by multiple regression analysis. Thirty-four rice-miso exhibited at the National Miso Competition were used as the samples. Each peak area of t...

  1. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food ingredients a problem with authenticity of aroma compounds has occurred, because natural aromas are wholly or partly replaced with synthetic ones. This is a large economic problem, since natural aromas are...

  2. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage. PMID:17243698

  3. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  4. Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Hautala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and α-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study

  5. Marketing sensorial: os efeitos do aroma no ponto de venda

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Filipa de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing O presente estudo teve como principais objectivos avaliar se a introdução de um aroma ambiente, percebido como agradável, exerce uma influência positiva nas vendas de uma loja e no tempo de permanência dos clientes nessa mesma loja. Para tal, foi realizado um estudo causal de experimentação com base no desenho experimental verdadeiro pré-teste/pós-teste com grupo de controlo. Em adição ao estudo experimental foi realizado um estudo por questionário de forma a avaliar ...

  6. Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Rouse, Michelle; Wesnes, Keith A; Moss, Mark

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the potential for the aromas of the essential oils of Salvia species to affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Research has demonstrated that orally administered Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating cognition and mood. The active compounds in the herbal products might also be present in the aromas and so produce similar effects. In an independent groups design, three conditions, S. officinalis aroma, S. lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed. One hundred and thirty-five healthy volunteers acted as participants, with 45 in each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed via the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System. Bond-Lader mood scales measured the participants' mood on three dimensions before and after the cognitive tasks. Data analysis revealed that the S. officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on the quality of memory and secondary memory primary outcome factors from the test battery. The Alert mood measure displayed significant differences between both aromas and the control condition. These findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species reproduce some but not all of the effects found following oral herb administration, and that interesting dissociations occur between subjective and objective responses.

  7. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Yang, Huan-yi; Liu, Tong-jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies. PMID:27704748

  8. Modulating the formation of Meili wine aroma by prefermentative freezing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuan-Tao; Wen, Yan; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Lan, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-02-20

    The influence of a prefermentative freezing process on changes of aromatic characteristics and volatile compounds in Meili wines was studied to optimize freezing parameters and reveal the mathematical relationship between aromatic characteristics and volatile compounds. The wines obtained were characterized by sensory evaluation and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 28 aromatic descriptors from 6 categories of wine aroma terminology were identified by judging with high "modified frequency (MF%)". In addition, 19 varietal aroma compounds and 36 fermentation aroma compounds were quantitated, followed by the determination of odor activity values (OAVs). On the basis of the data obtained, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find the relationship between characteristic aroma terms and different freezing conditions, and then partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was proposed to establish the mathematical relationship between the resulting terms and impact odorants. Natural thawing treatment on frozen must resulted in higher aroma quality with higher extraction of varietal aroma compounds. Lower frozen maceration temperature contributed to higher esters and organic acids. Impact aroma compounds were related to models for floral, sweet fruit, temperate fruit, and vegetal, whereas the model of rose and strawberry contained only varietal volatile compounds, and temperate fruit could be regressed by impact fermentation aroma compounds. PMID:23330536

  9. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground and t...

  10. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  11. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Feron

    Full Text Available For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening. This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

  12. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citris aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi

  13. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  14. Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers

  15. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  16. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes i

  17. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

  18. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  19. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves. PMID:25088347

  20. 水果芳香疗法对缓解妇癌患者常用化疗药物后恶心呕吐反应的观察%Clinical Analysis of Nausea and Vomiting in Gynecologic Cancer Patients Commonly Used Chemotherapeutic Drugs after the Fruit Aroma Therapy to Alleviate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吴花; 史迎春

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对妇科恶性肿瘤患者化疗时采用水果芳香疗法,探讨水果芳香疗法对改善化疗过程中恶心呕吐反应的应用价值。方法随机选择45例已经过1~3疗程化疗的妇科肿瘤患者,在临床常用化疗药物治疗的基础上配合水果芳香的使用,观察患者恶心呕吐反应的改善情况。结果水果芳香疗法可以有效改善妇科肿瘤患者化疗过程中的恶心呕吐反应。结论水果芳香疗法经济实惠,可以有效改善化疗过程中的恶心呕吐反应,减轻患者痛苦。%Objective To investigate value of the use of fruits aromatherapy when patients with gynecologic malignancies in chemotherapy to improve nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy response. Methods We randomly selected 45 cases with gynecological cancer who have received 1 to 3 cycles of chemotherapy to observe improvement of nausea and vomiting based on clinical commonly used chemotherapy drugs with fruit aroma of use. Results Fruit aromatherapy can ef ectively improve nausea and vomiting to gynecological cancer patients in chemotherapy. Conclusion Fruit aromatherapy is af ordable,it can be ef ective in improving nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy and al eviate the suf ering of patients.

  1. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more inclusive or exclusive cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee, while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and no aroma conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations, bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance.

  2. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  3. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  4. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. PMID:27664632

  5. Separación de aromas en etapas del procesado de zumos de frutas y bebidas

    OpenAIRE

    Diban-Ibrahim Gómez, Nazely

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN: La presente tesis estudia el desarrollo de tecnologías de separación y recuperación de aromas. Se busca obtener dos clases distintas de productos, concentrados aromáticos y bebidas parcialmente desalcoholizadas. En ambos productos se requiere una alta calidad aromática. Distintos casos de estudio se han seleccionado: i) La separación concentración del 2,4-decadienoato de etilo, aroma impacto de la pera, y ii) la separación-concentración del trans-2-hexen-1-ol, aroma impacto de ...

  6. Production of the pepper aroma compound, (-)-rotundone, by aerial oxidation of α-guaiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, An-Cheng; Burrett, Stacey; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2014-11-01

    The aroma link between pepper and wine has recently been elucidated to be due to the important aroma compound rotundone. To date, rotundone is the only known impact odorant with a peppery aroma. Although the concentration found in products of natural origin is small, the odor detection threshold is among the lowest of any natural product yet discovered. We report herein the identification of the first known precursor to rotundone, namely, α-guaiene, and that one mechanism of transformation is simple aerial oxidation.

  7. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...

  8. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry, the effluent evaluated by sniffing and the sausages assessed by a trained panel. The study showed that sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus contained several fragrant esters that were not found in control sausages without microbial growth. Control sausages had...... an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...

  9. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

    2011-08-01

    Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing.

  11. New Methods Of Plant Selection For Food Aroma Recovery Aided By Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezysov Anatoliy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the selection of plants to restore the lost aroma based on the oxidation processes. The predisposition of raw material components to lipid oxidation is the basis of selection criteria. It was determined that the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipid extract of watermelon, pumpkin, cucumbers is 30-40%, the ratio of linoleic and linolenic acids in fruit is different. The formation of diene conjugates and hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde after various processing treatment methods is shown. The efficiency of aroma restoration depends on the number of formed 9-, 13- hydroperoxides that serve as a substrate for aroma-forming enzymes. The antioxidant capacity and the oxidation-reduction potential of fresh fruits and fruits after cooking have been analyzed. These characteristics determine the fruit ability to repeated formation of aromatic components. It has been ascertained that gourds have sufficient potential to restore aroma by exogenous lipoxygenases.

  12. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (p<0.05) concentration decrease of hexan-1-ol and linalool in the experimental wines when compared to a control, consistent across all vineyard and fraction combinations. Other aroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape. PMID:27132857

  13. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  14. Study on Aroma Components in Fruit From Three Different Satsuma Mandarin Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yu; XIE Bi-jun; ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Hai-yan; PAN Si-yi

    2007-01-01

    Fruit aroma of Guoqing 1,Miyagawa Wase,and Owari from three different Satsuma mandarin varieties were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME)combined with GC-MS.The results showed that there were 73,71,and 66 aroma components in the three varieties,and the total contents were 584.67,505.29,and 494.63 μgg-1,respectively.Total 29 constituents were common in the three varieties.It was also found that Guoqing 1,Miyagawa Wase,and Owari had 12,5,and 2 unique components,respectively.The key aroma components were limonene,linalool,γ-terpinene,β-myrcene,α-pinene,and octanal in the three fruits.Guoqing 1 contained more key aroma compounds than Miyagawa Wase and Owad.

  15. Prediction of Muscat aroma in table grape by analysis of rose oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Leonor; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2014-07-01

    Aroma is an important quality characteristic in Muscat grapes and constitutes a major concern for viticulturist and grapevine breeders. For this reason, Muscat aroma variability was characterised in a segregating progeny and in a collection of table grapes, to assess the usefulness of the presence or absence of rose oxide for predicting Muscat genotypes. Simple tasting and an analysis of free and bound aroma compounds, including rose oxide, linalool oxide, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, nerol, geraniol, benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol, were carried out. The association between Muscat score and the compounds considered as active odorants according to their odour activity values was also evaluated. The results obtained pointed to a highly significant correlation between the presence/absence of rose oxide in grapes and the presence/absence of Muscat aroma. Thus, this analysis could be a useful tool for identifying Muscat cultivars in a more objective way than sensory analysis. PMID:24518327

  16. The influence of pruning and harvest timing on hop aroma, cone appearance, and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroo; Inui, Takako; Oka, Kaneo; Fukui, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Humulus lupulus (hop) cone is a key ingredient of beer, which determines its taste and aroma. Thus, it is necessary to control its cultivation conditions to acquire suitable quality. Here, cultivation conditions, such as pruning, blooming, and harvest timings, were modified for the Saaz hop variety in the Saaz region of Czech Republic. We investigated the correlation between the abovementioned cultivation factors and hop aroma characteristics, chemical components, appearance, yield, and beer quality in four locations and in three years. Harvest timing had a significant impact on the amount of essential oils, especially monoterpenes. Among them, linalool, geraniol and myrcene, which contribute beer hoppy aroma, increased with delay in harvest timing. These impacts caused by harvest timing were confirmed in all 4 locations and in all 3years. Our findings suggest that harvest timing influences the intensity and quality of beer hoppy aroma. PMID:26920261

  17. Identification of reddish alcoholic beverages by GC/MS using aroma components as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Y; Kudo, K; Nishida, N; Ikeda, N

    2001-12-01

    A method to identify reddish alcoholic beverages used for dissolving stimulant drugs was devised using aroma components as indicators. Thirteen brands of beverages including red wines, blueberry liquors, raspberry liquors, strawberry liquor, a mixture of red wine and blueberry juice and a mixture of red wine and grape juice were examined. Aroma components in each sample were effectively concentrated with a porous polymer beads column (Porapak Q) and were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Specific aroma components were detected in each beverage and reddish alcoholic beverages were successfully classified into five groups using five aroma components as indicators. The present method should prove to be useful in criminal investigations. PMID:12935701

  18. Diffusion of aroma compounds in stirred yogurts with different complex viscosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déléris, Isabelle; Lauverjat, Clémentine; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2007-10-17

    To better understand aroma release in relation to yogurt structure and perception, the apparent diffusivity of aroma compounds within complex dairy gels was determined using an experimental diffusion cell. Apparent diffusion coefficients of four aroma compounds (diacetyl, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and linalool) at 7 degrees C in yogurts (varying in composition and structure) ranged from 0.07 x 10 (-10) to 8.91 x 10 (-10) m (2) s (-1), depending on aroma compounds and on product structure. The strong effect of yogurt fat content on the apparent diffusivity of hydrophobic compounds was revealed (15-fold and 50-fold decreases in the apparent diffusion coefficient of linalool and ethyl hexanoate, respectively). Protein composition seemed to have a greater effect than that of mechanical treatment. However, variations in the apparent diffusion coefficient for the considered products remained limited and cannot completely explain differences in flavor release and in perception that were previously observed.

  19. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  20. QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer Damien; Ambroset Chloe; Brion Christian; Claudel Patricia; Delobel Pierre; Sanchez Isabelle; Erny Claude; Blondin Bruno; Karst Francis; Legras Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the producti...

  1. Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Piombino; Alessandro Genovese; Silvia Esposito; Luigi Moio; Pier Paolo Cutolo; Angela Chambery; Valeria Severino; Elisabetta Moneta; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Gilbert, Jack A.; Danilo Ercolini

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liqu...

  2. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Feron; Charfedinne Ayed; El Mostafa Qannari; Philippe Courcoux; Hélène Laboure; Elisabeth Guichard

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four dif...

  3. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

  4. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  5. Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

    2011-08-01

    Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ≥ 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

  6. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  7. Intra-oral adsorption and release of aroma compounds following in-mouth wine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Rocha-Alcubilla, Nuria; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2016-08-15

    Wine "after-odour" defined as the long lasting aroma perception that remains after wine swallowing is an outstanding characteristic in terms of wine quality but a relatively unstudied phenomenon. Among the different parameters that might affect wine after-odour, the adsorption of odorants by the oral mucosa could be important but has been little explored. In this work, the impact of the chemical characteristics of aroma compounds on intra-oral adsorption was assessed by an in vivo approach that determined the amounts of odorants remaining in expectorated wine samples. In addition, the subsequent aroma release after in-mouth wine exposure was studied by means of intra-oral SPME/GC-MS using three different panellists. Oral adsorption of the aroma compounds added to the wines ranged from 6% to 43%, depending on their physicochemical characteristics. A progressive intra-oral aroma decrease at different decay rates depending on compound type and panellist was also found. The strength of the aroma-oral mucosa interactions seems to explain these results more than the amount of compound adsorbed by the oral mucosa. PMID:27006241

  8. Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinet, C; Guichard, E; Fournier, N; Ducruet, V

    2007-10-01

    Release of aroma compounds in orange juice according to pulp content and pasteurization was performed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), HS-SPME-GC-olfactometry, and by the determination of partition coefficients of aroma compounds between the juice and the headspace. Orange juices with 12% and 6% pulp contents were collected from a processing line before and after pasteurization. HS-SPME revealed that the 6% pulp juice was the most affected by pasteurization, with an increase in the release of several aroma compounds that are generated by heat treatment (that is, alpha- and beta-terpinéol) and a decrease in the release of compounds sensitive to pasteurization (that is, neral and geranial). Principal component analysis of olfactometric data allowed discriminating fresh and pasteurized juices, regardless of the pulp content. The determination of the gas/liquid partition coefficients by the phase ratio variation method was possible for 7 aroma compounds. For the most hydrophobic ones, the release of aroma compounds in fresh juices was higher in the 6% pulp juice than in the 12% pulp juice. However, in pasteurized juices, the difference between their partition coefficients was less marked. Potential interactions between cloud proteins and hydrophobic aroma compounds may explain this phenomenon.

  9. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  10. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  11. Identification and quantification of aroma compounds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn.) and some of its milling fractions

    OpenAIRE

    KREFT, SAMO; Prosen, Helena; JANEŠ, DAMJAN

    2015-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds have a strong aroma that characteristically differs from the aroma of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Its phytochemical background has only been recently investigated.The aim of this study was to identify and quantify individual compounds responsible for tartary buckwheat aroma. Volatiles from different samples (whole seed, flour, and husks) were extracted with simultaneous extraction and distillation by Likens-Nickerson apparatus and ana...

  12. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  13. Insights into the Key Aroma Compounds in Mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden') Fruits by Stable Isotope Dilution Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden'). From the results, the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. OAVs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 2100), (3E,5Z)-undeca-1,3,5-triene (pineapple-like; OAV 1900), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1600), and ethyl butanoate (fruity; OAV 980) were the most potent, followed by (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (cucumber-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (sulfurous), γ-decalactone (peach-like), β-myrcene (terpeny), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (green), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (tropical fruit-like), and ethyl octanoate (fruity). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that these 15 compounds, when combined in a model mixture in their natural concentrations, were able to mimic the aroma of the fruits. PMID:27167034

  14. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor. PMID:27486834

  15. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  16. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  17. Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-05-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

  18. Aroma composition changes in early season grapefruit juice produced from thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianming; Rouseff, Russell L; Barros, Sandy; Naim, Michael

    2002-02-13

    Differences in aroma components and total volatiles between a single unpasteurized Marsh grapefruit juice and its 65 Brix concentrate reconstituted to 10 Brix were examined using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-FID. Total volatiles (FID) in the reconstituted concentrate were reduced to less than 5% of initial values, but 57% of total aroma (GC-O) remained. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were observed in unpasteurized single strength juice, whereas 27 components were found in the unflavored reconstituted concentrate. Aroma-active compounds were classified into grapefruit/sulfury, sweet/fruity, fresh/citrusy, green/fatty/metallic, and cooked/meaty groups. Five of six components in the sweet/fruity and 14 of 18 green/fatty/metallic components survived thermal concentration. However, only 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone in the grapefruit/sulfury group, and linalool and nootkatone from the fresh/citrusy group, were found in the reconstituted concentrate. Methional was the only aroma compound in the cooked/meaty category found in both juice types. beta-Damascenone and 1-p-menthen-8-thiol were found only in the reconstituted concentrate. 4-Mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanol was found for the first time in grapefruit juice. PMID:11829649

  19. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  20. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  1. Green tea aroma fraction reduces β-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human β-amyloid minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit Aβ-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD. PMID:25229860

  2. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic. PMID:27451153

  3. Complex viscosity induced by protein composition variation influences the aroma release of flavored stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Juteau, Alexandre; Atlan, Samuel; Martin, Nathalie; Souchon, Isabelle

    2006-05-31

    Dairy protein composition is known to influence the structure and the texture characteristics of yogurt. The objective of the present work was therefore to investigate the impact of protein composition, at a constant protein level, on the physicochemical properties of 4% fat flavored stirred yogurt and, more specifically, on the rheological properties, the microstructure, and the aroma release. The results showed that caseinate-enriched yogurt generally presented changes in their microstructure network and had a higher complex viscosity than whey protein-enriched yogurt. To a lesser extent, the release of the majority of aroma compounds was lower in caseinate-enriched yogurt. It was therefore possible to quantify physicochemical interactions between aroma compounds and proteins. The influence of gel structure on the flavor release was observed and was in agreement with sensory characteristics previously studied for these products.

  4. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds.

  5. Potential applications of glucosyltransferases in terpene glucoside production: impacts on the use of aroma and fragrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried; Fischer, Thilo C; Giri, Ashok; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The detection of glucoconjugated forms of monoterpene alcohols in rose petals in the late 1960s opened the new field of nonvolatile aroma precursors in flavor research. It is now well established that odorless glycosides represent a significant pool of aroma precursors in plants where they act as preformed but inactivated defense or attractive chemicals. Technical improvements in the separation and identification of plant secondary metabolites have provided a multitude of chemical structures, but functional characterization of glycosyltransferases that catalyze their formation lags behind. As technical efforts and costs for DNA sequencing dramatically dropped during the last decade, the number of plant genome sequences increased significantly, thus providing opportunities to functionally characterize the glycosyltransferase gene families in plants. These studies yielded the first glycosyltransferase genes that encode efficient biocatalysts for the production of monoterpene glucosides. They have applications in the food, feed, chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as slow release aroma chemicals. PMID:25431013

  6. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds. PMID:24423545

  7. New device to simulate swallowing and in vivo aroma release in the throat from liquid and semiliquid food systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Verschueren, M.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel device to simulate in vivo aroma release from liquids. This artificial throat simulates the act of swallowing followed by exhalation and shows aroma release curves that are similar in shape to in vivo release profiles. Liquids are poured down a tube, and a thin liquid fi

  8. EEG asymmetry responses to lavender and rosemary aromas in adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Chris; Diego, Miguel; Fernandez, Mercedes; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Roca, Amparo

    2002-11-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry shifting from baseline was examined in adults and infants exposed to lavender and rosemary by reanalyzing previously published data, using techniques different from those utilized in the original two studies. Results from Study 1 on 39 adults revealed significant EEG shifting in the lavender group, with greater relative left frontal EEG activation (associated with greater approach behavior and less depressed affect). The participants in the two aroma groups were further grouped by those with greater baseline, relative to left frontal EEG activation, versus those with a greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation. Collapsing across aroma groups, those with greater baseline, relative to right frontal activation, shifted left during the aroma. Those with greater baseline relative to left frontal activation did not change. In the rosemary group, those with greater baseline relative to right frontal EEG activation shifted left during the aroma, while those with greater baselines relative to left frontal EEG activation shifted right. In the lavender group, those with greater baselines relative to right frontal baseline EEG activation shifted left, but those with greater baselines relative to left baseline did not shift. Study 2 on 27 full-term newborns revealed no significant shifts in asymmetry in either aroma group. However, when the aroma groups were collapsed, the right frontal EEG group exhibited significant shifting relative to left frontal EEG activation. This finding was similar to the adult findings, suggesting that either lavender or rosemary may induce left frontal EEG shifting in adults and infants who show greater baselines relative to right frontal EEG activation. PMID:12625191

  9. Changes of Aroma Components in Hongdeng Sweet Cherry During Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the changes of aroma components in sweet cherry during fruit development, the aroma components in sweet cherry fruit from the green stage, the color stage, the commercial stage, and the ripe stage were collected using head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). A total of 37 compounds were identified from the sample extracts. Aldehydes, alcohols, and esters were the major constituents. The aroma components behaved differently during the fruit developmental period. C6 aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes were the main aldehydes in the sweet cherry fruit. The contents of C6 aldehydes increased quickly to 84.16% in the color stage, then decreased as ripening proceeded, and then, the contents decreased to 59.20 and 55.58% at the commercial stage and the ripe stage, respectively. The aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde) increased as ripening proceeded, and the maximum was found at the ripe stage. Alcohols of sweet cherry fruit included C6 alcohols and aromatic alcohols. The content of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol increased as ripening proceeded. The maximum was found at the commercial stage; alcohol was only found at the ripe stage. Ester components included ethyl acetate, butanoic acid ethyl ester,hexanoic acid ethyl ester, which increased as the fruit ripened. Hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol,ethyl acetate, and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were the characteristic aroma components of sweet cherry fruit. These aroma components started to form drastically at the color stage, and the main aroma was formed at the commercial stage, which then turned bad at the ripe stage because of the presence of alcohol. So the optimal harvest time of sweet cherry was at the commercial stage.

  10. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis. PMID:26616963

  11. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis.

  12. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

  13. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

  14. Adsorption Dynamics of Calyx Aroma onto Basic Tea in Scenting Process of Calyx-scented Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhui CHEN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study adsorption dynamics of calyx aroma onto basic tea in scenting process of calyx-scented tea, so as to increase aroma and quality of products. [Method] Adsorption experiment was carried out in a hermetic container, and the effect of calyx amount, contact time, moisture content of basic tea and temperature on the scenting process was studied. [Result] The optimal moisture and temperature for scenting process was 4% and 10 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The scenting process accorded pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the adsorption dynamic data of total process could better fit pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  15. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy, describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series.

  16. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  17. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. PMID:25977005

  18. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  19. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

  20. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Com

  1. Study of combined effect of proteins and bentonite fining on the wine aroma loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Panighel, Annarita; Gazzola, Diana; Flamini, Riccardo; Curioni, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The wine aroma loss as a consequence of treatments with bentonite is due to the occurrence of multiple interaction mechanisms. In addition to a direct effect of bentonite, the removal of aroma compounds bound to protein components adsorbed by the clay has been hypothesized but never demonstrated. We studied the effect of bentonite addition on total wine aroma compounds (extracted from Moscato wine) in a model solution in the absence and presence of total and purified (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinase) wine proteins. The results showed that in general bentonite alone has a low effect on the loss of terpenes but removed ethyl esters and fatty acids. The presence of wine proteins in the solution treated with bentonite tended to increase the loss of esters with the longest carbon chains (from ethyl octanoate to ethyl decanoate), and this was significant when the purified proteins were used. The results here reported suggest that hydrophobicity can be one of the driving forces involved in the interaction of aromas with both bentonite and proteins. PMID:25665100

  2. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature.

  3. Combinatory Effects of Texture and Aroma Modification on Taste Perception of Model Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, J.E.; Sala, G.; Smit, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of texture modification and aroma-induced sweetness enhancement were systematically investigated in apple-flavored semi-solid Na-caseinate gels. Gels containing apple juice as a basic flavor were developed differing in stiffness, brittleness and serum release (texture modi

  4. Aroma volatile release kinetics of tomato genotypes measured by PTR-MS following artificial chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Alarcón, A.; Cristescu, S.M.; Costa, G.; Harren, F.J.M.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical system to study the tomato aroma profile. An artificial chewing device coupled to a PTR-MS was developed to mimic, as close as possible, the release of volatiles during chewing in the human mouth and the retronasal olfaction perception. VOC profiles

  5. Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in aroma volatiles were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography in ripe avocados (Persea americana Mill.) throughout an eight-month maturation period and related to the sensory properties of the fruit. As maturation progressed sensory panelists found the li...

  6. DNA tests for strawberry: mesifurane "sherry" aroma - FaOMT-SI/NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amazing flavor and texture in strawberries is caused by a complex balance of numerous sugars and aromatic compounds. One of the most important aromatic compounds contributing to the flavor we have come to love in strawberries is mesifurane. Mesifurane produces a sweet sherry-like aroma and incre...

  7. Efecto del deshuesado de la aceituna sobre el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit stoning gives rise to an important modification in olive oil aroma. The level of this modification is a function of the cultivar. An increment in the content of six-carbon compounds (C6 was observed in olive oils obtained from the cultivars Verdial and Manzanilla, but not in the cultivar Picual. In the three cultivars under study, contents of five-carbon compounds (C5 and esters decreased as a consequence of fruit stoning. The modification of olive oil aroma composition in the cultivar Verdial caused by olive fruit stoning was observed to be due both to tissue wounding and to the absence of the olive seed during the crushing-malaxation process to obtain olive oil aroma. Both factors contribute independently to the content modification of C6, C5 compounds and esters in the olive oil aroma from stoned fruits.El deshuesado de la aceituna da lugar a una importante modificación del aroma del aceite de oliva virgen. La intensidad de esta modificación es característica de cada variedad. En los aceites obtenidos de aceitunas Verdial y Manzanilla se produce un incremento en el contenido de los compuestos de seis átomos de carbono (C6 que no se detecta en la variedad Picual. En las tres variedades estudiadas se observa un descenso del contenido de compuestos de cinco átomos de carbono (C5 así como del contenido en ésteres. En la variedad Verdial se ha comprobado que la modificación del aroma como consecuencia del deshuesado del fruto se debe tanto al daño tisular generado durante este proceso como a la ausencia de la semilla durante la molturación de la aceituna. Ambos factores contribuyen de forma independiente a la modificación del contenido de compuestos C6, C5 y ésteres en el aroma del aceite de oliva virgen procedente de aceituna deshuesada.

  8. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC. PMID:26243954

  9. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128).

  10. Perceptual characterization and analysis of aroma mixtures using gas chromatography recomposition-olfactometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle J Johnson

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a new instrumental technique, Gas Chromatography Recomposition-Olfactometry (GC-R, that adapts the reconstitution technique used in flavor chemistry studies by extracting volatiles from a sample by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, separating the extract on a capillary GC column, and recombining individual compounds selectively as they elute off of the column into a mixture for sensory analysis (Figure 1. Using the chromatogram of a mixture as a map, the GC-R instrument allows the operator to "cut apart" and recombine the components of the mixture at will, selecting compounds, peaks, or sections based on retention time to include or exclude in a reconstitution for sensory analysis. Selective recombination is accomplished with the installation of a Deans Switch directly in-line with the column, which directs compounds either to waste or to a cryotrap at the operator's discretion. This enables the creation of, for example, aroma reconstitutions incorporating all of the volatiles in a sample, including instrumentally undetectable compounds as well those present at concentrations below sensory thresholds, thus correcting for the "reconstitution discrepancy" sometimes noted in flavor chemistry studies. Using only flowering lavender (Lavandula angustifola 'Hidcote Blue' as a source for volatiles, we used the instrument to build mixtures of subsets of lavender volatiles in-instrument and characterized their aroma qualities with a sensory panel. We showed evidence of additive, masking, and synergistic effects in these mixtures and of "lavender' aroma character as an emergent property of specific mixtures. This was accomplished without the need for chemical standards, reductive aroma models, or calculation of Odor Activity Values, and is broadly applicable to any aroma or flavor.

  11. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process.

  12. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions. PMID:25832115

  13. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Two Commercial Rums by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    Two rums differing in their overall aroma profile and price level (rum A, high price; rum B, low price) were analyzed by means of the Sensomics approach. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a distillate of volatiles prepared from rum A revealed 40 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 8 to 2048. The identification experiments indicated cis-whiskey lactone, vanillin, decanoic acid, and 2- and 3-methylbutanol with the highest FD factors. The AEDA of a distillate prepared from rum B showed only 26 aroma-active compounds in the same FD factor range. Among them, in particular, ethyl butanoate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and decanoic acid appeared with the highest FD factors. Thirty-seven compounds having at least an FD factor ≥32 in one of the two rums were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays or enzyme kits (2 compounds). The calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) indicated ethanol, vanillin, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and (E)-β-damascenone with the highest OAVs in rum A, whereas ethanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanal, and ethyl butanoate revealed the highest OAVs in rum B. Most compounds were present in similar concentrations in both rums, but significant differences were determined for vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, and 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (all higher in rum A) and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl butanoate (all higher in rum B). Finally, the aromas of both rums were successfully simulated by a recombinate using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they naturally occurred in the spirits. PMID:26715051

  14. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  15. 浓香型产区烤烟香韵与香气质量及香型关系研究%Relationships among Note, Aroma Quality and Aroma type in Full-aroma-style Flue-cured Tobacco Production Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪丽; 赵铭钦; 任伟; 张俊; 刘鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    为明确浓香型烟叶风格特征与品质特征之间的联系,以8个浓香型产区2011-2012年的264份烟叶样品为材料,运用灰色关联度分析、偏相关分析和逐步回归分析等方法分析了感官评价中的香韵指标(焦甜香、焦香、正甜香、干草香、木香、坚果香、辛香)与烟叶香气质量及香型之间的关系。结果表明:(1)香韵对香气质影响以焦甜香、干草香为最大;香韵对香气量影响以干草香、焦甜香为最大;香韵对香型影响以焦甜香、正甜香为最大。(2)干草香与香气质呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香气质呈显著负相关;干草香与香气量呈显著正相关;正甜香与香型呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香型呈极显著正相关。(3)通过逐步回归模型,建立了香韵各指标与香气质量及香型的最优回归方程,可以利用回归方程来预测香气质量及香型。%Statistical analysis, including gray correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis, were conducted to identify the relationship between style and quality characteristics of aromatic flue-cured tobacco. Total of 264 tobacco samples from 8 provinces of production areas with aroma style tobacco were used to analysis the relationships of note indicators, aroma quality and aroma type. The results showed that the note which influenced the quality of aroma the most was burnt-sweetness aroma and hay incense. The note which influenced the quantity of aroma most was hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma. The note that influenced the type most was burnt-sweetness aroma and pure-sweetness aroma. Partial correlation analysis showed that the hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma were significantly related with sweet temperament, hay incense was significantly related with aroma quantity, pure-sweetness aroma was significantly related with aroma type, burnt-sweetness aroma was extremely significantly

  16. Great interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria in the production of cheese aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Alyson L; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Roland, Nathalie; Chuat, Victoria; Leclerc, Aurélie; Pogačić, Tomislav; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2014-11-17

    Flavor is an important sensory property of fermented food products, including cheese, and largely results from the production of aroma compounds by microorganisms. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the most widely used species of dairy propionibacteria; it has been implicated in the production of a wide variety of aroma compounds through multiple metabolic pathways and is associated with the flavor of Swiss cheese. However, the ability of other dairy propionibacteria to produce aroma compounds has not been characterized. This study sought to elucidate the effect of interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria on the production of aroma compounds in a cheese context. A total of 76 strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici were grown for 15 days in pure culture in a rich medium derived from cheese curd. In addition, one strain each of two phylogenetically related non-dairy propionibacteria, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum and Propionibacterium microaerophilum were included. Aroma compounds were analyzed using headspace trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An analysis of variance performed on GC-MS data showed that the abundance of 36 out of the 45 aroma compounds detected showed significant differences between the cultures. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for these 36 compounds. The first two axes of the PCA, accounting for 60% of the variability between cultures, separated P. freudenreichii strains from P. acidipropionici strains and also differentiated P. freudenreichii strains from each other. P. freudenreichii strains were associated with greater concentrations of a variety of compounds, including free fatty acids from lipolysis, ethyl esters derived from these acids, and branched-chain acids and alcohols from amino acid catabolism. P. acidipropionici strains produced less of these compounds but more sulfur

  17. Analysis of the cooked aroma and odorants that contribute to umami aftertaste of soy miso (Japanese soybean paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Kato, Sachie; Saikusa, Miyu; Suzuki, Chihiro; Otsubo, Yuriko; Tanaka, Yutaro; Watanabe, Hirohito; Hayase, Fumitaka

    2016-12-15

    Soy miso, the traditional Japanese fermented soybean paste prepared using soybean koji, is used for imparting umami aftertaste to cooked dishes. The objective of this study was to identify the key odorants of cooked soy miso and their influence on umami aftertaste perception. Volatile compounds of soy miso and two rice misos were prepared using simultaneous distillation-extraction, and the key odorants were identified by using the gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution assay approach, and soy miso was compared with rice misos. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were detected in cooked soy miso, and malty, green, roasty and sulfury aromas were identified as the characteristic aromas. Finally, sensory evaluation was conducted to assess the contribution to the umami aftertaste of six key compounds with the highest flavour dilution factor. Results revealed that dimethyl trisulfide, which was newly identified in cooked miso, contributes to the umami aftertaste and palatability of cooked soy miso. PMID:27451212

  18. Determination of volatile aroma compounds of Ganoderma lucidum by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Kafkas, Ebru; Çakıroğlu, Özgün; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010-2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  19. Expression of a Heterologous Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene in Lactococcus lactis Highly Improves the Conversion of Amino Acids to Aroma Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rijnen, Liesbeth; Courtin, Pascal; Gripon, Jean-Claude; Yvon, Mireille

    2000-01-01

    The first step of amino acid degradation in lactococci is a transamination, which requires an α-keto acid as the amino group acceptor. We have previously shown that the level of available α-keto acid in semihard cheese is the first limiting factor for conversion of amino acids to aroma compounds, since aroma formation is greatly enhanced by adding α-ketoglutarate to cheese curd. In this study we introduced a heterologous catabolic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene into Lactococcus lactis so ...

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-06-27

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma. PMID:17530862

  1. 食醋香气感õ评定研究%Study on Sensory EvaIuation of Vinegar Aroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 张东升

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,fuzzy mathematical integrated evaluation method is adopted for sensory evaluation of aroma of four kinds of vinegar.The results show that the comprehensive evaluation level of vinegar aroma of the sample 529 and 211 is between very strong and strong,the vinegar aroma of the sample 529 is better than that of sample 211,the vinegar aroma of the sample 985 and 306 is strong,the vinegar aroma of the sample 985 is better than that of sample 306,the sensory evaluation of aroma of four kinds of vinegar is ranked as 529>211>985>306.%文章采用模糊数学综合评判法对四种食醋香气进行了综合感官评定,结果表明:529和211样品食醋香气的综合评定级别为很浓和浓之间,529样品的食醋香气优于211样品,985和306样品食醋香气的综合评定级别为浓,985样品的食醋香气优于306样品,即四种食醋香气的感官评定从高到低为529>211>985>306。

  2. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines.

  3. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-hua ZHANG; Tao WU; Faizan A SADIQ; Huan-yi YANG; Tong-jie LIU; Hui RUAN; Guo-qing HE

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB stil remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distilation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). Al samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.%中文概要题目:传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质的研究目的:通过同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)、顶空固相微萃取(SPME)及吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱(GC-O-MS)技术对传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味成分进行分析,并初步探讨特征风味形成机理。创新点:首次采用不同风味物质分析技术探索传统酸面团制备的馒头关键风味成分。方法:采用同时SDE、SPME及P&T方法,对不同传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质进行分析。结论:SDE结果显示,反式-2-壬烯醛和反式-2,4-癸二烯醛为传统酸面团馒头中关键风味成分。SPME和P&T 方法表明乙醇和醋酸是关键风味物质。因此,需要结合不同技术方法,全面分析传统酸面团制备的馒头中特征风味成分。

  4. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines. PMID:26675843

  5. Roasting and aroma formation: effect of initial moisture content and steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    Initial moisture of green coffee may vary as a function of green coffee processing and storage conditions. The impact of initial moisture and steam treatment on roasting behavior and aroma formation was investigated. Steam treated coffees as well as coffees with initial moisture content of 5.10, 10.04, and 14.70 g water per 100 g wb were roasted. Light and dark roasting trials were carried out using a fluidizing-bed roaster with a batch size of 100 g of green beans. Differences in roast coffee attributes, that is, color, density, and organic roast loss, and odorant concentrations were more marked in light roasted than in dark roasted coffees. The results of roasting steam treated coffee suggest that this step affects roasting behavior primarily by extracting some aroma precursor compounds.

  6. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  7. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma. PMID:25466091

  8. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saeidnia; Sepehrizadeh, Z; A.R Gohari; G Amin; A. Manayi; A Hadjiakhoondi

    2014-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae), as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction te...

  9. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

  10. Aroma of Turmeric: Dependence on the Combination of Groups of Several Odor Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Nakatani, Kenta; Fujihara, Takashi; Yamada, Hideo

    2015-06-01

    Turmeric is a popular material that plays an important role in the flavor and fragrance industries. Although many compounds have been reported as components of turmeric, its aroma profile has not been clarified. Recently we have developed a new approach for evaluating the complex odors of materials based on recent research on the mechanism of odor recognition. Here we report the characteristic aroma properties of turmeric obtained through the investigation of its aroma profile. The hexane extract of turmeric had a turmeric-like odor, whereas the steam distillate of turmeric had a pungent, non-turmeric-like odor. We carried out bulb-to-bulb distillations of the extract and the steam distillate. For the hexane extract, two fractions with completely different odors were obtained. One was a high boiling point fraction (group A) with a turmeric-like odor, which consisted of ar-turmerone and β-turmerone as the main components, and the other was a low boiling point fraction (group B), which consisted of α-curcumene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In contrast, the bulb-to-bulb distillation of the steam distillate gave a fraction (group C) with a very different odor from groups A and B. Group C was composed of several kinds of alcohols that were not present in groups A and B. These results indicate that the group C fraction causes the different, pungent odor of the turmeric oil obtained by steam distillation. The variation in the aroma of turmeric depended on the combination of these three groups of odor constituents.

  11. Salt and aroma compound release in model cheeses in relation to their mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Lauverjat, Clementine; Délérist, Isabelle; Tréléa, Cristian; Salles, Christian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical properties (partition and diffusion coefficients) involved in the mobility and release of salt and aroma compounds in model cheeses were determined in this study. The values of NaCl water/product partition coefficients highlighted interactions between proteins and NaCl. However, these interactions were not modified by the product composition or structure. On the contrary, model cheese composition and structure influenced NaCl diffusion and both partition and diffusion for arom...

  12. Prediction of the production kinetics of the main fermentative aromas in winemaking fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Mouret, Jean-Roch; Farines, Vincent; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Trelea, Ioan-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A novel dynamic model was developed for predicting the synthesis kinetics of the principal aroma compounds produced by yeasts during winemaking fermentations: isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. The parameters of the model were identified from nine fermentations performed at temperatures between 18 and 30 degrees C and with different initial nitrogen contents, in the range of 70 to 410 mgN/L. The model was validated in six independent experiments...

  13. Saliva from obese individuals suppresses the release of aroma compounds from wine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Piombino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O and 28 normal-weight (N individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. CONCLUSION: Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity.

  14. In vitro aroma release from model cheeses varying in composition using a chewing simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Syarifuddin, Adiansyah, T. Thomas-Danguin, C.Septier, E. Semon and C. Salles

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, due to increased health consciousness, worldwide health authorities recommend a reduction of salt and fat in daily food consumption. Therefore, the formulation of low salt-fat foods that still match consumer acceptability has led to an increased demand for knowledge on the multifunctional role of fat and salt in food. Here we set out to examine whether variations in food matrix composition can explain the dynamic of aroma release during in vitro chewing. To do...

  15. Mechanisms underlying the toxicity of lactone aroma compounds towards the producing yeast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aguedo, Mario; Beney, L.; Waché, Y.; Belin, J.-M.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity of the fruity aroma compound γ-decalactone, that lead to alterations in cell viability during its biotechnological production by yeast cells; Yarrowia lipolytica that is able to produce high amounts of this metabolite was used here as a model. Methods and Results: Lactone concentrations above 150 mg l-1 inhibited cell growth, depolarized the living cells and increased membrane fluidity. Infrared spectroscopic measurements revealed that the...

  16. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers' evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  17. Canonical Correlation between the Leaf Quality Indicators of "Moderate Aroma" Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; MENG; Yuangang; DAI; Chengdong; WANG; Shusheng; WANG; Wenjing; SONG; Yuanhua; WU; Yimin; XU

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the correlation between tobacco quality evaluation indicators in China’s traditional " moderate aroma" tobaccoproducing areas and simplify the tobacco quality evaluation indicators,we evaluate the appearance quality and smoking quality of 143 flue-cured tobacco leaf samples in China’s " moderate aroma" tobacco-producing areas,test the physical traits and chemical component,and analyze the canonical correlation between four quality evaluation indicators. The results show that there is significant or extremely significant canonical correlation between four evaluation indicators( tobacco smoking quality,chemical component,appearance quality and physical trait quality); the cumulative variance contribution rate of evaluation indicators is in the order of chemical component( 69. 17%) > appearance quality( 68. 76%) > physical traits( 64. 13%); appearance quality is most closely related to physical traits( 93. 84%). The individual indicators for tobacco quality evaluation make different contribution to the correlation between quality evaluation indicators. The chemical component evaluation indicators mainly include total sugar and ratio of total sugar to betaine; sensory taste indicators mainly include aroma volume,smoke concentration,irritation and softness degree; physical trait evaluation indicators mainly include leaf weight,leaf length and leaf density; appearance quality indicators mainly include leaf organizational structure,color,maturity and identity. Studies have shown that in the large-scale ecoregion,using canonical correlation analysis to simplify tobacco quality evaluation indicators is feasible.

  18. Potential of Glycosidase from Non-Saccharomyces Isolates for Enhancement of Wine Aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Qin, Yi; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Peng, Chuan-Tao; Ullah, Niamat

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to rapidly screen indigenous yeasts with high levels of β-glucosidase activity and assess the potential of glycosidase extracts for aroma enhancement in winemaking. A semiquantitative colorimetric assay was applied using 96-well plates to screen yeasts from 3 different regions of China. Isolates with high β-glucosidase activity were confirmed by the commonly used pNP assay. Among 493 non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 8 generas, 3 isolates were selected for their high levels of β-glucosidase activity and were identified as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa by sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. β-Glucosidase in the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain showed the highest activity in winemaking conditions among the selected isolates. For aroma enhancement in winemaking, the glycosidase extract from H. uvarum strain exhibited catalytic specificity for aromatic glycosides of C13 -norisoprenoids and some terpenes, enhancing fresh floral, sweet, berry, and nutty aroma characteristics in wine. PMID:26954887

  19. Aroma components of cooked tail meat of American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G H; Suriyaphan, O; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-09-01

    Key aroma components of cooked tail meat of American lobster (Homarus americanus) were studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) techniques. Components of low and intermediate volatility were evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis of solvent extracts prepared by direct solvent extraction-high vacuum distillation and vacuum steam distillation-solvent extraction, whereas headspace volatile components were assessed by GCO of decreasing headspace (static and dynamic modes) samples. Forty-seven odorants were detected by all techniques. 3-Methylbutanal (chocolate, malty), 2,3-butanedione (buttery), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), 1-octen-3-one (mushroom), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber), were identified as predominant odorants by all four isolation methods. The highly volatile compounds methanethiol (rotten, sulfurous) and dimethyl sulfide (canned corn) were detected by headspace methods only. These eight odorants along with three unknown compounds with crabby, amine, fishy odors were found to predominate in the overall aroma of cooked lobster tail meat. PMID:11559132

  20. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit. PMID:27347931

  1. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

  2. Aroma chemicals isolated and identified from leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill. Var. Natalensis Berger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umano, K; Nakahara, K; Shoji, A; Shibamoto, T

    1999-09-01

    Extracts from leaves of aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger) were obtained using two methods: steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by dichloromethane extraction (DRP) and simultaneous purging and extraction (SPE). A total of 123 aroma chemicals were identified in the extracts obtained by both methods using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. There were 42 alcohols, 23 terpenoids, 21 aldehydes, 9 esters, 8 ketones, 6 acids, 5 phenols, and 9 miscellaneous compounds. The major aroma constituents of this extract by DRP were (Z)-3-hexenol (29.89%), (Z)-3-hexenal (18.86%), (E)-hexenal (7.31%), 4-methyl-3-pentenol (5.66%), and butanol (4.29%). The major aroma constituents of this extract by SPE were (E)-2-hexenal (45.46%), (Z)-3-hexenal (32.12%), hexanal (9.14%), (Z)-3-hexenol (1.60%), and 3-pentanone (1.41%). Terpenoids were also found as one of the major constituents. The fresh green note of aloe leaves is due to the presence of these C(6) alcohols and aldehydes as well as terpenoids. PMID:10552708

  3. Biotechnological production of γ-decalactone, a peach like aroma, by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A; Belo, I

    2016-10-01

    The request for new flavourings increases every year. Consumer perception that everything natural is better is causing an increase demand for natural aroma additives. Biotechnology has become a way to get natural products. γ-Decalactone is a peach-like aroma widely used in dairy products, beverages and others food industries. In more recent years, more and more studies and industrial processes were endorsed to cost-effect this compound production. One of the best-known methods to produce γ-decalactone is from ricinoleic acid catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica, a generally regarded as safe status yeast. As yet, several factors affecting γ-decalactone production remain to be fully understood and optimized. In this review, we focus on the aromatic compound γ-decalactone and its production by Y. lipolytica. The metabolic pathway of lactone production and degradation are addressed. Critical analysis of novel strategies of bioprocess engineering, metabolic and genetic engineering and other strategies for the enhancement of the aroma productivity are presented. PMID:27565779

  4. Effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification, rheological properties and aroma release of dairy gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica C Bigaski; Granato, Daniel; Masson, Maria Lucia; Andriot, Isabelle; Mosca, Ana Carolina; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2016-09-15

    The food industry is investigating new technological applications of lactobionic acid (LBA). In the current work, the effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification of dairy gels (pH 5.5 and 6.2), rheological properties using a double compression test, sodium mobility using (23)Na NMR technique and aroma release using headspace GC-FID were studied. Our results showed that it is possible to use LBA as an alternative to glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) for the production of dairy gels with a controlled pH value. Small differences in the rheological properties and in the amount of aroma volatile organic compounds that were released in the vapour phase, but no significant difference in the sodium ion mobility were obtained. The gels produced with LBA were less firm and released less volatile aroma compounds than the gels produced with GDL. The gels at pH 6.2 were firmer than those at pH 5.5 and had a more organised structure around the sodium ions. PMID:27080885

  5. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  6. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  7. Effect of gamma-radiation on major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside of cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food materials by gamma-radiation is a well established method for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestation. Irradiation of spices at doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy has been reported to result in complete elimination of microorganisms with negligible changes in the flavour quality. The effect of gamma-radiation on microflora and vanillin content of cured vanilla beans in the dose range of 5-50 kGy has been investigated, but its effect on other major aroma compounds and vanillin glucoside (vanillin aroma precursor) remaining after curing have not been studied so far. Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is one such compound used as a flavouring agent and as a dietary component. It is the major component of natural vanilla, which is one of the most widely used and important flavouring materials throughout the world. Vanillin is an antioxidant capable of protecting membrane against lipid peroxidation and DNA against strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species. The present work was aimed to study the effect of gamma-radiation processing on the major aroma compounds of cured vanilla beans and also to investigate possible enhancement in vanillin content by the radiolytic breakdown of vanillin glucoside present already. Cured vanilla beans were irradiated (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kGy) and the vanillin content of control and irradiated samples were analysed, respectively for a possible enhancement of vanillin content by radiolysis of vanillin glucoside. Radiolytic breakdown of glycosidic precursors of aroma constituents and consequent release of free aroma was shown to result in the enhancement of aroma quality of these products. Since a considerable amount of vanillin exists as its glycosidic precursor in cured vanilla pods, a possible enhancement in yield of vanillin by radiation processing is thus expected. Hence the highly stable oxygen-carbon linkage between vanillin and glucose limits the possible enhancement of aroma

  8. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils. PMID:23461409

  9. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  10. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in a commercial Amontillado sherry wine by means of the sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Pauline; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-05-20

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) distillation from a commercial Amontillado sherry wine revealed 37 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors in the range of 16-4096. Among them, 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) and ethyl methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest FD factors, followed by ethyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity) reported for the first time in sherry wine. A total of 36 aroma-active compounds located by AEDA were then quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. The highest OAV was displayed by 1,1-diethoxyethane (2475; fruity), followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanals (574; malty) and methylpropanal (369; malty). Aroma reconstitution experiments and a comparative aroma profile analysis revealed that the entire orthonasal aroma profile of the Amontillado sherry wine could be closely mimicked. PMID:25921555

  11. Discriminant Analysis of Aroma Types of Flue-cured Tobacco on Neutral Aroma Components%基于烤烟中性致香物质的烤烟香型判别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹军; 张晓龙; 周芳芳; 邓国宾; 资文华; 毛春堂; 包崇彦; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    In order to distinguish characteristics of aroma types of flue-cured tobacco and establish mathematical model for judgment of aroma types. Contents of neutral aroma components in flue-cured tobacco of different aroma types were analyszed which were based on 61 samples (C3F) from 11 main tobacco production provinces of China. Stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to different aroma types tobacco leaves using 24 neutral aroma components and discriminant function was expressed. The results showed that contents of neutral aroma components in middle aroma type were the highest [(467.562 ± 96. 188) μg/g], following as full aroma type [(417. 115 ± 113. 166) μg/g], and then clean aroma type [(377. 267 ± 56. 677) μg/g]. The contents of 13 components in middle aroma type were the highest, the 8 components in full aroma type and 2 components in clean aroma type. The results of discriminant analysis indicated that 10 neutral aroma components (β-damascenone, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-dione, hexanal, 3-oxo-crionol, benzyl alcohol, pyrrole, phenylacetaldehyde, linalool, neophytadiene, megastigmatrienone) were used in the discriminant function and found discriminant model. Self-validation method and Cross-validation method were applied to back evaluation on original sample. The accuracy of back evaluation were 93. 44% and 88. 52% respectively. The other 22 samples were predicted using this modle, the accuracy of predicted samples about 3 kinds aroma types (full aroma type, middle aroma type, clean aroma type) were 88. 89%, 100%, 85. 71% respectively. In conclusion, the discrimination method had its own advantage and could be used to identify aroma type of flue-cured tobacco accurately and quickly.%以中国11个主要产烟省61个C3F烟叶为材料,测定不同香型烤烟中性致香物质含量,并以24种中性致香物质为指标,采用逐步判别分析法对不同香型烤烟样品进行判别分析,建立判别函数.结果表明,中间香型

  12. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.; Ziegler, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize...... type. As deduced from DSC, powder XRD and SEM analyses, citral, butyric acid and octanol exerted specific effects on the starch granules manifested in local melting of crystalline layers and partial disruption of the granular meso structure. The most prominent effect was obtained with citral...

  13. Study on Healing Environment Using Green, Blue and Red LED and Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaho, Noriharu; Konno, Noriko; Shimada, Takamasa

    In this paper we evaluated the effects of 1/f fluctuation of Green LED light emitted from the specific object by using psychological and physiological experimental tests of spectral electroencephalogram (EEG) topography. In addition, we also verified that the combination of appropriate aroma, blue LED light irradiation and music such as “Mozart: Serenade in Eine Kleine Nacht Musik” has improved mental healing conditions. We confirmed the possibility that the effect of “Healing” would be improved by the above mentioned environments.

  14. Influence of the composition and the structure of different media on the release of aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Seuvre, Anne-Marie; Marian De Los Angeles Espinosa Diaz,; Cayot, Philippe; Voilley, Andrée

    2004-01-01

    International audience The release of 2-nonanone and hexenol (hex-4-en-3-ol) was studied in model media with different structures and compositions: water, a gel of $\\beta$-lactoglobulin, gelified or non-gelified emulsions (5.0% Miglyol, 6.9% $\\beta$-lactoglobulin; the gelation was realized by heating) and milk. The aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. A strong influence of the nature of the volatile compound on its behavior towards the food matrix was observed: in the case ...

  15. Diseño de un dispositivo difusor de aromas para espacios comerciales cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Franco, Santiago; Lema Suárez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto presenta el desarrollo de diseño de un producto flexible a mercados emergentes, con el fin de brindar a las empresas un medio innovador para entrar en la mente de los consumidores y quedar plasmado dentro de estas, de manera positiva y permanente -- Este proyecto está establecido por el desarrollo y el diseño de un difusor de aromas, para ambientar espacios comerciales cerrados, con el cual se pretende conquistar nichos de mercado con muy poca oferta, así como crear una herramient...

  16. Sastav arome topljenih sireva proizvedenih uz primjenu prirodnih aroma Cheddar sira i Parmezana

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Ljiljana; Hardi, Jovica; Carić, Marijana

    1991-01-01

    U industriji prerade mlijeka prirodne arome sira mogu da se koriste za dobivanje specifične arome pri proizvodnji topljenih sireva, jogurta, pavlake, maslaca, sira u prahu i raznih imitacija mliječnih proizvoda. Prednosti njihove primjene jesu: povećan intenzitet arome, ujednačenost i stalna kvaliteta te niža cijena u odnosu na odgovarajući sir. U ovom radu je praćen sastav arome topljenih sireva za mazanje proizvedenih primjenom prirodnih aroma sira (proizvođač International Flavors and Fran...

  17. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed...... for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes....... 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different...

  18. Aroma compound analysis of Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae) SPME headspace leaf samples using GC, GC-MS, and olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Smith, David; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2002-07-31

    The aroma compounds of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) SPME headspace samples of fresh leaves were analyzed using GC, GC-MS, and olfactometry. More than 50 constituents of the Eruca headspace could be identified to be essential volatiles, responsible for the characteristic intense green; herbal; nutty and almond-like; Brassicaceae-like (direction of cabbage, broccoli, and mustard); and horseradish-like aroma of these salad leaves. As aroma impact compounds, especially isothiocyanates, and derivatives of butane, hexane, octane, and nonane were identified. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (14.2%), cis-3-hexen-1-ol (11.0%), cis-3-hexenyl butanoate (10.8%), 5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate (9.3%), cis-3-hexenyl 2-methylbutanoate (5.4%), and 5-methylthiopentanenitrile (5.0%) were found in concentrations higher than 5.0% (calculated as % peak area of GC analysis using a nonpolar column).

  19. Effects of Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator fungi on the aroma character of grape must: A comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-09-15

    Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator are among the most relevant fungi in viticulture. In order to deepen our knowledge about their potential impact on wine quality, their effects on the aroma character of the initial stage of wine production, i.e. the must were studied. The main aroma compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and ranked according to their relative intensities by means of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Clear differences between healthy and infected samples were observed. Botrytis cinerea had a positive impact on fruity and floral notes while several earthy smelling compounds were developed as result of the infection. Unlike in previous studies, however, we did not observe any clear differences in the quantities of earthy-mushroom-like smelling substances as result of the infection process with Erysiphe necator. PMID:27080903

  20. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (pDescriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  1. Lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT are key enzymes for the formation of aroma compounds from amino acids in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, L.; Yvon, M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Courtin, P.; Verheul, A.; Chambellon, E.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid catabolism plays a major role in cheese aroma development. Previously, we showed that the lactococcal aminotransferases AraT and BcaT initiate the conversion of aromatic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids and methionine to aroma compounds. In this study, we evaluated the importance o

  2. Understanding the role of saliva in aroma release from wine by using static and dynamic headspace conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Feron, Gilles; Guichard, Elisabeth; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J José; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-08-20

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of saliva in wine aroma release by using static and dynamic headspace conditions. In the latter conditions, two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) corresponding with oral (25.5 °C) and postoral phases (36 °C) were monitored. Both methodologies were applied to reconstituted dearomatized white and red wines with different nonvolatile wine matrix compositions and a synthetic wine (without matrix effect). All of the wines had the same ethanol concentration and were spiked with a mixture of 45 aroma compounds covering a wide range of physicochemical characteristics at typical wine concentrations. Two types of saliva (human and artificial) or control samples (water) were added to the wines. The adequacy of the two headspace methodologies for the purposes of the study (repeatability, linear ranges, determination coefficients, etc.) was previously determined. After application of different chemometric analysis (ANOVA, LSD, PCA), results showed a significant effect of saliva on aroma release dependent on saliva type (differences between artificial and human) and on wine matrix using static headspace conditions. Red wines were more affected than white and synthetic wines by saliva, specifically human saliva, which provoked a reduction in aroma release for most of the assayed aroma compounds independent of their chemical structure. The application of dynamic headspace conditions using a saliva bioreactor at the two different sampling points (t = 0 and t = 10 min) showed a lesser but significant effect of saliva than matrix composition and a high influence of temperature (oral and postoral phases) on aroma release.

  3. 威代尔甜葡萄酒主要呈香物质和香气特征的鉴定%Identification of Main Aroma Components and Aroma Characteristics of Vidal Sweet Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家梅; 张军翔; 薛洁; 刘娜; 张峰玮

    2016-01-01

    通过气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对威代尔甜葡萄酒中的呈香物质进行鉴定,准确定量出了35种挥发性香气成分,并结合各物质的感官阈值对每种物质的香气活性值(OAV)进行计算,寻找出威代尔甜葡萄酒中的主要呈香物质.同时,通过感官评鉴对4款威代尔甜葡萄酒的香气特征和轮廓进行了分析.结果表明,4种威代尔甜葡萄酒中共有18种香气成分具有气味活性,其中4-甲基-4-巯基-2-戊酮的气味活性值最高,使甜葡萄酒表现出苦味和葡萄柚的风味;辛酸乙酯、乙酸异戊酯、己酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯主要为甜葡萄酒提供水果香;丁香酚、2-苯乙醇使葡萄酒具有花香.威代尔甜葡萄酒的香气特征整体表现出蜜香、甜苹果、葡萄柚的香气特征,其中,兰月谷甜白苦杏仁味、脂肪味突出;张裕冰酒花香突出,有玫瑰和焦糖的独特味道;巴格斯冰酒果香突出,植物味明显;加拿大云惜甜白有菠萝和麦芽的香气,符合分析的结果.%In the experiments, 35 kinds of volatile aroma compounds in Vidal sweet wine were identified and quantified accurately by GC-MS. Odor activity value (OAV) of each compound was calculated in combination with its sensory threshold value. Then the main aroma compounds in Vidal sweet wine were determined. Meanwhile, the aroma characteristics of four kinds of Vidal sweet wine were analyzed through sensory evaluation and aroma profile analysis. The results showed that, 18 kinds of aroma compounds in the four kinds of Vidal sweet wine presented odor activity, among them, OAV of 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest (it endowed the sweet wine bitter taste and grapefruit fla-vor), ethyl octanoate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl acetate mainly provided the sweet wine with fruity aroma, and eugenol and 2-phenylethanol provided the sweet wine with flower smell. The four kinds of Vidal sweet wine displayed honey and grapefruit aroma, among

  4. Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-09-15

    Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and β-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds.

  5. Retention of aroma compounds from Mentha piperita essential oil by cyclodextrins and crosslinked cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, A; Mallard, I; Landy, D; Brabie, G; Nistor, D; Fourmentin, S

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the controlled release of aroma compounds from cyclodextrins (CDs) and CD polymers was studied by multiple headspace extraction (MHE) experiments. Mentha piperita essential oil was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and identification of the major compounds was performed by GC-MS analysis. Menthol, menthone, pulegone and eucalyptol were identified as the major components. Retention of standard compounds in the presence of different CDs and CD polymers has been realised by static headspace gas chromatography (SH-GC) at 25 °C in the aqueous or gaseous phase. Stability constants for standard compounds and for compounds in essential oil have been also determined with monomeric CD derivatives. The obtained results indicated the formation of a 1:1 inclusion complex for all the studied compounds. Molecular modelling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. This study showed that β-CDs were the most versatile CDs and that β-CD polymers could perform the controlled release of aroma compounds.

  6. Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Felipe San; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2012-05-23

    The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set.

  7. Análisis sensorial descriptivo cuantitativo (QDA) aplicado al estudio del aroma de los vinos gallegos

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo ha pretendido establecer descriptores útiles en la identificación del aroma de los vinos jóvenes elaborados con tres de las variedades más representativas de Galicia, utilizando la metodología del análisis sensorial descriptivo cuantitativo.

  8. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  9. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees.

  10. Evaluation of the aroma quality of Chinese traditional soy paste during storage based on principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Li, Xin; Shi, Xiaodi; Guo, Shuntang

    2014-05-15

    Soy paste, a fermented soybean product, is widely used for flavouring in East and Southeast Asian countries. The characteristic aroma of soy paste is important throughout its shelf life. This study extracted volatile compounds via headspace solid-phase microextraction and conducted a quantitative analysis of 15 key volatile compounds using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. Changes in aroma content during storage time were analyzed using an acceleration model (40 °C, 28 days). In the 28 days of storage, results showed that among key soy paste volatile compounds, alcohol and aldehyde contents decreased by 35% and 26%, respectively. By contrast, acid, ester, and heterocycle contents increased by 130%, 242%, and 15%, respectively. The overall odour type transformed from a floral to a roasting aroma. According to sample clustering in the principal component analysis, the storage life of soy paste could be divided into three periods. These three periods represent the floral, roasting, and pungent aroma types of soy paste. PMID:24423567

  11. Aroma profiles of vegetable oils varying in fatty acid composition vs. concentrations of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.; Jansen, F.J.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aroma compositions of oxidised sunflower oil, linseed oil and a blend thereof (85/15) were compared with frequently used indicators for primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Primary lipid oxidation was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes, secondary lipid oxidation by proponal and hex

  12. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. PMID:27283713

  13. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-01

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  14. Detection of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Morchella by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatira TAŞKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   This study was conducted at the Horticulture Department of Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey, in 2010 to determine the volatile aroma compounds of Morchella mushroom. Fresh samples of Morchella esculenta (Sample 1 and Morchella elata (Sample 2 were collected from Çanakkale (Sample 1 and Mersin (Sample 2 provinces in Turkey in the spring of 2010. Volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS. A total of 31 aroma compounds were identified in the 2 analyzed samples: 7 alcohols, 7 esters, 7 ketones, 3 acids, 2 aldehydes, 1 terpene, phenol, 1-propanamine, geranyl linalool, and quinoline. Seventeen aroma components were identified in Sample 1, and 18 compounds were found in Sample 2. Phenol was determined as the major aroma compound in both Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 50.888% and 58.293% content, respectively. Alcohols, especially 1-octen-3-ol, were detected as the second major aroma components in Sample 1 and Sample 2, at 15.500% and 5.660% content, respectively. Carbamic acid, methyl ester was found only in Sample 1, at 11.379% content. The aroma components detected in the two samples differed. 1-Octadecanol; cyclooctylalcohol; trans-2-undecen-1-ol; butanoic acid, butyl ester (CAS; carbamic acid, methyl ester; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate; phthalic acid, decyl isobutyl ester; 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate; decanal; nonanal; 7,9-di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4.5deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl; and trans-alpha-bisabolene were detected only in Sample 1. Ethanol; silanediol, 2-methylaminoethanol; L-alanine, ethyl ester; carbonic acid, dodecyl isobutyl ester; acetic acid; butanoic acid; 2,3,4H-pyran-4-one; 5,9-undecadien-2-one; cyclooctene; 2-cyclopenten-1-one; 1-propanamine; geranyl linalool; and quinoline were determined only in Sample 2.

  15. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  16. Generation of aroma compounds in sourdough: effects of stress exposure and lactobacilli-yeasts interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerzoni, M E; Vernocchi, P; Ndagijimana, M; Gianotti, A; Lanciotti, R

    2007-04-01

    The effects of the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBS and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LSCE1 and of their responses to acid, oxidative or osmotic stress on alcohol and aroma production were assessed. The exposure of S. cerevisiae LBS and L. sanfranciscensis LSCE1 cells to oxidative, acid or osmotic sub-lethal stress gave rise to a common or specific responses. Gamma-decalactone, 2(5H)-furanones and aldehydes were overproduced by LAB following oxidative stress. The acid stress induced both in yeasts and LAB, as well as in their co-cultures, a relevant accumulation of isovaleric and acetic acids and higher alcohols. A cross-exposure of yeasts and LAB to their preconditioned media, generated in S. cerevisiae a release of esters including esters of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids coming from membrane phospholipids. These esters were excreted also by yeasts following a pressure stress. PMID:17008156

  17. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer.

  18. Quantification of megastigmatrienone, a potential contributor to tobacco aroma in spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Perello, Marie-Claire; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-07-15

    A SPME-GC-MS method was adapted and validated in order to quantify 5 megastigmatrienones and related odorous compounds from oak wood: guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, trans-whisky lactone, γ-nonalactone, eugenol, vanillin, and acetovanillone in a single run. The five megastigmatrienone isomers (tabanones) were quantified, for the first time, in Cognac, Armagnac and rum, as contributors to tobacco-like aromas. Spirits aged in oak barrels contain higher amounts, but megastigmatrienones are also present in freshly-distilled spirits. Statistical analysis revealed that freshly-distilled and barrel-aged spirits were differentiated by their megastigma-4,7E,9-trien-3-one levels. The Armagnac and Cognac samples were distinguished by their concentrations of the megastigma-4,6Z,8E-trien-3-one isomer. PMID:26948587

  19. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially......The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  20. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  1. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.;

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter...... for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage....

  2. Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Macedo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.

  3. Analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma by desiccated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Qiong; Zhong, Cai-Hong; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-04-01

    A new method for desiccated headspace (DHS) sampling of aqueous sample to GC-MS for the analysis of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma in different kiwifruit cultivars has been developed based on the complete hydrate formation between the sample solvent (water) with anhydrous salt (calcium chloride) at an elevated temperature (above the boiling point of the aqueous sample) in a non-contact format, which overcame the water-effect challenge to directly introduce aqueous sample into GC-MS analysis. By means of DHS, the volatile compounds in three different kiwifruit cultivars were analyzed and compared under the optimized operating conditions, mainly time and temperature for headspace equilibration, column temperature program for GC-MS measurement. As a result, 20 peaks of volatile compounds responsible for kiwifruit aroma were detected and remarkable differences were found in the relative contents of three major volatile compounds among the three different kiwifruit cultivars, i.e., acetaldehyde, ethanol and furfural. The DHS sampling technique used in the present method can make the GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds in the aqueous sample within complex matrix possible without contaminating the GC-MS instrument. In terms of the analysis of volatile compounds in kiwifruit, the present method enabled a direct measurement on the filtrate of the aqueous kiwifruit pulp, without intermediate trap phase for the extraction of analytes, which will be more reliable and simpler as compared with any other headspace method in use. Thus, DHS coupled with GC-MS will be a new valuable tool available for the kiwifruit related research and organoleptic quality control. PMID:26922094

  4. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture. PMID:26529563

  5. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  6. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid.

  7. Characterization of the Aroma-Active, Phenolic, and Lipid Profiles of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Nut as Affected by the Single and Double Roasting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Kelebek, Hasim; Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Fontecha, Javier; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut is one of the most widely consumed edible nuts in the world. However, it is the roasting process that makes the pistachio commercially viable and valuable as it serves as the key step to improving the nut's hallmark sensory characteristics including flavor, color, and texture. Consequently, the present study explores the effects of the single-roasting and double-roasting process on the pistachio's chemical composition, specifically aroma-active compounds, polyphenols, and lipids. Results showed the total polyphenol content of increased with the roasting treatment; however, not all phenolic compounds demonstrated this behavior. With regard to the aroma and aroma-active compounds, the results indicated that roasting process results in the development of characteristics and pleasant aroma of pistachio samples due to the Maillard reaction. With regard to lipids, the pistachio roasting treatment reduced the concentration of CN38 diacylglycerides while increasing the amount of elaidic acid. PMID:26301818

  8. AROMA-AIRWICK: a CHLOE/CDC-3600 system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AROMA-AIRWICK System for CHLOE, an automatic film scanning equipment built at Argonne by Donald Hodges, and the CDC-3600 computer is a system for the automatic identification of spark images and their association into tracks. AROMA-AIRWICK has been an outgrowth of the generally recognized need for the automatic processing of high energy physics data and the fact that the Argonne National Laboratory has been a center of serious spark chamber development in recent years

  9. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  10. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  11. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  12. Manipulation of flavour and aroma compound sequestration and release using a glycosyltransferase with specificity for terpene alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Yauk, Yar-Khing; Ged, Claire; Wang, Mindy Y.; Matich, Adam J; Tessarotto, Lydie; Cooney, Janine M.; Chervin, Christian; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosides are an important potential source of aroma and flavour compounds for release as volatiles in flowers and fruit. The production of glycosides is catalysed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that mediate the transfer of an activated nucleotide sugar to acceptor aglycones. A screen of UGTs expressed in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) identified the gene AdGT4 which was highly expressed in floral tissues and whose expression increased during fruit ripening. Recombinant AdGT4 enzyme gly...

  13. Home conservation strategies for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): Storage temperature vs. duration – Is there a compromise for better aroma preservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ginies, Christian; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Expression of dissatisfaction with tomato aroma prompted us to lead this study on the impact of domestic storage conditions on volatile compounds. Two storage modalities (20 and 4° C) and two cultivars (Levovil and LCx) were used. Volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detection after accelerated solvent extraction. Physical characteristics, lipoxygenase activity, hydroperoxide lyase activity; linoleic acid and linolenic acid were monitored. Storing tomatoes ...

  14. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-11-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ≥32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix. PMID:24219571

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of aroma-acupressure and aromatherapy for the treatment of dementia-associated agitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Man-Hua; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wang, Pei-Ning; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most common symptoms observed in patients with dementia is agitation, and several non-pharmacological treatments have been used to control this symptom. However, because of limitations in research design, the benefit of non-pharmacological treatments has only been demonstrated in certain cases. The purpose of this study was to compare aroma-acupressure and aromatherapy with respect to their effects on agitation in patients with dementia. Methods In this experimental stud...

  16. Past and future of non-Saccharomyces yeasts: from spoilage microorganisms to biotechnological tools for improving wine aroma complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz ePadilla; José Vicente Gil; Paloma eManzanares

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of m...

  17. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V.; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of ...

  18. Saccharomyces Dışındaki Mayaların Şarap Aromasına Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Bağder, Simel; Özçelik, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although S. cerevisiae is major wine yeast responsible for wine fermentation, the yeasts other than genus of Saccharomyces, which are called non-Saccharomyces, contribute to wine aroma producing secondary metabolites such as glycerol, higher alcohols and esters. Contrary to S. cerevisiae, the non-Saccharomyces yeasts are able to produce and release several enzymes such as esterases, glycosidases, lipases, β-glycosidases, proteases to the medium where they can interact with grape precursor co...

  19. The Efficacy of Molecular Markers Analysis with Integration of Sensory Methods in Detection of Aroma in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    H. Y. Yeap; G. Faruq; Zakaria, H. P.; Harikrishna, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both hete...

  20. Volatile Compounds in Honey: A Review on Their Involvement in Aroma, Botanical Origin Determination and Potential Biomedical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in honey are obtained from diverse biosynthetic pathways and extracted by using various methods associated with varying degrees of selectivity and effectiveness. These compounds are grouped into chemical categories such as aldehyde, ketone, acid, alcohol, hydrocarbon, norisoprenoids, terpenes and benzene compounds and their derivatives, furan and pyran derivatives. They represent a fingerprint of a specific honey and therefore could be used to differentiate between monofloral honeys from different floral sources, thus providing valuable information concerning the honey’s botanical and geographical origin. However, only plant derived compounds and their metabolites (terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene compounds and their derivatives must be employed to discriminate among floral origins of honey. Notwithstanding, many authors have reported different floral markers for honey of the same floral origin, consequently sensory analysis, in conjunction with analysis of VOCs could help to clear this ambiguity. Furthermore, VOCs influence honey’s aroma described as sweet, citrus, floral, almond, rancid, etc. Clearly, the contribution of a volatile compound to honey aroma is determined by its odor activity value. Elucidation of the aroma compounds along with floral origins of a particular honey can help to standardize its quality and avoid fraudulent labeling of the product. Although only present in low concentrations, VOCS could contribute to biomedical activities of honey, especially the antioxidant effect due to their natural radical scavenging potential.

  1. Home conservation strategies for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): storage temperature vs. duration--is there a compromise for better aroma preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Catherine M G C; Ginies, Christian; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-08-15

    Expression of dissatisfaction with tomato aroma prompted us to lead this study on the impact of domestic storage conditions on volatile compounds. Two storage modalities (20 and 4°C) and two cultivars (Levovil and LCx) were used. Volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection after accelerated solvent extraction. Physical characteristics, lipoxygenase activity, hydroperoxide lyase activity; linoleic acid and linolenic acid were monitored. Storing tomatoes at 4°C induced a drastic loss in volatiles, whatever their biosynthetic origin. After 30 days at 4°C, the concentration of volatiles had decreased by 66%. Reconditioning for 24 h at 20°C was able to recover some aroma production after up to 6 days storage at 4°C. Volatile degradation products arising from carotenoids and amino acids increased when tomatoes were kept at 20°C, while lipid degradation products did not vary. Storing tomatoes at fridge temperature, even for short durations, was detrimental for their aroma. This should be taken into account to formulate practical advice for consumers. PMID:23561178

  2. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  3. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation. PMID:27283714

  4. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  5. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  6. Free and bound aroma compounds characterization by GC-MS of Negroamaro wine as affected by soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Crupi, Pasquale; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Antonacci, Donato; Coletta, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Negroamaro is an autochthonous wine grape variety of Southern Italy, which is becoming very important for the Italian wine market. The wine aroma is primary affected by the chemical composition of grapes, which can be influenced also by agronomic practices such as soil management. In this study, the free and bound aroma characterization was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and the influence of two soil managements (cover cropping and soil tillage) was evaluated. A total of 40 volatile compounds were observed in the wine samples. Alcohols (55.7 mg/L), fatty acids (7.0 mg/L) and esters (6.6 mg/L) were found as the main classes in Negroamaro wine. The results showed that the aroma composition of Negroamaro wine was positively affected by soil tillage probably because of the higher water stress (ψ(s)) recorded in the vines from this treatment. Indeed, among the free volatile compounds, higher contents of esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenolics and acetamides together with lower contents of sulfurs compounds were found in soil tillage wine. Conversely, no difference was observed in glycoside volatile compounds.

  7. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  8. Real-Time Emulation of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with End-to-Edge Quality of Service Guarantees: The AROMA Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Umbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents and describes the real-time testbed for all-IP Beyond 3G (B3G heterogeneous wireless networks that has been developed in the framework of the European IST AROMA project. The main objective of the AROMA testbed is to provide a highly accurate and realistic framework where the performance of algorithms, policies, protocols, services, and applications for a complete heterogeneous wireless network can be fully assessed and evaluated before bringing them to a real system. The complexity of the interaction between all-IP B3G systems and user applications, while dealing with the Quality of Service (QoS concept, motivates the development of this kind of emulation platform where different solutions can be tested in realistic conditions that could not be achieved by means of simple offline simulations. This work provides an in-depth description of the AROMA testbed, emphasizing many interesting implementation details and lessons learned during the development of the tool that may result helpful to other researchers and system engineers in the development of similar emulation platforms. Several case studies are also presented in order to illustrate the full potential and capabilities of the presented emulation platform.

  9. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  10. Analysis of neutral volatile aroma components in Tilsit cheese using a combination of dynamic headspace technique, capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilsit cheese is made by the influence of lab ferment and starter cultures on milk. The ripening is done by repeated inoculation of the surface of the Tilsit cheese with yeasts and read smear cultures. This surface flora forms the typical aroma of the Tilsit cheese during the ripening process. The aim of the work was to receive general knowledge about the kind and amount of the neutral volatile aroma components of Tilsit cheese. Beyond this the ability of forming aroma components by read smear cultures and the dispersion of these components in cheese was to be examined. The results were intended to evaluate the formation of aroma components in Tilsit cheese. The semi-quantitative analyses of the aroma components of all samples were done by combining dynamic headspace extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this process the neutral volatile aroma components were extracted by dynamic headspace technique, adsorbed on a trap, thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, detected and identified by mass spectrometry. 63 components belonging to the chemical classes of esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and sulfur containing substances as well as aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were found in the analysed cheese samples of different Austrian Tilsit manufacturing plants. All cheese samples showed a qualitative equal but quantitative varied spectrum of aroma components. The cultivation of pure cultures on a cheese agar medium showed all analysed aroma components to be involved in the biochemical metabolism of these cultures. The ability to produce aroma components greatly differed between the strains and it was not possible to correlate this ability with the taxonomic classification of the strains. The majority of the components had a non-homogeneous concentration profile in the cheese body. This was explained by effects of diffusion and temporal and spatial different forming of components by the metabolism of the

  11. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds.

  12. Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

    2010-10-01

    Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles.

  13. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds. PMID:26476645

  14. Aroma analysis and quality control of food using highly sensitive analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the development of quality control methods for food based on headspace measurements by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and with aroma analysis of food using PTR-MS and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). An objective method was developed for the determination of a herb extract's quality; this quality was checked by a sensory analysis until now. The concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of 81 different batches were measured by PTR-MS. Based on the sensory judgment of the customer, characteristic differences in the emissions of 'good' and 'bad' quality samples were identified and a method for the quality control of this herb extract was developed. This novel method enables the producing company to check and ensure that they are only selling high-quality products and therefore avoid complaints of the customer. Furthermore this method can be used for controlling, optimizing and automating the production process. VOCs emitted by meat were investigated using PTR-MS to develop a rapid, non-destructive and quantitative technique for determination of the microbial contamination of meat. Meat samples (beef, pork and poultry) that were wrapped into different kinds of packages (air and vacuum) were stored in at 4oC for up to 13 days. The emitted VOCs were measured as a function of storage time and identified partly. The concentration of many of the measured VOCs, e.g. sulfur compounds like methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, largely increased over the storage time. There were big differences in the emissions of normal air- and vacuum-packed meat. VOCs typically emitted by air-packaged meat were methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide, while ethanol and methanol were found in vacuum-packaged meat. A comparison of the PTR-MS results with those obtained by a bacteriological examination performed at the same time showed strong correlations (up to 99 %) between the

  15. Effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen on the synthesis of phenolic aroma compounds by Hanseniaspora vineae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Valentina; Boido, Eduardo; Giorello, Facundo; Mas, Albert; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    In several grape varieties, the dominating aryl alkyl alcohols found are the volatile group of phenylpropanoid-related compounds, such as glycosylated benzyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which contribute to wine with floral and fruity aromas after being hydrolysed during fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is largely recognized as the main agent in grape must fermentation, but yeast strains belonging to other genera, including Hanseniaspora, are known to predominate during the first stages of alcoholic fermentation. Although non-Saccharomyces yeast strains have a well-recognized genetic diversity, understanding of their impact on wine flavour richness is still emerging. In this study, 11 Hansenisapora vineae strains were used to ferment a chemically defined simil-grape fermentation medium, resembling the nutrient composition of grape juice but devoid of grape-derived secondary metabolites. GC-MS analysis was performed to determine volatile compounds in the produced wines. Our results showed that benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate are significantly synthesized by H. vineae strains. Levels of these compounds found in fermentations with 11 H. vineae different strains were one or two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in fermentations with a known S. cerevisiae wine strain. The implications for winemaking in response to the negative correlation of benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate production with yeast assimilable nitrogen concentrations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26945700

  16. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae, as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction technique coupled with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. In order to determine the sequence of the active terpene synthase in this plant, first mRNA was prepared and cloning was performed by 3’ and 5’-RACEs-PCR method, then cDNA was sequenced and finally aligned with other recognized terpene synthases. The results showed that the plant leaves mainly comprised geranial (37.2%, limonene-10-al (28.5%, limonene (20.1% and 1,1-dimethoxy decane (14.5%. Sequencing the cDNA cloned from this plant revealed the presence of a monoterpene synthase absolutely similar to limonene synthase, responsible in formation of limonene, terpinolene, camphene and some other cyclic monoterpenes in its young leaves.

  17. Composition rather than viscosity modifies the aroma compound retention of flavored stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Enkelejda Paçi; Souchon, Isabelle; Latrille, Eric; Martin, Nathalie; Marin, Michele

    2004-05-19

    The influence of thickening agents (modified starch/pectin mixture 0 and 7 g/L) and mechanical treatment (low, medium, and high) on the retention of esters (pentyl acetate and ethyl pentanoate), aldehydes (hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal), and a lactone (gamma-octalactone) in low-fat flavored stirred yogurts were investigated under equilibrium conditions. In the range studied, the thickening agent and mechanical treatment had little influence on aroma compound retention compared to the decreasing effect of increasing dairy protein concentration on aldehyde retention and the "salting out" effect of carbohydrates on esters. Moreover, experiments in dynamic mode (study of the release of hexanal when yogurts were heated) showed, in the conditions studied, that heat and mass transfer coefficients were not influenced by any of the studied factors (thickening agents and mechanical treatment). These results under static and dynamic conditions are not related to the significant decreasing effect of thickening agents on apple sensory scores associated with hexanal, observed in a previous sensory study. Thus, this sensory effect of thickening agents may be due to sensory interactions between perceptions rather than physicochemical interactions. PMID:15137852

  18. The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on Blood Pressure and Anxiety in Japanese Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Eguchi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aroma foot massage on blood pressure, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (QOL in Japanese community-dwelling men and women using a crossover randomized controlled trial.Fifty-seven eligible participants (5 men and 52 women aged 27 to 72 were randomly divided into 2 intervention groups (group A: n = 29; group B: n = 28 to participate in aroma foot massages 12 times during the 4-week intervention period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively, heart rate, state anxiety, and health-related QOL were measured at the baseline, 4-week follow-up, and 8-week follow-up. The effects of the aroma foot massage intervention on these factors and the proportion of participants with anxiety were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model for a crossover design adjusted for participant and period effects. Furthermore, the relationship between the changes in SBP and state anxiety among participants with relieved anxiety was assessed using a linear regression model.Aroma foot massage significantly decreased the mean SBP (p = 0.02, DBP (p = 0.006, and state anxiety (p = 0.003 as well as the proportion of participants with anxiety (p = 0.003. Although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.088, aroma foot massage also increased the score of mental health-related QOL. The change in SBP had a significant and positive correlation with the change in state anxiety (p = 0.01 among participants with relieved anxiety.The self-administered aroma foot massage intervention significantly decreased the mean SBP and DBP as well as the state anxiety score, and tended to increase the mental health-related QOL scores. The results suggest that aroma foot massage may be an easy and effective way to improve mental health and blood pressure.University Hospital Medical Information Network 000014260.

  19. 洋河系列绵柔型白酒香气成分研究%Identification of aroma compounds of supple and mellow aroma style liquors of Yanghe series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂庆庆; 范文来; 徐岩; 杨廷栋; 张雨柏; 周新虎; 陈翔

    2012-01-01

    The aroma compounds of supple and mellow aroma style liquors of Yanghe series were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction,and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry(GC-O)and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS).The total numbers of aroma compounds detected from three typical supple and mellow aroma style liquors(sea-blue,sky-blue and dream-blue)were 55,57,and 59,respectively.The results showed that ethyl hexanoate was the most important flavor compound in supple and mellow aroma style liquors,and hexanoic acid,ethyl butanoate,dimethyl trisulfide,2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine,and γ-nonalactone were important aroma compounds in this three liquors.In addition,benzeneacetaldehyde,3-methylbutanol,ethyl heptanoate,3-methylbutyl hexanoate,butanoic acid,and acetic acid were important flavor contributor to sea-blue,and 1-octen-3-one,ethyl octanoate,2-acetyl-5-methylfuran,and butanoic acid to sky-blue,and 1-octen-3-one,3-methylbutyl hexanoate,ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoate,ethyl octanoate,4-methylphenol,and ethyl heptanoate to dream-blue.%利用液液萃取法提取洋河系列绵柔型白酒中的香气化合物,通过气相色谱-闻香法(GC-O)及气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术对其进行鉴定。在具有典型绵柔型特征的海之蓝、天之蓝和梦之蓝三种酒中分别检测出55、57和59种呈香化合物。研究发现洋河系列绵柔型白酒的主要风味物质为己酸乙酯,对其风味有较大贡献的还有己酸、丁酸乙酯、二甲基三硫、三甲基吡嗪、γ-壬内酯。此外,在海之蓝中苯乙醛、3-甲基丁醇、庚酸乙酯、己酸-3-甲基丁酯、丁酸、乙酸对其风味贡献较大;天之蓝中1-辛烯-3-酮、辛酸乙酯、2-乙酰基-5-甲基呋喃、丁酸香气强度较大;梦之蓝中1-辛烯-3-酮、己酸-3-甲基丁酯、2-羟基-3-甲基丁酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯、4-甲基苯酚、庚酸乙酯香气强度较大。

  20. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone. PMID:18570373

  1. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds in an American Bourbon whisky by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction carefully isolated from an American Bourbon whisky revealed 45 odor-active areas in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-4096 among which (E)-beta-damascenone and delta-nonalactone showed the highest FD factors of 4096 and 2048, respectively. With FD factors of 1024, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, gamma-decalactone, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) additionally contributed to the overall vanilla-like, fruity, and smoky aroma note of the spirit. Application of GC-Olfactometry on the headspace above the whisky revealed 23 aroma-active odorants among which 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, and 2-methylbutanal were identified as additional important aroma compounds. Compared to published data on volatile constituents in whisky, besides ranking the whisky odorants on the basis of their odor potency, 13 aroma compounds were newly identified in this study: ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-2-heptenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, ethyl phenylacetate, 4-methyl acetophenone, alpha-damascone, 2-phenylethyl propanoate, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, trans-ethyl cinnamate, and (Z)-6-dodeceno-gamma-lactone.

  2. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis. PMID:27080898

  3. Effects of Aroma Massage on Home Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Women with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong-Sook Ju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP, ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n=28, the placebo group (n=28, and the no-treatment control group (n=27. To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group received a massage with essential oils prescribed by an aromatherapist once a week and body cream once a day. The placebo group received a massage using artificial fragrance oil once a week and body cream once a day. BP, pulse rate, sleep conditions, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were monitored before and after the experiment. There was a significant difference in home systolic blood pressure (SBP (F=6.71, P=0.002 between groups after intervention. There was also a significant difference in SBP (F=13.34, P=0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (F=8.46, P=0.005 in the laboratory between aroma massage and placebo groups. In sleep quality, there was a significant difference between groups (F=6.75, P=0.002. In conclusion, aroma massage may help improve patient quality of life and maintain health as a nursing intervention in daily life.

  4. A Study on Enhancing Aroma of Famous Green Tea%名优茶增香工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪德江; 陈玉琼; 周继荣; 袁芳亭

    2001-01-01

    The effect of improving was studied on rotary continuous fixation machine model 30. Results showed that the machine could be used to improve aroma of FGT,and the qulity of FGT wa s affected by temperature and time during improving aroma.Contents of polyphenol and chlorophyll, soluble sugar decreased and amino acid increased with the rise of t emperature and time in the process of improving aroma at the temperature of belo w 130℃. The flavor got buint and the color yellowish during the process at the t emperature of above 130℃. The aroma constituents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The results revealed that contents of most aroma constituents, such as dihydroac tinidiolide, geraniol, linalool etc., increased markedly during improving aroma. It suggested that dried tea should be passed through the machine at 120℃ or 110℃ for 10~30 s in order to obtain the quality of chestnut flavor.%以卷曲形名优茶为试材,研究了30型滚筒连续杀青机用于名优绿茶增香的效果。结果表明,30型滚筒连续杀青机可用于名优绿茶增香;增香的温度和时间对名优绿茶的品质有较大影响。在温度低于130℃范围,随着增香温度的升高,茶多酚、叶绿素、可溶性糖含量呈下降趋势,氨基酸呈增加趋势;随着时间的增加,茶多酚、叶绿素、氨基酸含量下降,可溶性糖含量增加;在温度超过130℃时,茶叶色泽易黄变,香味易焦变。香气分析结果表明,在增香过程中,二氢海葵内酯、香叶醇、芳樟醇等具有良好香型的香气成分含量明显上升。结合内质分析和感官审评结果,采用30型滚筒连续杀青机增香的最佳温度和时间是12 0℃ 10~30 s,其次是110℃ 10~30 s,所制茶叶栗香高长。

  5. Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wei, Wen-Wen; Xi, Wan-Peng; Xu, Chang-Jie; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2010-05-26

    Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed. PMID:20415420

  6. Comparative study of the whisky aroma profile based on headspace solid phase microextraction using different fibre coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, J S; Marques, J C; Perestrelo, R M; Rodrigues, F; Oliveira, L; Andrade, P; Caldeira, M

    2007-05-25

    A dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-(IT)MS) method was developed and applied for the qualitative determination of the volatile compounds present in commercial whisky samples which alcoholic content was previously adjusted to 13% (v/v). Headspace SPME experimental conditions, such as fibre coating, extraction temperature and extraction time, were optimized in order to improve the extraction process. Five different SPME fibres were used in this study, namely, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(acrylate) (PA), Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (CAR/PDMS), Carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) and Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-divinylbenzene (CAR/PDMS/DVB). The best results were obtained using a 75 microm CAR/PDMS fibre during headspace extraction at 40 degrees C with stirring at 750 rpm for 60 min, after saturating the samples with salt. The optimised methodology was then applied to investigate the volatile composition profile of three Scotch whisky samples--Black Label, Ballantines and Highland Clan. Approximately seventy volatile compounds were identified in the these samples, pertaining at several chemical groups, mainly fatty acids ethyl esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids, carbonyl compounds, monoterpenols, C13 norisoprenoids and some volatile phenols. The ethyl esters form an essential group of aroma components in whisky, to which they confer a pleasant aroma, with "fruity" odours. Qualitatively, the isoamyl acetate, with "banana" aroma, was the most interesting. Quantitatively, significant components are ethyl esters of caprilic, capric and lauric acids. The highest concentration of fatty acids, were observed for caprilic and capric acids. From the higher alcohols the fusel oils (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2.phenyletanol) are the most important ones.

  7. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes. PMID:25847186

  8. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Vílchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extracto es transformado en polvo seco. Independientemente del método utilizado, parece ser imposible evitar completamente la perdida de compuestos volátiles durante el secado. Un método potencial para mejorar la retención del aroma durante el secado es utilizar un sistema que trabaje a ciclo cerrado. Con el propósito de estudiar este proceso una planta piloto que consiste de un secador por aspersión, un secador de lecho fluidizado vibratorio, un sistema de recuperación de vapores e intercambiadores de calor para recalentar el aire reciclado ha sido diseñada y esta en la fase final de instalación en la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, en Managua, para hacer un estudio del método potencial de recuperación de aroma del extracto de café. Este estudio tendrá como resultado no solo un café soluble de mejor calidad sino que además un método capaz de mejorar el procesamiento de muchos otros alimentos líquidos.

  9. Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

  10. Retención de aroma durante el secado de extracto de café en un sistema cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    J.F. Vílchez; Martínez, J

    2006-01-01

    Durante el secado de alimentos líquidos, componentes volátiles presentes en baja concentración que contribuyen al aroma y sabor del producto final son removidos junto con el agua. En consecuencia la calidad del producto final es considerablemente afectada por la cantidad de substancias volátiles que son retenidas durante el proceso de secado. En el extracto de café, por ejemplo, existen cientos de tales compuestos, la mayoría de ellos altamente volátiles por lo que se pierden cuando el extrac...

  11. Regression Analysis of Nutrient Elements between Soil and Tobacco Leaves and Their Influences on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqin XU; Xiaolan LI; Zhiyan CHEN; Defen ZENG; Aifei XU

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between nutrient elements K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in tobacco-planting soils and tobacco leaves from six main tobacco-producing areas, and to investigate the influences of these elements on chemical composition and aroma components in tobacco leaves. Results showed that there were certain relationship between contents of nutrient elements in tobac-co-planting soils and contents of corresponding elements in tobacco leaves; various elements exhibited different influences on the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco. Based on the actual situation of nutrient contents in soils from different tobacco-producing areas, contents of various elements in tobacco leaves should be regulat-ed by soil fertilization and foliar spraying, thereby improving the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  12. Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Jim; Ingels, Isabel; De Winne, Ann

    2016-08-15

    Today, the cocoa industry is in great need of faster and robust analytical techniques to objectively assess incoming cocoa quality. In this work, inline roasting hyphenated with a cooled injection system coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ILR-CIS-GC-MS) has been explored for the first time to assess fermentation quality and/or overall aroma formation potential of cocoa. This innovative approach resulted in the in-situ formation of relevant cocoa aroma compounds. After comparison with data obtained by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) on conventional roasted cocoa beans, ILR-CIS-GC-MS data on unroasted cocoa beans showed similar formation trends of important cocoa aroma markers as a function of fermentation quality. The latter approach only requires small aliquots of unroasted cocoa beans, can be automatated, requires no sample preparation, needs relatively short analytical times (<1h) and is highly reproducible. PMID:27006215

  13. Identification of the key odorants in Tahitian cured vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) by GC-MS and an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The key odorants of Tahitian vanilla beans (Vanilla tahitensis) were characterized by a sensory evaluation, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), quantification, and aroma reconstitution. Vanillin and anisaldehyde were identified in the same highest flavor dilution (FD) factor as the most characteristic odor-active compounds in Tahitian vanilla beans, followed by anisyl alcohol and anisyl acetate. Vanillin and anisyl alcohol were by far the most abundant odorants present with the highest concentration in the beans, followed by acetic acid, anisaldehyde, and anisyl acetate. A sensory evaluation of Tahitian vanilla beans and its reconstitute aroma concentrate characterized both samples as similar. These results indicated vanillin, anisaldehyde, anisyl alcohol, and anisyl acetate to be the key odorants in Tahitian vanilla beans. 3-Methylnonane-2,4-dione were identified for the first time in vanilla beans. β-Damascenone and phenylacetic acid were identified for the first time in Tahitian vanilla beans.

  14. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid and Its Primary, Precursor Pathway to Enhance the Flavor of Fruits and the Aroma of Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas Peled-Zehavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diverse repertoire of specialized metabolites that have multiple roles throughout their life cycle. Some of these metabolites are essential components of the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits. Unfortunately, attempts to increase the yield and prolong the shelf life of crops have generally been associated with reduced levels of volatile specialized metabolites and hence with decreased aroma and flavor. Thus, there is a need for the development of new varieties that will retain their desired traits while gaining enhanced scent and flavor. Metabolic engineering holds great promise as a tool for improving the profile of emitted volatiles of domesticated crops. This mini review discusses recent attempts to utilize metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid and its primary precursor pathway to enhance the aroma and flavor of flowers and fruits.

  15. Extraction and Analysis Methods of Aroma Components in Soy Sauce%酱油中香气成分的提取和分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 罗秀华; 孙晶; 高丽华

    2014-01-01

    The aroma components in soy sauce are the important indexes of evaluating the quality of soy sauce. The separation,extraction and analysis methods of aroma components are reviewed,and research progress of separation and determination of aroma components in soy sauce are introduced in this paper.%酱油中的香气成分是评价酱油品质的重要指标。阐述了常用的香气成分的分离、提取、分析方法,并介绍了酱油中香气成分提取、鉴定的研究进展。

  16. 甜瓜果实香气成分研究进展%Research Progress of Aroma Components in Melon Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昱; 李兴国; 于泽源

    2011-01-01

    综述甜瓜果实香气的化学成分以及果实的品种、成熟度和采后贮藏条件对甜瓜果实香气成分的影响,从分子水平对甜瓜香气调控研究进行了展望,旨在为改善甜瓜果实风味品质提供理论参考.%The effect of aroma chemical components in melon fruit and the varieties,maturity degree and postharvest storage conditions on the aroma composition of melon fruit was summarized. Finally ,melon aroma regulation from the molecular level was prospected to provide theoretical reference for improving the flavor quality of melon fruit.

  17. Determination of Aroma Compound Partition Coefficients in Aqueous, Polysaccharide, and Dairy Matrices Using the Phase Ratio Variation Method: A Review and Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Andrej; Sonne, Alina; Schieberle, Peter; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2016-06-01

    The partition of aroma compounds between a matrix and a gas phase describes an individual compound's specific affinity toward the matrix constituents affecting orthonasal sensory perception. The static headspace phase ratio variation (PRV) method has been increasingly applied by various authors to determine the equilibrium partition coefficient K in aqueous, polysaccharide, and dairy matrices. However, reported partition coefficients are difficult to relate and compare due to different experimental conditions, e.g., aroma compound selection, matrix composition, equilibration temperature. Due to its specific advantages, the PRV method is supposed to find more frequent application in the future, this Review aims to summarize, evaluate, compare, and relate the currently available data on PRV-determined partition coefficients. This process was designed to specify the potentials and the limitations as well as the consistency of the PRV method, and to identify open fields of research in aroma compound partitioning in food-related, especially dairy matrices. PMID:27182770

  18. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ≥ 1). β-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-β-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. β-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-β-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, β-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, β-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil. PMID:23985485

  19. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  20. Effect of reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri coupled with glycerol on the volatile fraction, odour and aroma of semi-hard ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Delgado, David; Garde, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the biopreservation system formed by Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572, a reuterin-producing strain, and glycerol (required for reuterin production), on the volatile fraction, aroma and odour of industrial sized semi-hard ewe milk cheese (Castellano type) was investigated over a 3-month ripening period. The volatile compounds were extracted and analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and cheese odour and aroma profiles were studied by descriptive sensory analysis. Control cheese was made only with a mesophilic starter and experimental cheeses with L. reuteri were made with and without glycerol. The addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 to milk enhanced the formation of six volatile compounds. Despite the changes in the volatile compounds profile, the use of L. reuteri INIA P572 did not noticeably affect the sensory characteristics of cheese. On the other hand, the addition of L. reuteri INIA P572 coupled with 30mM glycerol enhanced the formation of twelve volatile compounds, but decreased the formation of five ones. The use of the biopreservation system did not affect overall odour and aroma quality of cheese although it resulted in a significant decrease of the odour intensity scores. In addition, this cheese received significant higher scores for "cheesy" aroma and significant lower scores for the aroma attributes "milky", "caramel" and "yogurt-like". The first two axes of a principal component analysis (PCA) performed for selected volatile compounds and sensory characteristics, accounting for 75% of the variability between cheeses, separated cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 and glycerol from the rest of cheeses, and also differentiated control cheese from cheeses made with L. reuteri INIA P572 from day 60 onward. Our results showed that the reuterin-producing L. reuteri INIA P572 strain, when coupled with glycerol, may be a suitable biopreservation system to use in cheese without affecting odour and aroma quality. PMID:27289193

  1. Analysis of capillary chromatographic skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor by liquid-liquid microextraction and aroma recombination%酱香型白酒液液微萃取-毛细管色谱骨架成分与香气重组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玲玲; 范文来; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    应用液液微萃取(LLME)、气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)研究酱香型白酒骨架成分。液液微萃取定量48种香气物质,确定29种骨架成分。通过52种物质香气重组,得到的模拟酒香气较为丰满,且富有层次感,呈现酱香型白酒的背景香,但未出现典型酱香。缺失实验表明酱香型白酒骨架成分中香气贡献较大的主要是酯类和醇类物质,其中:己酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、1-丙醇、2-苯乙醇以及3-甲基丁醇是重要的香气物质;缺失与添加实验验证了三甲基吡嗪、糠醛、4-乙基愈创木酚和呋喃扭尔(furaneol)与酱香型白酒的典型酱香无关。%The skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor were isolated by liquid-liquid microextraction(LLME), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS).48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified.29 compounds belong to skeleton compounds.The overall aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, while excluding the typical aromas, could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of 52 compounds. According to omission experiments, esters and alcohols of skeleton compounds contributed a lot to the aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, and ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate,ethyl butanoate, !- propanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 3- methylbutanol were important skeleton aroma compounds.Omission and addition experiments corroborated that trimethylpyrazine, furfural,4-ethyl guaiacol, and furaneol was not related to the soy sauce aroma of Chinese liquor.

  2. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours...... chocolates were characterised as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. Despite differences in the volatile aroma profile, the inoculated chocolates could not be distinguished from a spontaneously fermented control in a triangle test by a panel of un-trained judges. Arguably...

  3. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O

    OpenAIRE

    Si Yi Pan; Xiao Lin Yao; Gang Fan; Yun Zhang; Yan Zhang; Bi Jun Xie; Yu Qiao

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve comp...

  4. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines.

  5. Effects of cross-linking, capsule wall thickness, and compound hydrophobicity on aroma release from complex coacervate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Segolene; Milo, Christian; Reineccius, Gary A

    2009-02-25

    Microcapsules were produced by complex coacervation with a gelatin-gum acacia wall and medium-chain-triglyceride core. Dry capsules were partially rehydrated and then loaded with model aroma compounds covering a range of volatility, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. An experimental design was prepared to evaluate the effects of cross-linking, wall/core ratio, and volatile load level on aroma release from capsules in a hot, aqueous environment. The real-time release on rehydration was measured by monitoring the headspace of a vessel containing the capsules to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Data collected showed no effects of cross-linking or wall/core ratio on volatile release in hot water for any of the volatiles studied. When comparing real-time release of the prepared coacervates to a spray-dried equivalent, there was no difference in the release from hot water but the release was slower when coacervates were added to ambient-temperature water. We found volatile release to be primarily determined by compound partition coefficients (oil/water and water/air) and temperature.

  6. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others. PMID:25475278

  7. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatih Adak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC, which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  8. Application of an Effective Statistical Technique for an Accurate and Powerful Mining of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rice Aroma Trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sadat Golestan Hashemi

    Full Text Available When a phenotype of interest is associated with an external/internal covariate, covariate inclusion in quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses can diminish residual variation and subsequently enhance the ability of QTL detection. In the in vitro synthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP, the main fragrance compound in rice, the thermal processing during the Maillard-type reaction between proline and carbohydrate reduction produces a roasted, popcorn-like aroma. Hence, for the first time, we included the proline amino acid, an important precursor of 2AP, as a covariate in our QTL mapping analyses to precisely explore the genetic factors affecting natural variation for rice scent. Consequently, two QTLs were traced on chromosomes 4 and 8. They explained from 20% to 49% of the total aroma phenotypic variance. Additionally, by saturating the interval harboring the major QTL using gene-based primers, a putative allele of fgr (major genetic determinant of fragrance was mapped in the QTL on the 8th chromosome in the interval RM223-SCU015RM (1.63 cM. These loci supported previous studies of different accessions. Such QTLs can be widely used by breeders in crop improvement programs and for further fine mapping. Moreover, no previous studies and findings were found on simultaneous assessment of the relationship among 2AP, proline and fragrance QTLs. Therefore, our findings can help further our understanding of the metabolomic and genetic basis of 2AP biosynthesis in aromatic rice.

  9. Past and future of non-Saccharomyces yeasts: from spoilage microorganisms to biotechnological tools for improving wine aroma complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz ePadilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed.

  10. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Leclerc, Aurélie; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Yee, Alyson L; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of cheese flavor. The aim of this study was to develop an approach to facilitate screening of various cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. We combined i) curd-based slurry medium incubated under conditions mimicking cheese manufacturing and ripening, ii) powerful method of extraction of volatiles, headspace trap, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-trap-GC-MS), and iii) metabolomics-based method of data processing using the XCMS package of R software and multivariate analysis. This approach was applied to eleven species: five lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus helveticus), four actinobacteria (Brachybacterium articum, Brachybacterium tyrofermentans, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Microbacterium gubbeenense), Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Hafnia alvei. All the strains grew, with maximal populations ranging from 7.4 to 9.2 log (CFU/mL). In total, 52 volatile aroma compounds were identified, of which 49 varied significantly in abundance between bacteria. Principal component analysis of volatile profiles differentiated species by their ability to produce ethyl esters (associated with Brachybacteria), sulfur compounds and branched-chain alcohols (H. alvei), branched-chain acids (H. alvei, P. freudenreichii and L. paracasei), diacetyl and related carbonyl compounds (M. gubbeenense and L. paracasei), among others.

  11. Analysis of aroma compounds and nutrient contents of mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC., an ethnobotanical fruit of Austronesian Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros blancoi A. DC. is an evergreen tree species of high-quality wood. Mabolo, the fruit of this plant, is popular among the natives in Taiwan, but its potential in economic use has not been fully explored. Mabolo has a rich aroma. Of the 39 different volatile compounds isolated, its intact fruit and peel were found to both contain 24 compounds, whereas the pulp contained 28 compounds. The most important aroma compounds were esters and α-farnesene. Our data show that mabolo is rich in dietary fiber (3.2%, and the contents of other nutrients such as malic acid, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and choline chloride were 227.1 mg/100 g, 0.075 mg/100 g, 0.157 mg/100 g, 0.623 mg/100 g, 0.19 mg/100 g, and 62.52 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, it is rich in calcium and zinc; the contents of which were found to be 42.8 mg/100 g and 3.6 mg/100 g, respectively. Our results show that D. blancoi has the potential to be bred for a novel fruit.

  12. Past and Future of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: From Spoilage Microorganisms to Biotechnological Tools for Improving Wine Aroma Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; Gil, José V.; Manzanares, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine. In this context mixed starters can meet the growing demand for new and improved wine yeast strains adapted to different types and styles of wine. With the aim of presenting old and new evidences on the potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to address this market trend, we mainly review the studies focused on non-Saccharomyces strain selection and design of mixed starters directed to improve primary and secondary aroma of wines. The ability of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance is also discussed. PMID:27065975

  13. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Proton Therapy Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumor tissue ... feel during and after the procedure? What is proton therapy and how is it used? Protons are ...

  14. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body ... machine in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  15. 豫中浓香型烤烟香气质量与中性致香成分关系分析%Analysis of Relationships between Neutral Aroma Constituents and Aroma Concentration and Quality in Flavor Enriched Flue-cured Tobacco in Central Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊丽; 叶协锋; 赵莉; 张腾; 李佳颖; 王伟宁; 于建军

    2012-01-01

    To determine material basis for the impact of aroma concentration and quality of flue-cured tobacco, using partial correlation analysis, path analysis, and stepwise regression analysis, the authors carried out quantitative relations analysis between neutral aroma constituents and concentration and quality of aroma in flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that regression model of quality of aroma and concentration of aroma of great significance were established, and both of these were significant at 1% level. 16 kinds of representative neutral aroma constituents in flue—cured tobacco had different direct influence on quality and concentration of aroma. Megastigmatrienone-3 had the greatest direct positive influence on concentration of aroma, megastigmatrienone-2 had the greatest direct negative influence on quality of aroma. Megastigmatrienone-2 had the greatest direct positive influence on concentration of aroma, (3 —damascenone had the greatest direct positive negative influence on concentration of aroma. Megastig— matrienone—1, phenylethanol, furfural and neophytadiene had direct influence on quality of aroma. Pseuaoinonone, benzaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyrrole and solanone had direct negative influence on concentration of aroma.%为确定影响香气质、香气量的中性致香成分的物质基础,采用偏相关分析、通径分析和逐步回归的分析方法,研究了烤烟香气质、香气量与中性致香成分的关系.结果表明,建立的香气质、香气量2个回归方程经显著性测验均达到极显著水平.烟叶中的18种中性致香成分对香气量、香气质直接影响各不相同.香气质受巨豆三烯酮3直接正面影响最大,而受巨豆三烯酮2直接负面影响最大;香气量受巨豆三烯酮2直接正面影响最大,而受巨豆三烯酮3直接负面影响最大.对香气质、香气量起直接正面影响作用的有巨豆三烯酮1、苯乙醇、糠醛以及新植二烯,对香气质、香气

  16. Changes in physico-chemical and volatile aroma compound composition of Gewürztraminer wine as a result of late and ice harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Radeka, Sanja; Grozaj, Nikola; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the changes in physico-chemical and aroma composition after late and ice harvest, Gewürztraminer wines were subjected to standard, enzymatic and GC/MS analysis. Late harvest (LHGW) and ice wines (IHGW) contained more sugars, extract and volatile acidity than standard wines (SGW). IHGW had elevated glycerol and gluconic acid amounts. LHGW was richer in monoterpenol oxides, β-damascenone, 1-octen-3-ol, acetates, ethyl cinnamate and 4-vinylguaiacol than SGW. IHGW contained even higher amounts, with increased citronellol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dicarboxylic acids esters, benzenoids, furans and acetals, and reduced fermentation aroma compounds. Based on odour activity values, the strongest odorants in SGW were fruity esters. In LHGW the impact of esters increased, while in IHGW cis-rose oxide, β-damascenone and 1,1-diethoxyethane emerged as the most potent. Fruity and sweet were the dominant aroma compound series in SGW and LHGW, but in IHGW declined, while terpenic, floral, chemical, pungent and ripe fruit aroma compound series increased. PMID:26593588

  17. Characterization of aroma-active and phenolic profiles of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum) by GC-MS-Olfactometry and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the volatile, aroma-active and phenolic compounds of wild thyme. Volatile components of T. serpyllum were extracted by use of the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction method gave highly representative aromatic extract of the studied sample based on the sensory analysis. A total of 24 compounds were identified and quantified in Thymus serpyllum. Terpenes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the sample. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the first time for the determination of aroma-active compounds of Thymus serpyllum. In total, 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract by GC-MS-Olfactometry and terpenes were the most abundant compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. 18 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the T. serpyllum. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin and rosmarinic acid were the most abundant phenolics in this herb. PMID:27413222

  18. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  19. Identification of character-impact odorants in a cola-flavored carbonated beverage by quantitative analysis and omission studies of aroma reconstitution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-28

    Thirty aroma-active components of a cola-flavored carbonated beverage were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The OAV results revealed that 1,8-cineole, (R)-(-)-linalool, and octanal made the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of the cola. A cola aroma reconstitution model was constructed by adding 20 high-purity standards to an aqueous sucrose-phosphoric acid solution. The results of headspace solid-phase microextraction and sensory analyses were used to adjust the model to better match authentic cola. The rebalanced model was used as a complete model for the omission study. Sensory results indicated that omission of a group consisting of methyleugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and (Z)- and (E)-isoeugenols differed from the complete model, while omission of the individual components of this group did not differ from the complete model. These results indicate that a balance of numerous odorants is responsible for the characteristic aroma of cola-flavored carbonated beverages. PMID:25529113

  20. The Changes in Color, Soluble Sugars, Organic Acids, Anthocyanins and Aroma Components in “Starkrimson” during the Ripening Period in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Starkrimson” is a traditional apple cultivar that was developed a long time ago and was widely cultivated in the arid region of the northern Wei River of China. However, little information regarding the quality characteristics of “Starkrimson” fruit has been reported in this area. To elucidate these characteristics, the color, soluble sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and aroma components were measured during the ripening period through the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results indicated that the changes in anthocyanin contents took place later than the changes in the Commission International Eclairage (CIE parameters. Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal, fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. Furthermore, rapidly changing soluble sugars and organic acid synchronization took place in the early ripening period, while rapidly changing aroma components occurred later, on the basis of fresh weight. This result suggested that the production of aroma components might be a useful index of apple maturity.

  1. Influencia de la matriz vínica y de parámetros oro-fisiológicos en la liberación del aroma del vino: impacto en el aroma retronasal

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-González, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El aroma es uno de los principales atributos de calidad de los vinos y está entre los más decisivos a la hora de explicar las preferencias de los consumidores. Por ello, en los últimos años, la mayor parte de los estudios científicos sobre este tema se han dirigido a la identificación y caracterización de los compuestos integrantes de la fracción volátil del vino. Estos compuestos debido a su baja presión de vapor se liberan fácilmente de la matriz vínica y son transportados durante la respir...

  2. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample. PMID:27265519

  3. Gas chromatography/olfactometry and electronic nose analyses of retronasal aroma of espresso and correlation with sensory evaluation by an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Tomomi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Ikeda, Michio; Sagara, Yasuyuki; Araki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for evaluating and designing the retronasal aroma of espresso, sensory evaluation data was correlated with data obtained from gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis™) and from an electronic nose system αFOX4000 (E-nose). The volatile compounds of various kinds of espresso (arabica coffee beans from 6 production countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Colombia, Indonesia, and Tanzania; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L values, 18, 23, and 26) were collected with a retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) and examined by GC/O and E-nose. In addition, sensory descriptive analysis using a 7-point scale for RAS effluent gas was performed by 5 trained flavorists using sensory descriptors selected based on the frequency in use and coefficient of correlation. The charm values of 10 odor descriptions obtained from GC/O analysis exhibited the significant (P < 0.05) differences among both roasting degrees and origins. Also, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the E-nose-sensor resistances and factor analysis on the sensory evaluation scores showed that the differences of aroma characteristics among the roasting degrees were larger than those among the origins. Based on an artificial neural network (ANN) model applied to the data from GC/O analyses and sensory evaluations, the perceptual factor of the RAS aroma was predicted to be mainly affected by sweet-caramel, smoke-roast, and acidic odors. Also, 3 metal oxide semiconductor sensors (LY2/Gh, P30/1, and T40/1) of E-nose were selected for analyses of RAS aroma and correlated with the sensory descriptive scores by the ANN to support sensory evaluation. PMID:21535621

  4. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  5. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. PMID:27451159

  6. Identification and quantitation of glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three tobacco types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Xiang, Zhangmin; Pan, Wenjie; Zhao, Huina; Ren, Zhu; Lei, Bo; Geng, Zhaoliang

    2013-10-11

    Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three different types of tobacco were investigated. After isolation of extracts obtained by Amberlite XAD-2 adsorption and ethyl acetate elution, glycosides were analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or directly after trifluoroacetylated (TFA) derivatization by GC-MS in electron ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode. In total 21 bound aglycones were identified by β-glucosidase hydrolysis. These aglycones mainly consisted of C13-norisoprenoids, aromatic components and sesquiterpenoids. Additionally, with the aid of enzymatic hydrolysis, 15 β-d-glucopyranosides and 1 β-d-rutinoside were tentatively identified by TFA derivatization. TFA method was validated by repeatability and successfully employed to analyze different types of tobacco. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on identified glycoside variables to visualize the difference between the tobacco types and the relationship between the glycoside variables and the tobacco types was established. PMID:24011421

  7. Research status of peanut aroma compounds%花生香味成分的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文青; 薛雅琳; 何东平

    2011-01-01

    综述了花生经过烘烤、微波、研磨花生酱以及压榨花生油等不同方式的处理后挥发性气味成分研究的进展,通过气相—质谱联用仪分析其组成,借鉴电子鼻法分析测定出上述花生制品中香气的主要成分是吡嗪类物质,为进一步建立判定方法奠定基础。%The research progress on peanut volatile aroma component after various processing, including baking , heating by microwave, grinding peanut butter and squeezing peanut oil, was summarized. The components were analyzed by GC - MS and electronic nose. The main components were the pyrazine category compounds. It was helpful for the further setting determination.

  8. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  9. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eVelázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by S. cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odour descriptors, including those with the greatest odour activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate, were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odours. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S

  10. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L; Hernández, Luis M; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae. PMID:26579114

  11. Combined effects of nutrients and temperature on the production of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Bloem, Audrey; Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie; Mouret, Jean-Roch

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds produced by yeast during fermentation greatly influence the organoleptic qualities of wine. We developed a model to predict the combined effects of initial nitrogen and phytosterol content and fermentation temperature on the production of volatile compounds. We used a Box-Behnken design and response surface modeling to study the response of Lalvin EC1118® to these environmental conditions. Initial nitrogen content had the greatest influence on most compounds; however, there were differences in the value of fermentation parameters required for the maximal production of the various compounds. Fermentation parameters affected differently the production of isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol, although their synthesis involve the same enzymes and intermediate. We found differences in regulation of the synthesis of acetates of higher alcohols and ethyl esters, suggesting that fatty acid availability is the main factor influencing the synthesis of ethyl esters whereas the production of acetates depends on the activity of alcohol acetyltransferases. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on the total production of three esters by determining gas-liquid balances. Evaporation largely accounted for the effect of temperature on the accumulation of esters in liquid. Nonetheless, the metabolism of isoamyl acetate and ethyl octanoate was significantly affected by this parameter. We extended this study to other strains. Environmental parameters had a similar effect on aroma production in most strains. Nevertheless, the regulation of the synthesis of fermentative aromas was atypical in two strains: Lalvin K1M® and Affinity™ ECA5, which produces a high amount of aromatic compounds and was obtained by experimental evolution. PMID:25412578

  12. 中国名优红茶香气成分的比较研究%Study on the Aroma Components in Chinese Famous Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2013-01-01

    为了研究中国名优红茶挥发性香气物质并确定主要呈香特征,采用顶空固相微萃取方法(HS-SPME)提取红茶样品中的挥发性物质,用气相色谱/质谱联用技术(GC-MS)结合挥发性物质的保留指数(RI)鉴定红茶样品中香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献.结果表明,鉴定出约60种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类和烯类、烷烃类等,其中醇类是国内名优红茶香气中最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类.香气化合物中芳樟醇、橙花醇、水杨酸甲酯、氧化芳樟醇是最主要的呈香物质,平均含量分别占总香气的39.48%、17.5%、8.21%、4.74%.所体现的花香、甜香、果香是中国红茶的香气特征.%With the aim to study the volatile aroma component of native black tea and determine the main aroma characters, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method was adopted to extract the volatiles and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) coupled with retention index(RI) of the volatiles were used to determine the volatiles variety in black tea samples and their contribution to the total aroma. The result showed that more than fifty aroma compounds were determined including alcohol, ester, aldehyde, azulene ketones and terpenes, hydrocarbon and etc., among which the alcohol was the most important compounds and ester and aldehyde were next to it. Li nalool, ger-ariol, methl salcylate, linalool oxide were the most important compounds, representing 39.48%, 17.5%, 8.21% and 4.74% of the total aroma respectively. Flower-like, fruit-like, refreshing fragrance and sweet aroma were the main character of native black tea.

  13. Analysis of free and bound aroma compounds in grape berries using headspace solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS and a preliminary study of solid-phase extraction with LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, H.; Janes, L.; Strlic, M.; D. Rusjan; Kocar, D.

    2007-01-01

    An extraction procedure for the aroma compounds from musts and wines has been developed, using solid-phase microextraction (DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre) from the headspace of heated samples (50 degrees C). Analysis was performed with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The method was applicable to the analysis of different aroma compounds ( aliphatic, aromatic aldehydes, terpenes) in a broad concentration range (1-5000 mu g L-1). A stir-bar sorptive extraction procedure was also tested, but was no...

  14. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy. At this time, you will have a physical exam , talk about your medical history , and maybe have imaging tests . Your doctor or nurse will discuss external beam radiation therapy, its benefits and side effects, and ways you can care ...

  15. Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    Reviewed are the goals and activities of the therapy services in the Austin Early Childhood Special Education Program. Specific sections detail activities for speech therapy (such as diagnostic assessment, habilitation, consultation, and reporting procedures), occupational therapy (including identification and assessment, and services to children,…

  16. At Fi EUROPE 2011:Rhodia Aroma Performance will exhibit new branding AND REPOSITIONING OF RHOVANIL'~ VANILLIN AND RHODIAROME" ethyl-vanillinrange HENCEFORTH DEDI- CATED TO THE FOOd INDUSTRY.%At Fi EUROPE 2011:Rhodia Aroma Performance will exhibit new branding AND REPOSITIONING OF RHOVANIL'~ VANILLIN AND RHODIAROME" ethyl-vanillinrange HENCEFORTH DEDI- CATED TO THE FOOd INDUSTRY.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the forthcoming Food Ingredients Europe (FIE) 2011 exhi- bition in Paris, Rhodia Aroma Performance (Hall 4 Booth K48) will showcase its complete industry-leading range of vanillin and ethyl- vanillin food-safe ingredients and reveal the new revamped branding

  17. Research Progress of High Aroma Black Tea Processing%高香红茶加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银霞; 郑红发; 黄怀生; 赵熙; 粟本文

    2012-01-01

    Most of Chinese Black teas' aroma is not high, which influences their competitiveness in international market. This article summarized the processing technologies and research progress of China black tea in recent 15 years and provided theoretical instruction for the producing of high aroma black tea.%我国大部分红茶香气品质不高,影响产品的市场竞争力。本文总结了近15年来红茶加工技术与香气品质关系的研究进展,为生产高香红茶提供理论依据。

  18. Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymagı (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymagı, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymagı. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymagı was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

    Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymagı. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymagı se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos

  19. Composición, procedimiento de obtención de un aroma a jamón curado y sus aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Toldrá Vilardell, Fidel; Gianelli Barra, María Pía; Durá Cubells, María Asunción

    2007-01-01

    Composición, procedimiento de obtención de un aroma a jamón curado y sus aplicaciones. La invención consiste en una composición de volátiles, que permite reproducir el aroma a jamón curado que comprende una mezcla de proteínas sarcoplásmicas, aldehídos ramificados, compuestos azufrados, aldehídos lineales, 2-cetona y sales, en la combinación adecuada y en la proporción idónea. La composición permite la elaboración de alimentos con mayores propiedades organolépticas sin...

  20. Coffee aroma: Chemometric comparison of the chemical information provided by three different samplings combined with GC-MS to describe the sensory properties in cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Pellegrino, Gloria; Ruosi, Manuela R; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of a wider project aiming to correlate the chemical composition of the coffee volatile fraction to its sensory properties with the end-goal of developing an instrumental analysis approach complementary to human sensory profiling. The proposed investigation strategy compares the chemical information concerning coffee aroma and flavor obtained with HS-SPME of the ground coffee and in-solution SBSE/SPME sampling combined with GC-MS to evaluate their compatibility with the cupping evaluation for quality control purposes. Roasted coffee samples with specific sensory properties were analyzed. The chemical results obtained by the three samplings were compared through multivariate analysis, and related to the samples' sensory attributes. Despite the differences between the three sampling approaches, data processing showed that the three methods provide the same kind of chemical information useful for sample discrimination, and that they could be used interchangeably to sample the coffee aroma and flavor. PMID:27507469

  1. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %volatile compounds. According to the calculation of odor activity value, 19 volatile compounds were identified as aroma-active compounds. Among them, propanoic acid, acetic acid, trimethyl-oxazole, butanoic acid, acetoin, 3-methylbutanoic acid and furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time. PMID:26787940

  2. A hs–spme–gc–ms analysis of ir heated wood: impact of the water content on the depth profile of oak wood aromas extractability

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Charlie J.; Gourrat, Karine; Perre, Patrick; Prida, Andréi; Gougeon, Régis D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled and reproducible IR heat treatments were applied to oak wood surfaces in order to establish a depth-profiled picture of the extractability of volatile compounds, with particular emphasis on the impact of the initial water content. Headspace–solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS–SPME–GC–MS) has been used to compare the concentrations of six aroma compounds (vanillin, furfural, eugenol; guaiacol and cis- and trans-whisky lactones) in hydroalc...

  3. True cooking aroma or artefact. {sup 15}N gives the answer; Veritable arome de cuisson ou artefact. {sup 15}N fournit la reponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metro, F.; Boudaud, N.; Dumont, J.P. [INRA, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1994-12-31

    In order to determine the respective contributions of the various nitrous precursor families in aroma preparations, the usually added amino acids were substituted with {sup 15}N isotope labelled homologous components. Results concerning isotope ratios for the volatile fraction nitrous components collected from poultry meat aromatic preparations, are presented. Terminal product labelling appears to allow for a better determination of the substrate and functional additive contributions. 4 figs., 6 refs.

  4. A β-glucosidase from Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163 with potential for aroma release in wine: Cloning and expression in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Schümann, Christina; Wurbs, Phillip; Barreira Braz da Silva, Nuno M.; Rogl, Veronika; Kulbe, Klaus D.; del Hierro, Andrés M

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for olfactory changes in wine during malolactic fermentation (MLF). A side characteristic of MLF is the release of grape derived aroma compounds from their glycosylated precursors by β-glycosidase activities of these bacteria. Apart from Oenococcus oeni, which is regarded as the most promising species for MLF, glycosidic activities have also been observed in wine related members of the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Nevertheless, information o...

  5. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  6. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  7. Co-Treatment of EFF and 1-MCP for Enhancing the Shelf-Life and Aroma Volatile Compounds of Oriental Sweet Melons (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiao-hang; TENG Lu-hua; LÜ De-qing; QI Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other melon types, oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) is quite a different species with a shorter shelf-life due to its typical climacteric behavior and thin pericarp. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of co-treatment of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on physiological changes and the content of aroma volatile compounds introduced by them of two oriental sweet melon cultivars (Yumeiren and Tianbao) during storage. The melons were stored in incubators with temperature of 15°C and a relative humidity of 85%for 24 d during which fruit quality and related physiological index were measured. Compared to the control, both treatments delayed fruit weight loss rate and kept the fruit ifrmness, water content and soluble solids content. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities showed lfuctuations in treated melons, while lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (P<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P<0.05) decreased compared to control. During the early stage of storage, alcohols and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, and esters gradually increased during storage. Of all the esters, acetic esters were the main components, followed by oxalic acid esters and other esters. The total content of aroma volatile compounds, esters, alcohols and aldehydes of co-treated melons were all higher than those of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In addition, the aroma volatile peak of co-treated melons occurred later than that of 1-MCP treated and control melons. In summary, co-treatment of EFF and 1-MCP was more beneifcial than 1-MCP treatment to delay ripening and senescence, maintain fruit quality, enhance shelf-life and improve levels of aroma volatile compounds.

  8. Role of glycosidic aroma precursors on the odorant profiles of Grenache noir and Syrah wines from the Rhone valley. Part 2: characterisation of derived compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Segurel, Marie; Baumes, Raymond; Langlois, Dominique; Riou, C; Razungles, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Grenache noir and Syrah are the predominant grape varieties in the French Rhone valley vineyard. This study aimed at identifying the odorants generated from glycoconjugates extracted from wines made with Grenache noir and Syrah.Methods and results: Synthetic model wines enriched with glycoconjugates. treated or not with enzymes. were stored at 45 degrees C for 3 weeks. or at 13 degrees C for 18 months. Aromas generated were extracted and analyzed by GC-Olfactometry (only samples from ac...

  9. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries Profumata di Tortona (F. moschata and Regina delle Valli (F. vesca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Simone Negri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT, an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV, an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species.

  10. Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Hino, Y; Kawasaki, M; Hara, C; Tamura, K; Sugimoto, N; Yamanishi, Y; Miyauchi, M; Masujima, T; Aoki, T

    1999-08-01

    The perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. The essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. In evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. Scores were recorded after inhaling a fragrance before and after each type of work, and the statistical significance of the change of score for 13 impression descriptors was examined by Student's t-test for each type of work. It was confirmed that inhalation of essential oil caused a different subjective perception of fragrance depending on the type of work. For example, inhalation of cypress after physical work produced a much more favorable impression than before work, in contrast to orange, which produced an unfavorable impression after physical work when compared with that before work. For mental work, inhalation of juniper seemed to create a favorable impression after work, whereas geranium and orange both produced an unfavorable impression then. From these studies, together with those conducted previously with lavender, rosemary, linalool, peppermint, marjoram, cardamom, sandalwood, basil and lime, we thus concluded that the sensory test described here might serve not only as a screening test for efficacy of aroma but also as a categorized table for aroma samples which can act as a reference to each other. PMID:10480677

  11. Characterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck by GC-MS and GC-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Yi Pan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O were used to determine the aromatic composition and aroma active compounds of fruit juice and peel oil of Jinchen sweet orange fruit. Totals of 49 and 32 compounds were identified in fruit juice and peel oil, respectively. GC-O was performed to study the aromatic profile of Jinchen fruit juice and peel oil. A total of 41 components appeared to contribute to the aroma of fruit juice and peel oil. Twelve components were the odorants perceived in both samples. The aromatic compositions of fruit juice were more complex than that of peel oil. Ethyl butanoate, β-myrcene, octanal, linalool, α-pinene, and decanal were found to be responsible for the aromatic notes in fruit juice and peel oil. Nineteen components have been perceived only in the juice and ten compounds were described as aromatic components of only the peel oil by the panelists. These differences lead to the different overall aroma between fruit juice and peel oil.

  12. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil and one control (placebo group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth.

  13. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Megumi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Usami, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Uncaria Hook ("Chotoko" in Japanese), the branch with curved hook of the herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla has been investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Eighty-four compounds, representing 90.8% of the total content was identified in oil obtained from Uncaria Hook. The main components i were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.4%), α-copaene (8.0%), methyl eugenol (6.8%), δ-cadinene (5.3%), and curcumene (3.6%). The important key aroma-active compounds in the oil were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), using the flavor dilution (FD) factor to express the odor potency of each compounds. Furthermore, the odor activity value (OAV) has been used as a measure of the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of the Uncaria Hook oil. The GC-O and AEDA results showed that α-copaene (FD = 4, OAV = 4376), (E)-linalool oxide (FD = 64, OAV = 9.1), and methyl eugenol (FD = 64, OAV = 29) contributed to the woody and spicy odor of Uncaria Hook oil, whereas furfural (FD = 8, OAV = 4808) contributed to its sweet odor. These results warrant further investigations of the application of essential oil from Uncaria Hook in the phytochemical and medicinal fields. PMID:26179003

  14. 橄榄浸泡酒中香气成分的GC-MS分析%Study on aroma components in Canarium Album steeping wine by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炯; 陈娟; 朱琳

    2011-01-01

    Aroma components in Canarium album steeping wine were extracted by the liquid-liquid extraction and HS-SPME two kinds of methods. They were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a total of 46 kinds of aroma components were identified, including alcohols, esters, ketohes, aldehydes and acids. The major aroma components in the Canarium album steeping wine were isoamyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, 2-butanol,benzene ethanol, 2- hydroxy-ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate, acetic acid isoamyl acetate, caprylic acid ethylester,ethyl butyrate and so on.%利用液液萃取法和顶空固相微萃取法两种方法对橄榄浸泡酒中的香气成分进行萃取,然后用气相色谱-质谱法进行检测分析,共鉴定出46种香气成分,包括醇类、酯类、酮类、醛类和酸类.橄榄浸泡酒的主要香气成分是异戊醇、异丙醇、2-丁醇、苯乙醇、2-羟基-丙酸乙酯、己酸乙酯、乙酸异戊酯、辛酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯等.

  15. Identification, quantification and comparison between the chemical substances responsible for the irradiated pot still cachaca and commercial rum aromas; Identificacao, quantificacao e comparacao das substancias quimicas responsaveis pelos aromas da cachaca de alambique e do rum comercial tratados pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2006-07-01

    The irradiation process has being presented as an alternative technique in food preservation. When applied on beverages, radiation is mainly used for malt decontamination or sterilization of musts and had been proposed also to accelerate aging. Some confusion over rum and cachaca identities has arisen due to the internationalization of cachaca. This research aims to identify, quantify and compare the effect of gamma radiation on the aroma of the Brazilian spirit with rum, irradiated and non irradiated, by instrumental and sensory analysis. Results showed that the content of volatile compounds presented strong correlation with the radiation dose (0,150 and 300 Gy) for all the samples. According to Triangle Test for aroma, all the judges could distinguish among non irradiated and irradiated samples (300 Gy), aged cachaca from rum and non aged cachaca from rum, but they could not distinguish aged cachaca from non aged cachaca. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results from the quantitative descriptive analysis showed that non irradiated non aged cachaca and rum were different in their alcohol, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except caramel and apple aroma attributes. Non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) were different in their apple, caramel, vinegar, vanilla, citrus, melon, spice, vegetal and grass except alcohol aroma attributes. According to the gas chromatography/olfactometry results, significant difference was found among non irradiated cachaca and rum; non irradiated cachaca and irradiated cachaca (300 Gy); and non irradiated rum and irradiated rum (300 Gy) when their aromas were compared. (author)

  16. Volatile Aroma Components in Beef Flavoring%牛肉风味料的香气成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 许时婴

    2001-01-01

    Extractions of the aroma components in beef flavoring were conducted by two methods, that is, adsorption-desorption by using Tenax-Gc absorbent and SDE.Components of the extracts were isolated and identified by GC-MS, and 104 compounds were acquired,of which the characteristic flavor of beef flavoring was mainly contributed from the heterocyclic and containing N or S compounds. The adsorption-desorption method was superior to the SDE method in the extraction of volatile compounds, while the latter was more effective on the components with middle or high boiling points.%采用Tenax-Gc(Diphenyl-Phenylene Oxide)吸附剂吸附-解吸法和同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)两种方法提取牛肉风味料中的挥发性香气成分,并利用GC-MS(色质联用)进行了成分的分离与鉴定.结果表明,鉴定得出的化合物共104种,杂环化合物和含硫、氮化合物构成了牛肉风味的主体.比较两种提取方法得知:吸附-解吸法有利于提取易挥发性化合物,而SDE法对提取中、高沸点化合物更有效.

  17. Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour.

  18. Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-10-15

    Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively.

  19. Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-10-15

    Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively. PMID:25284059

  20. Aromatized to find mates: α-pinene aroma boosts the mating success of adult olive fruit flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos D Gerofotis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. METHODOLOGY: Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. RESULTS: Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications.

  1. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%, additive (48.9%, non-interactive (23.7%, and antagonistic (0.7% interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  2. Management of postharvest grape withering to optimise the aroma of the final wine: A case study on Amarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellincontro, A; Matarese, F; D'Onofrio, C; Accordini, D; Tosi, E; Mencarelli, F

    2016-12-15

    Amarone wine is different from regular dry wine due to the postharvest withering of Corvina, Corvinone and Rondinella grapes. Grapes were withered in a commercial facility with variability in terms of temperature and relative humidity (R.H.). Sugar content reached 230-240gL(-1) and 280gL(-1) at 20% and 30% mass loss, respectively. Most of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) decreased during withering but few VOCs increased during withering and we considered as markers; in Corvinone they were methylhexanoate, dimethylsuccinate, nerol, nonanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol; in Corvina, benzyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, p-cymen-8-ol, 2,3 pinanediol, 3-oxo-ionol and 3-methyl-1-pentanol, coumaran and damascenone; in Rondinella, hexanol, nonanoic acid, methyl vanillate, damascenone, 3-oxo-ionol, eugenol, p-cymen-8-ol, 2,3 pinanediol, coumaran and raspberry keton. Olfactive descriptors of the wines and the potential aroma of the combination of Corvina wine with the wines of the other two varieties at different percentages of mass loss are reported. PMID:27451194

  3. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

    2014-12-15

    Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots. PMID:25038700

  4. Proteins involved in wine aroma compounds metabolism by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor-velum yeast strain grown in two conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Jaime; García-Martínez, Teresa; Millán, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2015-10-01

    A proteomic and exometabolomic study was conducted on Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeast strain growing under biofilm formation condition (BFC) with ethanol and glycerol as carbon sources and results were compared with those obtained under no biofilm formation condition (NBFC) containing glucose as carbon source. By using modern techniques, OFFGEL fractionator and LTQ-Orbitrap for proteome and SBSE-TD-GC-MS for metabolite analysis, we quantified 84 proteins including 33 directly involved in the metabolism of glycerol, ethanol and 17 aroma compounds. Contents in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, decanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde and 2-phenethyl acetate, changed above their odor thresholds under BFC, and those of decanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and isoamyl acetate under NBFC. Of the twenty proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde, organic acids and ethyl esters, only Adh2p, Ald4p, Cys4p, Fas3p, Met2p and Plb1p were detected under BFC and as many Acs2p, Ald3p, Cem1p, Ilv2p, Ilv6p and Pox1p, only under NBFC. Of the eight proteins involved in glycerol metabolism, Gut2p was detected only under BFC while Pgs1p and Rhr2p were under NBFC. Finally, of the five proteins involved in the metabolism of higher alcohols, Thi3p was present under BFC, and Aro8p and Bat2p were under NBFC. PMID:26187821

  5. Proteins involved in wine aroma compounds metabolism by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor-velum yeast strain grown in two conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Jaime; García-Martínez, Teresa; Millán, M Carmen; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2015-10-01

    A proteomic and exometabolomic study was conducted on Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeast strain growing under biofilm formation condition (BFC) with ethanol and glycerol as carbon sources and results were compared with those obtained under no biofilm formation condition (NBFC) containing glucose as carbon source. By using modern techniques, OFFGEL fractionator and LTQ-Orbitrap for proteome and SBSE-TD-GC-MS for metabolite analysis, we quantified 84 proteins including 33 directly involved in the metabolism of glycerol, ethanol and 17 aroma compounds. Contents in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, decanoic acid, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde and 2-phenethyl acetate, changed above their odor thresholds under BFC, and those of decanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and isoamyl acetate under NBFC. Of the twenty proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde, organic acids and ethyl esters, only Adh2p, Ald4p, Cys4p, Fas3p, Met2p and Plb1p were detected under BFC and as many Acs2p, Ald3p, Cem1p, Ilv2p, Ilv6p and Pox1p, only under NBFC. Of the eight proteins involved in glycerol metabolism, Gut2p was detected only under BFC while Pgs1p and Rhr2p were under NBFC. Finally, of the five proteins involved in the metabolism of higher alcohols, Thi3p was present under BFC, and Aro8p and Bat2p were under NBFC.

  6. [Year Discrimination of Mild Aroma Chinese Liquors Using Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy Combined with Parallel Factor and Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Que, Li-zhi; Chen, Guo-qing; Xu, Rui-yu; Zhu, Tuo

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis and neural network was applied to the year discrimination of mild aroma Chinese liquors. The excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) of 120 samples with various years were measured by FLS920 fluorescence spectrometer. The trilinear decomposition of the data array was performed and the loading scores of and the excitation-emission profiles of four components were also obtained. The scores were employed as the inputs of the BP neural networks and the PARAFAC-BP identification model was constructed. 10 samples were collected from 10, 20 and 30 years of liquors respectively, and 30 samples were selected as the test sets. The remaining 90 samples were used as the training sets to build the training model. The year prediction of unknown samples was also carried out, and the prediction accuracy was 90%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile, the discrimination analysis method and the multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis were compared, namely PARAFAC-BP and NPLS-DA. The results indicated that parallel factor combined with the neural network (PARAFAC-BP) has higher prediction accuracy. The proposed method can effectively extract the spectral characteristics, and also reduce the dimension of the input variables of neural network. A good year discrimination result was finally achieved. PMID:26669170

  7. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  8. Investigation and Comparison of the Aroma Components in Guangdong Black Tea%广东红茶香气成分的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2012-01-01

    为了研究广东地方红茶香气物质并确定主要呈香特征,本研究采用顶空固相微萃取方法结合气质联用技术准确地鉴定了红茶样品中香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献.结果表明,研究鉴定了50多种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类和烯类、烷烃类等,其中醇类是最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类.所体现的花香、甜香、果香是广东红茶的香气特征.香气化合物中芳樟醇、橙花醇、水杨酸甲酯、氧化芳樟醇、壬醛是五种最主要的呈香物质,平均含量分别占总香气的37.55%、11.90%、8.89%、5.4%和5.21%.英德系列红茶中醇类物质最多;白毛系列红茶中醛类、酮类物质最多;烯类物质以单丛和福建系列红茶含量较高.%For the purpose of studying the volatile aroma components in Guangdong black tea and determine the main aroma components, the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the aroma compounds in black tea samples and their contribution to the total aroma. Results showed that more than 50 aroma compounds were identified including alcohol, ester, aldehyde, ketone, terpene, hydrocarbon etc., among which the alcohol was the most important compounds and ester and aldehyde were next to flower-like, fruit-like, refreshing and sweet aroma were the main character of Guangdong black tea. Linalool, gerariol, methyl salicylate, linalool oxide and nonanal were the five most important compounds, representing 37.55%, 11.90%, 8.89%, 5.4% and 5.21% of the total aroma respectively. The alcohol was the most important compounds in Yingde tea population, the contents of aldehyde and ketone were more in Baimao tea population. Dancong and Fujian tea plant contained more terpene compounds.

  9. Research advance in aroma components of white tea%中国白茶的香气成分研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽; 郭雅玲; 廖泽明; 林智

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:White tea is mainly produced in Fujian province and is the special tea in China. Because there is no panning and rolling during the processing, its shape is totally natural and pekoe flavor is high. The elegant aroma of white tea is endowed by numerous volatile substances, and has the fatal research significance to create new white tea. This paper compared the effect of the simultaneous distillation extraction method and the head space-solid phase micro-extraction on the content of aroma components in white tea, expounded the research status of identification of its aroma active components, explored the change rule of aroma components and the variation trend of the enzyme activity, such as glycosidase, lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase in the processing, and then investigated the feasibility of constructing different fragrance quality evaluation models for white tea by using the aroma active ingredients. To sum up, the research process of aroma chemical for white tea needs to be accelerated, especially the research of aroma active ingredients identification and metabolism analysis, for the development of new scent white tea, so it is helpful to enrich the theory of tea flavor chemistry research and improve the status of white tea in the agricultural economy.%白茶主产于福建,为我国特有的茶类。因其不炒不揉,外形浑然天成,毫香显露。而且赋予这种高雅香气的挥发性物质有很多种,对于创制白茶新产品具有重要的研究意义。本文比较了同时蒸馏萃取法与顶空-固相微萃取法对白茶香气成分含量的影响,阐述了白茶香气活性成分鉴定的研究现状,探讨了白茶香气成分在加工中的变化规律,以及相关酶类如糖苷酶、脂氧合酶和多酚氧化酶等活性的变化趋势,分析了利用香气活性成分构建不同香型白茶的香气质量评价模型的可行性。综上所述,白茶香气化学的研究进程亟需加快,尤其是

  10. 基于烤烟中上部烟叶致香物质比例的香型判别分析%Judgment of Aroma Types of Middle and Upper Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves Based on Proportions of Aroma Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹军; 周芳芳; 包崇彦; 毛春堂; 邓国宾; 王伟; 杨俊; 张晓龙

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了区分烤烟中上部叶的不同香型风格特征,并为其判断提供数学模型.[方法]以中国11个主要产烟省的63个C3F和65个B2F烟叶为材料,并以67种致香物质含量占致香物质总量的比例为指标,采用逐步判别分析的方法对不同香型烤烟样品进行判别分析,并建立判别函数.[结果]结果表明,清香型和浓香型烤烟中大部分致香物质的比例明显高于中间香型.清香型、中间香型、浓香型烤烟中分别有51、43、40种致香物质的比例表现为上部叶高于中部叶.且在不同部位烟叶中,主导某种香型的致香物质种类不同.在分别以中部叶和上部叶致香物质比例为判别指标构建判别函数时,各有18种和11种致香物质进入判别函数,采用两种验证法(自身验证法、交互验证法)对原样品进行回判,其回判正确率分别为100%、98.6%(中部叶)和96.37%、94.4%(上部叶);采用该模型对其余的样品分别进行预测,其整体准确率为100%(中部叶)和91.7%(上部叶).[结论]采用致香物质比例作为判别指标建立的数学模型对中上部烟叶的香型判断效果较好,能够实现对烤烟香型的客观、准确和快速鉴别分析.%[Objective] This study aimed to establish mathematical models for judging the aroma types of flue-cured tobacco leaves from the upper and middle parts of plants.[Method] A total of 128 samples (63 C3F and 65 B2F) from 11 main tobacco production provinces of China were selected as materials.Stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to samples with different aroma types and discriminant function was expressed with the proportions of 67 aroma components in total aroma constituents as the index.[Result] The ratio of most aroma components in clear and full aroma tobacco leaves was higher than that in middle aroma leaves.The ratios of 51,43 and 40 aroma components of clear,middle and full aroma tobaccos were higher in upper leaves than that

  11. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  12. 烤烟高香气特色品系化学成分和中性致香物质含量的比较分析%Comp arative Analyis s of Ch emical Components and Neutral Aroma Substance Contents in High-aroma Flue-cured Tobacco Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景华; 武云杰; 侯冰清; 王林; 戚莹; 张小全; 杨铁钊

    2016-01-01

    对烤烟高香气品种8306的11个杂交品系进行初步筛选并对化学成分和中性致香物质含量进行比较分析。结果表明:不同杂交品系间烤烟中的化学成分含量和中性致香物质含量均有显著差异;粤烟97×8306的钾氯比和中性致香物质总量最高;MS8306×K326的总糖和钾含量最高;MS8306×中烟98的烟碱含量和棕色化反应产物总量最高;MS云烟87×8306的总氮和类胡萝卜素总量最高。综合分析认为,粤烟97×8306、MS云烟87×8306、NC628×8306和M8S306×中烟98化学成分和中性致香物质含量较协调,可进一步研究其香气风格和吸食品质。%Abs tratc:The chemical components and neutral aroma substances of high aroma cultivar 8306 and 11 different hybridization cultivars of flue-cured tobacco were comparison analyzed.The results showed that chemical components and neutral aroma sub-stances in different hybridization cultivars of flue-cured tobacco were significant difference, Yueyan 97×8306 caused by higher ra-tio of Kalium-chlorine and total neutral aroma substances .MS8306 ×K326 caused by higher content of total sugar and kalium . MS8306×Zhongyan 98 caused by higher content of nicotine and brown products of incense substance .MS Yunyan 87 ×8306 caused by higher content of total nitrogen and carotenoid catabolites.In summary, the chemical components and neutral aroma substances of Yueyan 97×8306, MS Yunyan 87×8306, NC628×8306 and MS8306×Zhongyan 98 exhibited better coordination and better leave qualities, so the aroma style and smoking quality of these genotypes flue-cured tobacco could be further studied.

  13. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se

  14. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  15. Gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  16. Correlation Analysis of Aroma Characters and Volatiles in Chardonnay Dry White Wines from Five Districts in China%中国霞多丽干白葡萄酒香气特征与成分关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永胜; 彭传涛

    2012-01-01

    以我国主要葡萄酒产区的霞多丽(Chardonnay)干白葡萄酒为研究对象,对不同产区和年份的葡萄酒样品进行香气质量分析,建立了霞多丽香气特征与香气成分之间的数学联系.葡萄酒香气感官量化分析由30名经过葡萄酒标准香气物质培训的品尝员进行,量化数据综合了香气特征使用频率和强度分值.葡萄酒香气成分采用固相微萃取技术偶联GC - MS检测分析.对香气特征量化数据的主成分分析和相关分析结果表明,我国主要产区霞多丽干白葡萄酒有6个典型香气特征:柑橘、菠萝、紫罗兰、石灰水、青苹果和柠檬.香气成分的气味活性值(OAV)分析表明,供试酒样中检测出的64种香气成分有25种具有气味活性,高含量化合物中酯类香气贡献率明显高于高级醇和有机酸,微量成分中萜烯醇和去甲类异戊二烯化合物香气贡献率高.通过用香气成分建立我国霞多丽干白6个典型香气特征的回归模型,预测香气特征的强度,判别葡萄酒的香气质量和产区.结果显示,6个模型中5个方差分析达到极显著水平,t检验显示它们的常数项和化合物系数极显著,实测值与预测值相关系数R2在0.979 ~0.999之间.%Chardonnay dry white wines from main wine producing districts in China were collected to analyze aroma quality and reveal the mathematic relations between aroma characters and volatiles. Sensory analysis was made by 30 panelists who were trained by using " Le Nez du Vin" wine aroma kit. The sensory data were composed of intensity and by using frequency of characters. SPME - GC - MS was used to identify and quantify aroma compounds in wine. PCA and correlation analysis of sensory data showed six typical aroma characters of the Chinese Chardonnay dry white wines: citric, pineapple, violet, lime, green apple and lemon. Odor active value ( OAV) analysis indicated that 25 ones of 64 aroma compounds quantified in sample wines were

  17. Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2004-03-24

    The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex.

  18. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumorigenesis by myristicin, a volatile aroma constituent of parsley leaf oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G Q; Kenney, P M; Zhang, J; Lam, L K

    1992-10-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) assay-guided fractionation of parsley leaf oil from the edible plant Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. (Umbelliferae) led to the isolation of myristicin. Myristicin showed high activity as an inducer of the detoxifying enzyme GST in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of female A/J mice. Reduction of myristicin yielded dihydromyristicin that retained the GST-inducing activity. Myristicin and dihydromyristicin were tested for their capacity to inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced tumor formation in female A/J mice. A 65% inhibition of the tumor multiplicity in the lung was observed as the result of treatment of myristicin. Dihydromyristicin produced small or insignificant reduction of lung tumor formation. In the forestomach, myristicin showed a 31% inhibition of tumor formation; while dihydromyristicin exhibited a 27% inhibition. Comparison of the structures and activities indicated that the saturation of the isolated double bond in myristicin resulted in a significant decrease in the inhibitory activity against B[a]P-induced tumorigenesis. The present results showed that myristicin, an active inducer of GST activity, is an effective inhibitor of B[a]P-induced tumorigenesis in mice. Stimulation of GST activity by myristicin could be a major mechanism for its inhibition of B[a]P or other carcinogens that may be detoxified in the same manner. As a culinary herb parsley is regularly consumed by humans. Parsley leaf oil is also used extensively for garnishing and seasoning. The results of this study indicate that as a major volatile aroma constituent of parsley myristicin may be an effective cancer chemopreventive agent. PMID:1423855

  19. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  20. Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME - GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%, linalyl acetate (18.2%, were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%, nerol (34.0% and α- citral (52.0% were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%, and linalool (19.0%, linalyl acetate (51.5%, respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays.

  1. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (aroma.

  2. Comparative Characterization of Aroma Volatiles and Related Gene Expression Analysis at Vegetative and Mature Stages in Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinge, Vidya; Patil, Hemant; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2016-02-01

    Aroma volatiles in Basmati-370, Ambemohar-157 (non-basmati scented), and IR-64 (non-scented) rice cultivars were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed at vegetative and maturity stages to study their differential accumulation using headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM) approach. In addition, expression analysis of major aroma volatile 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP)-related genes, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (badh2) and Δ(1)-pyrolline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS), were studied by real-time PCR. Maximum number of volatiles recorded at vegetative (72-58) than at mature stage (54-39). Twenty new compounds (12 in scented and 8 in both) were reported in rice. N-containing aromatic compounds were major distinguishing class separating scented from non-scented. Among quantified 26 volatiles, 14 odor-active compounds distinguished vegetative and mature stage. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 2AP was 0.001 mg/kg of 2AP and 0.01 g of rice, respectively. 2AP accumulation in mature grains was found three times more than in leaves of scented rice. Positive correlation of 2AP with 2-pentylfuran, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and (E)-2-nonenal suggests their major role as aroma contributors. The badh2 expression was inversely and P5CS expression was positively correlated with 2AP accumulation in scented over non-scented cultivar.

  3. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (aroma. PMID:26800353

  4. Comparative Characterization of Aroma Volatiles and Related Gene Expression Analysis at Vegetative and Mature Stages in Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinge, Vidya; Patil, Hemant; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2016-02-01

    Aroma volatiles in Basmati-370, Ambemohar-157 (non-basmati scented), and IR-64 (non-scented) rice cultivars were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed at vegetative and maturity stages to study their differential accumulation using headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM) approach. In addition, expression analysis of major aroma volatile 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP)-related genes, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (badh2) and Δ(1)-pyrolline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS), were studied by real-time PCR. Maximum number of volatiles recorded at vegetative (72-58) than at mature stage (54-39). Twenty new compounds (12 in scented and 8 in both) were reported in rice. N-containing aromatic compounds were major distinguishing class separating scented from non-scented. Among quantified 26 volatiles, 14 odor-active compounds distinguished vegetative and mature stage. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 2AP was 0.001 mg/kg of 2AP and 0.01 g of rice, respectively. 2AP accumulation in mature grains was found three times more than in leaves of scented rice. Positive correlation of 2AP with 2-pentylfuran, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and (E)-2-nonenal suggests their major role as aroma contributors. The badh2 expression was inversely and P5CS expression was positively correlated with 2AP accumulation in scented over non-scented cultivar. PMID:26481230

  5. The analysis of aroma components in marjoram oil by GC/MS%GC/MS 法分析甘牛至油中香味成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源栋; 刘秀明; 冒德寿; 夏建军; 者为; 段焰青

    2016-01-01

    The aroma components of marjoram oil were analyzed by GC /MS,and the peak area normaliza-tion method was used to calculate the relative content of each component.With the mass spectrometry li-brary search,58 compounds which account for 95.61% in the aroma components of marjoram oil,were identified by using reference literature,retention index.The cis(trans)-isomers isomers were confirmed by using retention index,and the accuracy of compound qualitative analysis in natural flavor was im-proved.The aroma of the key aroma compositions of the marjoram oil (linalool,alpha -terpineol,1,8 -cineole,linalyl acetate,alpha pinene,beta -pinene,myrcene,camphene,beta -caryophyllene, sabinene,camphor,borneol,et al)was determined,and the results provided the technical support for the development and application of marjoram oil.%利用 GC /MS 对甘牛至油中香味成分进行了分析,并用峰面积归一化法计算各成分相对含量,通过质谱库检索,保留指数比对,分析并确定了58个化合物,占甘牛至油香味成分95.61%,采用保留指数来鉴别同系物及同分异构体,提高了对甘牛至油中成分定性的准确性。通过香气分析,确定了甘牛至油中关键致香成分分别为芳樟醇、α-松油醇、1,8-桉叶素、乙酸芳樟酯、α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、月桂烯、莰烯、β-石竹烯、桧烯、樟脑、龙脑等,为甘牛至油产品开发和应用提供了理论依据。

  6. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (D-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Rob S.T.; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid an...

  7. Studies on Chimonanthus praecox aroma enhanced by β-glucosidase%β-葡萄糖苷酶酶解腊梅花增香效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 曹光群; 杨成; 孙培冬; 蒋邦文

    2012-01-01

    研究β-葡萄糖苷酶对腊梅花的增香效果.用β-葡萄糖苷酶酶解腊梅鲜花,利用顶空 — 固相微萃取 — 气相色谱—质谱联用技术分别分析酶解前后腊梅花的挥发性成分.结果表明:经与酶解前的46种香气成分对比发现,酶解后,腊梅的香气成分增至64种,主要香气成分的质量分数均明显增长,其中β-榄香烯、4-异亚丙基-1-乙烯基-o-孟8-烯、α荜澄茄油烯和α-可巴烯分别增长了107.7,50.3,46.5,30.0倍.β-葡萄糖苷酶可水解腊梅鲜花香气的前体物质,释放出鲜花中潜在的香气成分,起到自然增香的作用.%To study The effect of β-glucostdase on enhancing the aroma of Chimonunthus praecox. Chimonanthus praeco.r was hydrolyzed by p-glucosidase, then the volatiles hefore and after enzyme hydrolysis were extracted by headspace solid-phase rnicroextraetion and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass ispectrometry. Result; After en zyme hydrolysis, the number of aroma components increased to 64 when comparing with that of 16 before p-glucosidase hydrolysis, and the mass fraction of main aroma components notablely increased, especially β-eIeinene, 4-isopropyhdene-l-vinyl- o-Menth-8-cne, α-cube-bene and α-copaene. the increasing times of which reached 107. 7, 50.3, 46.5 and 30. 0 respectively. Conclusion: β-glucosidase could release the potential aromatic compounds of Chimonanthus praeco.r after hydrolyzmg the flavor precursors, and thus enhance the quality of aroma.

  8. Componentes volátiles libres y glicosídicamente enlazados del aroma de la piña (ananas comosus l.) variedad perolera

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuco, Diana C.; Alicia L. Morales; Duque, Carmenza

    2008-01-01

    Los componentes volátiles del aroma de la piña perolera fueron obtenidos mediante extracción L-L y analizados por CGAR, CGAR-EM (IE, IQP) y CGAR-O. En esta forma se identificaron 67 compuestos, siendo 2-metilbutanoato de metilo, hexanoatode metilo, 4- acetoxi-hexanoato de metilo, 5-acetoxi-hexanoato de metilo y 3-metiltiopropanoato de metilo los componentesmayoritarios. Mediante el análisis por CGAR-O no se detectaron compuestos impacto.La fracción glicosídica se obtuvo por adsorción sobre Am...

  9. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  10. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  11. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy works, it helps to understand how your respiratory system works. This system is a group of organs and tissues that help you breathe. The respiratory system includes the airways and lungs. The airways carry ...

  12. Analysis on aroma changes of Valencia orange juice during storage by electric nose%基于电子鼻分析夏橙汁在贮藏过程中香气的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪琴; 郭丽琼; 焦晓磊; 吴厚玖; 苏霞; 曹秋旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Research of the aroma changes of the Valencia orange juice while stored by different temperature and different time ranges.Method:Collected the aroma ingredient by electronic nose and got the results by sensor.PCA and DFA were used as analysis methods to identify the differences of the aroma.Results:results showed that DFA method is better than the PCA.The aroma of citrus had less changes while stored by-18℃ and 4℃.When the temperature up to 25℃,the aroma changed more.In all temperature conditions,citrus aroma remarkable changed during the first two weeks,but during the next two weeks,it has changed a little almost around the response value.%目的:研究了夏橙汁在不同贮藏温度和不同贮藏时间情况下橙汁的香气的变化情况.方法:电子鼻采集到夏橙汁的香气成分,并得到电子鼻传感器的响应值.利用PCA与DFA分析方法鉴别出夏橙汁在贮藏过程中香气的变化,以及在不同贮藏温度香气变化.结果:DFA的区分效果优于PCA的区分效果;在-18℃与4℃的低温贮藏条件下,橙汁的香气变化幅度较小,25℃贮藏的条件下香气成分的损失较多,并且三种贮藏温度下,第一、二周香气的响应值变化显著,第三、四周香气的响应值变化小,响应值接近.

  13. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE NaCl Y/O GRASA EN LA CALIDAD DE EMBUTIDOS CURADO-MADURADOS Y ESTUDIO DE NUEVAS ESTRATEGIAS PARA LA POTENCIACIÓN DEL AROMA.

    OpenAIRE

    CORRAL SILVESTRE, SARA

    2015-01-01

    El proceso de fabricación de embutidos curado-madurados es crucial para el desarrollo de unas características sensoriales óptimas siendo el aroma y sabor uno de los parámetros de calidad más importantes para los consumidores. Por ello, es de interés conocer los compuestos de gran potencia aromática que determinan la aceptación de dicho producto para así, diseñar nuevas estrategias tecnológicas que potencien el aroma de los embutidos curado-madurados. En vista de ello, la presen...

  14. ‘桃源大叶’高香红茶应用加工技术研究%Application and processing techniques of high aroma black tea ‘Taoyuandaye’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚华春; 覃金保; 周艮平

    2015-01-01

    介绍‘桃源大叶’制作高香红茶的加工工艺技术,并与‘槠叶齐’、‘福鼎大白’进行对比,用‘桃源大叶’制作的高香红茶的品质特征优异。%In the paper, the processing techniques of high aroma black tea were introduced with ‘Taoyuandaye’ as the material. By contrast with ‘Zhuyeqi’ and ‘Fudingbaihao’, high aroma black tea ‘Taoyuandaye’ had superior quality.

  15. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  16. Study of effect of radiation on the parameters of quality of sterile males of Ceratitis Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and their improvement aroma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present work, we are interested in studying the various stages in the production of sterile males, the effect of different doses of irradiation on longevity, compatibility and competitiveness of these males. And the effect of exposure of adults and pupae of Ceratitis to different doses of essential oil of ginger on their compatibility and competitiveness. (Author)

  17. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  18. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  19. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration. PMID:27380868

  20. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-07-06

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration.

  1. Determination of Wine Aroma Compounds by Head Space “In Tube Extraction” Technique and Gas Chromatography (HS-ITEX-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Vârva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of vintage on the aroma compounds of white wine Episcopal from vineyard Ciumbrud, located in central Transylvania, by a non-destructive head space in tube extraction technique in tandem with GC-MS. The samples selected for analysis come from three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011 from Episcopal assortment, a high quality wine obtained by blending three types of wine varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Pinot Gris. The results reflect the compositional similarities but also the influence of vintage on the composition of wine aroma compounds. Results showed significant similarities between the composition of major compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol, butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, octanoic acid ethyl ester, which together account for over 50% of the compounds identified. Significant differences appear both on the number of identified compounds in wine harvest 2010 compared to the other two years as well as through differences in concentration of two compounds: 3-methyl-butanol and 2,4-hexadienoic acid ethyl ester.

  2. Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-02-15

    Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS.

  3. Identification of odorants in frankincense (Boswellia sacra Flueck.) by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebler, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Frankincense has been known, traded and used throughout the ages for its exceptional aroma properties, and is still commonly used in both secular and religious settings to convey a pleasant odor. Surprisingly, the odoriferous principle(s) underlying its unique odor profile have never been published. In this study, resin samples of Boswellia sacra Flueck. from both Somalia and Oman were investigated by aroma extract dilution analysis. In a comprehensive, odor-activity guided approach both chemo-analytical and human-sensory parameters were used to identify odor active constituents of the volatile fraction of B. sacra. Among the key odorants found were α-pinene, β-myrcene, linalool, p-cresol and two unidentified sesquiterpenoids. Overall, a total of 23 odorants were detected and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. The majority of the identified odorant compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes, along with some relevant mono- and sesquiterpenes and only one diterpenoid substance. Several of these compounds were reported here for the first time as odorous constituents in B. sacra. Identifying bioactive compounds might support a better understanding with regard to the potential benefits of frankincense, for example in aromatherapy or ecclesial settings. PMID:25468535

  4. Low intramuscular fat (but high in PUFA) content in cooked cured pork ham decreased Maillard reaction volatiles and pleasing aroma attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Iu; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Ibañez, Carles; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2016-04-01

    The influence of intramuscular fat content (high - HI versus low - LI) and fatty acid composition on pork cooked cured ham flavour was analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry using nasal impact frequency (GC-O/NIF) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Potential relationships were studied by principal component analysis (PCA). Sixteen and fourteen odourants were identified by GC-O/NIF in LI and HI cooked hams, respectively. The two ham types differed in lipid oxidation odourants: polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derivatives hexanal, 1-octen-3-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were higher in LI ham; while monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivative decanal was higher in HI. HI samples resulted in higher values for odour-active aroma compounds from Maillard reaction, which are related to roast flavour and a higher overall flavour liking. In summary, our results suggest that Maillard derived odour-active aroma compounds were partially inhibited in LI samples (high in PUFA), resulting in lower positive sensory ratings. PMID:26593467

  5. Analysis of Aroma Constituents of High-fragrant Green Tea%高香绿茶的香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春兰; 陈江明; 黄亚辉

    2012-01-01

    High-fragrant green tea is a new kind of green tea added with withering and fermentation. It was found that the biochemical component contents and aroma of high-fragrant green tea were higher than that of common green tea. Flavor, esters and phenols of high-fragrant green tea were 10.8% and 3.44% higher respectively than those of ordinary green tea. Those aroma components accounted for the characteristics of high-fragrant green tea flavor.%经过晒青、摊放、摇青的高香绿茶样,生化成分含量均高于普通绿茶对照样;在香气分析中,高香绿茶的香气种类比普通绿茶多,酯类和酚类物质分别比普通茶样的高10.8%和3.44%,这些香气成分的形成构成了高香绿茶的香型特征.

  6. The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Particular peptides generated from the vicilin-class(7S) globulin of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis during cocoa fermentation are essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes. As revealed by in vitro studies, the formation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors depends on the particular cleavage specificity of the cocoa aspartic protease, which cannot be substituted by pepsin. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of aspartic protease inhibitors on both enzymes and comparatively studied their cleavage specificities using different protein substrates and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses of the generated oligopeptides. Three classes of cleavage sites have been identified and characterized: (I) sequences exclusively cleaved by the cocoa enzyme, (II) sequences cleaved by both pepsin and the cocoa enzyme, and (III) those cleaved exclusively by pepsin. In contrast to most aspartic proteases from other origins, basic amino acid residues, particularly lysine, were found to be abundant in the specific cleavage sites of the cocoa enzyme. PMID:27283639

  7. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  8. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

  9. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  10. Family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Altamash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ′insulin′. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ′family′. Underestimating family′s perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

  11. The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Demirbağ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many alternative interventions are practiced in an effort to reduce symptoms of fibromiyalgia. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sleep and touch therapy accompanied by music and aromatherapy on the symptoms of fibromyalgia and depression.Methods: The study was carried out between September 2009 and March 2011 in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Polyclinic in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of 162 female patients and had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia at least 6 months prior to the study. Since the sample contains two intervention groups and one control group, each group was assigned 54 patients. Data were collected through a Personal Information Form, a Fibromyalgia Symptom Form and the Beck Depression Index. The study employed a pre-test/post-test control group design. A paired sample t-test was used in the comparisons of the in-group scale points; the chi-square in the intergroup comparisons, and the McNamer test in the in-group comparisons.Results: After the interventions, it was observed that the depression levels in the touch-music-aroma therapy group showed a larger decrease (before: 22.01±5.3; after: 14.52±3.7 than in the sleep-music-aroma therapy group (before: 24.81±5.1; after: 20.16±4.9 and control groups (before: 23.73±4.4; after: 21.05±2.6. Symptoms such as restless sleep, headache, morning fatigue, exhaustion, feeling like crying and bowel complaints were also significantly reduced (P<0.05.Conclusion: It is suggested that nurses providing healthcare to FMS patients should also offer these patients aromatherapy, sleep, music and touch therapies.

  12. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  13. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  14. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  15. Pet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  16. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  17. Preparación de una esencia de lulo (solanum vestissimun d. a partir del estudio de la contribución de los componentes volátiles al aroma de la fruta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Los constituyentes volátiles del aroma del lulo (Solanum vestissimum D. fueron extraídos y caracterizados química y olfatométricamente, encontrándose que el aroma de esta fruta no es debida a unos pocos componentes sino a una mezcla compleja de 32 compuestos volátiles mayoritarios, de los cuales el butanoato de metilo, (E-2-butenoato de metilo, butanoato de etilo, (Z-3-hexenol, hexanoato de metilo, hexanoato de etilo, acetato de (Z-3-hexenilo, limoneno, 7- terpineneno, benzoato de metilo, lonalol y o-terpineol parecen contribuir de manera más efectiva a este exótico y delicioso aroma. Debido a que no se encontró un solo compuesto(s responsable de aroma típico de esta fruta, se utilizó el extracto completo de volátiles para preparar una buena esencia de lulo (utilizando como mejor matriz propilénglicol en solución acuosa al 10% y extracto de volátiles al 2%, la cual fue luego incorporada como aromatizante y saborizante en un helado de crema. El producto así preparado tuvo una gran aceptación por quienes lo consumieron

  18. Anecdotal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikan, L E

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, many advances in medicine have been serendipitous. Are serendipitous and anecdotal synonymous? Many of our materia medica today relate to initial probes and anecdotal reports that matured to full investigation and therapeutic indications. The recent situation regarding Skin Cap is one that highlights the downside of this scenario. Several drugs in the US continue usage largely related to anecdotal indications, and anecdotal extension of legend indications is a standard for American Dermatology. The situation with systemic drugs, such as Trental, zinc preparations, imidazoles for extended indications, lysine and melatonin, all will be discussed. Topical preparations such as skin cap, cantharone, Vioform, all also are included in this category. It is important to place this topic in perspective in regards to geographic variation and therapeutic need. Many diseases lacking specific therapy are important targets for anecdotal therapy, and this will foster continued approaches in this area. The growing standardization of medicine and pharmaceutical regulation, threatens the anecdotal approach, but it provides still an important link to the future for some forms of therapy in diseases that are difficult to treat. Traditionally, the anecdote has been the first step in the therapeutic chain. Withering discovery of the benefits of the common fox glove in dropsy, was followed by many other anecdotes arriving via folk-medicine in the New World. This approach of utilizing folk medicine has now reached new heights, with very active searches by major pharmaceutical companies throughout the third world for remedies that may have potential. Couched with this is the history of anecdotal "snake-oil" remedies, that clearly had no benefit to anyone except the huckster marketing same. The excesses in this area of unproven and false therapies, led to the gradual organization of therapeutic trials and the Food and Drug Administration in the US as we know it today. The

  19. Hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Historically discoveries and technological advances in radiation and accelerator physics have been rapidly applied in the healing arts. X rays, discovered by Roentgen in 1895, and radioisotopes, discovered by Becquerel in 1896, were both applied to the treatment of cancer by the first year of the twentieth century. By the time that Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932 radiotherapy was a well-established modality for the treatment of cancer. The potential use of neutrons in radiotherapy was immediately recognized by L.H. Gray (a recent Ph.D. graduate from the Cavendish laboratories in Cambridge). He built a neutron generator for radiobiology research at Mount Vernon Hospital in London, it's design was based on a similar device built at Cambridge by Mark Oliphant. In parallel with these developments Earnest Lawrence, in collaboration with his brother John Lawrence, a physician, were also studying the radiobiology of neutrons. They obtained some funding from the US National Cancer Institute to construct a 60'' cyclotron for neutron radiation therapy. These clinical trials, started in 1938, were the first application of heavy particles for cancer therapy. Immediately after the second World War advances in accelerator technology lead to the building of the first synchrocyclotrons, which produced proton beams with ranges approaching 30 cm in water. At the Harvard synchrocyclotron Robert R. Wilson realized that proton beams might have considerable advantages over other radiation beams in the treatment of deep-seated tumors. This advantage derives from the increase in stopping power at the end of the proton range, first observed by W.H.Bragg at the University of Adelaide; a phenomenon now known as the Bragg peak. Conventional X-ray beams are exponentially attenuated by matter and, hence, delivering large radiation doses to tumors at depth while not causing excessive damage to the overlying normal tissues can be problematical. The Bragg peak and the well

  20. Differences in Enzymatic Properties of the Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum Alcohol Acetyltransferases and Their Impact on Aroma-Active Compounds Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters belong to the most important yeast secondary metabolites that significantly contribute to the overall flavor and aroma profile of fermented products. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, esterification of higher alcohols is catalyzed mainly by the alcohol acetyltransferases encoded by genes ATF1 and ATF2. Previous investigation has shown other Saccharomyces species, e.g., S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum, to vary in aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters formation when compared to S. cerevisiae. Here, we aimed to analyze the enzymes encoded by the ATF1 and ATF2 genes from S. kudriavzevii (SkATF1, SkATF2) and S. uvarum (SuATF1, SuATF2). The heterologous expression of the individual ATF1 and ATF2 genes in a host S. cerevisiae resulted in the enhanced production of several higher alcohols and acetate esters. Particularly, an increase of 2-phenylethyl acetate production by the strains that harbored ATF1 and ATF2 genes from S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum was observed. When grown with individual amino acids as the nitrogen source, the strain that harbored SkATF1 showed particularly high 2-phenylethyl acetate production and the strains with introduced SkATF2 or SuATF2 revealed increased production of isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate compared to the reference strains with endogenous ATF genes. The alcohol acetyltransferase activities of the individual Atf1 and Atf2 enzymes measured in the cell extracts of the S. cerevisiae atf1 atf2 iah1 triple-null strain were detected for all the measured substrates. This indicated that S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum Atf enzymes had broad range substrate specificity as S. cerevisiae Atf enzymes. Individual Atf1 enzymes exhibited markedly different kinetic properties since SkAtf1p showed c. twofold higher and SuAtf1p c. threefold higher Km for isoamyl alcohol than ScAtf1p. Together these results indicated that the differences found among the three Saccharomyces species during the

  1. 红烧牛肉罐头香味活性化合物的分析%Analysis of Aroma-Active Compounds in Canned Stewed Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许倩倩; 林美丽; 刘雪妮; 宋焕禄; 陈斌; 屈维丽

    2012-01-01

    The aroma-active compounds of canned stewed beef braised in brown sauce were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by dynamic headspace sampling, thermal desorption injection and GC-O/GC-MS. A total of 73 volatile compounds were identified. Among them were 23 aroma-active compounds, mainly consisting of 4 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 alcohols, 2 esters, 2 furans, 2 pyrazine, 2 thiazole, 2 terpenes, 1 alkene, and 1 pyridine. The important aroma-active compounds were 2-butanone (fruity), 2-pentanone (fruity and sweet), camphene (woody and minty), ethyl butyrate (sweet and fruity), pyridine(soul and fishy), 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine(nut and roast), benzaldehyde (sweet and fruity), and 2-acetylthiazole (nut and roast peanut).%采用动态顶空的方法对红烧牛肉罐头中挥发性化合物进行提取,热脱附系统进样,利用气相-嗅闻-质谱联用的方法对其中的香味活性化合物进行定性定量分析,共鉴定出73中挥发性化合物,其中23种香味活性化合物,这些化合物种类主要有酮类4种,醛类3种,醇类2种,酯类2种,呋喃类2种,吡嗪类2种,噻唑类2种,萜类2种,烯类1种,吡啶1种。红烧牛肉罐头中重要的香味活性化合物有2-丁酮(水果味)、2-戊酮(甜味、果香味)、莰烯(木香味、薄荷味)、丁酸乙酯(香甜味、水果味)、吡啶(酸味、鱼香味)、2,5-二甲基-吡嗪(烧烤味、坚果味)、苯甲醛(甜味、果香味)、2-乙酰噻唑(坚果味、烤花生味)。

  2. Aroma profile of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine fermented by single and co-culture starters of autochthonous Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73, a strain of Starm. bacillaris (STS12, one of H. uvarum (STS45 and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1 and Starm. bacillaris (STS12, in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after three days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains Starm. bacillaris (STS12 and H. uvarum (STS45. At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step towards the use of tailored

  3. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  4. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  5. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine (131I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  6. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  7. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  8. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  9. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung......Neurodegenerative diseases and dementia might be followed by symptoms of confusion. In this paper a view on dementia is presented where the person is not described as “demented” and in a permanent state of non-lucidity and confusion, but is described as a person where periods of confusion might...

  10. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  11. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  12. Seguimiento de la producción del aroma del yogurt durante la fermentación acido láctica mediante nariz electrónica y evaluación sensorial / Monitoring aroma production of yogurt during lactic fermentation by electronic nose and sensory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rúales Guzmán, Bertha Viviana

    2012-01-01

    El yogurt es una de las bebidas fermentadas más consumidas en el mundo por sus propiedades nutricionales, funcionales y sensoriales, por lo tanto la calidad final del producto será de gran importancia para satisfacer las necesidades del consumidor y obtener un posicionamiento en el mercado. El seguimiento de la fermentación es la clave para obtener todas estas propiedades, por tal razón, en la presente investigación se propuso el seguimiento de la producción de aroma como un método alternativ...

  13. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  14. Quality and aromatic sensory descriptors (mainly fresh and dry fruit character) of Spanish red wines can be predicted from their aroma-active chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Felipe; Ferreira, Vicente; Cacho, Juan; Escudero, Ana

    2011-07-27

    A satisfactory model explaining quality could be built in a set of 25 high quality Spanish red wines, by aroma-active chemical composition. The quality of the wines was positively correlated with the wine content in fruity esters, acids, enolones, and wood derived compounds, and negatively with phenylacetaldehyde, acetic acid, methional, and 4-ethylphenol. Wine fruitiness was demonstrated to be positively related not only to the wine content on fruity esters and enolones, but to wine volatile fatty acids. Fruitiness is strongly suppressed by 4-ethylphenol, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and methional, this involved in the perception of dry-fruit notes. Sensory effects were more intense in the presence of β-damascenone and β-ionone. A satisfactory model explaining animal notes could be built. Finally, the vegetal character of this set of wines could be related to the combined effect of dimethylsulfide (DMS), 1-hexanol, and methanethiol.

  15. Multidimensional chromatographic approach applied to the identification of novel aroma compounds in wine. Identification of ethyl cyclohexanoate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, E; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2006-12-29

    A multidimensional chromatographic strategy has been developed and optimized with the purpose of identifying different odorants potentially relevant to the aroma and flavor of aged wines from Madeira or Sherry. Different techniques of extraction and fractionation were studied in order to get clear olfactometric and spectrometric signals from the target odorants. The best results were obtained with a dynamic headspace extraction followed by a fractionation on a normal phase medium pressure liquid chromatography on a silicagel column. Large volumes (50 microl) of the concentrated fractions were further analyzed in a dual gas chromatography-mass spectrometric system (GC-MS) equipped with two olfactometric ports. The strategy made it possible to identify in wine by first time the presence of the powerful strawberry-smelling compound, ethyl cyclohexanoate, and of two other novel fruity esters, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate. Some other unidentified odorants could be isolated and their mass spectra are given. PMID:17069823

  16. Relação do aroma e da espuma dos vinhos espumantes com o potencial enológico das uvas e dos vinhos

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Elisabete Verde Martins

    2010-01-01

    Os espumantes produzidos segundo o método Champanhês são obtidos após uma segunda fermentação em garrafa. Quando o vinho é vertido no copo, o CO2 produzido é libertado, sendo a espuma formada o resultado da sua interacção com os constituintes do vinho. A quantidade e a estabilidade da espuma do vinho espumante estão relacionadas com a sua composição química. Para além da espuma, o aroma é também um parâmetro importante de qualidade na apreciação geral de um vinho espumante. ...

  17. Preparation of an Aroma Fraction from Dried Bonito by Steam Distillation and Its Effect on Modification of Salty and Umami Taste Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Mochimaru, Shinsuke; Ueda, Reiko; Ban, Masayasu; Kabuto, Shizuya; Abe, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of dried bonito aroma on taste perception, dried bonito aroma fraction (DBAF) as a steam distillate in liquid was added to the salt solutions containing 5 different salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5% [w/v]) before sensory evaluations. Perception of the taste qualities of salt solutions with added DBAF varied depending on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrations (0.68% to 0.83%), after-taste intensity of saltiness and overall taste intensity were significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF. This suggests that DBAF can be applied to a low-salt seasoning at these salt concentrations. Umami taste intensity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DBAF at all salt concentrations (0.68% to 1.5%). The addition of heat-treated DBAF, which no longer had the dried bonito odor, exerted no significant influences on any taste descriptors. As the result of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, sulfur-containing compounds, pyrazines, alcohols, and phenols were contained in DBAF and not detected in heat-treated DBAF. Because these compounds contributed to the dried bonito odor, the taste modifications were thought to be induced by these compounds. The effects of the DBAF on Japanese noodle soup (mentsuyu) were also examined. The saltiness intensity of 1.2% salt concentration of mentsuyu containing both DBAF and DBS (dried bonito stock) as a hot water extract of dried bonito was not significantly differ from that of 1.5% salt concentration of mentsuyu not containing any of them. It will thus be possible to develop a reduced salt seasoning by combining DBAF and DBS. PMID:26719948

  18. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, ... grateful I chose a career as rewarding as music therapy. I love what I do each day!” Where ...

  19. 中华绒螯蟹不同部位中活性香气物质的研究%Study on Aroma-active Compounds Profile from Different Edible Parts of Chinese mitten handed crab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾赛麒; 王锡昌; 陶宁萍; 张晶晶; 吴娜

    2013-01-01

    HS-SPME-GC-MS (headspace solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) technology was applied in this study to identify the aroma compounds from abdomen,claw,leg meat and spawn of male Eriocheir sinensis cultured in Chongming region.A total of 58 volatiles,which can be divided into 8 classes,were identified in four edible parts and further quantitated based on internal standard analysis.Odor activity values (OAVs) of all 58 aroma compounds were calculated due to their thresholds.Fifteen key aroma-active compounds,such as decanal,were selected from all compounds and their OAVs were analyzed by both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) methods.PCA result showed that the aroma-quality of spawn sample was better than others.8 aroma-active compounds including pentanal were determined as the characteristic compounds that contributed a lot to "better aroma-quality",among which 2,4-heptadienal played the most important role.CA result showed that the aroma profile of spawn could be classified as one cluster,so did the 8 aroma-active compounds including pentanal.The consistent results of PCA and CA analysis manifested that these two methods would support each other and be applied to establish a model for evaluating aroma-quality of Eriocheir sinensis in the future.%运用顶空固相微萃取-气-质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),对采自崇明的二级雄性中华绒螯蟹体肉、钳肉、足内和性腺中的香气成分进行了鉴定并以内标法对其定量.大闸蟹四可食部位中共检测到8大类58种香气物质,根据阈值进一步求得每种香气物质的活性值(OAV值).以OAV值为依据,从58种化合物中筛选得到了癸醛等15种最为关键的活性香气物质,并运用主成分分析法(PCA)和聚类分析法(CA)对其活性值进行了分析.由PCA分析得到:性腺样品香气品质较佳,戊醛等8种为表征“高品质风味”的特征性香气物质(其中2,4-庚二烯醛

  20. Judgment of Aroma Types of Middle and Upper Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves Based on Stepwise Discriminant Analysis%基于逐步判别分析的烤烟中上部烟叶香型判断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹军; 周芳芳; 董石飞; 饶智; 朱海滨; 资文华; 蒋美红; 罗华元

    2014-01-01

    [目的]通过揭示不同香型和不同部位烤烟的香气风格特征及其形成原因,建立起中上部烟叶香型风格定量判断的数学模型。[方法]以中国11个主要产烟省的13个地区的63个C3F和65个B2F烟叶作为校正样品,并以67种致香物质为指标,采用逐步判别分析的方法对不同香型烤烟样品进行判别分析,并建立判别函数,并分别利用21个 C3F烟叶和19份B2F烟叶对该模型进行验证。[结果]中上部烟叶的大部分致香物质含量占致香物质总量的比例变异系数小于相对应的致香物质绝对含量,且在中上部烟叶中比例超过1%的物质只有苯甲醇、茄酮、β-大马酮、新植二烯、金合欢基丙酮 A、十六酸、寸拜醇、亚麻酸甲酯、西柏三烯二醇,且在不同部位烟叶中,主导某种香型的致香物质种类不同;在分别以中部叶和上部叶致香物质含量和比例为判断指标构建判别函数时,各引入了11种、18种、7种、11种致香物质指标,并以构建的模型对新样本进行预测,其整体准确率分别为:91.7%、100%、91.7%、91.7%。可见,影响中部烟叶香气风格特征的致香物质指标明显多于上部叶,但在中部叶中采用致香物质比例作为判别指标能明显提高其判别准确率。[结论]该研究为特色优质烟叶的开发与生产布局提供理论依据。%The aim of this study was to establish mathematical models for judging the aroma types of middle and upper flue-cured tobacco leaves according to the contents and proportions of aroma compositions. [Method] The aroma types of tobacco leaves were judged based on stepwise discriminant analysis, using 63 C3F and 65 B2F tobacco leaf samples from 13 tobacco producing regions in 11 provinces of China (Huili in Sichuan, Baokang in Hubei, Wulong in Chongqing, Lu-oyang in Henan, Zhucheng in Shandong, Wuyi Mountain in Fujian, Malong in Yun-nan, Chuxiong in Yunnan, Bijie in Guizhou

  1. Principal Components Analysis of Aroma Components of Marketed Navel Oranges from Five Varieties%5种市售脐橙果实香气成分的主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐会周; 明建

    2011-01-01

    In the current work,the aroma components of marketed navel oranges from five varieties such as Fengjie Newhal navel orange,Fengjie navel orange Fengyuan 72-1,Gannan Newhall navel orange,Changhong navel orange and Beibei Powell navel orange were investigated by solid phase microextraction(SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with principal component analysis,and the feasibility of using aroma components for flavor evaluation of orange was explored.The orange varieties presented a large difference in their aroma components.The number of aroma components identified in them was 65,mainly monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes,aldehydes,ketones,alcohols and esters.The first and second principal components were explained as monoterpenes and oxided terpenoid derivatives,respectively.The difference of these aroma components resulted in the unique flavor characteristics of different orange varieties.Therefore,principal component analysis has the potential to be used for aroma quality evaluation of orange.%研究5种市售脐橙的香气成分,并探索将脐橙香气成分作为风味评价指标的可能性。采用固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术测定5种市售脐橙果实的香气成分,并用主成分分析法对脐橙果实的香气成分进行分析。结果表明:5种市售脐橙的香气成分存在较大差异,从中检出65种香气成分,主要是单萜、倍半萜、醛类、酮类、醇类和酯类,第一主成分、第二主成分分别指向单萜、烯萜类氧化衍生物。这些香气成分的差异,形成脐橙各自的风味特征,脐橙香气成分的主成分分析可以作为脐橙香气品质潜在的评价方法。

  2. 近红外光谱技术识别烤烟香气风格的研究%A study of recognition of tobacco aroma style using near infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋菊; 田旷达; 李祖红; 吕亚琼; 熊艳梅; 闵顺耕

    2014-01-01

    A method combined with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) was applied to study identiifcation technology of tobacco aroma styles. The NIR spectrum of the tobacco powder were preprocessed by a wavelength selection technique and several pretreatment methods including smoothing, multiplicative scatter correction and standard normal variate transformation. The LS-SVM identiifcation models for three kinds of tobacco aroma styles were built, after optimizing parameters by k-fold cross validation and multilayer grid search. The values of accuracy rate of burnt aroma, spice aroma and sweetness aroma model were 94.7%, 88.9% and 94.8%, respectively. And the area under AOC curve were 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with LS-SVM can be efifciently utilized for rapid and accurate identiifcation of tobacco aroma styles.%目的:研究烤烟香气风格中焦香、辛香、甜香等香韵的识别技术。方法:采用近红外光谱技术结合最小二乘支持向量机(L S-S V M)模式识别方法。烟叶粉末的近红外漫反射光谱经过波长范围选择和多种预处理优化后输入模型,使用k折交互验证和多层网格法优化LS-SVM模型参数,建立三种香韵识别模型。结果:焦香、甜香、辛香的识别准确率CR分别为94.7%、88.9%、94.8%,ROC曲线下面积AUC分别为0.99、0.99、1.00。结论:说明使用近红外光谱技术结合LS-SVM方法可有效识别烤烟香气风格。

  3. Coffee residues as substrates for aroma production by Ceratocystis fimbriata in solid state fermentation Produção de aromas por Ceratocystis fimbriata em fermentaç��o no estado sólido utilizando resíduos da agroindústria do café como substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Bianchi Pedroni Medeiros

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of two different strains of Ceratocystis fimbriata for fruity aroma production by solid state fermentation (SSF was tested on coffee pulp and coffee husk complemented with glucose as substrates. Experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and the experimental conditions were: 70% of initial moisture, 20% of glucose addition and pH 6.0. Aeration was made by passive diffusion through the gauze covering the flasks. Headspace analysis of the culture by gas chromatography (GC showed that 12 compounds were produced with coffee husk. Maximum total volatiles (TV concentration was reached after 72 h of culture with coffee husk as substrate (28 µmol.L-1.g-1. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetaldehyde were the major compounds produced, representing 84.7%, 7.6% and 2.0% of TV, respectively. A pre-treatment with heat (100ºC/ 40 min of substrates did not improve TV production. Respirometry analysis was used to determine the growth of the culture by measuring carbon dioxide produced. Results showed that the CO2 production follows the aroma production. This result shows the great potential for the use coffee pulp and coffee husk as substrates to microbial aroma production by solid state fermentation.Neste trabalho duas diferentes cepas de Ceratocystis fimbriata foram testadas para a produção de aromas frutais em fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando como substratos casca e polpa de café, suplementados com glicose. Os experimentos foram realizados em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL. As condições experimentais foram: umidade inicial de 70%, adição de 20% de glicose e pH 6,0. Os frascos foram cobertos com gaze e a aeração ocorreu por difusão passiva. A análise do "headspace"da cultura foi feita por cromatografia gasosa e 12 compostos foram detectados utilizando a casca de café. A análise respirométrica foi realizada para o acompanhamento do crescimento do microrganismo pela determinação do dióxido de carbono

  4. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. PMID:25784669

  5. 广东仁化白毛红茶香气组成的比较研究%Research and comparison of the aroma components in Guangdong renhua Baimao black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霜; 陈栋; 许勇泉; 尹军峰

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the volatile aroma component in black tea processed with Guangdong native tea variety-Renhua Baimao tea as material and determining the main aroma components,the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the aroma compounds of 3 black tea products and their contribution to the total aroma. The results showed that more than 50 aroma compounds were identified including alcohol, ester,aldehyde, ketones,terpene, hydrocarbon and etc,among which the alcohol was the most important compound,ester and aldehyde were next to it. Predominant components in Renhua Baimao tea variety- black tea were linalool, methl salcylate, nonanal, Neroli and linalool oxide,representing 27.78% ,9.85% ,7.99% ,7.42% and 6.84% of the total aroma respectively. Baimao black tea contained more flower fruit-like(eg, linalool,nonanal, Neroli and etc). than Sri Lanka Wuwa black tea(CK3) and less than Yinghong 9(CK1). However,the fragrant oil compounds in Baimao black tea were less than CK3 and higher than CK1. It might be the reason that in sensory Baimao black tea had fresh and thick sweet aroma liked CK1 as well as persistent fine sharp aroma liked CK3.%为了探明以广东地方特色茶树品种-“仁化白毛茶”为原料加工而成的红茶之主要香气物质并确定其呈香特征.本研究采用顶空固相微萃取方法结合气质联用技术研究鉴定了3个红茶产品的香气物质种类及其对总体香气的贡献。结果表明,研究鉴定出50多种香气化合物,主要包含醇类、酯类、醛类、酮类、烯类和烷烃类等,其中醇类是最主要的物质,其次是酯类和醛类。仁化白毛茶树品种红茶的“主导香气成分”是芳樟醇、水杨酸甲酯、壬醛、橙花醇、氧化芳樟醇.平均含量分别占总香气的27.78%、9.85%、7.99%、7.42%和6.84%。仁化白毛红茶的

  6. Gyromitra Mantarının Uçucu Aroma Bileşenlerinin Tepe Boşluğu Gaz Kromotografisi Kütle Spektroskopisi (HS-GC/MS) Tekniği ile Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Hatıra Taşkın; Gökhan Baktemur; Ebru Kafkas; Saadet Büyükalaca

    2013-01-01

    Gyromitra mantarı ülkemizde ve birçok ülkede yenilebilir olarak değerlendirilmekle beraber zehirli mantarlar arasında yer almaktadır. Bu çalışma, 2011 yılında Türkiye’den toplanan Gyromitra mantarının uçucu aroma bileşenlerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla Çukurova Üniversitesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü’nde yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın materyalini Adana ilinden toplanmış olan Gyromitra mantarları oluşturmuştur. Uçucu aroma bileşenleri, Tepe Boşluğu Gaz Kromotografisi Kütle Spektroskopisi (Headspace Gas Krom...

  7. 香稻不育系GHS香味遗传及其杂交育种研究%Inheritance of Aroma of Good-quality Indica Type Rice PTGMS Line GHS and Its Application in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭国强; 尹建英; 郭武强; 曾良贵; 黄益国; 高静; 阳小虎; 郭名奇

    2015-01-01

    The inheritance of aroma of GHS was studied by crossing GHS with non-aromatic lines 9311, Xianhui 207, Yuefengzhan, Taihuangzhan, Yuexiangzhan and aromatic lines Yuxiangyouzhan, Xiangwanxian 17, Tianlongxiang 103, Xinwanxiang and Chuangxiang 5. For the grains of F1 generation, the performance of aroma was tested by chewing method, while for the plants of generations of F1, F2 and BC1 F1, the performance of aroma was tested by KOH solution method. The results showed that the non-aroma of restorer line is a dominant trait, but the aroma of GHS line is a recessive trait; the aroma genes of GHS, Yuexiangzhan and Xiangwanxian 17 were non-al elic; the aroma genes of GHS, Yuxiangyouzhan, Tianlongxiang 103, Xin-wanxiang and Chuangxiang 5 may have the same al elic loci. Among the combinations of GHS and non-aromatic restorer lines, the non-aromatic to aromatic ratios of the F2 plants and the BC1 F1 plants were 3∶1 and 1∶1, respectively, and the inheritance of aroma of GHS was control ed by a pair of recessive nuclear genes. In hybrid rice breeding, using GHS, Qiongxiang S has been bred out, and a series of aro-matic hybrid rice combinations have also been selected. Among the hybrid combi-nations, Qiongxiangliangyou 1, Qiongxiangliangyou 2 and other high-yielding and high-quality combinations have been approved by provincial government, and they have good application prospects.%以香稻不育系 GHS与无香味恢复系和香稻品种杂交,采用咀嚼法测定杂交组合F1米粒和 KOH溶液法测定杂交组合 F1、F2、BC1 F1植株的香味遗传特点。结果表明,恢复系无香味为显性性状,GHS的香味为隐性性状;GHS的香味基因与粤香占、湘晚籼17号的香味基因不等位;GHS的香味基因与玉香油占、天龙香103、新万香、创香5号香味基因可能存有等位位点。与无香味恢复系杂交组合F2植株群体无香味与有香味之比符合3∶1的分离比,BC1 F1植株群体符合1∶1的

  8. Effect of Ultra High Pressure Treatment on Aroma Compounds of Natto%超高压处理对纳豆香气物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马善丽; 叶庆; 许颖; 袁小单; 邓娜娜; 马永昆

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ultra high pressure (UHP) treatment on the aromatic quality of natto was studied. Natto samples were treated at 200, 400 or 600 MPa for 10 min, and aromatic compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that after UHP treatment, the types and contents of aroma compounds in natto had a significant change (P 〈 0.05). 2-Methyl-3-pentanone dropped to a undetectable level and another compounds such as hexanal and 2-pentyl furan were newly detected. The contents of ketones, esters and alcohols increased, while the contents of acids, aldehydes and pyrazines decreased. After UHP treatment at 400 MPa for 10 min, the contents of ketones, esters and alcohols revealed an increase by 13.11%, 117.29% and 46.91%, respectively; in contrast, the contents of acids, aldehydes and pyrazines exhibited a decrease by 50.59%, 90.92% and 16.17%, respectively. Following UHP treatment, more typical aroma of natto was achieved. The contents of acetic acid and benzene that have an unfavorable impact onthe aroma of natto revealed a significant reduction (P 〈 0.05).%研究超高压处理对纳豆风味的影响。纳豆经200、400MPa和600MPa超高压处理10min后,采用固相微萃取富集香气,并用气相色谱-质谱联用仪检测香气成分。结果表明:超高压处理后纳豆香气物质的种类和含量变化显著(P〈0.05),2-甲基-3-戊酮含量下降至未检出,并新增己醛、2-戊基呋喃两种物质;酮类、酯类和醇类含量呈现不同的增加趋势,酸类、醛类和吡嗪类含量下降,其中400MPa处理10min后,酮类、酯类和醇类含量分别上升13.11%、117.29%和46.91%,酸类、醛类和吡嗪类含量分别下降50.59%、90.92%和16.17%,纳豆香气典型,且更加突出,而对风味有不利影响的乙酸、苯甲醛等含量显著下降(P〈0.05)。

  9. 蜂蜜化粉汁、蜂蜜酒和蜂蜜化粉酒的香气成分比较%Comparing the Aroma Components of Honey Pollen Juice, Honey Wine and Honey Pollen Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文超; 陈湖南; 吴珍红; 缪晓青

    2012-01-01

    The aroma components of honey pollen juice, honey wine and honey pollen wine were compared using the GC-MS technology. The aroma components of honey pollen juice was 91 species, 87 kinds of honey wine and honey pollen wine 105, which relative contents were 86.45%, 82.80% and 86.59%. These volatile components mainly in- cluded alcohols, esters, alkanes, alkenes, acids, aldehydes, ketones, ethers and amines. The alcohols and alkanes were the main in the honey pollen juice but alcohol and ester were the main in the wine. Honey pollen wine and honey pollen juice had 27 kinds of common aroma substances. And honey pollen wine and honey wine had 38 kinds common aroma substances.%采用GC-HS技术对蜂蜜花粉汁、未加花粉的蜂蜜酒和蜂蜜花粉酒进行了香气成分分析。蜂蜜花粉汁鉴定出91种,蜂蜜酒87种,蜂蜜花粉酒105种香气成分,相对含量分别是86.45%、82.80%和86.59%。这些挥发性成分主要包括醇类、酯类、烷类、烯类、酸类、醛类、酮类、醚类和胺类等。在蜂蜜花粉汁中,醇类和烷类化合物居多;在发酵酒里,醇类和酯类化合物较多。蜂蜜花粉酒与蜂蜜花粉汁有27种共同香气物质,蜂蜜花粉酒与蜂蜜酒有38种共同香气物质。

  10. 微萃取技术在食醋香气成分分析中的应用%Application of Microextraction Techniques for the Analysis of Aroma Components in Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 孙晶; 罗秀华; 高丽华

    2014-01-01

    Due to the low concentration in foodstuffs as well as the low odor thresholds,aroma compounds create a challenge in their extraction,separation and quantitation.Food aroma volatiles are compounds with different polarity, volatility and chemical properties, which determine the extraction techniques for their isolation from food.Microextraction techniques,especially SPME and SBSE have been used for food aroma compounds analysis for two decades.This review summarizes the use of microextraction techniques in vinegar aroma compounds analysis.%香气成分在食品中的含量低、嗅觉识别阈值低的特点使得对它们的提取、分离和定量分析面临挑战。食品中不同极性、不同挥发性和不同化学性质的香气物质需要不同的萃取方法来分离。近20年来,微萃取技术,主要是固相微萃取和搅拌棒吸附萃取在香气成分分析中的应用日益广泛,而其他的萃取技术由于技术上的局限性应用很少。对近年来微萃取技术在食醋香气成分分析中的应用进行了综述。

  11. 基于烟草香味成分和GA-BP网络的烟草品质评价方法%Quality Evaluation of Tobacco Leaves Based on Their Aroma Components and GA-BP Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红兵; 孔波; 钟科军

    2011-01-01

    为通过烟草香味成分评价其内在品质,采用水蒸气蒸馏法-气质联用法分析了38种烟叶样品的香味成分,评吸了其单料卷烟.并以30个烟叶样品作训练样本,8个样品作预测样本,采用遗传算法GA-BP神经网络法建立了烟草香味成分分析数据与其评吸得分的预测模型.结果表明:烟草样品中共鉴定出76种香味成分;通过GA法选择出28种与烟叶评吸总分显著相关的成分,由这些成分建立的GA-BP神经网络模型,其训练样本拟合误差<2%,预测误差<5%.%In order to evaluate the smoking quality of tobacco leaves by their aroma components, the aroma components in 38 tobacco leaf samples were determined by steam distillation and GC/MS, and the sensory quality of cigarettes made of each tested tobacco was evaluated by panel test.A predicting model was developed by the data of aroma components and sensory scores of tobacco samples with genetic algorithm (GA)-BP neural networks using 30 samples as a training set, and the other 8 samples served as a predicting set.The results showed that 76 aroma components were identified in the samples, of which 28 components significantly correlated with sensory score were selected by GA, the fitting errors of the established model were less than 2% and its prediction errors were within 5%.

  12. Relationship between tobacco aroma functional substance and soil nutrient in the Yunnan tobacco growing area%云南烟区烟叶致香物质与土壤养分的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 程昌新; 杨应明; 罗华元; 董石飞; 李觅; 王玉; 常寿荣

    2013-01-01

    With statistics analysis method,the relationship was studied between the aroma functional substance and soil nutrient in Yunnan tobacco growing area of 359 tobacco samples.The results showed that:Content sequence for aroma functional substance of tobacco leaves was as follows:ketones>esters>alcohols>phenols>furans>aldehydes>nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds.The significant and obvious positively positive correlation between aroma functional substance with the soil nutrient for organic matter,alkali solution nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium.The classical correlation analysis confirmed that:in a certain range,with soil nutrient for organic matter,alkali solution nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium increased in Yunnan tobacco growing area,the aroma functional substances for ketones,alcohols,aldehydes and nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds had increasing trend.%应用统计分析方法研究了云南烟区359份烟叶样品致香物质与土壤养分的关系,结果表明:致香物质在烟叶中的平均含量排序为酮类>酯类>醇类>酚类>呋喃类>醛类>氮杂环类;烟叶致香物质与有机质、碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾含量呈极显著或显著正相关关系.典型相关分析表明,在一定范围内,随着土壤养分有机质、碱解氮、速效钾和速效磷含量的增加,云南烟区烟叶致香物质中的酮类、醇类、醛类和氮杂环类含量呈现增加的趋势.

  13. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Radioactive iodine therapy improves the survival rate of patients with papillary ... and benefits of RAI therapy with your doctor. Radioactive iodine therapy cannot be used to treat anaplastic (undifferentiated) and ...

  14. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  15. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  16. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  17. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  18. Comprehensive Study of Volatile Compounds in Two Australian Rosé Wines: Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) of Extracts Prepared Using Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) or Headspace Solid-Phase Extraction (HS-SPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Gambetta, Joanna M; Jeffery, David W

    2016-05-18

    Two rosé wines, representing a tropical and a fruity/floral style, were chosen from a previous study for further exploration by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles were extracted using either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) or a recently developed dynamic headspace (HS) sampling method utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. AEDA was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and a total of 51 aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor ≥3 were detected. Quantitative analysis of 92 volatiles was undertaken in both wines for calculation of odor activity values. The fruity and floral wine style was mostly driven by 2-phenylethanol, β-damascenone, and a range of esters, whereas 3-SHA and several volatile acids were seen as essential for the tropical style. When extraction methods were compared, HS-SPE was as efficient as SAFE for extracting most esters and higher alcohols, which were associated with fruity and floral characters, but it was difficult to capture volatiles with greater polarity or higher boiling point that may still be important to perceived wine aroma. PMID:27141971

  19. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

  20. 无刺卡因菠萝果实发育期间香气物质的变化%The Variation of Aroma Components of Smooth Cayenne Pineapple during Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钰乾; 魏长宾; 刘胜辉; 何新华; 孙光明; 孙伟生

    2013-01-01

    Aroma component is one of the factors which play a full role in fruit quality.Based on the techniques of solid phase micro-extraction and GC-MS,the aroma profiles during fruit development of Smooth Cayenne pineapple were studied.The results showed that there were 69 kinds of components during this process,and most of which were esters and alkenes; methyl hexanoate,methyl octanoate,ethyl caproate were the specific aromatic components of Smooth Cayenne pineapple fruits; the types and quantities of the aroma components were evidently different in different development periods.%采用顶空固相微萃取技术和气质联用仪测定不同发育期卡因菠萝果实的香气成分,以了解果实发育期间香气物质的变化.结果表明,无刺卡因果实在成熟的4个阶段共有香气成分69种,主要为酯类和烯类,其中己酸甲酯、辛酸甲酯、正己酸乙酯等成分是卡因菠萝的主要香气成分.卡因菠萝不同发育时期果实香气物质的种类和相对含量均有明显差异.

  1. Analysis of Key Aroma-Active Components of Propolis and Poplar Tree Gum%蜂胶及杨树胶关键气味活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延莎; 张红城; 董捷

    2012-01-01

    The volatile composition of propolis and poplar tree gum was analyzed by headspace solid phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS coupled to olfactometry. A total of 48 aroma-active compounds were identified, including esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and acids. In propolis, there were many compounds responsible for the floral and fruity aroma and providing it with delicate and mellow aroma characteristics.%采用固相微萃取的方法提取蜂胶及杨树胶中的挥发性成分,以气相.质谱.嗅闻仪联用对蜂胶中的挥发性成分进行分离鉴定。结果测得48种气味活性成分,包括酯、醛、醇、酮和酸。蜂胶中体现花香、果香的成分较多,从而赋予其更为清香、柔和的总体气味特征。

  2. 花生粕蛋白酶解液Maillard 反应合成肉类香味料的研究%Synthesis Study of Meat Flavor Aroma of Detoxified Peanut Dreqs Hydrolysate of Poyal Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘通讯; 吴肖; 林勉

    2001-01-01

    研究花生粕蛋白水解液结合其它前体物质通过Maillard反应合成肉类香味料。结果表明,脱毒后的花生粕蛋白深度酶解液中,添加适量维生素、半胱氨酸、葡萄糖等物质,在pH5~5.5,115℃,60min可造成理想肉类香味料,其稀释倍数高达500倍。%This article studied the synthesis of meat flavor aroma of detoxified peanut dregs hydrolysate together with other precursors through Maillard reaction, and the results showed that the detoxified hydrolysate could synthesize ideal meat flavor aroma in pH5 ~ 5.5, 115℃, 60minutes in the presence ofvitamine B 1, L - cystein, glucose and so on. In the optimum conditions, the meat flavor aroma product could be diluted as much as 500 times.

  3. Research on aroma losing during fruit juice evaporating in heat tube evaporator %热管蒸发器浓缩果汁芳香成分变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继田; 张韩霏; 王慎钰; 刘建波; 赵征

    2012-01-01

    以桃汁为试验介质,对其蒸发过程中芳香成分的变化规律进行研究,分析热力浓缩过程中芳香成分变化的主要影响因素.通过建立恒客热过程中桃汁芳香成分的动力学模型,得出桃汁中芳香物变化的准数关联式,该经验关联式可为热管式蒸发器的开发设计以及果汁热力浓缩参数优化提供参考依据.%Peach juice was taken as experimental material, built up a dynamics model of peach juice aroma during the constant volume heat process and studied the loss of aroma during evaporating, analyzed the main factors that affect the loss of aroma in evaporating process. Obtained the experimental relating formula and provided some help on designing new evaporator and optimizing fruit concentrating techniques.

  4. The Relationship between CmADHs and the Diversity of Volatile Organic Compounds of Three Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao; Jin, Yazhong; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays an important role in aroma volatile compounds synthesis of plants. In this paper, we tried to explore the relationship between CmADHs and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in oriental melon. Three different aroma types of melon were used as materials. The principle component analysis of three types of melon fruit was conducted. We also measured the CmADHs expression level and enzymatic activities of ADH and alcohol acyl-transferase (AAT) on different stages of fruit ripening. An incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substrates and inhibitor (4-MP, 4-methylpyrazole) on CmADHs expression, ADH activity, and the main compounds of oriental melon. The results illustrated that ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate (E,Z)-3,6-nonadien-1-ol and 2-ethyl-2hexen-1-ol were the four principal volatile compounds of these three types of melon. AAT activity was increasing with fruit ripening, and the AAT activity in CH were the highest, whereas ADH activity peaked on 32 DAP, 2 days before maturation, and the ADH activity in CB and CG were higher than that in CH. The expression pattern of 11 CmADH genes from 24 to 36 day after pollination (DAP) was found to vary in three melon varieties. CmADH4 was only expressed in CG and the expression levels of CmADH3 and CmADH12 in CH and CB were much higher than that in CG, and they both peaked 2 days before fruit ripening. Ethanol and 4-MP decreased the reductase activity of ADH, the expression of most CmADHs and ethyl acetate or hexyl acetate contents of CB, except for 0.1 mM 4-MP, while aldehyde improved the two acetate ester contents. In addition, we found a positive correlation between the expression of CmADH3 and CmADH12 and the key volatile compound of CB. The relationship between CmADHs and VOCs synthesis of oriental melon was discussed.

  5. Effects of Different Bulk Baking Technologies on the Content of Each Neutral Aroma Component of Flue-cured Tobacco NC55%不同烘烤工艺对烤烟品种NC55中性香气物质各组分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖和明; 孙福山; 徐秀红; 王爱华; 王全明; 孙帅帅; 张国超; 张军刚

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the change of each neutral aroma component during curing, and reasonable and accurate bulk baking aroma technology, combined with bulk baking technologies of the current production areas, the effects of three different baking technologies on the content of each neutral aroma component of flue-cured tobacco (cv. NC55) in the flue-curing process were studied by GC/MS. The results showed that, on the whole, each neutral aroma component and total neutral aroma constituents ascended during cuing, which mainly produced and accumulated during the yellowing stage and color fixing stage. In addition to neopytadiene, under middle temperature and middle humility treatment, the content of each neutral aroma component and total neutral aroma constituents of flue-cured tobacco leaves were relatively higher than multistage middle temperature and middle humility treatment and middle temperature and middle humility treatment, meanwhile multistage middle temperature and middle humility treatment was slightly higher than middle temperature and high humility treatment. Considering each neutral aroma component and total neutral aroma constituents of flue-cured tobacco NC55, the aroma quality under middle temperature and middle humility treatment can be improved more than the other treatments.%为探求烘烤过程中中性香气物质各组分含量变化及合理精准的密集烘烤烤香工艺,结合现行产区密集烘烤工艺,采用GC/MS联用分析技术,研究了3种烘烤工艺对烤烟品种NC55中性香气物质各组分含量的影响。结果表明,在整个烘烤过程中,中性香气物质总量及各组分含量总体上均呈上升趋势,且其主要在变黄、定色期合成积累;除新植二烯外,中温中湿处理的烤后烟叶中性香气物质总量及各组分含量均高于中温高湿和多阶段中温中湿处理,而多阶段中温中湿处理稍高于中温高湿处理。综合来看,中

  6. Determination and Mechanism of Common and Typical Characteristics Flavor of Chinese Light Aroma Style Liquors%清香类型原酒共性与个性成分分析及形成机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 范文来; 吴群

    2012-01-01

    With the technology of flavor chemistry and biochemistry, we have analyzed the trace compounds, key aroma compounds, important flavor compounds and their compatibility proportions of the representative and important Chinese light aroma style liquor, including Fen-liquor, Baofeng-liquor, Hengshui Lapbaigan-liquor, Niulanshan Erguotou- liquor, Jin-liquor. We presented the common and typical characteristics of Chinese light aroma style liquor, and firstly revealed the significance of terpenes on flavor of light aroma style liquor. Although ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate was important trace compounds, terpenes such as ~-DMST made great contribution to flavor characteristic of Chinese light aroma style liquor. In addition, we have also presented the important microorganisms which producing key flavor compounds and the metabolic mechanism of the microorganisms, and finally implemented the new application of the Flavor-oriented Technology in Chinese liquor.%采用风味化学和生物技术的理论和技术,通过对我国白酒最主要的清香典型代表以及重要的清香类型的白酒(汾酒、宝丰酒、衡水老白干酒、牛栏山二锅头酒和劲酒的)原酒等微量成分、重要和特征香气成分及其相互间的配伍比例关系的比较分析,诠释了构成我国清香类型白酒原酒的共同特征、典型特征的的物质基础;首次发现并提出萜烯类物质对清香类型白酒风味贡献的重要性,指出从微量组分的含量上看乙酸乙酯与乳酸乙酯是清香型白酒的重要微量成分,但是,β-DMST等萜烯类化合物在构成清香型白酒的风味特征上具有重要的风味贡献度。同时,还阐述了重要特征风味化合物产生的功能微生物、代谢途径机制和发酵调节控制等理论;以及形成了风味导向的最新生产应用技术。

  7. 河源南高丛蓝莓酒精发酵前后挥发性成分变化%Aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry in Heyuan area before and after alcohol fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 陈卫东; 余元善; 张友胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the key aroma compounds of southern high-bush blueberry varie-ties in Heyuan area and analyze the aroma compounds before and after alcohol fermentation.Methods By solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer-computer (GC-MS), the flavor compo-nents of Heyuan high-bush blueberry before and after alcohol fermentation were analyzed.Results The main aroma components of Heyuan southern high-bush blueberry wered-limonene and other kinds of alkenes and aldehydes. The main aroma compoents of blueberry wine were ethyl acetate, octanoic acid ethyl ester and other kinds of ester and alcohols.Conclusion There are some different aroma compounds between blueberry in Heyuan area and northern area. After blueberry fermented into blueberry drink olefins, aldehydes were signifi-cantly reduced or disappeared, and esters, alcohols, some long chain alkane and fatty acid esters increased sig-nificantly.%目的:明确广东河源地区南高丛蓝莓特征风味成分以及蓝莓发酵后香挥发性成分变化规律。方法采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法分析了河源南高丛蓝莓的风味成分,以及发酵成蓝莓酒后的风味成分变化。结果河源南高丛蓝莓主要风味成分为柠檬烯以及其他烯烃、醛类等物质,发酵成蓝莓酒后主要特征风味成分为乙酸乙酯、辛酸乙酯等酯类和醇类物质。结论河源南高丛蓝莓在挥发性成分上与以往报道的温带地区蓝莓有一定的区别,蓝莓发酵成蓝莓酒后烯烃、醛类物质显著减少或消失,而酯类和醇类显著增加,同时生成了长链烷烃和脂肪酸酯类物质。

  8. 香薰中药消毒液对病房常见菌的抑制作用研究%Research of inhibition effect by aroma Chinese herb disinfectant for common bacteria in ward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉玲; 戴卫波; 陆丹倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察香薰中药消毒液对病房常见菌的抑制作用。方法用K-B纸片扩散法观察香薰中药消毒液对金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌、肺炎链球菌及肺炎克雷伯菌等病房常见菌的抑制作用。观察香薰中药消毒液对病房消毒后1h和通风后1h的消毒效果。结果香薰中药消毒液对金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌有较好的抑制作用,尤其对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌最为敏感。用于病房消毒,在消毒1h后及通风1h后仍保持较好的消毒效果,杀菌率均达75%以上,并且消毒效果与0.5%过氧乙酸相当。结论香薰中药消毒液对病房常见菌有较好的抑制作用,并且气味芳香,值得推广。%Objective To observe inhibition effect by aroma Chinese herb disinfectant for common bacteria in ward. Methods K-B disk diffusion method was applied to observe inhibition effect by aroma Chinese herb disinfectant for common bacteria in ward, such as staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumonia, and klebsiella pneumonia. Disinfection effects of aroma Chinese herb disinfectant in 1 h after ward disinfection and ventilation were observed. Results Aroma Chinese herb disinfectant provided good inhibition effects for staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, and klebsiella pneumonia, and it is especially sensitive to staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. It also can maintain good disinfection effect in 1 h after ward disinfection and ventilation, with sterilizing rates all above 75%. Its disinfection effect is similar to that of 0.5%peroxyacetic acid. Conclusion Aroma Chinese herb disinfectant can provide good inhibition effect for common bacteria in ward, with fragrant smell. It is worth promoting.

  9. Analysis of Wood Aroma Characteristic Compounds in Pu-erh Tea by HS-SPME-GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS分析普洱茶中木香类特征香气成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世永; 杜丽平; 李建勋; 肖冬光; 李长文; 徐永全

    2015-01-01

    利用响应面法对 HS-SPME萃取普洱茶木香化合物的条件进行优化。在单因素实验基础上,采用Central-Composite试验设计,以装茶量、萃取时间和萃取温度为影响因素,以木香化合物总峰面积为响应值建立二次回归方程。通过对各因素的显著性和交互作用进行分析后,结合实际情况得到木香化合物最佳萃取条件为:装茶量为3.5g,萃取时间为56min,萃取温度为61℃。此条件下,SPME萃取的木香化合物经GC-MS测得总峰面积为159284923,与预测值一致,说明模型准确性较高,随后对5种普洱茶茶样的木香化合物进行了萃取分析。%The response surface method was used to optimize headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) conditio in extracting woody aroma compounds of pu-erh tea. Based on single factor experiment,taking amount of pu-erh tea, extraction time and extraction temperature as the influence factor,a quadratic regressive equation based on response value of total peak area of woody aroma compounds from pu-erh teawas established. Subsequently,response surface methodology based on Central-Composite experimental design was employed to evaluate the significance and interactive effects of those three variables. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions of woody aroma compounds were as follows: the amount of pu-erh tea 3.5 g,extraction time 56min and extraction temperature 61℃. Under the optimal conditions,thetotal peak area of woody aroma compounds was up to 159284923,which was in agreement with the calculated value and indicated that the model accuracy is high. Then,the woody aroma compounds from5 pu-erh tea samples were extracted and detected.

  10. Agri土壤调理剂用量对烟叶香气质量的影响%Effects of Application Rate of Agri Soil Conditioner on Aroma Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different Agri soil conditioner application rates (0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/ha) on aroma components,sensory quality and economic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco leaves. The results showed that increasing soil conditioner application rates, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites,aromatic amino acid catabolites and total aroma components, aroma quality and yield of leaf increased, output value, average price and proportion of high grade leaf raised at first and then reduced. At the conditioner application rate of 11.25 kg/ha, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites, aromatic amino acid catabolites, and total aroma components,aroma quality and yield of leaf were higher,and output value,average price and high grade leaf proportion were the highest.%通过田间试验研究了Agri土壤调理剂不同用量(0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/hm2)对烟叶香味物质、感官质量和经济性状的影响.结果表明:随土壤调理剂用量的增加,烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量和香气质量提高,烟叶产量增加,烟叶产值、均价和上等烟比例先提高再降低.土壤调理剂用量11.25 kg/hm2时烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量、香气质量得分和产量较高,产值、均价和上等烟比例最高.

  11. 不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分比较分析%Comparative analysis of aroma compositions in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰; 张劲松

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Major aroma compositions of different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea were comparatively analyzed and their quality was assayed in order to provide guidance for enhancing Congou black tea production. [Method] Aroma substance was enriched using same distillation extract method and aroma compositions were analyzed using SDE/ GC-MS in different-grades Yunnan Congou black tea samples comparatively. [ Result ]The results showed that different-grade Yunnan Congou black tea had nearly the same aroma compositions, but their contents varied a lot. The linalool, linalool oxide, α-Terpineol and geraniol contents were higher in superior Yunnan Congou black tea compared to those presenting in inferior one. However, inferior Yunnan black tea had higher leafaldehyde, benzaldehyde and benzeneac-etaldehyde content. [Conclusion] Higher-graded Yunnan Congou black tea had good fragrance quality and all different-graded Congou black teas presented strong fragrance, and high aroma and strong taste characteristics of Diangong time tea.%[目的]分析云南工夫红茶香气主要化学物质组成,比较不同级别云南工夫红茶香气成分的差异,为提高云南红茶品质和指导生产实践提供理论依据.[方法]采用同时蒸馏萃取法富集云南工夫红茶香气物质,利用气相色谱—质谱法(GC-MS)对不同级别的云南红茶样品进行香气成分对比分析.[结果]不同级别的云南工夫红茶香气成分组成大致相同,但含量差异较大.其中,芳樟醇、芳樟醇氧化物、α-松油醇和香叶醇等在高级别红茶中的含量较低级别红茶的高;而青叶醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛等则在低级别红茶中含量较高.[结论]级别越高的云南工夫红茶其香气品质越好,但不同级别的云南工夫红茶均具有滇红工夫茶香气馥郁、香高味浓的风格特征.

  12. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples.

  13. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-01

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  14. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples. PMID:27211690

  15. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  16. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  17. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  18. Effect of fixation process on aroma of Songyang Fragrant Tea%不同杀青工艺对松阳香茶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何迅民; 叶火香; 何科伟

    2011-01-01

    本文针对松阳香茶存在的色泽不绿,香气不高等品质问题,采用不同杀青温度和不同的投叶量处理,研究其对松阳香茶品质的影响。结果表明:其他工艺相同的基础上,采用80型滚筒杀青机杀青,下锅温度以250℃,投叶量在100kg/h时,炒制的香茶品质最佳。%Fixation was carried out at different temperatures and tea leaf flow rates per hour using fixation drum (model 80) , aiming at improving green tea colour and aroma. The results shows that the optimum fixation conditions were at 250℃ and leaf flow rate 100 kg/h.

  19. Changes in the composition of aroma components in blue honeysuckle fruit at different developmental stages%蓝果忍冬果实不同发育期香气成分构成及对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 赵毅; 赵利娟; 辛秀兰; 娄爽; 霍俊伟; 秦栋; 马旿晛; 刘煜池

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the research was the identification and quantification of aroma components in blue honeysuckle berry in different periods of fruit development,which has not been reported previously.The current study might provide useful information about the potential utilization of the essential oils in this fruit especially monoterpenes in medications or as dietary supplements.[Methods] Gas chromatography (GC) separates different compounds in mixed gas because of their difference in partition coefficient in stationary phase and mobile phase.Mass spectrometry (MS) analyzes charge to mass ratio to identify different motions based on the various trajectories in specific magnetic field and detect the quality and intensity distribution of ions.Fruits of ‘ Berel' and ‘ Changbaishan 1' (‘ C-1') at different growth periods (fruit set,color break and mature stage) were used in this study.5 g fruit tissue from each sample was grinded into juice with 1.0 g NaCl for headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) experiment.The above juice was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for aroma components using GC-MS with a chromatographic column of DB-SMS (30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm),a gasification temperature of 250 ℃ and a temperature program of 40 ℃ for 3 min,heating to 160 ℃ at a rate of 5 ℃· min-1,maintaining at 160 ℃ for 2 min,and heating to 220 ℃ at a rate of 10 ℃· min-1 and maintaining this temperature for 2 min.The flow rate of chromatography was 1.0 mL· min-1;quadrupole temperature 150 ℃;carrier gas helium gas;source temperature of ion 230 ℃;electron energy 70 eV;and scan range 35-625 amu.Obtained data were analyzed using an available computer library (NIST08.L) and relative contents of various compounds were identified using area normalization method.The analysis was conducted with two replicates.[Results] Hydrocarbons,alcohols and aldehydes were the major components through all developmental periods.A total of 78 aroma components

  20. Modeling of Aroma Quality Evaluation of Flue-cured Tobacco Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析法的烤烟香气品质评价模型构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华武; 贺帆; 李祖良; 张欣华; 刘建; 赵高坤; 黄维; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取与气相色谱质谱联用法分别测定20种烤烟样品中的69种香气成分,并以69种香气成分的含量为变量,利用主成分分析法建立烤烟香气品质评价模型,并应用该模型对20种样品的烤烟香气品质进行评价.结果表明,S10烤烟的香气品质最好,其后依次为S9、s4、S20、S16、S17、S18、S19、S1、S15、S2、S5、S3、S14、S6、S8、S12、S7、S13、S1l;通过感官评价法进一步对该模型评价结果进行检验,模型评价结果和感官质量评价结果具有很好的一致性.提出的烤烟香气品质评价模型不受主观因素的影响,能够做到标准化评价,且评判结果具有一定的客观性和可行性,能够真实区分烤烟香气品质的优劣.%This paper aimed to find a more objective method to evaluate flue-cured tobacco aroma quality than the traditional sensory evaluation method. The total of 69 aroma compounds in 20 different kinds of flue-cured tobacco was identified and determined by the Headspace Solid Phase Microextrac-tion-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Then a model was established based on principal component analysis method for assessing and ranking the aroma quality of flue-cured tobacco with the 69 kinds of aroma components as variables. S10 was selected from 20 flue-cured tobacco samples for having best aroma by the model, followed by S9, S4, S20, S16, S17, S18, S19, S1, S15, S2, S5, S3, S14, S6, S8, S12, S7, S13 and Sll. The evaluation result of this model was tested further by sensory evaluation method, and the test result indicated that the model evaluation result was consistent with conventional sensory evaluation. The flue-cured tobacco aroma quality evaluation model proposed in this paper was not affected by subjective factors, and its standardization evaluation result had the objectivity and feasibility to some extent. Furthermore, it can definitely distinguish the quality of flue-cured tobacco aroma.

  1. 巨峰葡萄成熟过程中挥发性香气物质的变化%Changes of Aroma Volatiles during Berry Ripening of Kyoho Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁园园; 马盼; 门洪文; 黄翊鹏; 郭守鹏; 姚玉新

    2015-01-01

    香气是葡萄果实的重要品质性状之一。本文以8年生巨峰(Vitis vinifera-V. Labrusca. cv, Kyoho)葡萄为试材,利用顶空固相微萃取技术提取挥发性香气物质,利用 GC/MS QP2010 Plus 气质联用仪分析葡萄成熟过程中可挥发性香气的种类和含量变化。巨峰葡萄的香气主要由酯、萜、醛、醇和其它杂环类物质组成,转色后可挥发性香气成分总的种类和含量明显增加;酯和萜是成熟的巨峰葡萄最主要的香气物质;邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、角鲨烯、己-2-烯醛和(E)-2-己烯-1-醇分别是最主要的酯、萜烯、醛和醇类物质,并且它们随着果实成熟含量逐渐升高,在成熟果实中邻苯二甲酸二乙酯和角鲨烯分别占总香气含量的28.8%和26.2%。邻苯二甲酸二乙酯、角鲨烯、己-2-烯醛和(E)-2-己烯-1-醇是成熟的巨峰葡萄最主要的香气物质,并且随着果实成熟含量逐渐升高。%Aroma is one of the most important berry qualities. The eight-year Kyoho grape vines were selected to determine berry aroma. Aroma volatiles of Kyoho grape were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction. Aroma variety and amount were detected by GC/MS QP2010 Plus. The results showed that aroma volatiles of Kyoho berries consisted of esters, terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and other volatiles. The total variety and amount were clearly enhanced after veraison. Esters and terpenes consisted of the two most important aroma volatiles in the ripened berries. Diethyl Phthalate, Squalane, 2-Hexenal and 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- exhibited the highest amount for esters, terpenes, aldehydes and alcohols, respectively; in addition, the above four volatiles kept increasing along with the berry ripening. In the ripened berries, Diethyl Phthalate and Squalane accounted for 28.8% and 26.2% of the total volatiles, respectively. Diethyl Phthalate, Squalane, 2-Hexenal and 2-Hexen-1-ol, (E)- were the most important aroma volatiles

  2. Effects of Different Scion-Rootstock Combinations on Contents of Aroma Components in Flue-cured Tobacco%不同接穗与砧木组合对烤烟香气物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅芳; 杨铁钊; 刘剑君; 张小全; 丁燕芳; 张广普

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different scion-rootstock combinations on the contents of aroma components in flue-cured tobacco leaves by taking tobacco varieties NC297 and Changbohuang as scions and varieties ZY90 and Jinxing 6007 as rootstocks. The aroma component contents in ungrafted and grafted seedlings were compared. The results showed that: 1) The aroma component contents in grafted NC297 exhibited dominance over their parents, and those in grafted Changbohuang were between those in their parents. 2) Comparing with scion seedlings, the aroma component contents in leaves of grafted tobacco increased; in grafted NC297 seedlings, the combination with ZY90, and in grafted Changbohuang seedlings, the combination with Jinxing 6007 increased higher. 3) Scions significantly affected the aroma component contents in leaves of grafted tobacco; for the same rootstock grafted with different scions, the order of aroma component contents in leaves was consistent with that in scion tobaccos. Therefore, choosing appropriate scion was the key factor for increasing the aroma component contents in flue-cured tobacco leaves, and the selected combinations in this experiment were NC297-ZY90 and Changbohuang-Jinxing 6007.%为明确不同接穗与砧木组合对烤烟香气物质含量的影响,采用NC297和长脖黄为接穗,中烟90(ZY90)和金星6007(6007)为砧木,研究了烤烟自根苗和嫁接苗培育的烤后烟叶香气物质成分含量的差异.结果表明:NC297嫁接烤烟的香气物质含量有超亲优势,长脖黄嫁接烤烟的香气物质含量位于砧木自根苗和接穗自根苗之间;与接穗自根苗相比,不同砧木嫁接后烤烟烟叶香气物质含量增加,在NC297嫁接苗中以ZY90作砧木培育的烤烟烟叶香气物质含量增加的较多,在长脖黄嫁接苗中以6007作砧木增加的较多;接穗对嫁接烤烟的香气物质含量的影响较大,同一砧木不同接穗的烤烟香气物

  3. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Physical Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Physical Therapy Print A A ... Finding a Physical Therapist en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  4. Family Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  5. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  6. Effects of bagging on “Hanfu" apple aroma compounds%套袋对“寒富”苹果果实香气成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧峰; 王海波; 李林光; 吕德国; 杨建明

    2011-01-01

    credible research on the effects of fruit bagging materials on fruit taste. Fruit aroma, a critical fruit taste indicator that determines fruit flavor, was investigated in this study in relation to fruit bag materials. The study used static headspace and meteorological chromatogra-phy-mass spectromctry technology to analyze the effects of bags of different materials (e.g., plastic film bag, double-layer paper bag, and reflective film bag) on aromatic compounds of "Hanfu" apple fruits, Although the effects of different bag materials on fruit aromatic compounds were different, bagging generally reduced the total content of aromatic compounds in "Hanfu" apple fruits. The total content of aromas in plastic film bagged fruits was slightly lower than that in non-bagged (CK) fruits (0.792 μg-g-l). The total contents of aromas in fruits with double-layer paper and reflective film bags were 40.03% and 20.33% lower than that of CK, respectively. While bagging increased the total content of esters, it decreased the total content of alcohols and aldehydes. The aroma compounds of "Hanfu" apple characteristically contained 2-methylethylbutyrate, ethyl butyrate, 2-methylethylhexylbutyrate, ethyl hexa-noate and hexaldehyde; all of which were ester aromas. The characteristic aroma compound of apple fruits with plastic film and dou-ble-layer paper bags was 2-meihylethylbutyrate. While ehylbutyrate and 2-methylethylbutyrate were the characteristic aroma compounds of apple fruits with reflective film bags, 2-methylethylbutyrate and hcxaldehyde were the characteristic aroma compounds of CK fruits. Fruit bagging limited production of important aroma compound (E)-2-hexenal, causing lower aroma quality of apple fruit under bagging than under CK conditions. The study of aromatic compounds laid the basis for research-driven selection and innovation of fruit bagging materials in fruit production.

  7. Characterization of the major odor-active compounds in Thai durian ( Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2012-11-14

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on the volatile fraction isolated from Thai durian by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation resulted in 44 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-16384, 41 of which could be identified and 24 that had not been reported in durian before. High FD factors were found for ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; FD 16384), ethyl cinnamate (honey; FD 4096), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion; FD 1024), followed by 1-(ethyldisulfanyl)-1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane (sulfury, onion), 2(5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (soup seasoning), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl butanoate (fruity), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (skunky), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian), 1-(methylsulfanyl)ethanethiol (roasted onion), 1-(ethylsulfanyl)propane-1-thiol (roasted onion), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel). Among the highly volatile compounds screened by static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry, hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg), acetaldehyde (fresh, fruity), methanethiol (rotten, cabbage), ethanethiol (rotten, onion), and propane-1-thiol (rotten, durian) were found as additional potent odor-active compounds. Fourteen of the 41 characterized durian odorants showed an alkane-1,1-dithiol, 1-(alkylsulfanyl)alkane-1-thiol, or 1,1-bis(alkylsulfanyl)alkane structure derived from acetaldehyde, propanal, hydrogen sulfide, and alkane-1-thiols. Among these, 1-(propylsulfanyl)ethanethiol, 1-{[1-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol, and 1-{[1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethyl]sulfanyl}ethanethiol were reported for the first time in a natural product. PMID:23088286

  8. Isolation and Identification of Aroma Producing Staphylococci from Sichuan Sausage%四川香肠中产香葡萄球菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 张雪梅; 程艳; 刘书亮; 李诚; 秦文; 蒲彪

    2011-01-01

    从四川自然发酵香肠中共分离得到242株微球菌和葡萄球菌,采用快速半定量平板方法从中筛选出了硝酸盐还原酶活性较大的株菌80株,并对这些菌株进行发酵基本实验和产香基本要求实验,筛选得到了2株过氧化氢酶阳性葡萄球菌S15和S25。通过GC-MS分析发现,在实验条件下只有S25具有代谢亮氨酸生成3-甲基丁醛的能力。生化鉴定以及菌株的16S rDNA测序结果表明,S25为腐生葡萄球菌。%A total of 242 strains of Micrococcaceae and Staphylococcus were isolated from Sichuan natural fermented sausages.80 strains which have high nitrate reduction properties were selected by a fast semi-quantitative plate assay method.Different experiments were carried out according to the common selection criteria of starter culture and aroma production.Two strains of Staphylococcus named S15 and S25 were obtained with the ability to produce catalase.GC-MS analysis showed that only S25 produced 3-methyl-butanal from leucine under the experimental conditions.S25 was identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus by its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences.

  9. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  10. Effects of Oak Products on Oak-related Aroma Components in Dry Red Wines%橡木制品对干红葡萄酒中橡木香气成分的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春光; 赵新节; 孙玉霞; 栾红蕾; 隋寿山

    2014-01-01

    在酒精发酵过程中和发酵结束后两个阶段添加不同类型的橡木制品,研究橡木处理对干红葡萄酒中橡木香气成分和感官品质的影响。通过GC-MS对丁子香酚、愈创木酚、威士忌内酯、香草醛、5-甲基糠醛和糠醛6种橡木香气成分的分析,发现发酵过程中和发酵后添加法国中度烘烤橡木粉都可以获得含量较高的橡木香气成分,而发酵后添加国产中度烘烤橡木片较相同烘烤程度的法国和美国橡木片能获得含量更高的橡木香气成分。感官分析结果表明,在酒精发酵中添加橡木制品进行处理,酒体橡木香气与果香融合较好,香气协调;而在发酵结束后添加不同类型的橡木制品,添加美国中度烘烤橡木片和法国轻度烘烤橡木粉的葡萄酒香气较好;其他酒样酒体呈现的橡木味偏重、不协调。%In the experiment, different types of oak wood products were added during or at the end of the fermentation to investigate their effects on oak-related volatile aroma components and sensory quality of dry red wine. Six kinds of oak-related aroma components including eugenol, guaiacol, cis-whisky lactone, vanillin, 5-methyl furfural and furfural were determined by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed that, higher concen-tration of oak-related aroma components was obtained by adding French oak chips with medium toasting during and after the fermentation, and the addition of homemade oak chips with medium roasting after the fermentation could achieve higher content of oak-related aroma components compared with the addition of French or American oak chips of the same roasting degree. Sensory analysis results suggested that, fruit flavor and oak aroma were balanced in wine as oak chips was added during the fermentation, however, if oak chips was added after the fermentation, the wine was unbalanced with heavy oak aroma except the addition of American oak chips with medium roasting and the

  11. Aroma Evaluation of Dry Red Wine with Active Odorants%通过气味活性成分评价干红葡萄酒的香气质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦旭阳; 陶永胜; 田湉; 文彦

    2012-01-01

    采集我国4个产区年轻的梅尔诺干红葡萄酒样品,做香气成分分析和感官分析.分析结果表明,所测样品挥发性成分中有31种具有活性,其中11种是4个产区酒的共有气味活性成分.根据气味活性成分,4个产区葡萄酒的共有香气特征是:一些热带和温带水果香气(如香蕉、菠萝、青苹果、梨和草莓),夹杂源于苹果酸-乳酸发酵的乳酸风味以及果脯、玫瑰等花香;昌黎酒果香更浓,乳香和坚果风味等更为明显;贺兰山东麓酒具有较弱的杂醇和一些柠檬气息;沙城酒杂醇香较弱,有青草味,悬钩子的果香和紫罗兰的花香;玛纳斯酒有不愉快的脂肪酸味和化学味.供试酒样感官分析结果证实了所测活性香气成分的预测结果.%Solid phase micro—extraction and gas chromatography —mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to detect aroma compounds in Merlot wines from four good wine producing districts in China. Fifty—seven aroma compounds were quantified, and Odor Active Value(OAV) analysis showed that thirty ones were active. According to aroma descriptions of eleven impact odorants which were active in all sample wines, the collective aroma characters of Chinese Merlot red wine were complex. Its main flavor is that of some tropical and temperate fruits, such as banana, pineapple, green apple, pear and strawberry, along with lactic flavor from Malo—lactic fermentation. It also had some traits of processed fruits, Muscat and floral pollen. Moreover, different districts gave Merlot wine distinct characters. Changli wine had strong fruity aroma, obvious nuances of lactic and nut, and other traits; Helanshan wine gave weak fusel flavor, and some fruity of lemon; Shacheng wine smelled weak fusel flavor, along with green grass, and some fruity of raspberry and violet; Manasi wine had odor of unpleasant fatty acids and phenol due to its overmuch fatty acids and volatile phenol. Finally, results of sensory analysis

  12. The Evolvement of Aroma Characters in Cabernet Sauvignon Dry Red Wine during Ageing in Bottle%瓶贮赤霞珠干红葡萄酒香气特征的演变规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永胜; 朱晓琳; 文彦

    2012-01-01

    To get the evolvement of some important aroma characters in Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) dry red wines, wine samples of CS in fourteen vintages from Changli were selected. 30 panelists were trained by using 'wine standard aroma kits'. When analyzing wine aroma, the panelists were forced to describe the wine aroma using 5~8 terms in standard aroma kits. And each term was described by 5-scales. The final score of each term was the geometrical mean of its frequency and intensity percent. The data were processed with principle component analysis (PCA) to extract important characters in terms of vintages. The results showed that young red CS wines had higher intensity of smoke, green pepper and green grass; the aroma of strawberry, temperate fruits, as apple, and pear, and some floral traits were improving with ageing in bottle, and the best time in bottle was 5 years for these characters. With time continuing, some bad odor in the wine stayed in bottle for more than 10 years were obvious, such as pickled vegetable, vinegar and soy sauce.%采集我国昌黎产区14个年份的赤霞珠干红葡萄酒样品,研究它们在瓶贮过程中香气特征的演变规律.实验酒样的香气特征采用感官量化品尝法分析.要求30名经过培训的品尝员在分析时用“葡萄酒标准香气”中5~8个香气特征来描述,并且用5点标度法对其进行量化.最终某一香气特征的量化值是品尝组对这一特征的使用频率和强度的几何平均值.对量化数据进行主成分分析(PCA),寻找与年份差异显著相关的香气特征.结果显示,年轻的新酒烟熏、青椒和青草味较重.瓶贮5年左右的干红酒中苹果、梨、草莓、金银花和茉莉花香气较突出.随着陈酿时间增加,葡萄酒的香气质量下降,超过10年的供试酒样中劣质气味特征明显,如泡菜、醋和酱油味.

  13. 中华绒螯蟹性腺香气品质评价方法%Evaluation of aroma-quality Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) gonad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾赛麒; 王锡昌; 陶宁萍; 张晶晶; 吴娜

    2013-01-01

    HS-SPME-GC-MS technology was applied to identify the aroma compounds from the gonad of special, first and second grades of both male and female Chinese mitten-handed crabs cultured in Yangcheng Lake. Fifty-eight volatiles, which can be divided into eight classes, were identified from six kinds of crab samples and further quantitated based on internal standard analysis. The concentrations of eight classes of volatiles were stan-dardized first and then principal component analysis (PCA) analyzed the standard data. Comprehensive scores (also called S-scores), which were calculated from each principal component value and its variance contribution, were used to evaluate the aroma-quality of gonad. The results showed that special and first grades of female crabs had the highest aroma-quality among the six crab samples. Meanwhile, furans, ketones, aromatics, and aldehydes were identified as the four characteristic aroma species that related and contributed a lot to “better quality of aroma”. With a unified consideration of gender factor, we conclude that higher grades of crabs result in better quality of aroma. However, female crabs always acquired higher S-scores than males of the same grade. We have demonstrated that PCA can be used to successfully establish a model for evaluating aroma-quality of crab gonad. Our work offers some theoretical references for future efforts in flavor property improvement.%  采用顶空固相微萃取-气-质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS),对采自阳澄湖的特级、1级、2级的雄性及雌性中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)性腺中的香气成分进行了鉴定并以内标法对其定量.6种中华绒螯蟹样本中共检测到8类58种挥发物,采用主成分分析法(PCA)对标准化后的8类香气成分的浓度值进行分析,以主成分综合得分作为评价依据得到:特级和1级雌蟹性腺的香气品质最好,且呋喃类、醇类、芳香类、醛类4类成分对其贡献显著,是表征“高

  14. Analysis on aroma compounds in two pineapple cultivars planted in Honghe region, Yunnan%云南红河地区两个菠萝品种香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文秀; 赵维峰; 孙光明; 魏长宾

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The experiment was conducted to analyze the aroma compounds in two pineapple cultivars, viz., Yellow Mauritius and Cayenne planted in Honghe district of Yunnan Province in order to develop high-yield cultivation techniques integrated with improved fruit quality. [Method]The aroma compounds in fruits of two pineapple cultivars were extracted by method of solid phase micro-extraction and comparatively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS). [ Result ] Results showed methyl caprylate, methyl hexanoate, methyl ncaprate, ethyl hexanoate, 4-octene acid methyl ester, ethyl caprylate and 3-methyl propionate were the main aroma compounds in Yellow Mauritius cultivar. The aroma compounds such as Z-3,7-dimethyl -1,3,6- octatriell, copaene and α-muurolene were also detected. Some compounds like methyl hexanoate, methyl caprylate, (3Z,5E)-1,3,5-undecyldiene, 1, 3, 5, 8-undecyltetrene, a-muurolene, and copaene were identified less in Cayenne fruits. Except absence of (3Z,5E)-1,3,5-undecyldiene in Yellow Mauritius variety, all other compounds of Yellow Mauritius were higher than those in Cayenne variety. [Conclusion ]The esters were the most abundant aroma compounds in both pineapple cultivars. The aroma compounds and their concentrations were higher in Yellow Mauritius variety compared to Cayenne one.%[目的]了解云南红河地区两个菠萝品种(巴厘和卡因)香气成分的特征,为提高果实品质和集成高产栽培技术提供参考.[方法]采用固相微萃取技术萃取菠萝香气成分,气相色谱—质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析鉴别各成分,比较两个菠萝品种香气成分的差异.[结果]巴厘品种的香气成分主要有辛酸甲酯、己酸甲酯、癸酸甲酯、己酸乙酯、4-辛烯酸甲酯、辛酸乙酯、3-甲硫基丙酸甲酯等,还有少量的Z-3,7-二甲基-1,3,6-辛三烯、古巴烯、α-依兰油烯等;卡因品种仅检测出少量的己酸甲酯、辛酸甲酯、(3Z,5E)-1,3,5-

  15. 山东不同产区巨峰葡萄香气物质分析%Analysis of aroma components in Kyoho grapes from different regions of Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建梅; 曹耀鹏; 贾名波; 邵小杰

    2013-01-01

    The aroma components in Kyoho grapes from Yiyuan and Jining areas of Shandong province were investigated. The results showed that 7 types of aroma were found in both Yiyuan and Jining. 44 kinds of aroma components from Yiyuan region and 47 kinds from Jining were detected with the total contents of 1845.46 ng/g and 1326.50 ng/g respectively. Esters took the first place in Kyoho grapes. (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexenal, ethyl acetate, diethyl phthalate, (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one and dibenzofuran were detected as the principal components, while ethyl acetate, 2-hexenal, ethyl butyrate and diethyl phthalate were the most. With methyl hexanoate, (E)-Ethyl-2-pentenoate, Bis(2-methylpropyl) oxalate as its special aroma components, Kyoho grapes from Yiyuan region had higher contents of esters and aldehydes, while alcohols, hydrocarbons and heterocycles were less. (E)-3-ethyl-hexenol, 3,5-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-methyl-ethyl trans-2-butenoate, hexyl formate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl benzoate were special components in Kyoho grape from Jining region. Different regions could influence the aroma composition and content obviously, and Kyoho grape from Yiyuan showed more intense aroma.%  对山东沂源、济宁两个产区巨峰葡萄的香气物质进行分析.结果表明,两个产区均检测到7大类香气,沂源产区检出44种香气成分,济宁产区检出47种香气成分,香气总量分别为1845.46 ng/g、1326.50 ng/g,酯类物质含量最高,分别占其香气总量的82.94%、74.70%.主要香气成分为(E)-2-己烯醇、2-己烯醛、乙酸乙酯、酞酸二乙酯、香叶基丙酮和二苯并呋喃,其中乙酸乙酯含量最高,2-己烯醛、丁酸乙酯和酞酸二乙酯含量也较高.沂源产区巨峰葡萄中酯类和醛类含量高于济宁产区,而醇类、烃类和杂环类含量低于济宁产区.己酸甲酯、(E)-2-戊烯酸乙酯、草酸二异丁酯等为沂源产区巨峰特有香气;(E)-3-乙基己烯醇、3,5-

  16. The Analysis of Difference of Aroma Type and Polyphenol Content in Different Flue-cured Tobacco Varieties%不同烤烟品种香型风格与多酚类物质含量差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗浩; 刘洪祥; 杨程; 陈刚; 米建华; 徐发华; 邹加明; 朱凯; 李世祥; 刘彩云

    2011-01-01

    6 major polyphenol in 5 main flue-cured tobacco cultivars for Hongta group in Dali was carried out using HPLC. The relationships between aroma type and polyphenol content were analyzed using the points of aroma type. The results showed that, chlorogenic acid and rutin were the major polyphenol, which were accounted for 92%. Polyphenol in different position and different varieties were different obviously. Different kinds of fen-flavor significant with tobacco the polyphenol content was a positive correlation significantly. The correlation between the points of aroma type and polyphenol content was positive significantly.%应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分析测定红塔集团大理差异化原料基地5个主要栽培烤烟品种烟叶中6种主要多酚物质,通过对香型风格进行量化赋分,研究分析不同品种的香型风格与多酚类化合物含量之间的关系.结果表明,绿原酸和芸香苷占烤烟多酚类物质的92%以上,是主要的多酚类物质;不同部位与不同品种烟叶间的多酚含量均存在较明显差异;不同品种的清香型风格显著性与烟叶中的多酚类物质含量之间呈显著正相关;‘红大’的多酚总含量明显高于其他4个品种,清香型风格更显著.

  17. 不同极性色谱柱在滇红香气成分分析中的对比研究%A Comparative Study of Different Polarity Chromatographic Column in Analysis of Aroma Components in Black Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔阳; 杜丽平; 肖冬光

    2016-01-01

    The aroma components in black tea were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two different polarity chromatographic columns were used for the separation of the aroma components in black tea. The result of semi-standard non-polar chromatographic column HP-5MS and standard polar chromatographic column CP-Wax were compared by analysis. The results indicated that the separation effect of two different polarity chromatographic column are satisfactory, and there are some differences between the analysis results. Therefore, in the analysis of different aroma components in black tea, we should select suitable chromatographic columns according to the various analytes.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)对滇红的香气成分进行富集,分别使用两种不同极性的色谱柱进行色谱分离,气质联用(GC-MS)检测分析,比较了非极性色谱柱 HP-5MS 和极性色谱柱 CP-Wax 对红茶香气成分分离效果的差异。结果表明,两种不同极性色谱柱对红茶香气成分的分离效果均表现良好,但分析结果存在一定的差异。因此在对红茶中不同的香气成分进行研究分析时,应根据分析目标的不同选择合适的色谱柱。

  18. 基于Tabu搜索的贝叶斯网络在烟叶香型评价中的应用%APPLYING TABU SEARCH-BASED BAYESIAN NETWORK IN APPRAISING AROMA TYPES OF TOBACCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 丁香乾; 贺英; 王伟

    2012-01-01

    The appraisal of aroma types of tobacco usually depends on olfaction, the veracity of its result is sometimes hard to be guaranteed. In view of this, sensory evaluation models have been constructed at home and abroad by using BP neural network or other methods, but they are inefficient in recognition. According to the relationship between chemical composition and the aroma types of tobacco, the recognition model of tobacco aroma types has been constructed by using Tabu search-based Bayesian network. Experimental results showed that it can attain a better Bayesian network structure, and has higher training efficiency and better accuracy in classification compared with BP neural network or other methods.%烟叶香型通常是靠人的嗅觉评定的,评定结果的准确性往往难以保证.针对该问题,国内外建立了BP神经网络等感官评估模型,但识别效率不高.根据烟叶中化学成分与烟叶香型关系,使用基于Tabu搜索的贝叶斯网络建立烟叶香型识别模型.实验结果表明,使用该方法能得到较好的贝叶斯网络结构,与BP神经网络等方法相比训练效率更高,分类的结果也更加准确.

  19. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  20. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...