WorldWideScience

Sample records for aroma automatic generation

  1. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  2. Generation of aroma compounds in a fermented sausage meat model system by Debaryomyces hansenii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Liliana; Rivera-Jiménez, Silvia; Belloch, Carmela; Flores, Mónica

    2014-05-15

    The ability of seven Debaryomyces hansenii strains to generate aroma compounds in a fermented sausage model system was evaluated. The presence of the yeast, in the inoculated models, was confirmed by PCR amplification of M13 minisatellite. Volatile compounds production was analysed using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty volatile compounds were detected, quantified and their odour activity values (OAVs) calculated. All volatile compounds increased during time in the inoculated models although significant differences were found amongst them. Ester and sulphur production was strongly dependent on the strain inoculated. D. hansenii P2 and M6 strains were the highest producers of sulphur compounds where dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulfide were the most prominent aroma components identified by their OAVs whereas, M4 showed the highest OAVs for ester compounds followed by the P2 strain. The meat model system has been useful to show the real ability of yeast strains to produce aroma compounds.

  3. Automatic generation of tourist brochures

    KAUST Repository

    Birsak, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Automatic quiz generation for elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsen, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Studies have indicated that games can be beneficial for the elderly, in areas such as cognitive functioning and well-being. Taking part in social activities, such as playing a game with others, could also be beneficial. One type of game is a computer-based quiz. One can create quiz questions manually; however, this can be time-consuming. Another approach is to generate quiz questions automatically. This project has examined how quizzes for Norwegian elderly can be automatically generated usin...

  5. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  6. Automatic generation of multilingual sports summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Fahim Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Natural Language Generation is a subfield of Natural Language Processing, which is concerned with automatically creating human readable text from non-linguistic forms of information. A template-based approach to Natural Language Generation utilizes base formats for different types of sentences, which are subsequently transformed to create the final readable forms of the output. In this thesis, we investigate the suitability of a template-based approach to multilingual Natural Language Generat...

  7. Automatic approach for generating ETL operators

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Wided; Ali, Mouez; Ben-Abdallah, Hanene

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the generation of the ETL operators(Extract-Transform-Load) for supplying a Data Warehouse from a relational data source. As a first step, we add new rules to those proposed by the authors of [1], these rules deal with the combination of ETL operators. In a second step, we propose an automatic approach based on model transformations to generate the ETL operations needed for loading a data warehouse. This approach offers the possibility to set some designer requirements ...

  8. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  9. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  10. Automatic generation of tree level helicity amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, T

    1994-01-01

    The program MadGraph is presented which automatically generates postscript Feynman diagrams and Fortran code to calculate arbitrary tree level helicity amplitudes by calling HELAS[1] subroutines. The program is written in Fortran and is available in Unix and VMS versions. MadGraph currently includes standard model interactions of QCD and QFD, but is easily modified to include additional models such as supersymmetry.

  11. Automatic Caption Generation for Electronics Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Thakur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic or semi-automatic approaches for developing Technology Supported Learning Systems (TSLS are required to lighten their development cost. The main objective of this paper is to automate the generation of a caption module; it aims at reproducing the way teachers prepare their lessons and the learning material they will use throughout the course. Teachers tend to choose one or more textbooks that cover the contents of their subjects, determine the topics to be addressed, and identify the parts of the textbooks which may be helpful for the students it describes the entities, attributes, role and their relationship plus the constraints that govern the problem domain. The caption model is created in order to represent the vocabulary and key concepts of the problem domain. The caption model also identifies the relationships among all the entities within the scope of the problem domain, and commonly identifies their attributes. It defines a vocabulary and is helpful as a communication tool. DOM-Sortze, a framework that enables the semi-automatic generation of the Caption Module for technology supported learning system (TSLS from electronic textbooks. The semiautomatic generation of the Caption Module entails the identification and elicitation of knowledge from the documents to which end Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques are combined with ontologies and heuristic reasoning.

  12. Automatic generation of combinatorial test data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the state-of-the-art in combinatorial testing, with particular emphasis on the automatic generation of test data. It describes the most commonly used approaches in this area - including algebraic construction, greedy methods, evolutionary computation, constraint solving and optimization - and explains major algorithms with examples. In addition, the book lists a number of test generation tools, as well as benchmarks and applications. Addressing a multidisciplinary topic, it will be of particular interest to researchers and professionals in the areas of software testing, combi

  13. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  14. Multiblock grid generation with automatic zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Peter R.

    1995-01-01

    An overview will be given for multiblock grid generation with automatic zoning. We shall explore the many advantages and benefits of this exciting technology and will also see how to apply it to a number of interesting cases. The technology is available in the form of a commercial code, GridPro(registered trademark)/az3000. This code takes surface geometry definitions and patterns of points as its primary input and produces high quality grids as its output. Before we embark upon our exploration, we shall first give a brief background of the environment in which this technology fits.

  15. Automatic Generation of Validated Specific Epitope Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Carrasco Pro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of B and T cell responses is a valuable tool to study autoimmunity, allergies, immunity to pathogens, and host-pathogen interactions and assist in the design and evaluation of T cell vaccines and immunotherapies. In this context, it is desirable to elucidate a method to select validated reference sets of epitopes to allow detection of T and B cells. However, the ever-growing information contained in the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB and the differences in quality and subjects studied between epitope assays make this task complicated. In this study, we develop a novel method to automatically select reference epitope sets according to a categorization system employed by the IEDB. From the sets generated, three epitope sets (EBV, mycobacteria and dengue were experimentally validated by detection of T cell reactivity ex vivo from human donors. Furthermore, a web application that will potentially be implemented in the IEDB was created to allow users the capacity to generate customized epitope sets.

  16. Automatic Generation of Minimal Cut Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Kromodimoeljo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cut set is a collection of component failure modes that could lead to a system failure. Cut Set Analysis (CSA is applied to critical systems to identify and rank system vulnerabilities at design time. Model checking tools have been used to automate the generation of minimal cut sets but are generally based on checking reachability of system failure states. This paper describes a new approach to CSA using a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL model checker called BT Analyser that supports the generation of multiple counterexamples. The approach enables a broader class of system failures to be analysed, by generalising from failure state formulae to failure behaviours expressed in LTL. The traditional approach to CSA using model checking requires the model or system failure to be modified, usually by hand, to eliminate already-discovered cut sets, and the model checker to be rerun, at each step. By contrast, the new approach works incrementally and fully automatically, thereby removing the tedious and error-prone manual process and resulting in significantly reduced computation time. This in turn enables larger models to be checked. Two different strategies for using BT Analyser for CSA are presented. There is generally no single best strategy for model checking: their relative efficiency depends on the model and property being analysed. Comparative results are given for the A320 hydraulics case study in the Behavior Tree modelling language.

  17. System Supporting Automatic Generation of Finite Element Using Image Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J; Fukuda

    2002-01-01

    A mesh generating system has been developed in orde r to prepare large amounts of input data which are needed for easy implementation of a finite element analysis. This system consists of a Pre-Mesh Generator, an Automatic Mesh Generator and a Mesh Modifier. Pre-Mesh Generator produces the shape and sub-block information as input data of Automatic Mesh Generator by c arrying out various image processing with respect to the image information of th e drawing input using scanner. Automatic Mesh Generato...

  18. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  19. System for Automatic Generation of Examination Papers in Discrete Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridenfalk, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed for automatic generation of problems and solutions for examinations in a university distance course in discrete mathematics and tested in a pilot experiment involving 200 students. Considering the success of such systems in the past, particularly including automatic assessment, it should not take long before such systems are…

  20. Automatic program generation: future of software engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    At this moment software development is still more of an art than an engineering discipline. Each piece of software is lovingly engineered, nurtured, and presented to the world as a tribute to the writer's skill. When will this change. When will the craftsmanship be removed and the programs be turned out like so many automobiles from an assembly line. Sooner or later it will happen: economic necessities will demand it. With the advent of cheap microcomputers and ever more powerful supercomputers doubling capacity, much more software must be produced. The choices are to double the number of programers, double the efficiency of each programer, or find a way to produce the needed software automatically. Producing software automatically is the only logical choice. How will automatic programing come about. Some of the preliminary actions which need to be done and are being done are to encourage programer plagiarism of existing software through public library mechanisms, produce well understood packages such as compiler automatically, develop languages capable of producing software as output, and learn enough about the whole process of programing to be able to automate it. Clearly, the emphasis must not be on efficiency or size, since ever larger and faster hardware is coming.

  1. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs....... The viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  2. Image analysis techniques associated with automatic data base generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Atkinson, R. J.; Hodges, B. C.; Thomas, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    This paper considers some basic problems relating to automatic data base generation from imagery, the primary emphasis being on fast and efficient automatic extraction of relevant pictorial information. Among the techniques discussed are recursive implementations of some particular types of filters which are much faster than FFT implementations, a 'sequential similarity detection' technique of implementing matched filters, and sequential linear classification of multispectral imagery. Several applications of the above techniques are presented including enhancement of underwater, aerial and radiographic imagery, detection and reconstruction of particular types of features in images, automatic picture registration and classification of multiband aerial photographs to generate thematic land use maps.

  3. A New Approach to Fully Automatic Mesh Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵卫东; 张征明; 等

    1995-01-01

    Automatic mesh generation is one of the most important parts in CIMS (Computer Integrated Manufacturing System).A method based on mesh grading propagation which automatically produces a triangular mesh in a multiply connected planar region is presented in this paper.The method decomposes the planar region into convex subregions,using algorithms which run in linear time.For every subregion,an algorithm is used to generate shrinking polygons according to boundary gradings and form delaunay triangulation between two adjacent shrinking polygons,both in linear time.It automatically propagates boundary gradings into the interior of the region and produces satisfactory quasi-uniform mesh.

  4. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  5. Automatic Grasp Generation and Improvement for Industrial Bin-Picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Rytz, Jimmy Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents work on automatic grasp generation and grasp learning for reducing the manual setup time and increase grasp success rates within bin-picking applications. We propose an approach that is able to generate good grasps automatically using a dynamic grasp simulator, a newly developed...... and achieve comparable results and that our learning approach can improve system performance significantly. Automatic bin-picking is an important industrial process that can lead to significant savings and potentially keep production in countries with high labour cost rather than outsourcing it. The presented...... work allows to minimize cycle time as well as setup cost, which are essential factors in automatic bin-picking. It therefore leads to a wider applicability of bin-picking in industry....

  6. Automatic Test Case Generation of C Program Using CFG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Tanwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software quality and assurance in a software company is the only way to gain the customer confidence by removing all possible errors. It can be done by automatic test case generation. Taking popularly C programs as tests object, this paper explores how to create CFG of a C program and generate automatic Test Cases. It explores the feasibility and nonfeasibility of path basis upon no. of iteration. First C is code converted to instrumented code. Then test cases are generated by using Symbolic Testing and random Testing. System is developed by using C#.net in Visual Studio 2008. In addition some future research directions are also explored.

  7. Automatic generation of matter-of-opinion video documentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocconi, S.; Nack, F.-M.; Hardman, L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a model for automatically generating video documentaries. This allows viewers to specify the subject and the point of view of the documentary to be generated. The domain is matter-of-opinion documentaries based on interviews. The model combines rhetorical presentation patte

  8. Automatic Melody Generation System with Extraction Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Kenichi; Kozuki, Shinichi

    In this paper, we propose the melody generation system with the analysis result of an existing melody. In addition, we introduce the device that takes user's favor in the system. The melody generation is done by pitch's being arranged best on the given rhythm. The best standard is decided by using the feature element extracted from existing music by proposed method. Moreover, user's favor is reflected in the best standard by operating some of the feature element in users. And, GA optimizes the pitch array based on the standard, and achieves the system.

  9. Formal Specification Based Automatic Test Generation for Embedded Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems have become increasingly connected and communicate with each other, forming large-scaled and complicated network systems. To make their design and testing more reliable and robust, this paper proposes a formal specification language called SENS and a SENS-based automatic test generation tool called TGSENS. Our approach is summarized as follows: (1 A user describes requirements of target embedded network systems by logical property-based constraints using SENS. (2 Given SENS specifications, test cases are automatically generated using a SAT-based solver. Filtering mechanisms to select efficient test cases are also available in our tool. (3 In addition, given a testing goal by the user, test sequences are automatically extracted from exhaustive test cases. We’ve implemented our approach and conducted several experiments on practical case studies. Through the experiments, we confirmed the efficiency of our approach in design and test generation of real embedded air-conditioning network systems.

  10. Automatic generation of Web mining environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Maurizio; Costagliola, Gennaro

    1999-02-01

    The main problem related to the retrieval of information from the world wide web is the enormous number of unstructured documents and resources, i.e., the difficulty of locating and tracking appropriate sources. This paper presents a web mining environment (WME), which is capable of finding, extracting and structuring information related to a particular domain from web documents, using general purpose indices. The WME architecture includes a web engine filter (WEF), to sort and reduce the answer set returned by a web engine, a data source pre-processor (DSP), which processes html layout cues in order to collect and qualify page segments, and a heuristic-based information extraction system (HIES), to finally retrieve the required data. Furthermore, we present a web mining environment generator, WMEG, that allows naive users to generate a WME specific to a given domain by providing a set of specifications.

  11. Automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Eloisa

    2017-02-01

    The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated code generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.

  12. Automatic Building Information Model Query Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yufei; Yu, Nan; Ming, Jiang; Lee, Sanghoon; DeGraw, Jason; Yen, John; Messner, John I.; Wu, Dinghao

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficient building design and construction calls for extensive collaboration between different subfields of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) community. Performing building design and construction engineering raises challenges on data integration and software interoperability. Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) data hub to host and integrate building models is a promising solution to address those challenges, which can ease building design information management. However, the partial model query mechanism of current BIM data hub collaboration model has several limitations, which prevents designers and engineers to take advantage of BIM. To address this problem, we propose a general and effective approach to generate query code based on a Model View Definition (MVD). This approach is demonstrated through a software prototype called QueryGenerator. By demonstrating a case study using multi-zone air flow analysis, we show how our approach and tool can help domain experts to use BIM to drive building design with less labour and lower overhead cost.

  13. Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Curved and Compound Twills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei-zhen; WANG Fu-mei; WANG Shan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new arithmetic using matrix left-shift functions for the quicker generation of curved and compound twills is introduced in this paper. A matrix model for the generation of regular, curved and compound twill structures is established and its computing simulation realization are elaborated. Examples of the algorithm applying in the simulation and the automatic generation of curved and compound twills in fabric CAD are obtained.

  14. An efficient method for parallel CRC automatic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红胜; 张继承; 王勇; 陈抗生

    2003-01-01

    The State Transition Equation (STE) based method to automatically generate the parallel CRC circuits for any generator polynomial or required amount of parallelism is presented. The parallel CRC circuit so generated is partially optimized before being fed to synthesis tools and works properly in our LAN transceiv-er. Compared with the cascading method, the proposed method gives better timing results and significantly re-duces the synthesis time, in particular.

  15. Procedure for the automatic mesh generation of innovative gear teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicella Andrea Chiaramonte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After having described gear wheels with teeth having the two sides constituted by different involutes and their importance in engineering applications, we stress the need for an efficient procedure for the automatic mesh generation of innovative gear teeth. First, we describe the procedure for the subdivision of the tooth profile in the various possible cases, then we show the method for creating the subdivision mesh, defined by two series of curves called meridians and parallels. Finally, we describe how the above procedure for automatic mesh generation is able to solve specific cases that may arise when dealing with teeth having the two sides constituted by different involutes.

  16. MEMOPS: data modelling and automatic code generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Ionides, John M C; Vranken, Wim F; Stevens, Tim J; Laue, Ernest D

    2010-03-25

    In recent years the amount of biological data has exploded to the point where much useful information can only be extracted by complex computational analyses. Such analyses are greatly facilitated by metadata standards, both in terms of the ability to compare data originating from different sources, and in terms of exchanging data in standard forms, e.g. when running processes on a distributed computing infrastructure. However, standards thrive on stability whereas science tends to constantly move, with new methods being developed and old ones modified. Therefore maintaining both metadata standards, and all the code that is required to make them useful, is a non-trivial problem. Memops is a framework that uses an abstract definition of the metadata (described in UML) to generate internal data structures and subroutine libraries for data access (application programming interfaces--APIs--currently in Python, C and Java) and data storage (in XML files or databases). For the individual project these libraries obviate the need for writing code for input parsing, validity checking or output. Memops also ensures that the code is always internally consistent, massively reducing the need for code reorganisation. Across a scientific domain a Memops-supported data model makes it easier to support complex standards that can capture all the data produced in a scientific area, share them among all programs in a complex software pipeline, and carry them forward to deposition in an archive. The principles behind the Memops generation code will be presented, along with example applications in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and structural biology.

  17. The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Particular peptides generated from the vicilin-class(7S) globulin of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis during cocoa fermentation are essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes. As revealed by in vitro studies, the formation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors depends on the particular cleavage specificity of the cocoa aspartic protease, which cannot be substituted by pepsin. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of aspartic protease inhibitors on both enzymes and comparatively studied their cleavage specificities using different protein substrates and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses of the generated oligopeptides. Three classes of cleavage sites have been identified and characterized: (I) sequences exclusively cleaved by the cocoa enzyme, (II) sequences cleaved by both pepsin and the cocoa enzyme, and (III) those cleaved exclusively by pepsin. In contrast to most aspartic proteases from other origins, basic amino acid residues, particularly lysine, were found to be abundant in the specific cleavage sites of the cocoa enzyme.

  18. Towards Automatic Personalized Content Generation for Platform Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that personalized levels can be automatically generated for platform games. We build on previous work, where models were derived that predicted player experience based on features of level design and on playing styles. These models are constructed using preference learning...

  19. Mppsocgen: A framework for automatic generation of mppsoc architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Kallel, Emna; Baklouti, Mouna; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Automatic code generation is a standard method in software engineering since it improves the code consistency and reduces the overall development time. In this context, this paper presents a design flow for automatic VHDL code generation of mppSoC (massively parallel processing System-on-Chip) configuration. Indeed, depending on the application requirements, a framework of Netbeans Platform Software Tool named MppSoCGEN was developed in order to accelerate the design process of complex mppSoC. Starting from an architecture parameters design, VHDL code will be automatically generated using parsing method. Configuration rules are proposed to have a correct and valid VHDL syntax configuration. Finally, an automatic generation of Processor Elements and network topologies models of mppSoC architecture will be done for Stratix II device family. Our framework improves its flexibility on Netbeans 5.5 version and centrino duo Core 2GHz with 22 Kbytes and 3 seconds average runtime. Experimental results for reduction al...

  20. Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…

  1. Automatic Generation of Tests from Domain and Multimedia Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasalouros, Andreas; Kotis, Konstantinos; Kanaris, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an approach for generating tests in an automatic way. Although other methods have been already reported in the literature, the proposed approach is based on ontologies, representing both domain and multimedia knowledge. The article also reports on a prototype implementation of this approach, which…

  2. Automatic generation of gene finders for eukaryotic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background The number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes is rapidly increasing. This means that over time it will be hard to keep supplying customised gene finders for each genome. This calls for procedures to automatically generate species-specific gene finders and to re-train them as the quantity...

  3. A quick scan on possibilities for automatic metadata generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The Quick Scan is a report on research into useable solutions for automatic generation of metadata or parts of metadata. The aim of this study is to explore possibilities for facilitating the process of attaching metadata to learning objects. This document is aimed at developers of digital learning

  4. Automatic generation of matter-of-opinion video documentaries

    OpenAIRE

    Bocconi, S.; Nack, Frank; Hardman, Hazel Lynda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a model for automatically generating video documentaries. This allows viewers to specify the subject and the point of view of the documentary to be generated. The domain is matter-of-opinion documentaries based on interviews. The model combines rhetorical presentation patterns used by documentary makers with a data-driven approach. Rhetorical presentation patterns provide the viewer with an engaging viewing experience, while a data-driven approach can be applied to g...

  5. Automatic control system generation for robot design validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, James A. (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The specification and drawings present a new method, system and software product for and apparatus for generating a robotic validation system for a robot design. The robotic validation system for the robot design of a robotic system is automatically generated by converting a robot design into a generic robotic description using a predetermined format, then generating a control system from the generic robotic description and finally updating robot design parameters of the robotic system with an analysis tool using both the generic robot description and the control system.

  6. Automatically generating procedure code and database maintenance scripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Information Technologies and Methodologies Dept.

    1994-10-01

    Over the past couple of years the Information Technology Department at Sandia Laboratories has developed software to automatically generate database/4gl procedure code and database maintenance scripts based on database table information. With this software developers simply enter table and referential integrity information and the software generates code and scripts as required. The generated procedure code includes simple insert/delete/update procedures, transaction logging procedures as well as referential integrity procedures. The generated database maintenance scripts include scripts to modify structures, update remote databases, create views, and create indexes. Additionally, the software can generate EPSI representations of Binder diagrams for the tables. This paper will discuss the software application and use of it in real world applications. The automated generation of procedure code and maintenance scripts allows the developers to concentrate on the development of user interface code. The technique involves generating database/4 gl procedure code and maintenance scripts automatically from the database table information. The database/4gl procedure code provides standard insert/update/delete interfaces for upper level code as well as enforces the data constraints defined in the information model. The maintenance scripts provide maintenance scripts and migration scripts. This has resulted in fully updated database applications with complete rules enforcement and database maintenance scripts within days of a database modification.

  7. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight......-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the starch had...

  8. Progressive Concept Evaluation Method for Automatically Generated Concept Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldemichael Dereje Engida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is one of the most critical and important phases of design process with least computer support system. Conceptual design support tool (CDST is a conceptual design support system developed to automatically generate concepts for each subfunction in functional structure. The automated concept generation process results in large number of concept variants which require a thorough evaluation process to select the best design. To address this, a progressive concept evaluation technique consisting of absolute comparison, concept screening and weighted decision matrix using analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed to eliminate infeasible concepts at each stage. The software implementation of the proposed method is demonstrated.

  9. [Automatic analysis pipeline of next-generation sequencing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Li; Fengyu, Li; Siyao, Zhang; Bin, Cai; Na, Zheng; Yu, Nie; Dao, Zhou; Qian, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has generated high demand for data processing and analysis. Although there are a lot of software for analyzing next-generation sequencing data, most of them are designed for one specific function (e.g., alignment, variant calling or annotation). Therefore, it is necessary to combine them together for data analysis and to generate interpretable results for biologists. This study designed a pipeline to process Illumina sequencing data based on Perl programming language and SGE system. The pipeline takes original sequence data (fastq format) as input, calls the standard data processing software (e.g., BWA, Samtools, GATK, and Annovar), and finally outputs a list of annotated variants that researchers can further analyze. The pipeline simplifies the manual operation and improves the efficiency by automatization and parallel computation. Users can easily run the pipeline by editing the configuration file or clicking the graphical interface. Our work will facilitate the research projects using the sequencing technology.

  10. Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

    This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language…

  11. Automatic generation of executable communication specifications from parallel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Xing [NCSU; Mueller, Frank [NCSU

    2011-01-19

    Portable parallel benchmarks are widely used and highly effective for (a) the evaluation, analysis and procurement of high-performance computing (HPC) systems and (b) quantifying the potential benefits of porting applications for new hardware platforms. Yet, past techniques to synthetically parameterized hand-coded HPC benchmarks prove insufficient for today's rapidly-evolving scientific codes particularly when subject to multi-scale science modeling or when utilizing domain-specific libraries. To address these problems, this work contributes novel methods to automatically generate highly portable and customizable communication benchmarks from HPC applications. We utilize ScalaTrace, a lossless, yet scalable, parallel application tracing framework to collect selected aspects of the run-time behavior of HPC applications, including communication operations and execution time, while abstracting away the details of the computation proper. We subsequently generate benchmarks with identical run-time behavior from the collected traces. A unique feature of our approach is that we generate benchmarks in CONCEPTUAL, a domain-specific language that enables the expression of sophisticated communication patterns using a rich and easily understandable grammar yet compiles to ordinary C + MPI. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated benchmarks are able to preserve the run-time behavior - including both the communication pattern and the execution time - of the original applications. Such automated benchmark generation is particularly valuable for proprietary, export-controlled, or classified application codes: when supplied to a third party. Our auto-generated benchmarks ensure performance fidelity but without the risks associated with releasing the original code. This ability to automatically generate performance-accurate benchmarks from parallel applications is novel and without any precedence, to our knowledge.

  12. Visual definition of procedures for automatic virtual scene generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lucanin, Drazen

    2012-01-01

    With more and more digital media, especially in the field of virtual reality where detailed and convincing scenes are much required, procedural scene generation is a big helping tool for artists. A problem is that defining scene descriptions through these procedures usually requires a knowledge in formal language grammars, programming theory and manually editing textual files using a strict syntax, making it less intuitive to use. Luckily, graphical user interfaces has made a lot of tasks on computers easier to perform and out of the belief that creating computer programs can also be one of them, visual programming languages (VPLs) have emerged. The goal in VPLs is to shift more work from the programmer to the integrated development environment (IDE), making programming an user-friendlier task. In this thesis, an approach of using a VPL for defining procedures that automatically generate virtual scenes is presented. The methods required to build a VPL are presented, including a novel method of generating read...

  13. Automatic Generation of 3D Building Models with Multiple Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Sugihara; Yoshitugu Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    Based on building footprints (building polygons) on digital maps, we are proposing the GIS and CG integrated system that automatically generates 3D building models with multiple roofs. Most building polygons' edges meet at right angles (orthogonal polygon). The integrated system partitions orthogonal building polygons into a set of rectangles and places rectangular roofs and box-shaped building bodies on these rectangles. In order to partition an orthogonal polygon, we proposed a useful polygon expression in deciding from which vertex a dividing line is drawn. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for partitioning building polygons and show the process of creating 3D roof models.

  14. Automatic structures and growth functions for finitely generated abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamei, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the formal power series whose n-th coefficient is the number of copies of a given finite graph in the ball of radius n centred at the identity element in the Cayley graph of a finitely generated group and call it the growth function. Epstein, Iano-Fletcher and Uri Zwick proved that the growth function is a rational function if the group has a geodesic automatic structure. We compute the growth function in the case where the group is abelian and see that the denominator of the rational function is determined from the rank of the group.

  15. Automatic Tamil lyric generation based on ontological interpretation for semantics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeswari Sridhar; D Jalin Gladis; Kameswaran Ganga; G Dhivya Prabha

    2014-02-01

    This system proposes an -gram based approach to automatic Tamil lyric generation, by the ontological semantic interpretation of the input scene. The approach is based on identifying the semantics conveyed in the scenario, thereby making the system understand the situation and generate lyrics accordingly. The heart of the system includes the ontological interpretation of the scenario, and the selection of the appropriate tri-grams for generating the lyrics. To fulfill this, we have designed a new ontology with weighted edges, where the edges correspond to a set of sentences, which indicate a relationship, and are represented as a tri-gram. Once the appropriate tri-grams are selected, the root words from these tri-grams are sent to the morphological generator, to form words in their packed form. These words are then assembled to form the final lyrics. Parameters of poetry like rhyme, alliteration, simile, vocative words, etc., are also taken care of by the system. Using this approach, we achieved an average accuracy of 77.3% with respect to the exact semantic details being conveyed in the generated lyrics.

  16. Automatic Mesh Generation on a Regular Background Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LO S.H; 刘剑飞

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic mesh generation procedure on a 2D domainbased on a regular background grid. The idea is to devise a robust mesh generation schemewith equal emphasis on quality and efficiency. Instead of using a traditional regular rectangulargrid, a mesh of equilateral triangles is employed to ensure triangular element of the best qualitywill be preserved in the interior of the domain.As for the boundary, it is to be generated by a node/segment insertion process. Nodes areinserted into the background mesh one by one following the sequence of the domain boundary.The local structure of the mesh is modified based on the Delaunay criterion with the introduc-tion of each node. Those boundary segments, which are not produced in the phase of nodeinsertion, will be recovered through a systematic element swap process. Two theorems will bepresented and proved to set up the theoretical basic of the boundary recovery part. Exampleswill be presented to demonstrate the robustness and the quality of the mesh generated by theproposed technique.

  17. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  18. Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Learning for Automatic Image Annotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shuang Hong; Zha, Hongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Automatic image annotation (AIA) raises tremendous challenges to machine learning as it requires modeling of data that are both ambiguous in input and output, e.g., images containing multiple objects and labeled with multiple semantic tags. Even more challenging is that the number of candidate tags is usually huge (as large as the vocabulary size) yet each image is only related to a few of them. This paper presents a hybrid generative-discriminative classifier to simultaneously address the extreme data-ambiguity and overfitting-vulnerability issues in tasks such as AIA. Particularly: (1) an Exponential-Multinomial Mixture (EMM) model is established to capture both the input and output ambiguity and in the meanwhile to encourage prediction sparsity; and (2) the prediction ability of the EMM model is explicitly maximized through discriminative learning that integrates variational inference of graphical models and the pairwise formulation of ordinal regression. Experiments show that our approach achieves both su...

  19. Automatic Generation of OWL Ontology from XML Data Source

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia, Nora; Ahmed, AbdelWahab

    2012-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) can be used as data exchange format in different domains. It allows different parties to exchange data by providing common understanding of the basic concepts in the domain. XML covers the syntactic level, but lacks support for reasoning. Ontology can provide a semantic representation of domain knowledge which supports efficient reasoning and expressive power. One of the most popular ontology languages is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). It can represent domain knowledge using classes, properties, axioms and instances for the use in a distributed environment such as the World Wide Web. This paper presents a new method for automatic generation of OWL ontology from XML data sources.

  20. Spline-based automatic path generation of welding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xuejuan; Li Liangyu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible method for the representation of welded seam based on spline interpolation. In this method, the tool path of welding robot can be generated automatically from a 3D CAD model. This technique has been implemented and demonstrated in the FANUC Arc Welding Robot Workstation. According to the method, a software system is developed using VBA of SolidWorks 2006. It offers an interface between SolidWorks and ROBOGUIDE, the off-line programming software of FANUC robot. It combines the strong modeling function of the former and the simulating function of the latter. It also has the capability of communication with on-line robot. The result data have shown its high accuracy and strong reliability in experiments. This method will improve the intelligence and the flexibility of the welding robot workstation.

  1. Automatic generation of matrix element derivatives for tight binding models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Alin M.; Meister, Matthias

    2005-10-01

    Tight binding (TB) models are one approach to the quantum mechanical many-particle problem. An important role in TB models is played by hopping and overlap matrix elements between the orbitals on two atoms, which of course depend on the relative positions of the atoms involved. This dependence can be expressed with the help of Slater-Koster parameters, which are usually taken from tables. Recently, a way to generate these tables automatically was published. If TB approaches are applied to simulations of the dynamics of a system, also derivatives of matrix elements can appear. In this work we give general expressions for first and second derivatives of such matrix elements. Implemented in a tight binding computer program, like, for instance, DINAMO, they obviate the need to type all the required derivatives of all occurring matrix elements by hand.

  2. Intelligent control schemes applied to Automatic Generation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingguo Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrating ever increasing amount of renewable generating resources to interconnected power systems has created new challenges to the safety and reliability of today‟s power grids and posed new questions to be answered in the power system modeling, analysis and control. Automatic Generation Control (AGC must be extended to be able to accommodate the control of renewable generating assets. In addition, AGC is mandated to operate in accordance with the NERC‟s Control Performance Standard (CPS criteria, which represent a greater flexibility in relaxing the control of generating resources and yet assuring the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems when each balancing authority operates in full compliance. Enhancements in several aspects to the traditional AGC must be made in order to meet the aforementioned challenges. It is the intention of this paper to provide a systematic, mathematical formulation for AGC as a first attempt in the context of meeting the NERC CPS requirements and integrating renewable generating assets, which has not been seen reported in the literature to the best knowledge of the authors. Furthermore, this paper proposes neural network based predictive control schemes for AGC. The proposed controller is capable of handling complicated nonlinear dynamics in comparison with the conventional Proportional Integral (PI controller which is typically most effective to handle linear dynamics. The neural controller is designed in such a way that it has the capability of controlling the system generation in the relaxed manner so the ACE is controlled to a desired range instead of driving it to zero which would otherwise increase the control effort and cost; and most importantly the resulting system control performance meets the NERC CPS requirements and/or the NERC Balancing Authority’s ACE Limit (BAAL compliance requirements whichever are applicable.

  3. Provenance-Powered Automatic Workflow Generation and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have learned how to codify tools into reusable software modules that can be chained into multi-step executable workflows. Existing scientific workflow tools, created by computer scientists, require domain scientists to meticulously design their multi-step experiments before analyzing data. However, this is oftentimes contradictory to a domain scientist's daily routine of conducting research and exploration. We hope to resolve this dispute. Imagine this: An Earth scientist starts her day applying NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) published climate data processing algorithms over ARGO deep ocean temperature and AMSRE sea surface temperature datasets. Throughout the day, she tunes the algorithm parameters to study various aspects of the data. Suddenly, she notices some interesting results. She then turns to a computer scientist and asks, "can you reproduce my results?" By tracking and reverse engineering her activities, the computer scientist creates a workflow. The Earth scientist can now rerun the workflow to validate her findings, modify the workflow to discover further variations, or publish the workflow to share the knowledge. In this way, we aim to revolutionize computer-supported Earth science. We have developed a prototyping system to realize the aforementioned vision, in the context of service-oriented science. We have studied how Earth scientists conduct service-oriented data analytics research in their daily work, developed a provenance model to record their activities, and developed a technology to automatically generate workflow starting from user behavior and adaptability and reuse of these workflows for replicating/improving scientific studies. A data-centric repository infrastructure is established to catch richer provenance to further facilitate collaboration in the science community. We have also established a Petri nets-based verification instrument for provenance-based automatic workflow generation and recommendation.

  4. Reaction Mechanism Generator: Automatic construction of chemical kinetic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Connie W.; Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H.; West, Richard H.

    2016-06-01

    Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG) constructs kinetic models composed of elementary chemical reaction steps using a general understanding of how molecules react. Species thermochemistry is estimated through Benson group additivity and reaction rate coefficients are estimated using a database of known rate rules and reaction templates. At its core, RMG relies on two fundamental data structures: graphs and trees. Graphs are used to represent chemical structures, and trees are used to represent thermodynamic and kinetic data. Models are generated using a rate-based algorithm which excludes species from the model based on reaction fluxes. RMG can generate reaction mechanisms for species involving carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. It also has capabilities for estimating transport and solvation properties, and it automatically computes pressure-dependent rate coefficients and identifies chemically-activated reaction paths. RMG is an object-oriented program written in Python, which provides a stable, robust programming architecture for developing an extensible and modular code base with a large suite of unit tests. Computationally intensive functions are cythonized for speed improvements.

  5. Reinforcement-Based Fuzzy Neural Network ontrol with Automatic Rule Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A reinforcemen-based fuzzy neural network control with automatic rule generation RBFNNC) is pro-posed. A set of optimized fuzzy control rules can be automatically generated through reinforcement learning based onthe state variables of object system. RBFNNC was applied to a cart-pole balancing system and simulation resultshows significant improvements on the rule generation.

  6. An Algorithm to Automatically Generate the Combinatorial Orbit Counting Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melckenbeeck, Ine; Audenaert, Pieter; Michoel, Tom; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Graphlets are small subgraphs, usually containing up to five vertices, that can be found in a larger graph. Identification of the graphlets that a vertex in an explored graph touches can provide useful information about the local structure of the graph around that vertex. Actually finding all graphlets in a large graph can be time-consuming, however. As the graphlets grow in size, more different graphlets emerge and the time needed to find each graphlet also scales up. If it is not needed to find each instance of each graphlet, but knowing the number of graphlets touching each node of the graph suffices, the problem is less hard. Previous research shows a way to simplify counting the graphlets: instead of looking for the graphlets needed, smaller graphlets are searched, as well as the number of common neighbors of vertices. Solving a system of equations then gives the number of times a vertex is part of each graphlet of the desired size. However, until now, equations only exist to count graphlets with 4 or 5 nodes. In this paper, two new techniques are presented. The first allows to generate the equations needed in an automatic way. This eliminates the tedious work needed to do so manually each time an extra node is added to the graphlets. The technique is independent on the number of nodes in the graphlets and can thus be used to count larger graphlets than previously possible. The second technique gives all graphlets a unique ordering which is easily extended to name graphlets of any size. Both techniques were used to generate equations to count graphlets with 4, 5 and 6 vertices, which extends all previous results. Code can be found at https://github.com/IneMelckenbeeck/equation-generator and https://github.com/IneMelckenbeeck/graphlet-naming.

  7. On A Semi-Automatic Method for Generating Composition Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    Originating from Allen's Interval Algebra, composition-based reasoning has been widely acknowledged as the most popular reasoning technique in qualitative spatial and temporal reasoning. Given a qualitative calculus (i.e. a relation model), the first thing we should do is to establish its composition table (CT). In the past three decades, such work is usually done manually. This is undesirable and error-prone, given that the calculus may contain tens or hundreds of basic relations. Computing the correct CT has been identified by Tony Cohn as a challenge for computer scientists in 1995. This paper addresses this problem and introduces a semi-automatic method to compute the CT by randomly generating triples of elements. For several important qualitative calculi, our method can establish the correct CT in a reasonable short time. This is illustrated by applications to the Interval Algebra, the Region Connection Calculus RCC-8, the INDU calculus, and the Oriented Point Relation Algebras. Our method can also be us...

  8. Learning Techniques for Automatic Test Pattern Generation using Boolean Satisfiability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG is one of the core problems in testing of digital circuits. ATPG algorithms based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT turned out to be very powerful, due to great advances in the performance of satisfiability solvers for propositional logic in the last two decades. SAT-based ATPG clearly outperforms classical approaches especially for hard-to-detect faults. But its inaccessibility of structural information and don’t care, there exists the over-specification problem of input patterns. In this paper we present techniques to delve into an additional layer to make use of structural properties of the circuit and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It joins binary decision graphs (BDD and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of ATPG. It makes a study of inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. The learning technique is effective and lightweight. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Development of tools for automatic generation of PLC code

    CERN Document Server

    Koutli, Maria; Rochez, Jacques

    This Master thesis was performed at CERN and more specifically in the EN-ICE-PLC section. The Thesis describes the integration of two PLC platforms, that are based on CODESYS development tool, to the CERN defined industrial framework, UNICOS. CODESYS is a development tool for PLC programming, based on IEC 61131-3 standard, and is adopted by many PLC manufacturers. The two PLC development environments are, the SoMachine from Schneider and the TwinCAT from Beckhoff. The two CODESYS compatible PLCs, should be controlled by the SCADA system of Siemens, WinCC OA. The framework includes a library of Function Blocks (objects) for the PLC programs and a software for automatic generation of the PLC code based on this library, called UAB. The integration aimed to give a solution that is shared by both PLC platforms and was based on the PLCOpen XML scheme. The developed tools were demonstrated by creating a control application for both PLC environments and testing of the behavior of the code of the library.

  10. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  11. Automatic generation of digital anthropomorphic phantoms from simulated MRI acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C.; Gennert, M. A.; KÓ§nik, A.; Dasari, P. K.; King, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, motion from patient respiration and body motion can introduce image artifacts that may reduce the diagnostic quality of the images. Simulation studies using numerical phantoms with precisely known motion can help to develop and evaluate motion correction algorithms. Previous methods for evaluating motion correction algorithms used either manual or semi-automated segmentation of MRI studies to produce patient models in the form of XCAT Phantoms, from which one calculates the transformation and deformation between MRI study and patient model. Both manual and semi-automated methods of XCAT Phantom generation require expertise in human anatomy, with the semiautomated method requiring up to 30 minutes and the manual method requiring up to eight hours. Although faster than manual segmentation, the semi-automated method still requires a significant amount of time, is not replicable, and is subject to errors due to the difficulty of aligning and deforming anatomical shapes in 3D. We propose a new method for matching patient models to MRI that extends the previous semi-automated method by eliminating the manual non-rigid transformation. Our method requires no user supervision and therefore does not require expert knowledge of human anatomy to align the NURBs to anatomical structures in the MR image. Our contribution is employing the SIMRI MRI simulator to convert the XCAT NURBs to a voxel-based representation that is amenable to automatic non-rigid registration. Then registration is used to transform and deform the NURBs to match the anatomy in the MR image. We show that our automated method generates XCAT Phantoms more robustly and significantly faster than the previous semi-automated method.

  12. PUS Services Software Building Block Automatic Generation for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, S.; Sgaramella, F.; Mele, G.

    2008-08-01

    The Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) has been specified by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and issued as ECSS-E-70-41A to define the application-level interface between Ground Segments and Space Segments. The ECSS-E- 70-41A complements the ECSS-E-50 and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for packet telemetry and telecommand. The ECSS-E-70-41A characterizes the identified PUS Services from a functional point of view and the ECSS-E-70-31 standard specifies the rules for their mission-specific tailoring. The current on-board software design for a space mission implies the production of several PUS terminals, each providing a specific tailoring of the PUS services. The associated on-board software building blocks are developed independently, leading to very different design choices and implementations even when the mission tailoring requires very similar services (from the Ground operative perspective). In this scenario, the automatic production of the PUS services building blocks for a mission would be a way to optimize the overall mission economy and improve the robusteness and reliability of the on-board software and of the Ground-Space interactions. This paper presents the Space Software Italia (SSI) activities for the development of an integrated environment to support: the PUS services tailoring activity for a specific mission. the mission-specific PUS services configuration. the generation the UML model of the software building block implementing the mission-specific PUS services and the related source code, support documentation (software requirements, software architecture, test plans/procedures, operational manuals), and the TM/TC database. The paper deals with: (a) the project objectives, (b) the tailoring, configuration, and generation process, (c) the description of the environments supporting the process phases, (d) the characterization of the meta-model used for the generation, (e) the

  13. Automatic HDL firmware generation for FPGA-based reconfigurable measurement and control systems with mezzanines in FMC standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojenski, Andrzej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a concept of automatic firmware generation for reconfigurable measurement systems, which uses FPGA devices and measurement cards in FMC standard. Following sections are described in details: automatic HDL code generation for FPGA devices, automatic communication interfaces implementation, HDL drivers for measurement cards, automatic serial connection between multiple measurement backplane boards, automatic build of memory map (address space), automatic generated firmware management. Presented solutions are required in many advanced measurement systems, like Beam Position Monitors or GEM detectors. This work is a part of a wider project for automatic firmware generation and management of reconfigurable systems. Solutions presented in this paper are based on previous publication in SPIE.

  14. A new approach to saffron aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, M; Zalacain, A; Salinas, M R; Alonso, G L

    2007-01-01

    The aroma of saffron has received much attention from scientists in recent years, not only for the compounds that make it up, but also for its glycosidic precursors. Despite it all, the volatile generation mechanisms of the spice are almost completely unknown. Only the generation of safranal, the major compound, from picrocrocin has been established. The great effort carried out to detect and identify the volatile compounds of saffron has not been enough to clarify which compounds are responsible for saffron aroma. In general, scientists has devoted little attention to the sample analyzed, taking for granted that all saffron is the same, something that makes it difficult to establish a comparison between the results obtained by the different authors, to the point that saffron aroma has not been defined yet. It must be clarified whether saffron aroma is what the consumer perceives via nasally when a container of the spice is uncovered, or whether on the contrary, it is the aroma conferred to food, normally after a thermal cooking process, and perceived retronasally. After an extensive bibliographic research, simple assays are suggested to understand what could be considered as saffron aroma, results that may help to delimit the research for future studies.

  15. System and Component Software Specification, Run-time Verification and Automatic Test Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following background technology is described in Part 5: Run-time Verification (RV), White Box Automatic Test Generation (WBATG). Part 5 also describes how WBATG...

  16. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1990-01-01

    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  17. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river cha...

  18. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river channel ne...

  19. Research on Community Competition and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Tang Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Wujian Yang; Yining Cheng; Jie He; Wenqiong Hu; Xiaojia Lin

    2016-01-01

    As there are many researches about traditional Tang poetry, among which automatically generated Tang poetry has arouse great concern in recent years. This study presents a community-based competition and adaptive genetic algorithm for automatically generating Tang poetry. The improved algorithm with community-based competition that has been added aims to maintain the diversity of genes during evolution; meanwhile, the adaptation means that the probabilities of crossover and mutation are varie...

  20. Encapsulation of Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  1. Evaluation of process parameters governing the aroma generation in three hazelnut cultivars (Corylus avellana L.) by correlating quantitative key odorant profiling with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-06-05

    The majority of the world hazelnut crop is roasted, thus developing a unique aroma that depends on the cultivar used and on the roasting conditions applied. Although several studies have investigated the volatile fraction of different cultivars and have correlated the data with overall sensory profiles, studies establishing a correlation between key odorants among the bulk of odorless volatiles and the respective aroma profiles are not yet available. On the basis of recently published stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), differences in concentrations of key odorants in different hazelnut cultivars roasted under defined conditions were monitored and compared with sensory data obtained by projective mapping, aroma profile analysis, and triangle tests. The results showed that the aroma-active compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, and 2-furfurylthiol are appropriate marker odorants to differentiate the various nut aromas. In particular, the appreciated roasty, nutty aroma of optimally roasted hazelnuts was developed if both 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one and 3-methyl-4-heptanone were >450 μg/kg, whereas the sum of the two 2-acyl-1-pyrrolines and two pyrazines should not exceed 400 μg/kg to avoid an over-roasted smell. Such a desired aroma can be obtained for each cultivar, but obviously specific roasting times, temperatures, and roasting techniques had to be applied.

  2. A complete discrimination system for polynomials with complex coefficients and its automatic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁松新; 张景中

    1999-01-01

    By establishing a complete discrimination system for polynomials, the problem of complete root classification for polynomials with complex coefficients is utterly solved, furthermore, the algorithm obtained is made into a general program in Maple, which enables the complete discrimination system and complete root classification of a polynomial to be automatically generated by computer, without any human intervention. Besides, by using the automatic generation of root classification, a method to determine the positive definiteness of a polynomial in one or two indeterminates is automatically presented.

  3. Automatic Generation Control Strategy Based on Balance of Daily Electric Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic generation control strategy based on balance of daily total electric energy is put forward. It makes the balance between actual total generated energy controlled by automatic generation system and planned total energy on base of area control error, and makes the actual 24-hour active power load curve to approach the planned load curve. The generated energy is corrected by velocity weighting factor so that it conducts dynamic regulation and reaches the speed of response. Homologous strategy is used according to the real-time data in the operation of automatic generation control. Results of simulation are perfect and power energy compensation control with ideal effect can be achieved in the particular duration.

  4. Improving Statistical Language Model Performance with Automatically Generated Word Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, J; Mahon, John Mc

    1995-01-01

    An automatic word classification system has been designed which processes word unigram and bigram frequency statistics extracted from a corpus of natural language utterances. The system implements a binary top-down form of word clustering which employs an average class mutual information metric. Resulting classifications are hierarchical, allowing variable class granularity. Words are represented as structural tags --- unique $n$-bit numbers the most significant bit-patterns of which incorporate class information. Access to a structural tag immediately provides access to all classification levels for the corresponding word. The classification system has successfully revealed some of the structure of English, from the phonemic to the semantic level. The system has been compared --- directly and indirectly --- with other recent word classification systems. Class based interpolated language models have been constructed to exploit the extra information supplied by the classifications and some experiments have sho...

  5. An approach of optimal sensitivity applied in the tertiary loop of the automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belati, Edmarcio A. [CIMATEC - SENAI, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Alves, Dilson A. [Electrical Engineering Department, FEIS, UNESP - Sao Paulo State University (Brazil); da Costa, Geraldo R.M. [Electrical Engineering Department, EESC, USP - Sao Paulo University (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    This paper proposes an approach of optimal sensitivity applied in the tertiary loop of the automatic generation control. The approach is based on the theorem of non-linear perturbation. From an optimal operation point obtained by an optimal power flow a new optimal operation point is directly determined after a perturbation, i.e., without the necessity of an iterative process. This new optimal operation point satisfies the constraints of the problem for small perturbation in the loads. The participation factors and the voltage set point of the automatic voltage regulators (AVR) of the generators are determined by the technique of optimal sensitivity, considering the effects of the active power losses minimization and the network constraints. The participation factors and voltage set point of the generators are supplied directly to a computational program of dynamic simulation of the automatic generation control, named by power sensitivity mode. Test results are presented to show the good performance of this approach. (author)

  6. Validating EHR documents: automatic schematron generation using archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Klaus; Duftschmid, Georg; Rinner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether Schematron schemas can be generated from archetypes. The openEHR Java reference API was used to transform an archetype into an object model, which was then extended with context elements. The model was processed and the constraints were transformed into corresponding Schematron assertions. A prototype of the generator for the reference model HL7 v3 CDA R2 was developed and successfully tested. Preconditions for its reusability with other reference models were set. Our results indicate that an automated generation of Schematron schemas is possible with some limitations.

  7. Automatic Model-Based Generation of Parameterized Test Cases Using Data Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calamé, Jens R.; Ioustinova, Natalia; Pol, van de Jaco; Romijn, J.M.T.; Smith, G.; Pol, van de J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing test suites is a costly and error-prone process. Model-based test generation tools facilitate this process by automatically generating test cases from system models. The applicability of these tools, however, depends on the size of the target systems. Here, we propose an approach to gener

  8. Unidirectional high fiber content composites: Automatic 3D FE model generation and damage simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    A new method and a software code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical FE models of unidirectional long-fiber-reinforced composite (LFRC) with high fiber volume fraction with random fiber arrangement are presented. The fiber arrangement in the cross-section is generated through random...

  9. AUTOMATIC MESH GENERATION OF 3-D GEOMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑飞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the presentation of the ball-packing method is reviewed,and a scheme to generate mesh for complex 3-D geometric models is given,which consists of 4 steps:(1)create nodes in 3-D models by ball-packing method,(2)connect nodes to generate mesh by 3-D Delaunay triangulation,(3)retrieve the boundary of the model after Delaunay triangulation,(4)improve the mesh.

  10. Impact of automatic threshold capture on pulse generator longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ruo-han; CHEN Ke-ping; WANG Fang-zheng; HUA Wei; ZHANG Shu

    2006-01-01

    Background The automatic, threshold tracking, pacing algorithm developed by St. Jude Medical, verifies ventricular capture beat by beat by recognizing the evoked response following each pacemaker stimulus. This function was assumed to be not only energy saving but safe. This study estimated the extension in longevity obtained by AutoCapture (AC) compared with pacemakers programmed to manually optimized, nominal output.Methods Thirty-four patients who received the St. Jude Affinity series pacemaker were included in the study.The following measurements were taken: stimulation and sensing threshold, impedance of leads, evoked response and polarization signals by 3501 programmer during followup, battery current and battery impedance under different conditions. For longevity comparison, ventricular output was programmed under three different conditions: (1) AC on; (2) AC off with nominal output, and (3) AC off with pacing output set at twice the pacing threshold with a minimum of 2.0 V. Patients were divided into two groups: chronic threshold is higher or lower than 1 V. The efficacy of AC was evaluated.Results Current drain in the AC on group, AC off with optimized programming or nominal output was (14.33±2.84) mA, (16.74±2.75) mA and (18.4±2.44) mA, respectively (AC on or AC off with optimized programming vs. nominal output, P < 0.01). Estimated longevity was significantly extended by AC on when compared with nominal setting [(103 ± 27) months, (80 ± 24) months, P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with the optimized programming, AC extends the longevity when the pacing threshold is higher than 1 V.Conclusion AC could significantly prolong pacemaker longevity; especially in the patient with high pacing threshold.

  11. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; NieChanghai; 等

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency.Black-box testing is an important way of testing,and is validity lies on the secection of test cases in some sense.A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cascs is urgently needed.This letter first introduces some usual methods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new glgorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties,finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  12. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Nie Changhai; Shi Qunfeng; Lu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency. Black-box testing is an important way of testing, and its validity lies on the selection of test cases in some sense. A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cases is urgently needed. This letter first introduces some usualmethods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new algorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties, finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  13. An automatic grid generation approach over free-form surface for architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏亮; 祝顺来; 肖南; 高博青

    2014-01-01

    An essential step for the realization of free-form surface structures is to create an efficient structural gird that satisfies not only the architectural aesthetics, but also the structural performance. Employing the main stress trajectories as the representation of force flows on a free-form surface, an automatic grid generation approach is proposed for the architectural design. The algorithm automatically plots the main stress trajectories on a 3D free-form surface, and adopts a modified advancing front meshing technique to generate the structural grid. Based on the proposed algorithm, an automatic grid generator named “St-Surmesh” is developed for the practical architectural design of free-form surface structure. The surface geometry of one of the Sun Valleys in Expo Axis for the Expo Shanghai 2010 is selected as a numerical example for validating the proposed approach. Comparative studies are performed to demonstrate how different structural grids affect the design of a free-form surface structure.

  14. Automatic generation of computable implementation guides from clinical information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscá, Diego; Maldonado, José Alberto; Moner, David; Robles, Montserrat

    2015-06-01

    Clinical information models are increasingly used to describe the contents of Electronic Health Records. Implementation guides are a common specification mechanism used to define such models. They contain, among other reference materials, all the constraints and rules that clinical information must obey. However, these implementation guides typically are oriented to human-readability, and thus cannot be processed by computers. As a consequence, they must be reinterpreted and transformed manually into an executable language such as Schematron or Object Constraint Language (OCL). This task can be difficult and error prone due to the big gap between both representations. The challenge is to develop a methodology for the specification of implementation guides in such a way that humans can read and understand easily and at the same time can be processed by computers. In this paper, we propose and describe a novel methodology that uses archetypes as basis for generation of implementation guides. We use archetypes to generate formal rules expressed in Natural Rule Language (NRL) and other reference materials usually included in implementation guides such as sample XML instances. We also generate Schematron rules from NRL rules to be used for the validation of data instances. We have implemented these methods in LinkEHR, an archetype editing platform, and exemplify our approach by generating NRL rules and implementation guides from EN ISO 13606, openEHR, and HL7 CDA archetypes.

  15. Template Authoring Environment for the Automatic Generation of Narrative Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caropreso, Maria Fernanda; Inkpen, Diana; Keshtkar, Fazel; Khan, Shahzad

    2012-01-01

    Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems can make data accessible in an easily digestible textual form; but using such systems requires sophisticated linguistic and sometimes even programming knowledge. We have designed and implemented an environment for creating and modifying NLG templates that requires no programming knowledge, and can operate…

  16. Designing a story database for use in automatic story generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oinonen, K.M.; Theune, M.; Nijholt, A.; Uijlings, J.R.R.; Harper, R.; Rauterberg, M.; Combetto, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for the representation of stories in a story database. The use of such a database will enable computational story generation systems to learn from previous stories and associated user feedback, in order to create believable stories with dramatic plots that invoke an

  17. Facilitate generation connections on Orkney by automatic distribution network management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the capability and limitations of the Orkney Network under a variety of conditions of demand, generation connections, network configuration, and reactive compensation). A conceptual active management scheme (AMS) suitable for the conditions on Orkney is developed and evaluated. Details are given of a proposed framework for the design and evaluation of future active management schemes, logic control sequences for managed generation units, and a proposed evaluation method for the active management scheme. Implications of introducing the proposed AMS are examined, and the commercial aspects of an AMS and system security are considered. The existing Orkney network is described; and an overview of the SHEPDL (Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution Ltd.) SCADA system is presented with a discussion of AMS identification, selection, and development.

  18. Semantic annotation of requirements for automatic UML class diagram generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amdouni, Soumaya; Bouabid, Sondes

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of software engineering requires effective methods and tools to support requirements analysts' activities. While much of a company's knowledge can be found in text repositories, current content management systems have limited capabilities for structuring and interpreting documents. In this context, we propose a tool for transforming text documents describing users' requirements to an UML model. The presented tool uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) and semantic rules to generate an UML class diagram. The main contribution of our tool is to provide assistance to designers facilitating the transition from a textual description of user requirements to their UML diagrams based on GATE (General Architecture of Text) by formulating necessary rules that generate new semantic annotations.

  19. An automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bentivegna, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated-code-generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.

  20. An Aid to Independent Study through Automatic Question Generation (AUTOQUEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    natural language analysis and generation tackles a difficult class of anaphoric inference problems (finding th correct referent for an English pronoun...overall principle of xsemantic preference’ used to set up the original meaning representation, of which these anaphoric inference procedures are a...templates has been considered in detail elsewhere, so this report concentrates on the second phase of analysis, which binds templates together into a

  1. SABATPG-A Structural Analysis Based Automatic Test Generation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠诚; 潘榆奇; 闵应骅

    1994-01-01

    A TPG system, SABATPG, is given based on a generic structural model of large circuits. Three techniques of partial implication, aftereffect of identified undetectable faults and shared sensitization with new concepts of localization and aftereffect are employed in the system to improve FAN algorithm. Experiments for the 10 ISCAS benchmark circuits show that the computing time of SABATPG for test generation is 19.42% less than that of FAN algorithm.

  2. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Birkinshaw

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river channel network in SHETRAN is described and its use in an example catchment demonstrated.

  3. Semi-automatic simulation model generation of virtual dynamic networks for production flow planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.; Olender, M.

    2016-08-01

    Computer modelling, simulation and visualization of production flow allowing to increase the efficiency of production planning process in dynamic manufacturing networks. The use of the semi-automatic model generation concept based on parametric approach supporting processes of production planning is presented. The presented approach allows the use of simulation and visualization for verification of production plans and alternative topologies of manufacturing network configurations as well as with automatic generation of a series of production flow scenarios. Computational examples with the application of Enterprise Dynamics simulation software comprising the steps of production planning and control for manufacturing network have been also presented.

  4. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Birkinshaw

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river channel network in SHETRAN is described and its use in an example catchment demonstrated.

  5. Technical Note: Automatic river network generation for a physically-based river catchment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, S. J.

    2010-09-01

    SHETRAN is a physically-based distributed modelling system that gives detailed simulations in time and space of water flow and sediment and solute transport in river catchments. Standard algorithms for the automatic generation of river channel networks from digital elevation data are impossible to apply in SHETRAN and other similar models because the river channels are assumed to run along the edges of grid cells. In this work a new algorithm for the automatic generation of a river channel network in SHETRAN is described and its use in an example catchment demonstrated.

  6. Automatic generation of fuzzy rules for the sensor-based navigation of a mobile robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Watanabe, Y.

    1994-10-01

    A system for automatic generation of fuzzy rules is proposed which is based on a new approach, called {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist,{close_quotes} and on its associated formalism for rule base development in behavior-based robot control systems. The automated generator of fuzzy rules automatically constructs the set of rules and the associated membership functions that implement reasoning schemes that have been expressed in qualitative terms. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and independence and/or redundancy of the rules to ensure that the requirements of the formalism are satisfied. Examples of the automatic generation of fuzzy rules for cases involving suppression and/or inhibition of fuzzy behaviors are given and discussed. Experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in a priori unknown environments using one of our autonomous test-bed robots are then presented and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using our proposed {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} approach.

  7. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  8. Automatic Tool Path Generation for Robot Integrated Surface Sculpturing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Saito, Yoshio

    In this paper, a surface sculpturing system based on 8-axis robot is proposed, the CAD/CAM software and tool path generation algorithm for this sculpturing system are presented. The 8-axis robot is composed of a 6-axis manipulator and a 2-axis worktable, it carves block of polystyrene foams by heated cutting tools. Multi-DOF (Degree of Freedom) robot benefits from the faster fashion than traditional RP (Rapid Prototyping) methods and more flexibility than CNC machining. With its flexibility driven from an 8-axis configuration, as well as efficient custom-developed software for rough cutting and finish cutting, this surface sculpturing system can carve sculptured surface accurately and efficiently.

  9. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  10. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Deliagina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat.In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms – spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed.

  11. Automatic, context-specific generation of Gene Ontology slims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of ontologies to control vocabulary and structure annotation has added value to genome-scale data, and contributed to the capture and re-use of knowledge across research domains. Gene Ontology (GO is widely used to capture detailed expert knowledge in genomic-scale datasets and as a consequence has grown to contain many terms, making it unwieldy for many applications. To increase its ease of manipulation and efficiency of use, subsets called GO slims are often created by collapsing terms upward into more general, high-level terms relevant to a particular context. Creation of a GO slim currently requires manipulation and editing of GO by an expert (or community familiar with both the ontology and the biological context. Decisions about which terms to include are necessarily subjective, and the creation process itself and subsequent curation are time-consuming and largely manual. Results Here we present an objective framework for generating customised ontology slims for specific annotated datasets, exploiting information latent in the structure of the ontology graph and in the annotation data. This framework combines ontology engineering approaches, and a data-driven algorithm that draws on graph and information theory. We illustrate this method by application to GO, generating GO slims at different information thresholds, characterising their depth of semantics and demonstrating the resulting gains in statistical power. Conclusions Our GO slim creation pipeline is available for use in conjunction with any GO-annotated dataset, and creates dataset-specific, objectively defined slims. This method is fast and scalable for application to other biomedical ontologies.

  12. Automatic Generation of Setup for CNC Spring Coiler Based on Case-based Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KU Xiangchen; WANG Runxiao; LI Jishun; WANG Dongbo

    2006-01-01

    When producing special-shape spring in CNC spring coiler, the setup of the coiler is often a manual work using a trial-and-error method. As a result, the setup of coiler consumes so much time and becomes the bottleneck of the spring production process. In order to cope with this situation, this paper proposes an automatic generation system of setup for CNC spring coiler using case-based reasoning (CBR). The core of the study contains: (1) integrated reasoning model of CBR system;(2) spatial shape describe of special-shape spring based on feature;(3) coiling case representation using shape feature matrix; and (4) case similarity measure algorithm. The automatic generation system has implemented with C++ Builder 6.0 and is helpful in improving the automaticity and efficiency of spring coiler.

  13. Automatic Generation of Printed Catalogs: An Initial Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Camins-Esakov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Printed catalogs are useful in a variety of contexts. In special collections, they are often used as reference tools and to commemorate exhibits. They are useful in settings, such as in developing countries, where reliable access to the Internet—or even electricity—is not available. In addition, many private collectors like to have printed catalogs of their collections. All the information needed for creating printed catalogs is readily available in the MARC bibliographic records used by most libraries, but there are no turnkey solutions available for the conversion from MARC to printed catalog. This article describes the development of a system, available on github, that uses XSLT, Perl, and LaTeX to produce press-ready PDFs from MARCXML files. The article particularly focuses on the two XSLT stylesheets which comprise the core of the system, and do the "heavy lifting" of sorting and indexing the entries in the catalog. The author also highlights points where the data stored in MARC bibliographic records requires particular "massaging," and suggests improvements for future attempts at automated printed catalog generation.

  14. Automatic Generation of Proof Tactics for Finite-Valued Logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of flexible tactic-based logical frameworks are nowadays available that can implement a wide range of mathematical theories using a common higher-order metalanguage. Used as proof assistants, one of the advantages of such powerful systems resides in their responsiveness to extensibility of their reasoning capabilities, being designed over rule-based programming languages that allow the user to build her own `programs to construct proofs' - the so-called proof tactics. The present contribution discusses the implementation of an algorithm that generates sound and complete tableau systems for a very inclusive class of sufficiently expressive finite-valued propositional logics, and then illustrates some of the challenges and difficulties related to the algorithmic formation of automated theorem proving tactics for such logics. The procedure on whose implementation we will report is based on a generalized notion of analyticity of proof systems that is intended to guarantee termination of the corresponding automated tactics on what concerns theoremhood in our targeted logics.

  15. Students' Feedback Preferences: How Do Students React to Timely and Automatically Generated Assessment Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerlein, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether or not undergraduate and postgraduate accounting students at an Australian university differentiate between timely feedback and extremely timely feedback, and whether or not the replacement of manually written formal assessment feedback with automatically generated feedback influences students' perception of…

  16. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  17. Students' Feedback Preferences: How Do Students React to Timely and Automatically Generated Assessment Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerlein, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether or not undergraduate and postgraduate accounting students at an Australian university differentiate between timely feedback and extremely timely feedback, and whether or not the replacement of manually written formal assessment feedback with automatically generated feedback influences students' perception of feedback…

  18. Accuracy assessment of building point clouds automatically generated from iphone images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmacek, B.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2014-06-01

    Low-cost sensor generated 3D models can be useful for quick 3D urban model updating, yet the quality of the models is questionable. In this article, we evaluate the reliability of an automatic point cloud generation method using multi-view iPhone images or an iPhone video file as an input. We register such automatically generated point cloud on a TLS point cloud of the same object to discuss accuracy, advantages and limitations of the iPhone generated point clouds. For the chosen example showcase, we have classified 1.23% of the iPhone point cloud points as outliers, and calculated the mean of the point to point distances to the TLS point cloud as 0.11 m. Since a TLS point cloud might also include measurement errors and noise, we computed local noise values for the point clouds from both sources. Mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) of roughness histograms are calculated as (μ1 = 0.44 m., σ1 = 0.071 m.) and (μ2 = 0.025 m., σ2 = 0.037 m.) for the iPhone and TLS point clouds respectively. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the proposed automatic 3D model generation framework for 3D urban map updating, fusion and detail enhancing, quick and real-time change detection purposes. However, further insights should be obtained first on the circumstances that are needed to guarantee a successful point cloud generation from smartphone images.

  19. Development of a system of automatic gap-adjusted electrodes for shock wave generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakas, Ioannis; Liang, Shen-Min; Wan, Long-Ray; Wang, Chia-Hui

    2004-11-01

    In this study, a system of automatic gap-adjusted electrodes is developed for electrohydraulic shock wave generators that can be used both for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (treatment of renal calculi) and for the extracorporeal shock wave therapy for musculo-skeletal disorders. This system is composed of three main components: (1) two electrodes and their bases; (2) servo motors and control software; (3) a high sensitivity CCD camera and image processing program. To verify system performance, in vitro fragmentation tests have been conducted using kidney stone phantoms. Results indicate that the efficiency of stone fragmentation using automatic gap adjustment can be increased up to 55.2%, which is twice more than without automatic gap adjustment (26.7%). This system can be applied to any commercial electrohydraulic extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor or orthotriptor without difficulty.

  20. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  1. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes i

  2. The mesh-matching algorithm: an automatic 3D mesh generator for Finite element structures

    CERN Document Server

    Couteau, B; Lavallee, S; Payan, Yohan; Lavallee, St\\'{e}phane

    2000-01-01

    Several authors have employed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for stress and strain analysis in orthopaedic biomechanics. Unfortunately, the use of three-dimensional models is time consuming and consequently the number of analysis to be performed is limited. The authors have investigated a new method allowing automatically 3D mesh generation for structures as complex as bone for example. This method called Mesh-Matching (M-M) algorithm generated automatically customized 3D meshes of bones from an already existing model. The M-M algorithm has been used to generate FE models of ten proximal human femora from an initial one which had been experimentally validated. The new meshes seemed to demonstrate satisfying results.

  3. Research on Community Competition and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Tang Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As there are many researches about traditional Tang poetry, among which automatically generated Tang poetry has arouse great concern in recent years. This study presents a community-based competition and adaptive genetic algorithm for automatically generating Tang poetry. The improved algorithm with community-based competition that has been added aims to maintain the diversity of genes during evolution; meanwhile, the adaptation means that the probabilities of crossover and mutation are varied from the fitness values of the Tang poetry to prevent premature convergence and generate better poems more quickly. According to the analysis of experimental results, it has been found that the improved algorithm is superior to the conventional method.

  4. Automatically-generated rectal dose constraints in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Soo Kon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-06-01

    The dose constraint during prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization should be patient-specific for better rectum sparing. The aims of this study are to suggest a novel method for automatically generating a patient-specific dose constraint by using an experience-based dose volume histogram (DVH) of the rectum and to evaluate the potential of such a dose constraint qualitatively. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of the rectum with respect to V %ratio in our study were divided into three groups, where V %ratio was defined as the percent ratio of the rectal volume overlapping the planning target volume (PTV) to the rectal volume: (1) the rectal NTCPs in the previous study (clinical data), (2) those statistically generated by using the standard normal distribution (calculated data), and (3) those generated by combining the calculated data and the clinical data (mixed data). In the calculated data, a random number whose mean value was on the fitted curve described in the clinical data and whose standard deviation was 1% was generated by using the `randn' function in the MATLAB program and was used. For each group, we validated whether the probability density function (PDF) of the rectal NTCP could be automatically generated with the density estimation method by using a Gaussian kernel. The results revealed that the rectal NTCP probability increased in proportion to V %ratio , that the predictive rectal NTCP was patient-specific, and that the starting point of IMRT optimization for the given patient might be different. The PDF of the rectal NTCP was obtained automatically for each group except that the smoothness of the probability distribution increased with increasing number of data and with increasing window width. We showed that during the prostate IMRT optimization, the patient-specific dose constraints could be automatically generated and that our method could reduce the IMRT optimization time as well as maintain the

  5. Puur aroma uit de machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didde, R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Togtema, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Wageningse voedingstechnologen hebben een apparaat ontwikkeld dat geurstoffen uit bijvoorbeeld fruit isoleert. Met de zeer geconcentreerde aroma's kan de voedingsindustrie nieuwe producten ontwikkelen én energie besparen

  6. Automatic WSDL-guided Test Case Generation for PropEr Testing of Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sagonas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With web services already being key ingredients of modern web systems, automatic and easy-to-use but at the same time powerful and expressive testing frameworks for web services are increasingly important. Our work aims at fully automatic testing of web services: ideally the user only specifies properties that the web service is expected to satisfy, in the form of input-output relations, and the system handles all the rest. In this paper we present in detail the component which lies at the heart of this system: how the WSDL specification of a web service is used to automatically create test case generators that can be fed to PropEr, a property-based testing tool, to create structurally valid random test cases for its operations and check its responses. Although the process is fully automatic, our tool optionally allows the user to easily modify its output to either add semantic information to the generators or write properties that test for more involved functionality of the web services.

  7. Towards automatically generating graphical user interfaces from openEHR archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Thilo; Garde, Sebastian; Heard, Sam; Beale, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the field of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is semantic interoperability. To utilise the full potential of interoperable EHR systems they have to be accepted by their users, the health care providers. Good Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that support customisation and data validation play a decisive role for user acceptance and data quality. This study investigates the use of openEHR archetypes to automatically generate coherent, customizable, data-validating GUIs. Using the Mozilla XML User Interface Language (XUL) a series of prototypes has been developed. The results show that the automatic generation of GUIs from openEHR archetypes is feasible in principle. Although XUL revealed some problems, the advantages of XML-based GUI languages are evident.

  8. Automatic finite elements mesh generation from planar contours of the brain: an image driven 'blobby' approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bucki, M; Bucki, Marek; Payan, Yohan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of automatic mesh generation for finite elements modeling of anatomical organs for which a volumetric data set is available. In the first step a set of characteristic outlines of the organ is defined manually or automatically within the volume. The outlines define the "key frames" that will guide the procedure of surface reconstruction. Then, based on this information, and along with organ surface curvature information extracted from the volume data, a 3D scalar field is generated. This field allows a 3D reconstruction of the organ: as an iso-surface model, using a marching cubes algorithm; or as a 3D mesh, using a grid "immersion" technique, the field value being used as the outside/inside test. The final reconstruction respects the various topological changes that occur within the organ, such as holes and branching elements.

  9. OntoDiagram: Automatic Diagram Generation for Congenital Heart Defects in Pediatric Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwanath, Kartik; Viswanath, Venkatesh; Drake, William; Lee, Yugyung

    2005-01-01

    In pediatric cardiology as well as many other medical specialties, the accurate portrayal of a large volume of patient information is crucial to providing good patient care. Our research aims at utilizing clinical and spatial ontologies representing the human heart, to automatically generate a Mullins-like diagram [6] based on a patient's information in the cardiology databases. Our ontology allows an intuitive way of modeling congenital defects with the structure of the hum...

  10. Automatic Generation of English-Japanese Translation Pattern Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Tamekuni, Yuji; Kimura, Shuhei

    There are a lot of constructional differences in an English-Japanese phrase template, and that often makes the act of translation difficult. Moreover, there exist various and tremendous phrase templates and sentence to be refered to. It is not easy to prepare the corpus that covers the all. Therefore, it is very significant to generate the translation pattern of the sentence pattern automatically from a viewpoint of the translation success rate and the capacity of the pattern dictionary. Then, for the purpose of realizing the automatic generation of the translation pattern, this paper proposed the new method for the generation of the translation pattern by using the genetic programming technique (GP). The technique tries to generate the translation pattern of various sentences which are not registered in the phrase template dictionary automatically by giving the genetic operation to the parsing tree of a basic pattern. The tree consists of the pair of the English-Japanese sentence generated as the first stage population. The analysis tree data base with 50,100,150,200 pairs was prepared as the first stage population. And this system was applied and executed for an English input of 1,555 sentences. As a result, the analysis tree increases from 200 to 517, and the accuracy rate of the translation pattern has improved from 42.57% to 70.10%. And, 86.71% of the generated translations was successfully done, whose meanings are enough acceptable and understandable. It seemed that this proposal technique became a clue to raise the translation success rate, and to find the possibility of the reduction of the analysis tree data base.

  11. Automatic generation of stop word lists for information retrieval and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J

    2013-01-08

    Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.

  12. Design of an Intelligent Interlocking System Based on Automatically Generated Interlocking Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Y.S. [Namseoul University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an expert system for electronic interlocking which enhances the safety, efficiency and expanability of the existing system by designing real-time interlocking control based on the interlocking table automatically generated using artificial intelligence approach. The expert system consists of two parts; an interlocking table generation part and a real-time interlocking control part. The former generates automatically the interlocking relationship of all possible routes by searching dynamically the station topology which is obtained from station database. On the other hand, the latter controls the status of station facilities in real-time by applying the generated interlocking relationship to the signal facilities such as signal devices, points, track circuits for a given route. The expert system is implemented in C language which is suitable to implement the interlocking table generation part using the dynamic memory allocation technique. Finally, the effectiveness of the expert system is proved by simulating for the typical station model. (author). 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Luning, Pieternel A; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Lakemond, Catriona M M; Bult, Johannes H F; Gort, Gerrit; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m²) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9% lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake.

  14. A Method of Generating Indoor Map Spatial Data Automatically from Architectural Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Weixin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking architectural plans as data source, we proposed a method which can automatically generate indoor map spatial data. Firstly, referring to the spatial data demands of indoor map, we analyzed the basic characteristics of architectural plans, and introduced concepts of wall segment, adjoining node and adjoining wall segment, based on which basic flow of indoor map spatial data automatic generation was further established. Then, according to the adjoining relation between wall lines at the intersection with column, we constructed a repair method for wall connectivity in relation to the column. Utilizing the method of gradual expansibility and graphic reasoning to judge wall symbol local feature type at both sides of door or window, through update the enclosing rectangle of door or window, we developed a repair method for wall connectivity in relation to the door or window and a method for transform door or window into indoor map point feature. Finally, on the basis of geometric relation between adjoining wall segment median lines, a wall center-line extraction algorithm was presented. Taking one exhibition hall's architectural plan as example, we performed experiment and results show that the proposed methods have preferable applicability to deal with various complex situations, and realized indoor map spatial data automatic extraction effectively.

  15. Evaluating the Potential of Imaging Rover for Automatic Point Cloud Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cera, V.; Campi, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a phase of an on-going interdisciplinary research concerning the medieval site of Casertavecchia (Italy). The project aims to develop a multi-technique approach for the semantic - enriched 3D modeling starting from the automatic acquisition of several data. In particular, the paper reports the results of the first stage about the Cathedral square of the medieval village. The work is focused on evaluating the potential of an imaging rover for automatic point cloud generation. Each of survey techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages so the ideal approach is an integrated methodology in order to maximize single instrument performance. The experimentation was conducted on the Cathedral square of the ancient site of Casertavecchia, in Campania, Italy.

  16. Development of ANJOYMC Program for Automatic Generation of Monte Carlo Cross Section Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Lee, Chung Chan

    2007-03-15

    The NJOY code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to generate the cross section libraries in ACE format for the Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP and McCARD by processing the evaluated nuclear data in ENDF/B format. It takes long time to prepare all the NJOY input files for hundreds of nuclides with various temperatures, and there can be some errors in the input files. In order to solve these problems, ANJOYMC program has been developed. By using a simple user input deck, this program is not only to generate all the NJOY input files automatically, but also to generate a batch file to perform all the NJOY calculations. The ANJOYMC program is written in Fortran90 and can be executed under the WINDOWS and LINUX operating systems in Personal Computer. Cross section libraries in ACE format can be generated in a short time and without an error by using a simple user input deck.

  17. Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various c

  18. Optical wide field monitor AROMA-W using multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ichiro; Tsunashima, Kosuke; Tatsuhito, Takeda; Saori, Ono; Kazutaka, Yamaoka; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-12-01

    We have developed and operated the automatic optical observation device Aoyama Gakuin University Robotic Optical Monitor for Astrophysical objects - Wide field (AROMA-W). It covers a large field of view of about 45 degrees W 30 degrees at a time by the multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras, and provides photometric data in four bands with a limiting V magnitude of about 12-13 magnitude (20 seconds, 3 sigma level). The automatic analysis pipeline which can analyze in parallel with observation has been constructed so far. It can draw the light curves of all stars in the field of view of AROMA-W. We are aiming at the simultaneous observation of the transients (e.g., X-ray nova, Supernova, GRB) that MAXI discovered by using the AROMA-W. We report the developmental status, the observational results of AROMA-W and a possibility of the simultaneous observation to the X-ray transients discovered with MAXI.

  19. Automatic Generation Control Using PI Controller with Bacterial Foraging for both Thermal and Hydro Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Hooda,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The load-frequency control (LFC is used to restore the balance between load and generation in each control area by means of speed control. In power system, the main goal of load frequency control (LFC or automatic generation control (AGC is to maintain the frequency of each area and tie- line power flow within specified tolerance by adjusting the MW outputs of LFC generators so as to accommodate fluctuating load demands. In this paper, attempt is made to make a scheme for automatic generation control within a restructured environment considering effects of contracts between DISCOs and GENCOs to make power system network in normal state where, GENCO used are hydro plants as well as thermal plants. The bacterial foraging optimization technique is being developed, which is applied to AGC in an interconnected four area system.The performance of the system is obtained by MATLAB Simulink tool. The results are shown in frequency and power response for four area AGC system. In this paper we have shown practical work by using thermal and hydro both system at Genco’s side.As reheated system transfer function is being used.

  20. Automatic Generation of Data Types for Classification of Deep Web Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngu, A H; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2005-02-14

    A Service Class Description (SCD) is an effective meta-data based approach for discovering Deep Web sources whose data exhibit some regular patterns. However, it is tedious and error prone to create an SCD description manually. Moreover, a manually created SCD is not adaptive to the frequent changes of Web sources. It requires its creator to identify all the possible input and output types of a service a priori. In many domains, it is impossible to exhaustively list all the possible input and output data types of a source in advance. In this paper, we describe machine learning approaches for automatic generation of the data types of an SCD. We propose two different approaches for learning data types of a class of Web sources. The Brute-Force Learner is able to generate data types that can achieve high recall, but with low precision. The Clustering-based Learner generates data types that have a high precision rate, but with a lower recall rate. We demonstrate the feasibility of these two learning-based solutions for automatic generation of data types for citation Web sources and presented a quantitative evaluation of these two solutions.

  1. Three-dimensional elliptic grid generation with fully automatic boundary constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2010-08-01

    A new procedure for generating smooth uniformly clustered three-dimensional structured elliptic grids is presented here which formulates three-dimensional boundary constraints by extending the two-dimensional counterpart presented by the author earlier. This fully automatic procedure obviates the need for manual specification of decay parameters over the six bounding surfaces of a given volume grid. The procedure has been demonstrated here for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) geometries such as aeroshell and canopy, as well as the Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (IAD) geometry and a 3D analytically defined geometry. The new procedure also enables generation of single-block grids for such geometries because the automatic boundary constraints permit the decay parameters to evolve as part of the solution to the elliptic grid system of equations. These decay parameters are no longer just constants, as specified in the conventional approach, but functions of generalized coordinate variables over a given bounding surface. Since these decay functions vary over a given boundary, orthogonal grids around any arbitrary simply-connected boundary can be clustered automatically without having to break up the boundaries and the corresponding interior or exterior domains into various blocks for grid generation. The new boundary constraints are not limited to the simply-connected regions only, but can also be formulated around multiply-connected and isolated regions in the interior. The proposed method is superior to other methods of grid generation such as algebraic and hyperbolic techniques in that the grids obtained here are C2 continuous, whereas simple elliptic smoothing of algebraic or hyperbolic grids to enforce C2 continuity destroys the grid clustering near the boundaries. US patent 7231329.

  2. Slow Dynamics Model of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Battery Storage Technologies for Automatic Generation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2016-05-01

    Increasing variable generation penetration and the consequent increase in short-term variability makes energy storage technologies look attractive, especially in the ancillary market for providing frequency regulation services. This paper presents slow dynamics model for compressed air energy storage and battery storage technologies that can be used in automatic generation control studies to assess the system frequency response and quantify the benefits from storage technologies in providing regulation service. The paper also represents the slow dynamics model of the power system integrated with storage technologies in a complete state space form. The storage technologies have been integrated to the IEEE 24 bus system with single area, and a comparative study of various solution strategies including transmission enhancement and combustion turbine have been performed in terms of generation cycling and frequency response performance metrics.

  3. Algorithms for the automatic generation of 2-D structured multi-block grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Thilo; Weinerfelt, Per; Jenssen, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    Two different approaches to the fully automatic generation of structured multi-block grids in two dimensions are presented. The work aims to simplify the user interactivity necessary for the definition of a multiple block grid topology. The first approach is based on an advancing front method commonly used for the generation of unstructured grids. The original algorithm has been modified toward the generation of large quadrilateral elements. The second method is based on the divide-and-conquer paradigm with the global domain recursively partitioned into sub-domains. For either method each of the resulting blocks is then meshed using transfinite interpolation and elliptic smoothing. The applicability of these methods to practical problems is demonstrated for typical geometries of fluid dynamics.

  4. Automatic test pattern generation for logic circuits using the Boolean tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong Taegwon.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an algorithm that can generate test patterns for combinational circuits and sequential logic circuits automatically. The new proposed algorithm generates a test pattern by using a special tree called a modified Boolean tree. In this algorithm, the construction of a modified Boolean tree is the most time-consuming step. Following the construction of a modified Boolean tree, a test pattern can be found by simply assigning a logic value 1 for even primary inputs and a logic value 0 for odd primary inputs of the constructed modified Boolean tree. The algorithm is applied to several benchmark circuits. The results showed the following: (1) for combinational circuits, the algorithm can generate test patterns 10-15% faster than the FAN algorithm, which is known as one of the most efficient algorithms to-date; (2) for sequential circuits, the algorithm shows more fault coverage than the nine valued algorithm.

  5. Z Specification Automatic Generator%Z规格说明自动生成器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵正旭; 温晋杰

    2016-01-01

    The formalized Z language can improve the reliability and robustness of the software via using complex mathematical theories. However, only a few people can understand these theories and compile with Z specification. At present, the main research of Z language focuses on the theoretical research. There is no corresponding tools support the automatic generation of Z specification. The research of Z specification automatic generator introduced in this article can help with the compilation of the Z specification and cut the cost of formal development. This automatic generator has great significance for the large-scale promotion of the Z language.%形式化Z语言采用严格的数学理论可以有效提高软件的可靠性和鲁棒性,但是由于其包含的数学理论使得只有少数人能够熟练应用Z语言进行形式化规格说明书的编写.目前,多数对于Z语言的研究集中在理论阶段,还没有相应的工具支持Z规格说明的自动生成.本文中对于Z规格说明自动生成器的研究有助于降低Z规格说明书的编写难度,降低了形式化开发的难度及成本,对于形式化Z语言的推广具有重要的意义.

  6. Lightning Protection Performance Assessment of Transmission Line Based on ATP model Automatic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hanwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the initial lightning breakdown current by combing ATP and MATLAB simulation software effectively, with the aims to evaluate the lightning protection performance of transmission line. Firstly, the executable ATP simulation model is generated automatically according to the required information such as power source parameters, tower parameters, overhead line parameters, grounding resistance and lightning current parameters, etc. through an interface program coded by MATLAB. Then, the data are extracted from the generated LIS files which can be obtained by executing the ATP simulation model, the occurrence of transmission lie breakdown can be determined by the relative data in LIS file. The lightning current amplitude should be reduced when the breakdown occurs, and vice the verse. Thus the initial lightning breakdown current of a transmission line with given parameters can be determined accurately by continuously changing the lightning current amplitude, which is realized by a loop computing algorithm that is coded by MATLAB software. The method proposed in this paper can generate the ATP simulation program automatically, and facilitates the lightning protection performance assessment of transmission line.

  7. An Automatic Code Generator Expert System Using Proprietary Language for Wider Business Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed System is an automatic front-end Code Generator Expert System (CGES for ensuring wider business application for the generation of GUI with a source code for Databases. Safe keeping of data for smooth transaction in business has always been a matter of concern. With the help of the proposed CGES, with economy of effort and time, a customizable database application may be produced with a simple wizard. The CGES requires a database as a pre-requisite input. Once the normalized database is featured with a diagram, the CGES shall apply techniques according to the pre-defined algorithm; the complete application with source code in various modules shall automatically produce. By selecting the CGES solutions, an N-tier application shall give rise to a product, comprising of SQL server queries, Object Oriented features and modules. The results prove on a test working principles of the system are written in MS SQL Server and on the Visual Basic.NET source code generated by CGES.

  8. Application of GA optimization for automatic generation control design in an interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golpira, H., E-mail: hemin.golpira@uok.ac.i [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golpira, H. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, PO Box 618, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} A realistic model for automatic generation control (AGC) design is proposed. {yields} The model considers GRC, Speed governor dead band, filters and time delay. {yields} The model provides an accurate model for the digital simulations. -- Abstract: This paper addresses a realistic model for automatic generation control (AGC) design in an interconnected power system. The proposed scheme considers generation rate constraint (GRC), dead band, and time delay imposed to the power system by governor-turbine, filters, thermodynamic process, and communication channels. Simplicity of structure and acceptable response of the well-known integral controller make it attractive for the power system AGC design problem. The Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to compute the decentralized control parameters to achieve an optimum operating point. A 3-control area power system is considered as a test system, and the closed-loop performance is examined in the presence of various constraints scenarios. It is shown that neglecting above physical constraints simultaneously or in part, leads to impractical and invalid results and may affect the system security, reliability and integrity. Taking to account the advantages of GA besides considering a more complete dynamic model provides a flexible and more realistic AGC system in comparison of existing conventional schemes.

  9. Automatic Data Extraction from Websites for Generating Aquatic Product Market Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-chun; CHEN Ying; SUN Yue-fu

    2006-01-01

    The massive web-based information resources have led to an increasing demand for effective automatic retrieval of target information for web applications. This paper introduces a web-based data extraction tool that deploys various algorithms to locate, extract and filter tabular data from HTML pages and to transform them into new web-based representations. The tool has been applied in an aquaculture web application platform for extracting and generating aquatic product market information.Results prove that this tool is very effective in extracting the required data from web pages.

  10. LanHEP - a package for automatic generation of Feynman rules in gauge models

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A Yu

    1996-01-01

    We consider the general problem of derivation of the Feynman rules for the matrix elements in momentum representation from the given Lagrangian in coordinate space invariant under the transformation of some gauge group. LanHEP package presented in this paper allows to define in a convenient way the gauge model Lagrangian in canonical form and then to generate automatically the Feynman rules that can be used in the following calculation of the physical processes by means of CompHEP package. The detailed description of LanHEP commands is given and several examples of LanHEP applications (QED, QCD, Standard Model in the t'Hooft-Feynman gauge) are presented.

  11. Automatic Seamline Network Generation for Urban Orthophoto Mosaicking with the Use of a Digital Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent seamline selection for image mosaicking is an area of active research in the fields of massive data processing, computer vision, photogrammetry and remote sensing. In mosaicking applications for digital orthophoto maps (DOMs, the visual transition in mosaics is mainly caused by differences in positioning accuracy, image tone and relief displacement of high ground objects between overlapping DOMs. Among these three factors, relief displacement, which prevents the seamless mosaicking of images, is relatively more difficult to address. To minimize visual discontinuities, many optimization algorithms have been studied for the automatic selection of seamlines to avoid high ground objects. Thus, a new automatic seamline selection algorithm using a digital surface model (DSM is proposed. The main idea of this algorithm is to guide a seamline toward a low area on the basis of the elevation information in a DSM. Given that the elevation of a DSM is not completely synchronous with a DOM, a new model, called the orthoimage elevation synchronous model (OESM, is derived and introduced. OESM can accurately reflect the elevation information for each DOM unit. Through the morphological processing of the OESM data in the overlapping area, an initial path network is obtained for seamline selection. Subsequently, a cost function is defined on the basis of several measurements, and Dijkstra’s algorithm is adopted to determine the least-cost path from the initial network. Finally, the proposed algorithm is employed for automatic seamline network construction; the effective mosaic polygon of each image is determined, and a seamless mosaic is generated. The experiments with three different datasets indicate that the proposed method meets the requirements for seamline network construction. In comparative trials, the generated seamlines pass through fewer ground objects with low time consumption.

  12. Automatic Generation Control in Multi Area Interconnected Power System by using HVDC Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of HVDC link in parallel with HVAC link on automatic generation control (AGC problem for a multi-area power system taking into consideration system parameter variations. A fuzzy logic controller is proposed for four area power system interconnected via parallel HVAC/HVDC transmission link which is also referred as asynchronous tie-lines. The linear model of HVAC/HVDC link is developed and the system responses to sudden load change are studied. The simulation studies are carried out for a four area interconnected thermal power system. Suitable solution for automatic generation control problem of four area electrical power system is obtained by means of improving the dynamic performance of power system under study. Robustness of controller is also checked by varying parameters. Simulation results indicate that the scheme works well. The dynamic analyses have been done with and without HVDC link using fuzzy logic controller in Matlab-Simulink. Further a comparison between the two is presented and it has been shown that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior in terms of overshoot and settling time.

  13. Automatic Generation of the Axial Lines of Urban Environments to Capture What We Perceive

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concepts of isovists and medial axes, we developed a set of algorithms that can automatically generate the axial lines for representing individual linearly stretched parts of open space of an urban environment. Open space is the space between buildings, where people can freely move around. The generation of the axial lines has been a key aspect of space syntax research, conventionally relying on hand-drawn axial lines of an urban environment, often called the axial map, for urban morphological analysis. Although various attempts have been made towards an automatic solution, few of them can produce the axial map that is identical to the hand-drawn one, and none of them really works for different urban environments. Our algorithms are proved to provide a better solution than existing ones. Throughout this paper, we have also argued and demonstrated that the axial lines constitute a true skeleton, superior to the medial axes, in capturing what we perceive about the urban environment. Keywords: Visib...

  14. Automatic code generation in SPARK: Applications of computer algebra and compiler-compilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-09-01

    We show how computer algebra and compiler-compilers are used for automatic code generation in the Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), an object oriented environment for modeling complex physical systems that can be described by differential-algebraic equations. After a brief overview of SPARK, we describe the use of computer algebra in SPARK`s symbolic interface, which generates solution code for equations that are entered in symbolic form. We also describe how the Lex/Yacc compiler-compiler is used to achieve important extensions to the SPARK simulation language, including parametrized macro objects and steady-state resetting of a dynamic simulation. The application of these methods to solving the partial differential equations for two-dimensional heat flow is illustrated.

  15. Automatic code generation in SPARK: Applications of computer algebra and compiler-compilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-09-01

    We show how computer algebra and compiler-compilers are used for automatic code generation in the Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), an object oriented environment for modeling complex physical systems that can be described by differential-algebraic equations. After a brief overview of SPARK, we describe the use of computer algebra in SPARK's symbolic interface, which generates solution code for equations that are entered in symbolic form. We also describe how the Lex/Yacc compiler-compiler is used to achieve important extensions to the SPARK simulation language, including parametrized macro objects and steady-state resetting of a dynamic simulation. The application of these methods to solving the partial differential equations for two-dimensional heat flow is illustrated.

  16. Semi-automatic identification photo generation with facial pose and illumination normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Sijiang; Wu, Song

    2016-07-01

    Identification photo is a category of facial image that has strict requirements on image quality like size, illumination, user expression, dressing, etc. Traditionally, these photos are taken in professional studios. With the rapid popularity of mobile devices, how to conveniently take identification photo at any time and anywhere with such devices is an interesting problem. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-automatic identification photo generation approach. Given a user image, facial pose and expression are first normalized to meet the basic requirements. To correct uneven lighting condition in photo, an facial illumination normalization approach is adopted to further improve the image quality. Finally, foreground user is extracted and re-targeted to a specific photo size. Besides, background can also be changed as required. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and effective in identification photo generation compared to commercial software based manual tunning.

  17. The application of ANN technique to automatic generation control for multi-area power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynelgil, H.L.; Demiroren, A.; Sengor, N.S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Maslak (Turkey). Electrical and Electronic Faculty

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an application of layered artificial neural network controller (ANN) to study automatic generation control (AGC) problem in a four-area interconnected power system that three areas include steam turbines and the other area includes a hydro turbine. Each area of steam turbine in the system contains the reheat effect non-linearity of the steam turbine and the area of hydro turbine contains upper and lower constraints for generation rate. Only one ANN controller, which controls the inputs of each area in the power system together, is considered. In the study, back propagation-through-time algorithm is used as ANN learning rule. By comparing the results for both cases, the performance of ANN controller is better than conventional controllers. (author)

  18. Program Code Generator for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulation with Automatic PDE Boundary Condition Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzalan, Florencio Rusty; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi; Amano, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies involving human hearts can have certain limitations. Methods such as computer simulations can be an important alternative or supplemental tool. Physiological simulation at the tissue or organ level typically involves the handling of partial differential equations (PDEs). Boundary conditions and distributed parameters, such as those used in pharmacokinetics simulation, add to the complexity of the PDE solution. These factors can tailor PDE solutions and their corresponding program code to specific problems. Boundary condition and parameter changes in the customized code are usually prone to errors and time-consuming. We propose a general approach for handling PDEs and boundary conditions in computational models using a replacement scheme for discretization. This study is an extension of a program generator that we introduced in a previous publication. The program generator can generate code for multi-cell simulations of cardiac electrophysiology. Improvements to the system allow it to handle simultaneous equations in the biological function model as well as implicit PDE numerical schemes. The replacement scheme involves substituting all partial differential terms with numerical solution equations. Once the model and boundary equations are discretized with the numerical solution scheme, instances of the equations are generated to undergo dependency analysis. The result of the dependency analysis is then used to generate the program code. The resulting program code are in Java or C programming language. To validate the automatic handling of boundary conditions in the program code generator, we generated simulation code using the FHN, Luo-Rudy 1, and Hund-Rudy cell models and run cell-to-cell coupling and action potential propagation simulations. One of the simulations is based on a published experiment and simulation results are compared with the experimental data. We conclude that the proposed program code generator can be used to

  19. Program Code Generator for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulation with Automatic PDE Boundary Condition Handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Rusty Punzalan

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental studies involving human hearts can have certain limitations. Methods such as computer simulations can be an important alternative or supplemental tool. Physiological simulation at the tissue or organ level typically involves the handling of partial differential equations (PDEs. Boundary conditions and distributed parameters, such as those used in pharmacokinetics simulation, add to the complexity of the PDE solution. These factors can tailor PDE solutions and their corresponding program code to specific problems. Boundary condition and parameter changes in the customized code are usually prone to errors and time-consuming. We propose a general approach for handling PDEs and boundary conditions in computational models using a replacement scheme for discretization. This study is an extension of a program generator that we introduced in a previous publication. The program generator can generate code for multi-cell simulations of cardiac electrophysiology. Improvements to the system allow it to handle simultaneous equations in the biological function model as well as implicit PDE numerical schemes. The replacement scheme involves substituting all partial differential terms with numerical solution equations. Once the model and boundary equations are discretized with the numerical solution scheme, instances of the equations are generated to undergo dependency analysis. The result of the dependency analysis is then used to generate the program code. The resulting program code are in Java or C programming language. To validate the automatic handling of boundary conditions in the program code generator, we generated simulation code using the FHN, Luo-Rudy 1, and Hund-Rudy cell models and run cell-to-cell coupling and action potential propagation simulations. One of the simulations is based on a published experiment and simulation results are compared with the experimental data. We conclude that the proposed program code

  20. Automatic Control Systems (ACS for Generation and Sale of Electric Power Under Conditions of Industry-Sector Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Petrusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible risks pertaining to transition of electric-power industry to market relations have been considered in the paper. The paper presents an integrated ACS for generation and sale of electric power as an improvement of methodology for organizational and technical management. The given system is based on integration of operating Automatic Dispatch Control System (ADCS and developing Automatic Electricity Meter Reading System (AEMRS. The paper proposes to form an inter-branch sector of ACS PLC (Automatic Control System for Prolongation of Life Cycle users which is oriented on provision of development strategy.

  1. Automatic evaluation and data generation for analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, laboratory activities are costly in terms of time, space, and money. As such, the ability to provide realistically simulated laboratory data that enables students to practice data analysis techniques as a complementary activity would be expected to reduce these costs while opening up very interesting possibilities. In the present work, a novel methodology is presented for design of analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises that can be automatically personalized for each student and the results evaluated immediately. The proposed system provides each student with a different set of experimental data generated randomly while satisfying a set of constraints, rather than using data obtained from actual laboratory work. This allows the instructor to provide students with a set of practical problems to complement their regular laboratory work along with the corresponding feedback provided by the system's automatic evaluation process. To this end, the Goodle Grading Management System (GMS, an innovative web-based educational tool for automating the collection and assessment of practical exercises for engineering and scientific courses, was developed. The proposed methodology takes full advantage of the Goodle GMS fusion code architecture. The design of a particular exercise is provided ad hoc by the instructor and requires basic Matlab knowledge. The system has been employed with satisfactory results in several university courses. To demonstrate the automatic evaluation process, three exercises are presented in detail. The first exercise involves a linear regression analysis of data and the calculation of the quality parameters of an instrumental analysis method. The second and third exercises address two different comparison tests, a comparison test of the mean and a t-paired test.

  2. Partial purification and characterisation of the peptide precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jürgen; Janek, Katharina; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Essential precursors of the cocoa-specific aroma notes are formed during fermentation of the cocoa beans by acid-induced proteolysis. It has been shown that, in addition to free amino acids, hydrophilic peptides derived from the vicilin-class(7S) globular storage protein are required for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma notes during the roasting process. To identify those peptides responsible for the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma components, we have developed a procedure for the fractionation of the aroma precursor extract from well-fermented cocoa beans by ligand-exchange and subsequent Sephadex-LH20 chromatography. The cocoa-specific aroma precursor fractions were characterised by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and the determination of their amino acid sequences by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

  3. Automatic generation of 3D motifs for classification of protein binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzyk Pawel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since many of the new protein structures delivered by high-throughput processes do not have any known function, there is a need for structure-based prediction of protein function. Protein 3D structures can be clustered according to their fold or secondary structures to produce classes of some functional significance. A recent alternative has been to detect specific 3D motifs which are often associated to active sites. Unfortunately, there are very few known 3D motifs, which are usually the result of a manual process, compared to the number of sequential motifs already known. In this paper, we report a method to automatically generate 3D motifs of protein structure binding sites based on consensus atom positions and evaluate it on a set of adenine based ligands. Results Our new approach was validated by generating automatically 3D patterns for the main adenine based ligands, i.e. AMP, ADP and ATP. Out of the 18 detected patterns, only one, the ADP4 pattern, is not associated with well defined structural patterns. Moreover, most of the patterns could be classified as binding site 3D motifs. Literature research revealed that the ADP4 pattern actually corresponds to structural features which show complex evolutionary links between ligases and transferases. Therefore, all of the generated patterns prove to be meaningful. Each pattern was used to query all PDB proteins which bind either purine based or guanine based ligands, in order to evaluate the classification and annotation properties of the pattern. Overall, our 3D patterns matched 31% of proteins with adenine based ligands and 95.5% of them were classified correctly. Conclusion A new metric has been introduced allowing the classification of proteins according to the similarity of atomic environment of binding sites, and a methodology has been developed to automatically produce 3D patterns from that classification. A study of proteins binding adenine based ligands showed that

  4. Differential evolution algorithm based automatic generation control for interconnected power systems with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaja Mohanty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and performance analysis of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm based Proportional–Integral (PI and Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID controllers for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of an interconnected power system. Initially, a two area thermal system with governor dead-band nonlinearity is considered for the design and analysis purpose. In the proposed approach, the design problem is formulated as an optimization problem control and DE is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. Three different objective functions are used for the design purpose. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with a recently published Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO technique for the same interconnected power system. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of DE optimized PI controller is better than CPSO optimized PI controllers. Additionally, controller parameters are tuned at different loading conditions so that an adaptive gain scheduling control strategy can be employed. The study is further extended to a more realistic network of two-area six unit system with different power generating units such as thermal, hydro, wind and diesel generating units considering boiler dynamics for thermal plants, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity.

  5. Automatic Generation of combination of Values for Functional Testing Using Metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arloys Macias Rojas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several authors agree with the importance of the tests like element of quality control of the software and in the impossibility of their realization of exhaustive way. This opinion defends that, the necessary quan-tity of stages and test values to achieve the maximum coverage is too big, what converts the test-case design, and in particular the generation of its values, in a combinatorial problem. That´s why, in many instances, in front of the impossibility of covering all the stages, testers leave out of the design some inter-esting values, which can discover inconsistencies with the specified requirements.This work presents a proposal for the automatic generation of values of functional test cases, by means of the use of meta-heu-ristic algorithms and maximizing the coverage of the stages. Furthermore, the algorithms implemented for the generation of initial values and for the generation of combinations are detailed. Additionally a set of good practices to use the component and the comparison of the obtained results with other existing solutions are described.

  6. Automatic Generation of the Planning Tunnel High Speed Craft Hull Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Ghassabzadeh; Hassan Ghassemi

    2012-01-01

    The creation of geometric model of a ship to determine the characteristics of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic,and also for structural design and equipments arrangement are so important in the ship design process.Planning tunnel high speed craft is one of the crafts in which,achievement to their top speed is more important.These crafts with the use of tunnel have the aero-hydrodynamics properties to diminish the resistance,good sea-keeping behavior,reduce slamming and avoid porpoising.Because of the existence of the tunnel,the hull form generation of these crafts is more complex and difficult.In this paper,it has attempted to provide a method based on geometry creation guidelines and with an entry of the least control and hull form adjustment parameters,to generate automatically the hull form of planning tunnel craft.At first,the equations of mathematical model are described and subsequent,three different models generated based on present method are compared and analyzed.Obviously,the generated model has more application in the early stages of design.

  7. Automatic Generation of 3D Caricatures Based on Artistic Deformation Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lyndsey; Chen, Min; Mora, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    Caricatures are a form of humorous visual art, usually created by skilled artists for the intention of amusement and entertainment. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic generation of digital caricatures from facial photographs, which capture artistic deformation styles from hand-drawn caricatures. We introduced a pseudo stress-strain model to encode the parameters of an artistic deformation style using "virtual" physical and material properties. We have also developed a software system for performing the caricaturistic deformation in 3D which eliminates the undesirable artifacts in 2D caricaturization. We employed a Multilevel Free-Form Deformation (MFFD) technique to optimize a 3D head model reconstructed from an input facial photograph, and for controlling the caricaturistic deformation. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach, which allows ordinary users to apply the captured and stored deformation styles to a variety of facial photographs.

  8. Automatic Generation of Building Models with Levels of Detail 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguatem, W.; Drauschke, M.; Mayer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a workflow for the automatic generation of building models with levels of detail (LOD) 1 to 3 according to the CityGML standard (Gröger et al., 2012). We start with orienting unsorted image sets employing (Mayer et al., 2012), we compute depth maps using semi-global matching (SGM) (Hirschmüller, 2008), and fuse these depth maps to reconstruct dense 3D point clouds (Kuhn et al., 2014). Based on planes segmented from these point clouds, we have developed a stochastic method for roof model selection (Nguatem et al., 2013) and window model selection (Nguatem et al., 2014). We demonstrate our workflow up to the export into CityGML.

  9. A new PID controller design for automatic generation control of hydro power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshian, A.; Hooshmand, R. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a new robust PID controller for automatic generation control (AGC) of hydro turbine power systems. The method is mainly based on a maximum peak resonance specification that is graphically supported by the Nichols chart. The open-loop frequency response curve is tangent to a specified ellipse and this makes the method to be efficient for controlling the overshoot, the stability and the dynamics of the system. Comparative results of this new load frequency controller with a conventional PI one and also with another PID controller design tested on a multimachine power system show the improvement in system damping remarkably. The region of acceptable performance of the new PID controller covers a wide range of operating and system conditions. (author)

  10. Automatic Optimizer Generation Method Based on Location and Context Information to Improve Mobile Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsik Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several location-based services (LBSs have been recently developed for smartphones. Among these are proactive LBSs, which provide services to smartphone users by periodically collecting background logs. However, because they consume considerable battery power, they are not widely used for various LBS-based services. Battery consumption, in particular, is a significant issue on account of the characteristics of mobile systems. This problem involves a greater service restriction when performing complex operations. Therefore, to successfully enable various services based on location, this problem must be solved. In this paper, we introduce a technique to automatically generate a customized service optimizer for each application, service type, and platform using location and situation information. By using the proposed technique, energy and computing resources can be more efficiently employed for each service. Thus, users should receive more effective LBSs on mobile devices, such as smartphones.

  11. A Development Process for Enterprise Information Systems Based on Automatic Generation of the Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ALEXANDRESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains some ideas concerning the Enterprise Information Systems (EIS development. It combines known elements from the software engineering domain, with original elements, which the author has conceived and experimented. The author has followed two major objectives: to use a simple description for the concepts of an EIS, and to achieve a rapid and reliable EIS development process with minimal cost. The first goal was achieved defining some models, which describes the conceptual elements of the EIS domain: entities, events, actions, states and attribute-domain. The second goal is based on a predefined architectural model for the EIS, on predefined analyze and design models for the elements of the domain and finally on the automatic generation of the system components. The proposed methods do not depend on a special programming language or a data base management system. They are general and may be applied to any combination of such technologies.

  12. HELAC-Onia: an automatic matrix element generator for heavy quarkonium physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    By the virtues of the Dyson-Schwinger equations, we upgrade the published code \\mtt{HELAC} to be capable to calculate the heavy quarkonium helicity amplitudes in the framework of NRQCD factorization, which we dub \\mtt{HELAC-Onia}. We rewrote the original \\mtt{HELAC} to make the new program be able to calculate helicity amplitudes of multi P-wave quarkonium states production at hadron colliders and electron-positron colliders by including new P-wave off-shell currents. Therefore, besides the high efficiencies in computation of multi-leg processes within the Standard Model, \\mtt{HELAC-Onia} is also sufficiently numerical stable in dealing with P-wave quarkonia (e.g. $h_{c,b},\\chi_{c,b}$) and P-wave color-octet intermediate states. To the best of our knowledge, it is a first general-purpose automatic quarkonium matrix elements generator based on recursion relations on the market.

  13. Decentralized automatic generation control of interconnected power systems incorporating asynchronous tie-lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem; Hasan, Naimul; Hussein, Arkan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This Paper presents the design of decentralized automatic generation controller for an interconnected power system using PID, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The designed controllers are tested on identical two-area interconnected power systems consisting of thermal power plants. The area interconnections between two areas are considered as (i) AC tie-line only (ii) Asynchronous tie-line. The dynamic response analysis is carried out for 1% load perturbation. The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with the conventional PID controller. The investigations of the system dynamic responses reveal that PSO has the better dynamic response result as compared with PID and GA controller for both type of area interconnection.

  14. Automatic Generation of OpenMP Directives and Its Application to Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry; Jin, Haoqiang; Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The shared-memory programming model is a very effective way to achieve parallelism on shared memory parallel computers. As great progress was made in hardware and software technologies, performance of parallel programs with compiler directives has demonstrated large improvement. The introduction of OpenMP directives, the industrial standard for shared-memory programming, has minimized the issue of portability. In this study, we have extended CAPTools, a computer-aided parallelization toolkit, to automatically generate OpenMP-based parallel programs with nominal user assistance. We outline techniques used in the implementation of the tool and discuss the application of this tool on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and several computational fluid dynamics codes. This work demonstrates the great potential of using the tool to quickly port parallel programs and also achieve good performance that exceeds some of the commercial tools.

  15. Automatic Motion Generation for Robotic Milling Optimizing Stiffness with Sample-Based Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ricardo Diaz Posada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal and intuitive robotic machining is still a challenge. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of robot stiffness, which is also dependent on the robot positioning in the Cartesian space. To make up for this deficiency and with the aim of increasing robot machining accuracy, this contribution describes a solution approach for optimizing the stiffness over a desired milling path using the free degree of freedom of the machining process. The optimal motion is computed based on the semantic and mathematical interpretation of the manufacturing process modeled on its components: product, process and resource; and by configuring automatically a sample-based motion problem and the transition-based rapid-random tree algorithm for computing an optimal motion. The approach is simulated on a CAM software for a machining path revealing its functionality and outlining future potentials for the optimal motion generation for robotic machining processes.

  16. A QUANTIFIER-ELIMINATION BASED HEURISTIC FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING INDUCTIVE ASSERTIONS FOR PROGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak KAPUR

    2006-01-01

    A method using quantifier-elimination is proposed for automatically generating program invariants/inductive assertions. Given a program, inductive assertions, hypothesized as parameterized formulas in a theory, are associated with program locations. Parameters in inductive assertions are discovered by generating constraints on parameters by ensuring that an inductive assertion is indeed preserved by all execution paths leading to the associated location of the program. The method can be used to discover loop invariants-properties of variables that remain invariant at the entry of a loop. The parameterized formula can be successively refined by considering execution paths one by one; heuristics can be developed for determining the order in which the paths are considered. Initialization of program variables as well as the precondition and postcondition, if available, can also be used to further refine the hypothesized invariant. The method does not depend on the availability of the precondition and postcondition of a program. Constraints on parameters generated in this way are solved for possible values of parameters. If no solution is possible, this means that an invariant of the hypothesized form is not likely to exist for the loop under the assumptions/approximations made to generate the associated verification condition. Otherwise, if the parametric constraints are solvable, then under certain conditions on methods for generating these constraints, the strongest possible invariant of the hypothesized form can be generated from most general solutions of the parametric constraints. The approach is illustrated using the logical languages of conjunction of polynomial equations as well as Presburger arithmetic for expressing assertions.

  17. Automatic generation of endocardial surface meshes with 1-to-1 correspondence from cine-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Teo, S.-K.; Lim, C. W.; Zhong, L.; Tan, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we develop an automatic method to generate a set of 4D 1-to-1 corresponding surface meshes of the left ventricle (LV) endocardial surface which are motion registered over the whole cardiac cycle. These 4D meshes have 1- to-1 point correspondence over the entire set, and is suitable for advanced computational processing, such as shape analysis, motion analysis and finite element modelling. The inputs to the method are the set of 3D LV endocardial surface meshes of the different frames/phases of the cardiac cycle. Each of these meshes is reconstructed independently from border-delineated MR images and they have no correspondence in terms of number of vertices/points and mesh connectivity. To generate point correspondence, the first frame of the LV mesh model is used as a template to be matched to the shape of the meshes in the subsequent phases. There are two stages in the mesh correspondence process: (1) a coarse matching phase, and (2) a fine matching phase. In the coarse matching phase, an initial rough matching between the template and the target is achieved using a radial basis function (RBF) morphing process. The feature points on the template and target meshes are automatically identified using a 16-segment nomenclature of the LV. In the fine matching phase, a progressive mesh projection process is used to conform the rough estimate to fit the exact shape of the target. In addition, an optimization-based smoothing process is used to achieve superior mesh quality and continuous point motion.

  18. A generative statistical approach to automatic 3D building roof reconstruction from laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Brenner, Claus; Sester, Monika

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a generative statistical approach to automatic 3D building roof reconstruction from airborne laser scanning point clouds. In previous works, bottom-up methods, e.g., points clustering, plane detection, and contour extraction, are widely used. Due to the data artefacts caused by tree clutter, reflection from windows, water features, etc., the bottom-up reconstruction in urban areas may suffer from a number of incomplete or irregular roof parts. Manually given geometric constraints are usually needed to ensure plausible results. In this work we propose an automatic process with emphasis on top-down approaches. The input point cloud is firstly pre-segmented into subzones containing a limited number of buildings to reduce the computational complexity for large urban scenes. For the building extraction and reconstruction in the subzones we propose a pure top-down statistical scheme, in which the bottom-up efforts or additional data like building footprints are no more required. Based on a predefined primitive library we conduct a generative modeling to reconstruct roof models that fit the data. Primitives are assembled into an entire roof with given rules of combination and merging. Overlaps of primitives are allowed in the assembly. The selection of roof primitives, as well as the sampling of their parameters, is driven by a variant of Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique with specified jump mechanism. Experiments are performed on data-sets of different building types (from simple houses, high-rise buildings to combined building groups) and resolutions. The results show robustness despite the data artefacts mentioned above and plausibility in reconstruction.

  19. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in beef extract using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yukiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Hirai, Sachi; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-05-01

    Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of an ether extract prepared from beef extract (BE) and subsequent identification experiments led to the determination of seven aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 32-128. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the seven aroma compounds suggested that 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of BE. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of the four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted BE showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombination mixture and BE showed a high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been identified successfully.

  1. Development of an Immersive Environment to Aid in Automatic Mesh Generation LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlakos, Constantine J.

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of immersive technologies, such as those used in synthetic environments (commordy referred to as virtual realily, or VR), in enhancing the mesh- generation process for 3-dimensional (3D) engineering models. This work was motivated by the fact that automatic mesh generation systems are still imperfect - meshing algorithms, particularly in 3D, are sometimes unable to construct a mesh to completion, or they may produce anomalies or undesirable complexities in the resulting mesh. It is important that analysts and meshing code developers be able to study their meshes effectively in order to understand the topology and qualily of their meshes. We have implemented prototype capabilities that enable such exploration of meshes in a highly visual and intuitive manner. Since many applications are making use of increasingly large meshes, we have also investigated approaches to handle large meshes while maintaining interactive response. Ideally, it would also be possible to interact with the meshing process, allowing interactive feedback which corrects problems and/or somehow enables proper completion of the meshing process. We have implemented some functionality towards this end -- in doing so, we have explored software architectures that support such an interactive meshing process. This work has incorporated existing technologies developed at SandiaNational Laboratories, including the CUBIT mesh generation system, and the EIGEN/VR (previously known as MUSE) and FLIGHT systems, which allow applications to make use of immersive technologies and advanced human computer interfaces. 1

  2. Automatic generation of large ensembles for air quality forecasting using the Polyphemus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Garaud

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method to automatically generate a large ensemble of air quality simulations. This is achieved using the Polyphemus system, which is flexible enough to build various different models. The system offers a wide range of options in the construction of a model: many physical parameterizations, several numerical schemes and different input data can be combined. In addition, input data can be perturbed. In this paper, some 30 alternatives are available for the generation of a model. For each alternative, the options are given a probability, based on how reliable they are supposed to be. Each model of the ensemble is defined by randomly selecting one option per alternative. In order to decrease the computational load, as many computations as possible are shared by the models of the ensemble. As an example, an ensemble of 101 photochemical models is generated and run for the year 2001 over Europe. The models' performance is quickly reviewed, and the ensemble structure is analyzed. We found a strong diversity in the results of the models and a wide spread of the ensemble. It is noteworthy that many models turn out to be the best model in some regions and some dates.

  3. Tra-la-Lyrics 2.0: Automatic Generation of Song Lyrics on a Semantic Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalo Oliveira, Hugo

    2015-12-01

    Tra-la-Lyrics is a system that generates song lyrics automatically. In its original version, the main focus was to produce text where stresses matched the rhythm of given melodies. There were no concerns on whether the text made sense or if the selected words shared some kind of semantic association. In this article, we describe the development of a new version of Tra-la-Lyrics, where text is generated on a semantic domain, defined by one or more seed words. This effort involved the integration of the original rhythm module of Tra-la-Lyrics in PoeTryMe, a generic platform that generates poetry with semantically coherent sentences. To measure our progress, the rhythm, the rhymes, and the semantic coherence in lyrics produced by the original Tra-la-Lyrics were analysed and compared with lyrics produced by the new instantiation of this system, dubbed Tra-la-Lyrics 2.0. The analysis showed that, in the lyrics by the new system, words have higher semantic association among them and with the given seeds, while the rhythm is still matched and rhymes are present. The previous analysis was complemented with a crowdsourced evaluation, where contributors answered a survey about relevant features of lyrics produced by the previous and the current versions of Tra-la-Lyrics. Though tight, the survey results confirmed the improvements of the lyrics by Tra-la-Lyrics 2.0.

  4. Atlas-Based Automatic Generation of Subject-Specific Finite Element Tongue Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Generation of subject-specific 3D finite element (FE) models requires the processing of numerous medical images in order to precisely extract geometrical information about subject-specific anatomy. This processing remains extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, we present an automatic atlas-based method that generates subject-specific FE meshes via a 3D registration guided by Magnetic Resonance images. The method extracts a 3D transformation by registering the atlas' volume image to the subject's one, and establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the two volumes. The 3D transformation field deforms the atlas' mesh to generate the subject-specific FE mesh. To preserve the quality of the subject-specific mesh, a diffeomorphic non-rigid registration based on B-spline free-form deformations is used, which guarantees a non-folding and one-to-one transformation. Two evaluations of the method are provided. First, a publicly available CT-database is used to assess the capability to accurately capture the complexity of each subject-specific Lung's geometry. Second, FE tongue meshes are generated for two healthy volunteers and two patients suffering from tongue cancer using MR images. It is shown that the method generates an appropriate representation of the subject-specific geometry while preserving the quality of the FE meshes for subsequent FE analysis. To demonstrate the importance of our method in a clinical context, a subject-specific mesh is used to simulate tongue's biomechanical response to the activation of an important tongue muscle, before and after cancer surgery.

  5. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  6. Solution to automatic generation control problem using firefly algorithm optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul

    2014-03-01

    Present work focused on automatic generation control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate generation rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(λ)D(µ) controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (λ) and differentiator (μ) of I(λ)D(µ) controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller gains, λ, μ, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller is also tested against system parameter variations.

  7. A Simulink Library of cryogenic components to automatically generate control schemes for large Cryorefrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Hoa, Christine; Bonnay, Patrick; Bon-Mardion, Michel; Monteiro, Lionel

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we present a new Simulink library of cryogenics components (such as valve, phase separator, mixer, heat exchanger...) to assemble to generate model-based control schemes. Every component is described by its algebraic or differential equation and can be assembled with others to build the dynamical model of a complete refrigerator or the model of a subpart of it. The obtained model can be used to automatically design advanced model based control scheme. It also can be used to design a model based PI controller. Advanced control schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT- 60SA). The paper gives the example of the generation of the dynamical model of the 400W@1.8K refrigerator and shows how to build a Constrained Model Predictive Control for it. Based on the scheme, experimental results will be given. This work is being supported by the French national research agency (ANR) through the ANR-13-SEED-0005 CRYOGREEN program.

  8. A review of metaphase chromosome image selection techniques for automatic karyotype generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Tanvi; Dhir, Renu

    2016-08-01

    The karyotype is analyzed to detect the genetic abnormalities. It is generated by arranging the chromosomes after extracting them from the metaphase chromosome images. The chromosomes are non-rigid bodies that contain the genetic information of an individual. The metaphase chromosome image spread contains the chromosomes, but these chromosomes are not distinct bodies; they can either be individual chromosomes or be touching one another; they may be bent or even may be overlapping and thus forming a cluster of chromosomes. The extraction of chromosomes from these touching and overlapping chromosomes is a very tedious process. The segmentation of a random metaphase chromosome image may not give us correct and accurate results. Therefore, before taking up a metaphase chromosome image for analysis, it must be analyzed for the orientation of the chromosomes it contains. The various reported methods for metaphase chromosome image selection for automatic karyotype generation are compared in this paper. After analysis, it has been concluded that each metaphase chromosome image selection method has its advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Automatic Generation of Optimized and Synthesizable Hardware Implementation from High-Level Dataflow Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Jerbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the Reconfigurable Video Coding (RVC standard based on the idea that video processing algorithms can be defined as a library of components that can be updated and standardized separately. MPEG RVC framework aims at providing a unified high-level specification of current MPEG coding technologies using a dataflow language called Cal Actor Language (CAL. CAL is associated with a set of tools to design dataflow applications and to generate hardware and software implementations. Before this work, the existing CAL hardware compilers did not support high-level features of the CAL. After presenting the main notions of the RVC standard, this paper introduces an automatic transformation process that analyses the non-compliant features and makes the required changes in the intermediate representation of the compiler while keeping the same behavior. Finally, the implementation results of the transformation on video and still image decoders are summarized. We show that the obtained results can largely satisfy the real time constraints for an embedded design on FPGA as we obtain a throughput of 73 FPS for MPEG 4 decoder and 34 FPS for coding and decoding process of the LAR coder using a video of CIF image size. This work resolves the main limitation of hardware generation from CAL designs.

  10. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures.

  11. Automatic Generation of Algorithms for the Statistical Analysis of Planetary Nebulae Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing data sets collected in experiments or by observations is a Core scientific activity. Typically, experimentd and observational data are &aught with uncertainty, and the analysis is based on a statistical model of the conjectured underlying processes, The large data volumes collected by modern instruments make computer support indispensible for this. Consequently, scientists spend significant amounts of their time with the development and refinement of the data analysis programs. AutoBayes [GF+02, FS03] is a fully automatic synthesis system for generating statistical data analysis programs. Externally, it looks like a compiler: it takes an abstract problem specification and translates it into executable code. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model as shown in Figure 1; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code which can be linked dynamically into the Matlab and Octave environments. Internally, however, it is quite different: AutoBayes derives a customized algorithm implementing the given model using a schema-based process, and then further refines and optimizes the algorithm into code. A schema is a parameterized code template with associated semantic constraints which define and restrict the template s applicability. The schema parameters are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis as AutoBayes checks the constraints against the original model or, recursively, against emerging sub-problems. AutoBayes schema library contains problem decomposition operators (which are justified by theorems in a formal logic in the domain of Bayesian networks) as well as machine learning algorithms (e.g., EM, k-Means) and nu- meric optimization methods (e.g., Nelder-Mead simplex, conjugate gradient). AutoBayes augments this schema-based approach by symbolic computation to derive closed-form solutions whenever possible. This is a major advantage over other statistical data analysis systems

  12. SU-F-BRB-16: A Spreadsheet Based Automatic Trajectory GEnerator (SAGE): An Open Source Tool for Automatic Creation of TrueBeam Developer Mode Robotic Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etmektzoglou, A; Mishra, P; Svatos, M [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To automate creation and delivery of robotic linac trajectories with TrueBeam Developer Mode, an open source spreadsheet-based trajectory generation tool has been developed, tested and made freely available. The computing power inherent in a spreadsheet environment plus additional functions programmed into the tool insulate users from the underlying schema tedium and allow easy calculation, parameterization, graphical visualization, validation and finally automatic generation of Developer Mode XML scripts which are directly loadable on a TrueBeam linac. Methods: The robotic control system platform that allows total coordination of potentially all linac moving axes with beam (continuous, step-and-shoot, or combination thereof) becomes available in TrueBeam Developer Mode. Many complex trajectories are either geometric or can be described in analytical form, making the computational power, graphing and programmability available in a spreadsheet environment an easy and ideal vehicle for automatic trajectory generation. The spreadsheet environment allows also for parameterization of trajectories thus enabling the creation of entire families of trajectories using only a few variables. Standard spreadsheet functionality has been extended for powerful movie-like dynamic graphic visualization of the gantry, table, MLC, room, lasers, 3D observer placement and beam centerline all as a function of MU or time, for analysis of the motions before requiring actual linac time. Results: We used the tool to generate and deliver extended SAD “virtual isocenter” trajectories of various shapes such as parameterized circles and ellipses. We also demonstrated use of the tool in generating linac couch motions that simulate respiratory motion using analytical parameterized functions. Conclusion: The SAGE tool is a valuable resource to experiment with families of complex geometric trajectories for a TrueBeam Linac. It makes Developer Mode more accessible as a vehicle to quickly

  13. An efficient algorithm for automatically generating multivariable fuzzy systems by Fourier series method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Tokuda, N

    2002-01-01

    By exploiting the Fourier series expansion, we have developed a new constructive method of automatically generating a multivariable fuzzy inference system from any given sample set with the resulting multivariable function being constructed within any specified precision to the original sample set. The given sample sets are first decomposed into a cluster of simpler sample sets such that a single input fuzzy system is constructed readily for a sample set extracted directly from the cluster independent of the other variables. Once the relevant fuzzy rules and membership functions are constructed for each of the variables completely independent of the other variables, the resulting decomposed fuzzy rules and membership functions are integrated back into the fuzzy system appropriate for the original sample set requiring only a moderate cost of computation in the required decomposition and composition processes. After proving two basic theorems which we need to ensure the validity of the decomposition and composition processes of the system construction, we have demonstrated a constructive algorithm of a multivariable fuzzy system. Exploiting an implicit error bound analysis available at each of the construction steps, the present Fourier method is capable of implementing a more stable fuzzy system than the power series expansion method of ParNeuFuz and PolyNeuFuz, covering and implementing a wider range of more robust applications.

  14. Ezine Peyniri. I. Aroma Karakterizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Yüceer, Yonca Karagül; İşleten, Müge; Mehmet MENDEŞ

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir yıllık depolama sonucu Ezine peynirinin aroma-aktif bileşenlerinde ve duyusal özelliklerinde meydana gelen değişimi belirleyerek enstrümental ve duyusal analizler sonucu elde edilen bulgular arasındaki ilişkiyi göstermektir. Peynir örneklerindeki aroma-aktif bileşenler Termal Desorpsiyon-Gaz Kromatografisi Olfaktometri sistemi (TD-GCO) kullanılarak saptanmıştır. Ayrıca tarife dayalı duyusal analiz tekniği kullanılarak lezzet özellikleri dokuz uzman panelist tarafından...

  15. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...... and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...

  16. Toolkits for Automatic Service Generation: WATT and Kill-A-WATT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y.; Bollig, E. F.; Erlebacher, G.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded VLab consortium [1], we have been involved in the automatic generation of visualization web services using the Web Automation and Translation Toolkit (WATT) compiler. The WATT compiler converts VTK Tcl input scripts into equivalent yet more efficient C++ web services by interpreting code structure, translating and then integrating bindings to the gSOAP library. WATT seeks to completely automate code distribution, integration of transport protocols and interface generation. Ideally, developers should concentrate on writing core applications, and let WATT transform them into web services in the background. Currently, the WATT compiler is limited to converting known Tcl commands and types to C++. For VTK a simple one to one mapping between Tcl and C++ is enforced, but Tcl commands without direct mappings slow the compilation process and require new mappings to be created. Loops and conditional statements are not yet implemented. In an effort to move forward with automation and not get caught up in the details of cross-language compilation, we developed a new application: Kill-A-WATT (KWATT). KWATT is a C++ application that utilizes the C++/Tcl library [2] to evaluate Tcl input scripts using the official Tcl interpreter. During evaluation of the input script, KWATT interprets code structure, integrating communication details via a Tcl-specific SOAP library [3]. Since KWATT drives the Tcl interpreter, the application has access to the full Tcl command base plus the ability to load new commands from other packages. KWATT is not a compiler; instead, it is a stand-alone application that is itself a web service. When KWATT consumes Tcl input, the generated web methods extend the list of previously available commands. This implies that C++ web methods statically defined in KWATT provide a set of standard methods available to every service. Also, since KWATT uses the Tcl interpreter, it has the potential to accept additional Tcl at any time while

  17. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  18. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  19. Field Robotics in Sports: Automatic Generation of guidance Lines for Automatic Grass Cutting, Striping and Pitch Marking of Football Playing Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Progress is constantly being made and new applications are constantly coming out in the area of field robotics. In this paper, a promising application of field robotics in football playing fields is introduced. An algorithmic approach for generating the way points required for the guidance of a GPS-based field robotic through a football playing field to automatically carry out periodical tasks such as cutting the grass field, pitch and line marking illustrations and lawn striping is represented. The manual operation of these tasks requires very skilful personnel able to work for long hours with very high concentration for the football yard to be compatible with standards of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA. In the other side, a GPS-based guided vehicle or robot with three implements; grass mower, lawn stripping roller and track marking illustrator is capable of working 24 h a day, in most weather and in harsh soil conditions without loss of quality. The proposed approach for the automatic operation of football playing fields requires no or very limited human intervention and therefore it saves numerous working hours and free a worker to focus on other tasks. An economic feasibility study showed that the proposed method is economically superimposing the current manual practices.

  20. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  1. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-04-22

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF AN AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF TOTAL AMOUNTS OF COMMISSIONS IN INTERNATIONAL INTERBANK PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry N. Bolotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main form of international payment - bank transfer and features when it is charging by banks correspondent fees for transit funds in their correspondent accounts. In order to optimize the cost of expenses for international money transfers there is a need to develop models and toolkit of automatic generation of the total amount of commissions in international interbank settlements. Accordingly, based on graph theory, approach to the construction of the model was developed.

  3. An Automatic Generation System for Examination ID Cards%考场考证自动生成系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姝

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the feature of the automatic generation system for examination ID cards,the strategy of random scheduling and the main algorithm for creating examination ID cards.%论述了考场考证自动生成系统的特点,随机生成考证的策略及考证生成的主要算法.

  4. AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF SQL TEST CASE SETS%SQL测试用例集的自动生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祥武; 张钦; 韩朱忠

    2012-01-01

    Compiling SQL sentences is an import part for test database management system. Automatic generation of SQL sentences can effectively reduce the workload of the tester. There is almost no automatic tool supporting the direct generation of SQL sentences at present. By simulating the direct derivation process of generative formals the SQL sentences which are generated in accordance with the grammar based on SQL grammars are presented, this is used as the approach for test cases. In the paper we study on the automatic progress from BNF files which are the representation of the grammar to generating SQL test case sets. The process has several stages; Each non-terminals of SQL grammar is converted to a corresponding parse function and the set of all these parse functions forms the rules library. The generative formals of the grammar are traversed to generate SQL test cases automatically. The use of weight arrays in conjunction with stochastic numbers increases the flexibility of test cases generation. Maximum calling times of the non-terminals are employed to terminate the generation of SQL test cases. Through the tool prototype introduced, the SQL test cases in conformity with SQL grammar can be derived.%编写SQL语句是测试数据库管理系统的一个重要部分.自动生成SQL语句可以有效减少测试人员的工作量,而目前没有直接生成SQL语句的自动化工具.通过模拟产生式的直接推导过程,根据SQL文法,给出生成符合该文法的SQL语句,用作测试用例的方法;研究从表示文法的BNF文件生成SQL测试用例集合的自动化过程.这个过程包括几个阶段:将SQL文法的每一个非终结符转换成一个对应的解析函数,所有解析函数的集合构成规则库;遍历文法的产生式自动生成SQL测试用例;使用权值数组结合随机数,加大生成测试用例的灵活性;使用非终结符的最大调用次数来终止SQL测试用例的生成.通过介绍的工具原型,可以得到符合SQL语法的SQL测试用例.

  5. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8% and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0. We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit, indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a

  6. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  7. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  8. SIFAT FISIOKIMIA DAN AROMA EKSTRAK VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Setyaningsih

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of vanilla beans from dried vanilla to vanilla extract would give added value to vanilla products. Aroma and taste in vanilla extract depend on variety of plants, cultivation methods, and curing process. Indonesian vanilla extract tend to give woody and phenolic aroma because it was harvested too early and it did not cure perfectly. This study was to identify the physicochemical and aroma characteristics of vanilla extracts from importer, exporter, and vanilla extracts from the newest experiment from our laboratory. There were seven samples, three from importers (Tahiti grade I, Tahiti grade II, Virginia Dare, two from Indonesian Vanilla exporters (Djasula Wangi, Cobra, and two from our laboratory (G11, 57. The physicochemical characteristics which were analyzed were vanillin content, ash, soluble ash, alkalinity of soluble ash, alkalinity of total ash, total acidity, and lead number, all compared with the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA standard. Sensory analysis used aroma description test consist of qualitative descriptive test (in-depth interview and focus group methods and quantitative descriptive analysis. The result showed that the laboratory's sample from modified curing process (G11 followed the FDA standard in physicochemical characters, but the aroma description was not as strong as the aroma of vanilla extract from exporters, namely Cobra with creamy, sweet, and vanilla aroma; and vanilla extract from importer, namely Virginia with smoky and spicy aroma

  9. Automatic SAR/optical cross-matching for GCP monograph generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Morea, Alberto; Nitti, Davide Oscar; La Mantia, Claudio; Agrimano, Luigi; Samarelli, Sergio; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Ground Control Points (GCP), automatically extracted from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images through 3D stereo analysis, can be effectively exploited for an automatic orthorectification of optical imagery if they can be robustly located in the basic optical images. The present study outlines a SAR/Optical cross-matching procedure that allows a robust alignment of radar and optical images, and consequently to derive automatically the corresponding sub-pixel position of the GCPs in the optical image in input, expressed as fractional pixel/line image coordinates. The cross-matching in performed in two subsequent steps, in order to gradually gather a better precision. The first step is based on the Mutual Information (MI) maximization between optical and SAR chips while the last one uses the Normalized Cross-Correlation as similarity metric. This work outlines the designed algorithmic solution and discusses the results derived over the urban area of Pisa (Italy), where more than ten COSMO-SkyMed Enhanced Spotlight stereo images with different beams and passes are available. The experimental analysis involves different satellite images, in order to evaluate the performances of the algorithm w.r.t. the optical spatial resolution. An assessment of the performances of the algorithm has been carried out, and errors are computed by measuring the distance between the GCP pixel/line position in the optical image, automatically estimated by the tool, and the "true" position of the GCP, visually identified by an expert user in the optical images.

  10. Development of an Automatic Gain Controller Card or Next Generation EDFAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Y. Liaw; T. H. Cheng; C. Lu; M.Akiyama; T.Sakai; A.Wada

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost automatic gain controller card that provides fast transient gain control to maintain the power of the surviving channels when the number of input channels to an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)changes rapidly.

  11. Model-based automatic 3d building model generation by integrating LiDAR and aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Kwak, E.; Al-Durgham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate, detailed, and up-to-date 3D building models are important for several applications such as telecommunication network planning, urban planning, and military simulation. Existing building reconstruction approaches can be classified according to the data sources they use (i.e., single versus multi-sensor approaches), the processing strategy (i.e., data-driven, model-driven, or hybrid), or the amount of user interaction (i.e., manual, semiautomatic, or fully automated). While it is obvious that 3D building models are important components for many applications, they still lack the economical and automatic techniques for their generation while taking advantage of the available multi-sensory data and combining processing strategies. In this research, an automatic methodology for building modelling by integrating multiple images and LiDAR data is proposed. The objective of this research work is to establish a framework for automatic building generation by integrating data driven and model-driven approaches while combining the advantages of image and LiDAR datasets.

  12. MAGE (M-file/Mif Automatic GEnerator): A graphical interface tool for automatic generation of Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework configuration files and Matlab scripts for results analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chęciński, Jakub; Frankowski, Marek

    2016-10-01

    We present a tool for fully-automated generation of both simulations configuration files (Mif) and Matlab scripts for automated data analysis, dedicated for Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). We introduce extended graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for fast, error-proof and easy creation of Mifs, without any programming skills usually required for manual Mif writing necessary. With MAGE we provide OOMMF extensions for complementing it by mangetoresistance and spin-transfer-torque calculations, as well as local magnetization data selection for output. Our software allows for creation of advanced simulations conditions like simultaneous parameters sweeps and synchronic excitation application. Furthermore, since output of such simulation could be long and complicated we provide another GUI allowing for automated creation of Matlab scripts suitable for analysis of such data with Fourier and wavelet transforms as well as user-defined operations.

  13. A proposed metamodel for the implementation of object oriented software through the automatic generation of source code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO, J. S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the development of software one of the most visible risks and perhaps the biggest implementation obstacle relates to the time management. All delivery deadlines software versions must be followed, but it is not always possible, sometimes due to delay in coding. This paper presents a metamodel for software implementation, which will rise to a development tool for automatic generation of source code, in order to make any development pattern transparent to the programmer, significantly reducing the time spent in coding artifacts that make up the software.

  14. Effect of pulp reduction and pasteurization on the release of aroma compounds in industrial orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinet, C; Guichard, E; Fournier, N; Ducruet, V

    2007-10-01

    Release of aroma compounds in orange juice according to pulp content and pasteurization was performed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), HS-SPME-GC-olfactometry, and by the determination of partition coefficients of aroma compounds between the juice and the headspace. Orange juices with 12% and 6% pulp contents were collected from a processing line before and after pasteurization. HS-SPME revealed that the 6% pulp juice was the most affected by pasteurization, with an increase in the release of several aroma compounds that are generated by heat treatment (that is, alpha- and beta-terpinéol) and a decrease in the release of compounds sensitive to pasteurization (that is, neral and geranial). Principal component analysis of olfactometric data allowed discriminating fresh and pasteurized juices, regardless of the pulp content. The determination of the gas/liquid partition coefficients by the phase ratio variation method was possible for 7 aroma compounds. For the most hydrophobic ones, the release of aroma compounds in fresh juices was higher in the 6% pulp juice than in the 12% pulp juice. However, in pasteurized juices, the difference between their partition coefficients was less marked. Potential interactions between cloud proteins and hydrophobic aroma compounds may explain this phenomenon.

  15. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  16. Automatic generation of the index of productive syntax for child language transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Khairun-nisa; Liu, Yang; Iglesias, Aquiles; Solorio, Thamar; Dollaghan, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The index of productive syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough (Applied Psycholinguistics 11:1-22, 1990) is a measure of syntactic development in child language that has been used in research and clinical settings to investigate the grammatical development of various groups of children. However, IPSyn is mostly calculated manually, which is an extremely laborious process. In this article, we describe the AC-IPSyn system, which automatically calculates the IPSyn score for child language transcripts using natural language processing techniques. Our results show that the AC-IPSyn system performs at levels comparable to scores computed manually. The AC-IPSyn system can be downloaded from www.hlt.utdallas.edu/~nisa/ipsyn.html .

  17. Algorithm of automatic generation of technology process and process relations of automotive wiring harnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Benzhu; ZHU Jiman; LIU Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying each process and their constraint relations from the complex wiring harness drawings quickly and accurately is the basis for formulating process routes. According to the knowledge of automotive wiring harness and the characteristics of wiring harness components, we established the model of wiring harness graph. Then we research the algorithm of identifying technology processes automatically, finally we describe the relationships between processes by introducing the constraint matrix, which is in or- der to lay a good foundation for harness process planning and production scheduling.

  18. Automatic Generation of Machine Emulators: Efficient Synthesis of Robust Virtual Machines for Legacy Software Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian

    2006-01-01

    As older mainframe architectures become obsolete, the corresponding le- gacy software is increasingly executed via platform emulators running on top of more modern commodity hardware. These emulators are virtual machines that often include a combination of interpreters and just-in-time compilers....... Implementing interpreters and compilers for each combination of emulated and target platform independently of each other is a redundant and error-prone task. We describe an alternative approach that automatically synthesizes specialized virtual-machine interpreters and just-in-time compilers, which...

  19. Automatic Generation of Structural Building Descriptions from 3D Point Cloud Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochmann, Sebastian; Vock, Richard; Wessel, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    scans to derive high-level architectural entities like rooms and doors. Starting with a registered 3D point cloud, we probabilistically model the affiliation of each measured point to a certain room in the building. We solve the resulting clustering problem using an iterative algorithm that relies......We present a new method for automatic semantic structuring of 3D point clouds representing buildings. In contrast to existing approaches which either target the outside appearance like the facade structure or rather low-level geometric structures, we focus on the building’s interior using indoor...

  20. A Prototype Expert System for Automatic Generation of Image Processing Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋茂强; FelixGrimm; 等

    1991-01-01

    A prototype expert system for generating image processing programs using the subroutine package SPIDER is described in this paper.Based on an interactive dialog,the system can generate a complete application program using SPIDER routines.

  1. Automatic selection of informative sentences: The sentences that can generate multiple choice questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional education cannot meet the expectation and requirement of a Smart City; it require more advance forms like active learning, ICT education etc. Multiple choice questions (MCQs play an important role in educational assessment and active learning which has a key role in Smart City education. MCQs are effective to assess the understanding of well-defined concepts. A fraction of all the sentences of a text contain well-defined concepts or information that can be asked as a MCQ. These informative sentences are required to be identified first for preparing multiple choice questions manually or automatically. In this paper we propose a technique for automatic identification of such informative sentences that can act as the basis of MCQ. The technique is based on parse structure similarity. A reference set of parse structures is compiled with the help of existing MCQs. The parse structure of a new sentence is compared with the reference structures and if similarity is found then the sentence is considered as a potential candidate. Next a rule-based post-processing module works on these potential candidates to select the final set of informative sentences. The proposed approach is tested in sports domain, where many MCQs are easily available for preparing the reference set of structures. The quality of the system selected sentences is evaluated manually. The experimental result shows that the proposed technique is quite promising.

  2. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  3. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  4. A Solar Automatic Tracking System that Generates Power for Lighting Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Xun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we design and test a novel solar tracking generation system. Moreover, we show that this system could be successfully used as an advanced solar power source to generate power in greenhouses. The system was developed after taking into consideration the geography, climate, and other environmental factors of northeast China. The experimental design of this study included the following steps: (i the novel solar tracking generation system was measured, and its performance was analyzed; (ii the system configuration and operation principles were evaluated; (iii the performance of this power generation system and the solar irradiance were measured according to local time and conditions; (iv the main factors affecting system performance were analyzed; and (v the amount of power generated by the solar tracking system was compared with the power generated by fixed solar panels. The experimental results indicated that compared to the power generated by fixed solar panels, the solar tracking system generated about 20% to 25% more power. In addition, the performance of this novel power generating system was found to be closely associated with solar irradiance. Therefore, the solar tracking system provides a new approach to power generation in greenhouses.

  5. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  6. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  7. Automatic generation of reaction energy databases from highly accurate atomization energy benchmark sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Johannes T; Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2017-03-31

    In this contribution, we discuss how reaction energy benchmark sets can automatically be created from arbitrary atomization energy databases. As an example, over 11 000 reaction energies derived from the W4-11 database, as well as some relevant subsets are reported. Importantly, there is only very modest computational overhead involved in computing >11 000 reaction energies compared to 140 atomization energies, since the rate-determining step for either benchmark is performing the same 140 quantum chemical calculations. The performance of commonly used electronic structure methods for the new database is analyzed. This allows investigating the relationship between the performances for atomization and reaction energy benchmarks based on an identical set of molecules. The atomization energy is found to be a weak predictor for the overall usefulness of a method. The performance of density functional approximations in light of the number of empirically optimized parameters used in their design is also discussed.

  8. Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-10-01

    Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma.

  9. Inhibition of bradycardia pacing caused by far-field atrial sensing in a third-generation cardioverter defibrillator with an automatic gain feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, J H; Roelke, M; Ruskin, J N

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of implantable cardioverter defibrillators may be improved by automatically adjusting gain algorithms, which in general reduce the likelihood of oversensing while maintaining the ability to detect the low amplitude signals associated with ventricular fibrillation. We present a patient with a third-generation device who developed prolonged ventricular asystole arising as a complication of the automatic gain feature. During asystole the device automatically increased sensitivity in order to prevent undersensing of ventricular fibrillation, which in this case resulted in far-field sensing of atrial activity and inhibition of ventricular pacing.

  10. Uav Aerial Survey: Accuracy Estimation for Automatically Generated Dense Digital Surface Model and Orthothoto Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altyntsev, M. A.; Arbuzov, S. A.; Popov, R. A.; Tsoi, G. V.; Gromov, M. O.

    2016-06-01

    A dense digital surface model is one of the products generated by using UAV aerial survey data. Today more and more specialized software are supplied with modules for generating such kind of models. The procedure for dense digital model generation can be completely or partly automated. Due to the lack of reliable criterion of accuracy estimation it is rather complicated to judge the generation validity of such models. One of such criterion can be mobile laser scanning data as a source for the detailed accuracy estimation of the dense digital surface model generation. These data may be also used to estimate the accuracy of digital orthophoto plans created by using UAV aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation for both kinds of products are presented in the paper.

  11. Automatic Mesh Generation of Hybrid Mesh on Valves in Multiple Positions in Feedline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Douglass H.; Ito, Yasushi; Dorothy, Fredric W.; Shih, Alan M.; Peugeot, John

    2010-01-01

    Fluid flow simulations through a valve often require evaluation of the valve in multiple opening positions. A mesh has to be generated for the valve for each position and compounding. The problem is the fact that the valve is typically part of a larger feedline system. In this paper, we propose to develop a system to create meshes for feedline systems with parametrically controlled valve openings. Herein we outline two approaches to generate the meshes for a valve in a feedline system at multiple positions. There are two issues that must be addressed. The first is the creation of the mesh on the valve for multiple positions. The second is the generation of the mesh for the total feedline system including the valve. For generation of the mesh on the valve, we will describe the use of topology matching and mesh generation parameter transfer. For generation of the total feedline system, we will describe two solutions that we have implemented. In both cases the valve is treated as a component in the feedline system. In the first method the geometry of the valve in the feedline system is replaced with a valve at a different opening position. Geometry is created to connect the valve to the feedline system. Then topology for the valve is created and the portion of the topology for the valve is topology matched to the standard valve in a different position. The mesh generation parameters are transferred and then the volume mesh for the whole feedline system is generated. The second method enables the user to generate the volume mesh on the valve in multiple open positions external to the feedline system, to insert it into the volume mesh of the feedline system, and to reduce the amount of computer time required for mesh generation because only two small volume meshes connecting the valve to the feedline mesh need to be updated.

  12. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  13. An automatic generation of non-uniform mesh for CFD analyses of image-based multiscale human airway models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-11-01

    The authors have developed a method to automatically generate non-uniform CFD mesh for image-based human airway models. The sizes of generated tetrahedral elements vary in both radial and longitudinal directions to account for boundary layer and multiscale nature of pulmonary airflow. The proposed method takes advantage of our previously developed centerline-based geometry reconstruction method. In order to generate the mesh branch by branch in parallel, we used the open-source programs Gmsh and TetGen for surface and volume meshes, respectively. Both programs can specify element sizes by means of background mesh. The size of an arbitrary element in the domain is a function of wall distance, element size on the wall, and element size at the center of airway lumen. The element sizes on the wall are computed based on local flow rate and airway diameter. The total number of elements in the non-uniform mesh (10 M) was about half of that in the uniform mesh, although the computational time for the non-uniform mesh was about twice longer (170 min). The proposed method generates CFD meshes with fine elements near the wall and smooth variation of element size in longitudinal direction, which are required, e.g., for simulations with high flow rate. NIH Grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494, and S10-RR022421. Computer time provided by XSEDE.

  14. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, δ-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified.

  16. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  18. Meta-analysis of the core aroma components of grape and wine aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ilc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  19. Design of an optimal SMES for automatic generation control of two-area thermal power system using Cuckoo search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Chaine

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodology adopted in order to tune the controller parameters of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES system in the automatic generation control (AGC of a two-area thermal power system. The gains of integral controllers of AGC loop, proportional controller of SMES loop and gains of the current feedback loop of the inductor in SMES are optimized simultaneously in order to achieve a desired performance. Recently proposed intelligent technique based algorithm known as Cuckoo search algorithm (CSA is applied for optimization. Sensitivity and robustness of the tuned gains tested at different operating conditions prove the effectiveness of fast acting energy storage devices like SMES in damping out oscillations in power system when their controllers are properly tuned.

  20. Automatic landmark generation for deformable image registration evaluation for 4D CT images of lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickress, J.; Battista, J.; Barnett, R.; Morgan, J.; Yartsev, S.

    2016-10-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a common tool in medical imaging across both diagnostic and treatment specialties, but the methods used offer varying levels of accuracy. Evaluation of DIR is commonly performed using manually selected landmarks, which is subjective, tedious and time consuming. We propose a semi-automated method that saves time and provides accuracy comparable to manual selection. Three landmarking methods including manual (with two independent observers), scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), and SIFT with manual editing (SIFT-M) were tested on 10 thoracic 4DCT image studies corresponding to the 0% and 50% phases of respiration. Results of each method were evaluated against a gold standard (GS) landmark set comparing both mean and proximal landmark displacements. The proximal method compares the local deformation magnitude between a test landmark pair and the closest GS pair. Statistical analysis was done using an intra class correlation (ICC) between test and GS displacement values. The creation time per landmark pair was 22, 34, 2.3, and 4.3 s for observers 1 and 2, SIFT, and SIFT-M methods respectively. Across 20 lungs from the 10 CT studies, the ICC values between the GS and observer 1 and 2, SIFT, and SIFT-M methods were 0.85, 0.85, 0.84, and 0.82 for mean lung deformation, and 0.97, 0.98, 0.91, and 0.96 for proximal landmark deformation, respectively. SIFT and SIFT-M methods have an accuracy that is comparable to manual methods when tested against a GS landmark set while saving 90% of the time. The number and distribution of landmarks significantly affected the analysis as manifested by the different results for mean deformation and proximal landmark deformation methods. Automatic landmark methods offer a promising alternative to manual landmarking, if the quantity, quality and distribution of landmarks can be optimized for the intended application.

  1. Automatic Virtual Entity Simulation of Conceptual Design Results-Part I:Symbolic Scheme Generation and Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-xin; LI Yu-tong

    2014-01-01

    The development of new products of high quality, low unit cost, and short lead time to market are the key elements required for any enterprise to obtain a competitive advantage. For shorting the lead time to market and improving the creativity and performances of the product, a rule-based conceptual design approach and a methodology to simulate the conceptual design results generated in conceptual design process in automatical virtual entity form are presented in this paper. This part of paper presents a rule-based conceptual design method for generating creative conceptual design schemes of mechanisms based on Yan’s kinematic chain regeneration creative design method. The design rules are adopted to describe the design requirements of the functional characteristics, the connection relationships and topological characteristics among mechanisms. Through the graphs-based reasoning process, the conceptual design space is expanded extremely, and the potential creative conceptual design results are then dug out. By refining the design rules, the solution exploration problem is avioded, and the tendentious conceptual design schemes are generated. Since mechanical, electrical and hydraulic subsystems can be transformed into general mechansims, the conceptual design method presented in this paper can also be applied in the conceptual design problem of complex mechatronic systems. And then the method to identify conceptual design schemes is given.

  2. Automatic code generation enables nuclear gradient computations for fully internally contracted multireference theory

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Analytical nuclear gradients for fully internally contracted complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) are reported. This implementation has been realized by an automated code generator that can handle spin-free formulas for the CASPT2 energy and its derivatives with respect to variations of molecular orbitals and reference coefficients. The underlying complete active space self-consistent field and the so-called Z-vector equations are solved using density fitting. With full internal contraction the size of first-order wave functions scales polynomially with the number of active orbitals. The CASPT2 gradient program and the code generator are both publicly available. This work enables the CASPT2 geometry optimization of molecules as complex as those investigated by respective single-point calculations.

  3. Extending a User Interface Prototyping Tool with Automatic MISRA C Code Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with systems, particularly safety-critical systems, that involve interaction between users and devices, such as the user interface of medical devices. We therefore developed a MISRA C code generator for formal models expressed in the PVSio-web prototyping toolkit. PVSio-web allows developers to rapidly generate realistic interactive prototypes for verifying usability and safety requirements in human-machine interfaces. The visual appearance of the prototypes is based on a picture of a physical device, and the behaviour of the prototype is defined by an executable formal model. Our approach transforms the PVSio-web prototyping tool into a model-based engineering toolkit that, starting from a formally verified user interface design model, will produce MISRA C code that can be compiled and linked into a final product. An initial validation of our tool is presented for the data entry system of an actual medical device.

  4. A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...... to the designer, and generates a synthesizable VHDL description of the filter taking into account several design constraints such as: delay, area and energy....

  5. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rahman; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Idris, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Shujaat; Huh, Eui-Nam; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-07-02

    A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM) to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a "data modeler" tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets.

  6. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a “data modeler” tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets.

  7. A heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker player: Discretized betting models and automatically generated equilibrium-finding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, Andrew G.; Sandholm, Tuomas; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    choices in the game. Second, we employ potential-aware automated abstraction algorithms for identifying strategically similar situations in order to decrease the size of the game tree. Third, we develop a new technique for automatically generating the source code of an equilibrium-finding algorithm from...... an XML-based description of a game. This automatically generated program is more efficient than what would be possible with a general-purpose equilibrium-finding program. Finally, we present results from the AAAI-07 Computer Poker Competition, in which Tartanian placed second out of ten entries....

  8. Office OperationTest Generation and Automatic Judgment of C# Language%Office操作题生成与自动判分的C#语言实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高上雄

    2014-01-01

    Through the paperless examination of Office operation test generation and automatic judgment analysis, this paper uses the test operation test generation C/S architecture for Word and Excelland automatic judgment realization are discussed using C# language.%通过针对无纸化考试中Office操作题生成与自动判分的分析,该文采用C#语言采用C/S构架对Word及Excel的操作考试试题生成与自动判分的实现进行探讨。

  9. Communication: Automatic code generation enables nuclear gradient computations for fully internally contracted multireference theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Matthew K.; Shiozaki, Toru [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    Analytical nuclear gradients for fully internally contracted complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) are reported. This implementation has been realized by an automated code generator that can handle spin-free formulas for the CASPT2 energy and its derivatives with respect to variations of molecular orbitals and reference coefficients. The underlying complete active space self-consistent field and the so-called Z-vector equations are solved using density fitting. The implementation has been applied to the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials of the porphin molecule to illustrate its capability.

  10. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Smeaton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals.

  11. Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisk Ian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four analytical approaches were used to evaluate the aroma profile at key stages in roast and ground coffee brew preparation (concentration within the roast and ground coffee and respective coffee brew; concentration in the headspace of the roast and ground coffee and respective brew. Each method was evaluated by the analysis of 15 diverse key aroma compounds that were predefined by odour port analysis. Results Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory. Conclusions All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.

  12. Intra-Hour Dispatch and Automatic Generator Control Demonstration with Solar Forecasting - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Carlos F. M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States

    2016-02-25

    In this project we address multiple resource integration challenges associated with increasing levels of solar penetration that arise from the variability and uncertainty in solar irradiance. We will model the SMUD service region as its own balancing region, and develop an integrated, real-time operational tool that takes solar-load forecast uncertainties into consideration and commits optimal energy resources and reserves for intra-hour and intra-day decisions. The primary objectives of this effort are to reduce power system operation cost by committing appropriate amount of energy resources and reserves, as well as to provide operators a prediction of the generation fleet’s behavior in real time for realistic PV penetration scenarios. The proposed methodology includes the following steps: clustering analysis on the expected solar variability per region for the SMUD system, Day-ahead (DA) and real-time (RT) load forecasts for the entire service areas, 1-year of intra-hour CPR forecasts for cluster centers, 1-year of smart re-forecasting CPR forecasts in real-time for determination of irreducible errors, and uncertainty quantification for integrated solar-load for both distributed and central stations (selected locations within service region) PV generation.

  13. Automatic Generation of High Quality DSM Based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 Stereo Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, Pablo; Uttenthaler, Andreas; Carl, Sebastian; Barner, Frithjof; Reinartz, Peter

    2010-12-01

    IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 high resolution stereo satellite imagery is well suited for the creation of digital surface models (DSM). A system for highly automated and operational DSM and orthoimage generation based on IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 imagery is presented, with an emphasis on automated processing and product quality. The proposed system processes IRS-P5 level-1 stereo scenes using the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) universal sensor model. The described method uses an RPC correction based on DSM alignment instead of using reference images with a lower lateral accuracy, this results in improved geolocation of the DSMs and orthoimages. Following RPC correction, highly detailed DSMs with 5 m grid spacing are derived using Semiglobal Matching. The proposed method is part of an operational Cartosat-1 processor for the generation of a high resolution DSM. Evaluation of 18 scenes against independent ground truth measurements indicates a mean lateral error (CE90) of 6.7 meters and a mean vertical accuracy (LE90) of 5.1 meters.

  14. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  15. Release and perception of aroma compounds during consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Key words: MS-Nose, in vivo aroma release, aroma perception, mouth model, artificial throat, liquid protocol, sweeteners, reversible protein-aroma interactions, emulsions, oil content, droplet size distribution, gel hardness, texture, cross-modal interactions.This thesis evaluated and validated the

  16. Design of a variable width pulse generator feasible for manual or automatic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, I.; Antoranz, P.; Miranda, J. M.; Franco, F. J.

    2017-01-01

    A variable width pulse generator featuring more than 4-V peak amplitude and less than 10-ns FWHM is described. In this design the width of the pulses is controlled by means of the control signal slope. Thus, a variable transition time control circuit (TTCC) is also developed, based on the charge and discharge of a capacitor by means of two tunable current sources. Additionally, it is possible to activate/deactivate the pulses when required, therefore allowing the creation of any desired pulse pattern. Furthermore, the implementation presented here can be electronically controlled. In conclusion, due to its versatility, compactness and low cost it can be used in a wide variety of applications.

  17. Optimization of automatically generated multi-core code for the LTE RACH-PD algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pelcat, Maxime; Nezan, Jean François

    2008-01-01

    Embedded real-time applications in communication systems require high processing power. Manual scheduling devel-oped for single-processor applications is not suited to multi-core architectures. The Algorithm Architecture Matching (AAM) methodology optimizes static application implementation on multi-core architectures. The Random Access Channel Preamble Detection (RACH-PD) is an algorithm for non-synchronized access of Long Term Evolu-tion (LTE) wireless networks. LTE aims to improve the spectral efficiency of the next generation cellular system. This paper de-scribes a complete methodology for implementing the RACH-PD. AAM prototyping is applied to the RACH-PD which is modelled as a Synchronous DataFlow graph (SDF). An efficient implemen-tation of the algorithm onto a multi-core DSP, the TI C6487, is then explained. Benchmarks for the solution are given.

  18. Automatic Generation of CFD-Ready Surface Triangulations from CAD Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Delanaye, M.; Haimes, R.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the generation of closed manifold surface triangulations from CAD geometry. CAD parts and assemblies are used in their native format, without translation, and a part's native geometry engine is accessed through a modeler-independent application programming interface (API). In seeking a robust and fully automated procedure, the algorithm is based on a new physical space manifold triangulation technique which was developed to avoid robustness issues associated with poorly conditioned mappings. In addition, this approach avoids the usual ambiguities associated with floating-point predicate evaluation on constructed coordinate geometry in a mapped space, The technique is incremental, so that each new site improves the triangulation by some well defined quality measure. Sites are inserted using a variety of priority queues to ensure that new insertions will address the worst triangles first, As a result of this strategy, the algorithm will return its 'best' mesh for a given (prespecified) number of sites. Alternatively, the algorithm may be allowed to terminate naturally after achieving a prespecified measure of mesh quality. The resulting triangulations are 'CFD-ready' in that: (1) Edges match the underlying part model to within a specified tolerance. (2) Triangles on disjoint surfaces in close proximity have matching length-scales. (3) The algorithm produces a triangulation such that no angle is less than a given angle bound, alpha, or greater than Pi - 2alpha This result also sets bounds on the maximum vertex degree, triangle aspect-ratio and maximum stretching rate for the triangulation. In addition to tile output triangulations for a variety of CAD parts, tile discussion presents related theoretical results which assert the existence of such all angle bound, and demonstrate that maximum bounds of between 25 deg and 30 deg may be achieved in practice.

  19. Designing and Implementation of Retina Image Drawing System and Automatic Report Generation from Retina Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Tahmasebian, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic medical records as one of major parts of electronic health records is an important application of Medical Informatics. EMR includes different types of data, Graphical items being one of these data types. To this end, a standard structure for storing and recovering and finally exchanging this data type is required. In order to standardize information items in this research, UMLS standard is used. In this research, graphical information from fondues designing in retina surgery forms is used for the task of implementation. Implementation: Three-layer software architecture is used for implementation of this system, which includes user interface, data base access and business logic. XML database is used for storing and exchanging of data. User interface is designed by the means of Adobe Flash. Also in the user interface for eye examinations, appropriate icons compatible with current pathologies in retina examinations are considered and UMLS codes are used for standardizations purposes. Results: As this project is independently implemented in Adobe Flash, it can be run in most of electronic patient records software. For evaluation purposes of this research, an EMR system for eye clinics is used. Tree structure is used for data entry and finally a text report based on the entered data will be generated. By storing graphical items in this software editing and searching in medical concepts and also comparing features will be available. Conclusion: One of the data items that we encounter in various medical records is graphical data. In order to cover the patient’s complete electronic medical records, the Electronic Implementation of this information is important. For this purpose, graphical items in retina surgery forms were used and finally a software application for drawing retina picture was developed. Also, XML files were used for the purpose of storing valuable medical data from the pictures, and also UMLS were applied for the standardization

  20. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  1. Automatic query generation using word embeddings for retrieving passages describing experimental methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding the physical interactions among proteins is crucial, since protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are central for many biological processes. The experimental techniques used to verify PPIs are vital for characterizing and assessing the reliability of the identified PPIs. A lot of information about PPIs and the experimental methods are only available in the text of the scientific publications that report them. In this study, we approach the problem of identifying passages with experimental methods for physical interactions between proteins as an information retrieval search task. The baseline system is based on query matching, where the queries are generated by utilizing the names (including synonyms) of the experimental methods in the Proteomics Standard Initiative–Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) ontology. We propose two methods, where the baseline queries are expanded by including additional relevant terms. The first method is a supervised approach, where the most salient terms for each experimental method are obtained by using the term frequency–relevance frequency (tf.rf) metric over 13 articles from our manually annotated data set of 30 full text articles, which is made publicly available. On the other hand, the second method is an unsupervised approach, where the queries for each experimental method are expanded by using the word embeddings of the names of the experimental methods in the PSI-MI ontology. The word embeddings are obtained by utilizing a large unlabeled full text corpus. The proposed methods are evaluated on the test set consisting of 17 articles. Both methods obtain higher recall scores compared with the baseline, with a loss in precision. Besides higher recall, the word embeddings based approach achieves higher F-measure than the baseline and the tf.rf based methods. We also show that incorporating gene name and interaction keyword identification leads to improved precision and F-measure scores for all three evaluated

  2. Behaviour and hormonal status in healthy rats on a diet rich in Maillard reaction products with or without solvent extractable aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebeková, Katarína; Klenovics, Kristína Simon; Boor, Peter; Celec, Peter; Behuliak, Michal; Schieberle, Peter; Heidland, August; Palkovits, Miklós; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-02-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are generated upon thermal processing of foods, modifying their colour and flavour. We asked whether aroma compounds generated via Maillard-type reactions modulate the in vivo effects of MRP-rich diets (MRPD). Male Wistar rats were fed for 3weeks either with a standard rat chow, an aroma compounds containing MRPD comprising 25% bread crust, or an aroma-extracted MRPD. In contrast to standard rat chow, consumption of MRPDs affected glucose control, induced hyper-leptinemia and hyper-adiponectinemia. Plasma adipokines were significantly higher in rats on aroma containing MRPD in comparison with those consuming aroma-extracted MRPD. Consumption of both MRPDs significantly increased the expression of the insulin receptor in the olfactory bulb, and mildly in the hypothalamus. Administration of the aroma containing MRPD significantly increased the leptin receptor expression in the olfactory bulb, and in the hypothalamus. Under both MRPDs, strong expression of c-fos indicated an increased neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Neuronal activity in brain areas involved in the central regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis was more pronounced in rats fed by the aroma containing MRPD. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a MRPD fortified with bread crust, particularly if containing solvent extractable volatile aroma compounds, affected the leptin-induced central signalling of anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones, and the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Behavioural changes and altered glucose control were more evident in rats on the aroma containing MRPD. Our data suggest that volatile aroma compounds in foods might affect endocrine signalling and neuronal regulation of metabolism.

  3. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satia

  4. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  5. 一种实用的输电网潮流图自动生成算法%A Practical Automatic Generation Algorithm of Power Flow Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽燕; 陈文静; 苏运光; 孙云枫

    2015-01-01

    Based on the general characteristics of the electricity transmission grid trend diagram ,this paper comprehensively studies a variety of automatic layout and wiring method ,proposes a practical electricity transmission grid trend chart automatic generation algorithm ,and has set up an experiment to verify its effectiveness.%文章针对输电网潮流图的一般特点,综合研究了多种自动布局与布线方法,提出了一种实用性较强的输电网潮流图自动生成算法,并已通过实验验证其有效性.

  6. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  7. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, M; Fujita, K; Tsuji, M; Takewaki, I

    2016-02-01

    A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency) earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency) and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  8. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  9. CAV_KO: a Simple 1-D Langrangian Hydrocode for MS EXCEL™ with Automatic Generation of X-T Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsembelis, K.; Ramsden, B.; Proud, W. G.; Borg, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrocodes are widely used to predict or simulate highly dynamic and transient events such as blast and impact. Codes such as GRIM, CTH or AUTODYN are well developed and involve complex numerical methods and in many cases require a large computing infrastructure. In this paper we present a simple 1-D Langrangian hydrocode developed at the University of Cambridge, called CAV_KO written in Visual Basic. The motivation being to produce a code which, while being relatively simple, is useful for both experimental planning and teaching. The code has been adapted from the original KO code written in FORTRAN by J. Borg, which, in turn, is based on the algorithm developed by Wilkins [1]. The developed GUI within MS Excel™ and the automatic generation of x-t diagrams allow CAV_KO to be a useful tool for quick calculations of plate impact events and teaching purposes. The VB code is licensed under the GNU General Public License and a MS Excel™ spreadsheet containing the code can be downloaded from www.shockphysics.com together with a copy of the user guide.

  10. An image-based automatic mesh generation and numerical simulation for a population-based analysis of aerosol delivery in the human lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-11-01

    The authors propose a method to automatically generate three-dimensional subject-specific airway geometries and meshes for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of aerosol delivery in the human lungs. The proposed method automatically expands computed tomography (CT)-based airway skeleton to generate the centerline (CL)-based model, and then fits it to the CT-segmented geometry to generate the hybrid CL-CT-based model. To produce a turbulent laryngeal jet known to affect aerosol transport, we developed a physiologically-consistent laryngeal model that can be attached to the trachea of the above models. We used Gmsh to automatically generate the mesh for the above models. To assess the quality of the models, we compared the regional aerosol distributions in a human lung predicted by the hybrid model and the manually generated CT-based model. The aerosol distribution predicted by the hybrid model was consistent with the prediction by the CT-based model. We applied the hybrid model to 8 healthy and 16 severe asthmatic subjects, and average geometric error was 3.8% of the branch radius. The proposed method can be potentially applied to the branch-by-branch analyses of a large population of healthy and diseased lungs. NIH Grants R01-HL-094315 and S10-RR-022421, CT data provided by SARP, and computer time provided by XSEDE.

  11. Aroma-active components of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagül-Yüceer, Y; Drake, M A; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-06-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile components of low-, medium-, and high-heat-treated nonfat dry milks (NDM) revealed aroma-active compounds in the log(3) flavor dilution (log(3) FD) factor range of 1 to 6. The following compounds contributed the highest log(3) FD factors to overall NDM flavor: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone [(Furaneol), burnt sugar-like]; butanoic acid (rancid); 3-(methylthio)propanal [(methional), boiled potato-like]; o-aminoacetophenone (grape-like); delta-decalactone (sweet); (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic); pentanoic acid (sweaty); 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone [(sotolon), curry]; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde [(vanillin), vanilla]; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like); hexanoic acid (vinegar-like); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); octanoic acid (waxy); nonanal (fatty); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). The odor intensities of Furaneol, butanoic acid, methional, o-aminoacetophenone, sotolon, vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and phenylacetic acid were higher in high-heat-treated samples than others. However, the odor intensities of lactones, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were not affected by heat treatment. Sensory evaluation results also revealed that heat-generated flavors have a major impact on the flavor profile of NDM.

  12. Android event code automatic generation method based on object relevance%基于对象关联的Android事件代码自动生成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 胡文

    2012-01-01

    为解决Android事件代码自动生成问题,结合对象关联理论,论述了控件对象关联关系,并给出控件对象关联关系定义并实现其构建过程,最终建立控件对象关联关系树COARTree,将其应用于Android事件代码生成过程中,解决了Android事件代码自动生成问题,并取得了良好的应用价值.以简易电话簿为实例,验证了Android事件代码自动生成的方法.%In order to solve the problem of Android event code automatically generated, this paper combined with the object of relevance theory (OAR) , discussed on the control object relationship, and gave the control object relationships theory ( COAR) defining and achieve their build process, and ultimately establish control object relationship tree(COARTree) applied to Android event code generation process to solve the problem of Android event code automatically generated, and have achieved good application value. Simple phone book, for instance, to verify the Android event code automatically generated.

  13. Evaluation of Key Aroma Compounds in Processed Prawns (Whiteleg Shrimp) by Quantitation and Aroma Recombination Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2017-03-24

    In our previous study on the aroma compounds of heated prawn meat, the main odorants in blanched (BPM) and fried prawn meat (FPM), respectively, were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis. In this follow-up study, these aroma compounds were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold) were calculated. Results revealed 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one as the most potent odor-active compounds in both prawn samples. In FPM, as compared to BPM, higher OAVs were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 3-methylbutanal, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and trimethylpyrazine. Aroma recombination experiments corroborated that the overall aroma of the blanched as well as the fried prawn meat, respectively, could well be mimicked by the set of key odorants quantitated in this study.

  14. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial sufus by odour activity value, gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma recombination and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Shang, Yi; Chen, Feng; Niu, Yunwei; Gu, Yongbo; Liu, Shengjiang; Zhu, Jiancai

    2015-01-01

    Sufu is a solid-state fermented product made from soya beans. For the sake of quality control and regulation purposes, it is essential to be able to identify key odorants of various commercial sufus. To identify the aroma-active compounds in sufus, gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) was performed, and odour activity value (OAV) was estimated. The correlations between aroma profiles and identified aroma-active compounds were also investigated by principal component analysis. Results showed that 35 aroma-active compounds were detected through OAV calculation, while 28 compounds were identified by using GC-O/AEDA. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that aroma recombination model based on OAV calculation was more similar to original sufu in terms of aroma comparing to aroma recombination model based on GC-O/AEDA. Omission experiments further confirmed that the aroma compounds, such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, contributed most significantly to the characteristic aroma of a commercial sufu.

  15. Modeling and simulation of the generation automatic control of electric power systems; Modelado y simulacion del control automatico de generacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero Ortiz, Ezequiel

    2002-12-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the Automatic Control of Electrical Systems Generation of power, as of the information that generates the loop with Load-Frequency Control and the Automatic Voltage Regulator loop. To accomplish the analysis, the control classical theory and feedback control systems concepts are applied. Thus also, the modern theory concepts are employed. The studies are accomplished in the digital computer through the MATLAB program and the available simulation technique in the SIMULINK tool. In this thesis the theoretical and physical concepts of the automatic control of generation are established; dividing it in load frequency control and automatic voltage regulator loops. The mathematical models of the two control loops are established. Later, the models of the elements are interconnected in order to integrate the loop with load frequency control and the digital simulation of the system is carried out. In first instance, the function of the primary control in are - machine, area - multi machine and multi area - multi machine power systems, is analyzed. Then, the automatic control of generation of the area and multi area power systems is studied. The economic dispatch concept is established and with this plan the power system multi area is simulated, there in after the energy exchange among areas in stationary stage is studied. The mathematical models of the component elements of the control loop of the automatic voltage regulator are interconnected. Data according to the nature of each component are generated and their behavior is simulated to analyze the system response. The two control loops are interconnected and a simulation is carry out with data generated previously, examining the performance of the automatic control of generation and the interaction between the two control loops. Finally, the Poles Positioning and the Optimum Control techniques of the modern control theory are applied to the automatic control of an area generation

  16. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... and deserve further consideration as alternative techniques for gentle aroma stripping in industrial fruit juice processing....... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...

  17. Linking wine lactic acid bacteria diversity with wine aroma and flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Maria Stella; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Logrieco, Antonio; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2017-02-21

    In the last two decades knowledge on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with wine has increased considerably. Investigations on genetic and biochemistry of species involved in malolactic fermentation, such as Oenococcus oeni and of Lactobacillus have enabled a better understand of their role in aroma modification and microbial stability of wine. In particular, the use of molecular techniques has provided evidence on the high diversity at species and strain level, thus improving the knowledge on wine LAB taxonomy and ecology. These tools demonstrated to also be useful to detect strains with potential desirable or undesirable traits for winemaking purposes. At the same time, advances on the enzymatic properties of wine LAB responsible for the development of wine aroma molecules have been undertaken. Interestingly, it has highlighted the high intraspecific variability of enzymatic activities such as glucosidase, esterase, proteases and those related to citrate metabolism within the wine LAB species. This genetic and biochemistry diversity that characterizes wine LAB populations can generate a wide spectrum of wine sensory outcomes. This review examines some of these interesting aspects as a way to elucidate the link between LAB diversity with wine aroma and flavour. In particular, the correlation between inter- and intra-species diversity and bacterial metabolic traits that affect the organoleptic properties of wines is highlighted with emphasis on the importance of enzymatic potential of bacteria for the selection of starter cultures to control MLF and to enhance wine aroma.

  18. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Llovera, Mónica; Corral, Sara; CANO GARCÍA, LILIANA; SALVADOR ALCARAZ, ANA; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, es...

  19. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  20. Characterization of key odorants in Chinese chixiang aroma-type liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Chixiang aroma-type liquor is extensively welcomed by consumers owing to its typical fatty aroma, particularly in southern China. To our knowledge, no comprehensive characterization of aroma and flavor from chixiang aroma-type liquor has been published. It is still a confused question which components are the most important in characterizing its unique aroma. A total of 56 odorants were identified in chixiang aroma-type liquor by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and in different quantitative measurements, 34 aroma compounds were further demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs). Furthermore, this research suggested that the aroma of chixiang aroma-type finished liquor could be successfully reconstituted by mixing 34 aroma compounds in the concentrations measured. Omission experiments further confirmed (E)-2-nonenal as the key odorant and revealed the significance of (E)-2-octenal and 2-phenylethanol for the overall aroma of chixiang aroma-type liquor. 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), diethyl 1,7-heptanedioate (diethyl pimelate), diethyl 1,8-octanedioate (diethyl suberate), and diethyl 1,9-nonanedioate (diethyl azelate), identified as the characteristic aromas of chixiang aroma-type liquor in 1995, had no effects on aroma based on omission/addition experiments.

  1. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F.

    2016-06-01

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted-achieved) were only  -0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,-1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  -0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly accurate

  2. Evaluation of ICA-AROMA and alternative strategies for motion artifact removal in resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruim, Raimon H R; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian F

    2015-05-15

    We proposed ICA-AROMA as a strategy for the removal of motion-related artifacts from fMRI data (Pruim et al., 2015). ICA-AROMA automatically identifies and subsequently removes data-driven derived components that represent motion-related artifacts. Here we present an extensive evaluation of ICA-AROMA by comparing our strategy to a range of alternative strategies for motion-related artifact removal: (i) no secondary motion correction, (ii) extensive nuisance regression utilizing 6 or (iii) 24 realignment parameters, (iv) spike regression (Satterthwaite et al., 2013a), (v) motion scrubbing (Power et al., 2012), (vi) aCompCor (Behzadi et al., 2007; Muschelli et al., 2014), (vii) SOCK (Bhaganagarapu et al., 2013), and (viii) ICA-FIX (Griffanti et al., 2014; Salimi-Khorshidi et al., 2014), without re-training the classifier. Using three different functional connectivity analysis approaches and four different multi-subject resting-state fMRI datasets, we assessed all strategies regarding their potential to remove motion artifacts, ability to preserve signal of interest, and induced loss in temporal degrees of freedom (tDoF). Results demonstrated that ICA-AROMA, spike regression, scrubbing, and ICA-FIX similarly minimized the impact of motion on functional connectivity metrics. However, both ICA-AROMA and ICA-FIX resulted in significantly improved resting-state network reproducibility and decreased loss in tDoF compared to spike regression and scrubbing. In comparison to ICA-FIX, ICA-AROMA yielded improved preservation of signal of interest across all datasets. These results demonstrate that ICA-AROMA is an effective strategy for removing motion-related artifacts from rfMRI data. Our robust and generalizable strategy avoids the need for censoring fMRI data and reduces motion-induced signal variations in fMRI data, while preserving signal of interest and increasing the reproducibility of functional connectivity metrics. In addition, ICA-AROMA preserves the temporal non

  3. Mechanism of Aroma Fixation and Aroma Fixer Preparation%定香机理及定香基的配制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翔云

    2011-01-01

    通过一系列实验确定:在一个香精体系中,高沸点物质可以令头香香料在一段时间内的挥发量减少,如果该物质本身没有香气,则没有留香或定香作用;有香气的高沸点物质则有一定的留香或定香作用;高沸点且香比强值大的香料留香或定香作用最强.列出了3个很有实际价值的香水用定香基为例说明.%A series of experiments to determine that in the perfume compound system, high boiling point substances allows top aroma components to reduce the amount of volatile in a period of time. Odorless substances couldn't make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. Odor substances with high boiling paint can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation. The components with higher boiling point and stronger aroma can make the action of aroma reservation or aroma fixation stronger. This paper sets out three aroma fixers with practical value as examples.

  4. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  5. A computer program to automatically generate state equations and macro-models. [for network analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, S. J.; Bowers, J. C.; Oreilly, J. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program, PROSE, that produces nonlinear state equations from a simple topological description of an electrical or mechanical network is described. Unnecessary states are also automatically eliminated, so that a simplified terminal circuit model is obtained. The program also prints out the eigenvalues of a linearized system and the sensitivities of the eigenvalue of largest magnitude.

  6. VC++ PROGRAMMING AUTOMATIC GENERATING WITH NATURAL LANGUAGE INTERFACE%以自然语言为界面实现VC++程序的自动生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉龙; 辛运帏; 谷大勇; 陈有祺

    2001-01-01

    本文提出以自然语言为界面实现程序自动生成的研究成果.该研究系统使用面向对象的方法与技术,以自然语言为输入界面,使用扩充的格语法进行语法语义分析,将用户描述的VC++期望程序功能的汉语篇章依次进行自动切词处理、语法处理、语义分析理解、目标程序的自动生成,最终形成满足用户要求且符合Visual C++语法的结果程序.%The study of realizing programming automatic generation with natural language interface by combined two important fields of natural language processing and software automation is reported in this paper.   Using object-oriented technology and method, with chinese character text input interface, regarding case grammar as the theory foundaton, after doing automatic word segmenting and syntactic and semantic analyzing, as a final output results, the correct executable visual C++ programs with functions described by user in chinese character texts are automatically generated by the researched system.

  7. Structural and physical effects of aroma compound binding to native starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Jensen, Susanne L.; Ziegler, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The interaction and physical/structural effects of aroma compounds, at high concentrations on dry native starch granules were studied using eight selected model compounds: acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, diacetyl, allyl isothiocyanate, ethyl butyrate, citral, octanol and butyric acid. The maize,...... that generated surface wrinkles on B‐ and C‐type polymorphic granules and aggregation of A‐type polymorphic granules, decreased the melting temperature and suppressed the crystallinity of the starch....

  8. Research on DSP automatic code generation technology with Matlab platform%Matlab平台DSP自动代码生成技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧明; 李中健; 姜达郁

    2012-01-01

    Since it is difficult and time-consuming to programm for DSP, a method that synthetically uses Matlab, code, composer studio (CCS), and their embedded tools and connection softwares to generate code automatically is proposed. The research mainly focuses on the method of automatic code generation with DM642 EVM board. The edge detection experiment is taken to verify the performability and reliability of the method. The results show that the code generation method is not only efficient, but also flexible. The generated code can be executed smoothly in the DSP board with a good processing result.%针对DSP编程难度大,耗时长的问题,给出了一种综合运用Matlab软件、Code Composer Studio(CCS)软件及其内嵌工具和连接软件进行自动代码生成的方法.重点研究DM642 EVM板的自动代码生成方法,并以边缘检测实验为例,验证自动生成代码的可执行性.实验结果表明,该代码生成方法不仅具有极高的生成效率,而且灵活易用;生成的可执行代码可以在DSP板上顺利运行,并可取得非常好的处理结果.

  9. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  10. The role of saliva in aroma release and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ployon, Sarah; Morzel, Martine; Canon, Francis

    2017-07-01

    Aroma perception is an important factor driving food acceptance. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the food matrix and then reach the receptors located in the nasal cavity, leading to their perception. These steps are closely dependent on the physicochemical properties of the volatile compounds and the food matrix, but also on human physiology. Among the different physiological parameters involved, the literature reports that saliva has various effects on VOCs and therefore appears as a major actor impacting the perception of aroma. This article reviews how saliva takes part in aroma release, considering both in vitro and in vivo approaches, and how it may affect perception. It describes the direct mechanisms (molecular interactions, enzymatic conversion, salting-out effect, dilution) involving salivary components (salts, proteins including enzymes, microbiota) that can modify the release of aroma compounds. It also considers the indirect impact of saliva, such as changes of aroma diffusion through modification of the physicochemical properties of the food matrix.

  11. Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

    2013-11-27

    The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and γ-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, β-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

  12. LiDAR The Generation of Automatic Mapping for Buildings, Using High Spatial Resolution Digital Vertical Aerial Photography and LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barragán Zaque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to generate photogrammetrie products and to automatically map buildings in the area of interest in vector format. The research was conducted Bogotá using high resolution digital vertical aerial photographs and point clouds obtained using LIDAR technology. Image segmentation was also used, alongside radiometric and geometric digital processes. The process took into account aspects including building height, segmentation algorithms, and spectral band combination. The results had an effectiveness of 97.2 % validated through ground-truthing.

  13. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  14. MO-G-BRE-04: Automatic Verification of Daily Treatment Deliveries and Generation of Daily Treatment Reports for a MR Image-Guided Treatment Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, D; Li, X; Li, H; Wooten, H; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Two aims of this work were to develop a method to automatically verify treatment delivery accuracy immediately after patient treatment and to develop a comprehensive daily treatment report to provide all required information for daily MR-IGRT review. Methods: After systematically analyzing the requirements for treatment delivery verification and understanding the available information from a novel MR-IGRT treatment machine, we designed a method to use 1) treatment plan files, 2) delivery log files, and 3) dosimetric calibration information to verify the accuracy and completeness of daily treatment deliveries. The method verifies the correctness of delivered treatment plans and beams, beam segments, and for each segment, the beam-on time and MLC leaf positions. Composite primary fluence maps are calculated from the MLC leaf positions and the beam-on time. Error statistics are calculated on the fluence difference maps between the plan and the delivery. We also designed the daily treatment delivery report by including all required information for MR-IGRT and physics weekly review - the plan and treatment fraction information, dose verification information, daily patient setup screen captures, and the treatment delivery verification results. Results: The parameters in the log files (e.g. MLC positions) were independently verified and deemed accurate and trustable. A computer program was developed to implement the automatic delivery verification and daily report generation. The program was tested and clinically commissioned with sufficient IMRT and 3D treatment delivery data. The final version has been integrated into a commercial MR-IGRT treatment delivery system. Conclusion: A method was developed to automatically verify MR-IGRT treatment deliveries and generate daily treatment reports. Already in clinical use since December 2013, the system is able to facilitate delivery error detection, and expedite physician daily IGRT review and physicist weekly chart

  15. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  16. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  17. Model Driven Automatic Generation of Web Application Systems%模型驱动下的Web应用系统自动生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海林

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote software development efficiency,it proposes an approach of model driven automatic generation of Web applications. The approach takes MetaEdit+ as a meta-modeling tool. The first step the approach suggests is to build Web application meta -models and to customize DSL. The further step is to build Web application domain models by DSL. Then by using generator definition language MERL which MetaEdit+ provides,the software developers can design conveniently JSP generator,Servlet generator,Javabeans generator and database generator that Web application systems need. These generators can produce the whole Web application system directly from the Web application graph models. Finally, the approach of model driven automatic generation of Web applications will be introduced in detail through an instance named WebShopping. The test result indicates that the generated Web application can run correctly on the Web application server in the Windows operating system environment.%为了提高Web应用系统开发效率,提出了模型驱动下的Web应用系统自动生成方法.这种生成方法是以MetaEdit+作为元建模工具,首先创建Web应用系统元模型、定制DSL,进而建立Web应用系统领域模型,然后通过MetaEdit+提供的生成器定义语言MERL,软件开发人员可以很方便地设计出Web应用系统所需的JSP生成器、Servlet生成器、Jay -abeans生成器和数据库生成器,从Web应用系统图形模型直接生成整个Web应用系统.最后通过一个WebShopping实例详细介绍了模型驱动下的Web应用系统生成方法及生成过程.经测试,所生成的Web应用系统可以在Windows操作系统中的Web应用服务器上正确运行.

  18. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  19. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  20. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  1. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica for aroma production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Adelaide; Belo, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare different materials for Y. lipolytica immobilization that could be used in the production of γ-decalactone (a peach-like aroma) in order to prevent the toxic effect both of the substrate and the aroma upon the cells. Therefore, cells adsorption onto pieces of methyl polymethacrylate and of DupUM(®) was studied and further used in the biotransformation of castor oil into γ-decalactone. The highest aroma concentration was obtained with immobilized cells in DupUM(®), where reconsumption of the aroma by the cells was prevented, contrarily to what happens with free cells. This is a very promising result for γ-decalactone production, with potential to be used at an industrial level since the use of immobilized cells system will facilitate the conversion of a batch process into a continuous mode keeping high cell density and allowing easier recovery of metabolic products.

  2. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    an unpleasant, rancid odour compared to sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus, indicating that the esterase activity of Staphylococcus xylosus or other microorganisms is very important in order to obtain the proper fermented sausage aroma.Although sausages with Staphylococcus xylosus contained the highest...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  3. Research on Automatic Generation Technology of General Crystal Report%通用水晶报表自动生成技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛凤侠; 杨玉强

    2013-01-01

      针对水晶报表制作周期长、维护困难,难已满足用户个性化和不断变化需求的现状,文中研究自动生成技术,设计思路是由大型数据库支持前端程序运行,将报表的外观、结构、程序等信息存储在数据库中,运行时根据这些信息自动生成报表。首先进行界面设计,包括报表页眉节、页眉节、详细资料节、页脚节、报表页脚节;然后进行数据库设计,包括概念结构设计和逻辑结构设计;最后进行关键程序设计,包括主程序设计、设置字段设计、设置统计值设计。运用自动生成技术,提高了软件开发劳动生产率,改变了传统的软件开发模式。%For the current situation about long production cycle,difficult to maintain,difficult to meet users’ individual and changing needs of crystal reports,study automatic generation technology,the design idea is run by the large database front-end programs,and the report appearance,structure,procedures are stored in database,running to automatically generate reports based on this information. First conduct interface design,including the report header segment,header segment,details segment,page footer segment,report footer seg-ment;second,carry on database design,including conceptual structure design and logic structure design;finally,conduct key program de-sign,including main program design,set field design,set statistics design. Using the automatic generation technology,improve the labor productivity of software development,and has changed the traditional mode of software development.

  4. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Chinese Zhima Aroma-Type Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Zhao, Mouming; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan; Sun, Jinyuan; Sun, Xiaotao; Li, Hehe

    2016-07-06

    Zhima aroma-type Baijiu with typical sesame aroma is particularly popular in northern China. To our knowledge, it is still uncertain which components are important to make contributions to its unique aroma, although a few pieces of research have reported many volatile compounds in this Baijiu. The aroma-active compounds from the Baijiu were researched in this paper. A total of 56 odorants were identified in Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Their odor activity values (OAVs) were determined by different quantitative measurements, and then 26 aroma compounds were further confirmed as important odorants due to their OAVs ≥ 1, and these had higher values, such as ethyl hexanoate (OAV 2691), 3-methylbutanal (2403), ethyl pentanoate (1019), and so on. The overall aroma of Zhima aroma-type Baijiu could be simulated by mixing of the 26 key odorants in their measured concentrations. The similarity of the overall aroma profiles between the recombination model and the commercial sample was judged to be 2.7 out of 3.0 points. Omission experiments further corroborated the importance of methional and ethyl hexanoate for the overall aroma of Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu.

  5. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  6. 数据驱动的NC代码自动生成方法研究%Study in NC code generating automatically based on data driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克天; 何汉武; 王志坚; 郑德涛; 陈统坚

    2001-01-01

    提出了以数据驱动方式来代替常规的人机交互方式对制造模型进行处理,最终可自动生成NC代码。论述了数据驱动文件原理、表达规则、运行方式以及生成NC代码的过程。%It was presented that data driving method used in manufacturing model instead of the method of manually, and NC code could be generated automatically. Its principle, expressing rules, and NC code creating of the data driving file were discussed step by step.

  7. 利用ArcIMS自动生成震中分布图%Automatic generation of epicenter image with ArcIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董星宏; 贾宁

    2011-01-01

    Using the function of the ArcIMS website publishing, we implement automatic generation of static epicenter image, and integrate it into the portal website′s management, enrich the content of the rapid earthquake information report, save the time for manually drawing the Epicenter figure.%利用ArcIMS的地图发布功能,较好地实现自动生成静态震中分布图的功能,并将该功能与门户网站集成起来,可丰富地震速报信息的内容,节约应急时期人工绘图的时间.

  8. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-01

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  9. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees.

  10. FDM工艺中的支撑自动生成技术研究%Research on Support Automatically Generation Technology in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新英; 潘夕琪

    2012-01-01

    在FDM工艺中,基于其成型特点,在加工过程中需要添加支撑.支撑结构的合理性对成型件的精度和加工效率都有很大的影响.提出的基于扫描线的支撑自动生成技术生成支撑的速度快且无遗漏,在此基础上还能快速完成路径优化,实际应用效果较好.%According to the essential principle, the support must be generated in FDM prototyping. The reasonability of support structure has a great impact on the quality of these processes and the efficiency of prototyping. A new algorithm was described, in which support was automatically generated base on the linescan. It is proved the velocity of generating support is very fast and nowhere is missed. And optimization of the scanning road is very easy. The algorithm is robust and very efficient.

  11. Contract Automatic Generation Method Based on TASC Model%基于TASC模型的合同自动生成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒; 李自臣

    2011-01-01

    通过可信自治服务协同模型解决因自治个体行为难以预测和控制而导致的协同可信危机.在该模型下,Agent之间通过服务合同建立协同关系.提出一种有效的服务合同生成方法,利用服务分类体系、基于适用情景的服务发现机制和服务合同协议模板进行求解,以一种快速查找、可重用的方式生成合同,从而提高服务组合的自动化程度,并给出可信自治式服务协同过程和服务合同自动生成过程.%TASC model can solve the cooperation trust crisis result from the phenomenon that it is difficult to predict and control the autonomy individual behavior. Under this model, service contract establishes cooperation relations between Agents. This paper proposes an effective service contract generation method. It uses service classification system, service discovery mechanism for scenario and service contract protocol template,generates contract in a fast and reusable way, thus improve the level of automation, and gives the process of trust autonomy service cooperation and service contract automatic generation.

  12. 基于MATLAB的SVPWM算法自动代码生成技术研究%Search on Generating Code Automatically of SVPWM Based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕊; 张建军; 马昭; 路瑜

    2015-01-01

    Because of DSP’s complicated programming,long developing term,a method is given by using MAT⁃LAB,CCS and its auxiliary software to generate SVPWM code automatically. MATLAB/Simulink is used to build a corresponding algorithmic model. After testifying the correct of this model,it generats codes,compilies automatical⁃ly and downloads them to DSP system to operate. The wave is identical with that of the theoretical result. Compared with manuel code,this method is easy to do,and has a short developing term and high efficiency of generating codes.%针对DSP编程复杂,开发周期长的问题,给出了一种运用MATLAB软件、Code Composer Studio(CCS)软件及其内嵌工具和链接软件自动生成SVPWM代码的方法。利用MATLAB/Simulink仿真软件建立了相应的算法模型,验证模型的正确性之后,自动生成代码,并编译、下载到DSP平台中运行,产生的波形与理论相吻合。与手工编写代码的方法相比较,该方法简单易行,开发周期短,生成代码效率高。

  13. Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2009-08-12

    Aroma release from wines and model ethanolic solutions during dynamic headspace dilution was measured in real time using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Model ethanolic solutions maintained the headspace concentration of volatile compounds close to equilibrium values during gas phase dilution over 10 min. Wine samples (with the same ethanol content) did not maintain the headspace concentration of volatiles to the same extent. Wine components and acidity ((+)-catechin, glycerol; pH 3.6) in model ethanolic solutions (120 mL/L) had no effect on the volatile headspace concentration during dynamic headspace dilution. However, in the presence of certain proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, bovine serum albumin), the model ethanolic solutions failed to maintain their volatile headspace concentration upon headspace dilution, but other proteins (thaumatin, mucin, lysozyme) had no effect. Thermal imaging of the model ethanolic samples (with and without beta-casein) under dynamic headspace dilution conditions showed differences in surface temperatures. This observation suggested perturbation of the ethanol monolayer at the air-liquid interface and disruption of the Marangoni effect, which causes bulk convection within ethanolic solutions. Convection carries volatile compounds and warm liquid from the bulk phase to the air-liquid interface, thus replenishing the interfacial concentration and maintaining the gas phase concentration and interfacial surface temperature during headspace dilution. It is postulated that certain proteins may exert a similar effect in wine.

  14. Production optimization of 99Mo/99mTc zirconium molybate gel generators at semi-automatic device: DISIGEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Guzman, F; Rivero Gutiérrez, T; López Malpica, I Z; Hernández Cortes, S; Rojas Nava, P; Vazquez Maldonado, J C; Vazquez, A

    2012-01-01

    DISIGEG is a synthesis installation of zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gels for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator production, which has been designed, built and installed at the ININ. The device consists of a synthesis reactor and five systems controlled via keyboard: (1) raw material access, (2) chemical air stirring, (3) gel dried by air and infrared heating, (4) moisture removal and (5) gel extraction. DISIGEG operation is described and dried condition effects of zirconium (99)Mo- molybdate gels on (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator performance were evaluated as well as some physical-chemical properties of these gels. The results reveal that temperature, time and air flow applied during the drying process directly affects zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gel generator performance. All gels prepared have a similar chemical structure probably constituted by three-dimensional network, based on zirconium pentagonal bipyramids and molybdenum octahedral. Basic structural variations cause a change in gel porosity and permeability, favouring or inhibiting (99m)TcO(4)(-) diffusion into the matrix. The (99m)TcO(4)(-) eluates produced by (99)Mo/(99m)Tc zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gel generators prepared in DISIGEG, air dried at 80°C for 5h and using an air flow of 90mm, satisfied all the Pharmacopoeias regulations: (99m)Tc yield between 70-75%, (99)Mo breakthrough less than 3×10(-3)%, radiochemical purities about 97% sterile and pyrogen-free eluates with a pH of 6.

  15. Yeast strains as potential aroma enhancers in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mónica; Corral, Sara; Cano-García, Liliana; Salvador, Ana; Belloch, Carmela

    2015-11-06

    Actual healthy trends produce changes in the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages therefore, new strategies are needed to enhance their aroma. In particular, a reduction in the aroma characteristics was observed in reduced fat and salt dry sausages. In terms of aroma enhancing, generally coagulase-negative cocci were selected as the most important group from the endogenous microbiota in the production of flavour compounds. Among the volatile compounds analysed in dry sausages, ester compounds contribute to fruity aroma notes associated with high acceptance of traditional dry sausages. However, the origin of ester compounds in traditional dry sausages can be due to other microorganisms as lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds. Yeast contribution in dry fermented sausages was investigated with opposite results attributed to low yeast survival or low activity during processing. Generally, they affect sausage colour and flavour by their oxygen-scavenging and lipolytic activities in addition to, their ability to catabolize fermentation products such as lactate increasing the pH and contributing to less tangy and more aromatic sausages. Recently, the isolation and characterization of yeast from traditional dry fermented sausages made possible the selection of those with ability to produce aroma active compounds. Molecular methods were used for genetic typing of the isolated yeasts whereas their ability to produce aroma compounds was tested in different systems such as in culture media, in model systems and finally on dry fermented sausages. The results revealed that the appropriate selection of yeast strains with aroma potential may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of reformulated fermented sausages.

  16. LanHEP—a package for the automatic generation of Feynman rules in field theory. Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A. V.

    2009-03-01

    The LanHEP program version 3.0 for Feynman rules generation from the Lagrangian is described. It reads the Lagrangian written in a compact form, close to the one used in publications. It means that Lagrangian terms can be written with summation over indices of broken symmetries and using special symbols for complicated expressions, such as covariant derivative and strength tensor for gauge fields. Supersymmetric theories can be described using the superpotential formalism and the 2-component fermion notation. The output is Feynman rules in terms of physical fields and independent parameters in the form of CompHEP model files, which allows one to start calculations of processes in the new physical model. Alternatively, Feynman rules can be generated in FeynArts format or as LaTeX table. One-loop counterterms can be generated in FeynArts format. Program summaryProgram title: LanHEP Catalogue identifier: ADZV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 83 041 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 090 931 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 2 MB (SM), 12 MB (MSSM), 120 MB (MSSM with counterterms) Classification: 4.4 Nature of problem: Deriving Feynman rules from the Lagrangian Solution method: The program reads the Lagrangian written in a compact form, close to the one used in publications. It means that Lagrangian terms can be written with summation over indices of broken symmetries and using special symbols for complicated expressions, such as covariant derivative and strength tensor for gauge fields. Tools for checking the correctness of the model, and for simplifying the output expressions are provided. The output is

  17. 模型驱动下的数据库自动生成%Automatic Generation of Database Based on Model Driven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海林

    2011-01-01

    为提高软件开发效率,提出模型驱动下的数据库自动生成方法.该方法以MetaEdit+作为元建模工具,由领域专家建立领域元模型和模型,通过生成器定义语言MERL,软件开发人员可以很方便地设计代码生成器,直接从领域专家所建立的图形领域模型生成Java程序代码,并运行已生成的程序代码进而生成数据库.通过一个实例详细介绍了数据库概念模型元模型设计、E-R模型设计并给出从E-R模型到Java代码的生成器设计.经测试,所生成的Java程序代码可以在Windows操作系统环境的Java平台上运行,并能正确生成Oracle 10g数据库实例.%In order to promote software's development efficiency, is proposes an approach of database, automatic generation based on model driven. This approach takes MetaEdit-t- as a meta-modeling tool. Domain meta-models and models are established by domain experts. By using generator definition language MERL, the software developers can design code generators very conveniently. From the graph domain models which are established by domain experts, code generators can generate Java codes directly and then the generated codes can produce database. It introduces in detail design of database conceptual meta-model, E-R model and generators for Java code through an instance. The test result indicates that the generated Java codes can run correctly on Java platforms in Windows operating system environment and then can produce a database instance in Oracle lOg.

  18. SU-E-J-141: Comparison of Dose Calculation On Automatically Generated MRBased ED Maps and Corresponding Patient CT for Clinical Prostate EBRT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schadewaldt, N; Schulz, H; Helle, M; Renisch, S [Philips Research Laboratories Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Frantzen-Steneker, M; Heide, U [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of computing radiation dose on automatically generated MR-based simulated CT images compared to true patient CTs. Methods: Six prostate cancer patients received a regular planning CT for RT planning as well as a conventional 3D fast-field dual-echo scan on a Philips 3.0T Achieva, adding approximately 2 min of scan time to the clinical protocol. Simulated CTs (simCT) where synthesized by assigning known average CT values to the tissue classes air, water, fat, cortical and cancellous bone. For this, Dixon reconstruction of the nearly out-of-phase (echo 1) and in-phase images (echo 2) allowed for water and fat classification. Model based bone segmentation was performed on a combination of the DIXON images. A subsequent automatic threshold divides into cortical and cancellous bone. For validation, the simCT was registered to the true CT and clinical treatment plans were re-computed on the simCT in pinnacle{sup 3}. To differentiate effects related to the 5 tissue classes and changes in the patient anatomy not compensated by rigid registration, we also calculate the dose on a stratified CT, where HU values are sorted in to the same 5 tissue classes as the simCT. Results: Dose and volume parameters on PTV and risk organs as used for the clinical approval were compared. All deviations are below 1.1%, except the anal sphincter mean dose, which is at most 2.2%, but well below clinical acceptance threshold. Average deviations are below 0.4% for PTV and risk organs and 1.3% for the anal sphincter. The deviations of the stratifiedCT are in the same range as for the simCT. All plans would have passed clinical acceptance thresholds on the simulated CT images. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the clinical usability of MR based dose calculation with the presented Dixon acquisition and subsequent fully automatic image processing. N. Schadewaldt, H. Schulz, M. Helle and S. Renisch are employed by Phlips Technologie Innovative Techonologies, a

  19. Design of Automatic Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation Device%全自动光伏发电装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天沛

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an automatic following system which takes DS 1302 and AT89S51 as the core. The stepper motor is controlled by using the method of the comparison of photoresistors, and by using the stepper motor to drive the biaxial mechanical tracking system to assure the solar panels vertical to the solar incident angle, thus improve the conversion efficiency of the solar energy. Everyday the device can return the initial sitting after tracking, and in the second day,it will continue track automatically to remove the accumulative error. The results show that the device generates more electricity than the fixed photovoltaic system continuously during the period of the experiment and its total power production is approximately 3.12 times of the latter. The anticipative targets is reached. It has widespread applicable potentialities.%设计了一套以DS1302和AT89S51单片机为核心的全自动跟踪光伏发电装置,采用光敏电阻比较法对步进电机进行控制,并利用步进电机驱动双轴机械驱动定位系统,使太阳能电池板始终垂直于太阳入射角,从而提高太阳能的转换效率.该装置能够在每天跟踪结束后自动回到初始位置,第二天继续自动跟踪,从而消除积累误差.实验证明,该装置在测量时段内的发电量始终明显大于固定光伏系统,是后者的3.12倍,达到预期的性能指标,具有广泛的应用潜力.

  20. Design of Controller for Automatic Tracking Solar Power Generation%全天候太阳能自动跟踪系统装置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锋; 王炜灵; 陈健强; 陈泽群; 张晓薇

    2014-01-01

    本文提出了一种全天候太阳能自动跟踪系统。在检测系统上,硬件方面使用实际的光电跟踪模型,软件上设置视日运动轨迹跟踪程序;在控制系统上,采用双轴跟踪的机械传动机构,通过驱动直流电机调整太阳能板的最佳位置,并通过传功装置实现单台电机带动整排太阳能电池板的联动;针对阴雨天和狂风天气控制系统做出一系列的预防措施。本装置旨在全天采光发电,结构简单、能耗低、效率高。%The principle and structure of an intelligent automatic solar tracker are proposed. For testing system, a modelofphotoelectric tracing as hardware is used to track light while the device sets up a program to analysis the movement of the light as software. For controlling system, the controller has a two-axis tracker for mechanical design,and promote the whole row of solar panel linked by linkage. The controller drives the stepping motor to adjust the position of the solar panel to follow the sunlight,and. Other actions are taken to avoid the rain and strong wind. And the intelligent energy-saving design is involved. The simple-designed and energy-saving automatic tracking solar power generation is expected to work in days with highly efficiency.

  1. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  2. The ear, the eye, earthquakes and feature selection: listening to automatically generated seismic bulletins for clues as to the differences between true and false events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arehart, E.; Louie, J. N.; Witzleben, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Listening to the waveforms generated by earthquakes is not new. The recordings of seismometers have been sped up and played to generations of introductory seismology students, published on educational websites and even included in the occasional symphony. The modern twist on earthquakes as music is an interest in using state-of-the-art computer algorithms for seismic data processing and evaluation. Algorithms such as such as Hidden Markov Models, Bayesian Network models and Support Vector Machines have been highly developed for applications in speech recognition, and might also be adapted for automatic seismic data analysis. Over the last three years, the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has supported an effort to apply computer learning and data mining algorithms to IDC data processing, particularly to the problem of weeding through automatically generated event bulletins to find events which are non-physical and would otherwise have to be eliminated by the hand of highly trained human analysts. Analysts are able to evaluate events, distinguish between phases, pick new phases and build new events by looking at waveforms displayed on a computer screen. Human ears, however, are much better suited to waveform processing than are the eyes. Our hypothesis is that combining an auditory representation of seismic events with visual waveforms would reduce the time it takes to train an analyst and the time they need to evaluate an event. Since it takes almost two years for a person of extraordinary diligence to become a professional analyst and IDC contracts are limited to seven years by Treaty, faster training would significantly improve IDC operations. Furthermore, once a person learns to distinguish between true and false events by ear, various forms of audio compression can be applied to the data. The compression scheme which yields the smallest data set in which relevant signals can still be heard is likely an

  3. 改进的蠕虫特征自动提取模型及算法设计%Improved Automatic Generation Model of Worm Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖; 康松林

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an worm signatures automatic generation model based on sequence aligment, it uses unified tilting and clustering processing to enhance the suspicious traffic sample's purtity, and with the modified T-Coffe multiple sequence alignment algorithm to generate worms signature. For comparative analysis of the signature generation model, this paper use two popular kinds of algorithms---Apache-Knacker algorithm and Hamsa algorithnr--to capture the signature of Apache-Knacker and TSIG worms virus. According to the experiment result, the signature generation model which are proposed in this paper is superior to the other two kinds of technology.%文章提出了一种基于序列比对的蠕虫特征自动提取模型,该模型针对现有蠕虫特征自动提取系统的可疑蠕虫样本流量单来源和粗预处理等问题,提出了对网络边界可疑流量和蜜罐捕获网络流量统一的聚类预处理,并使用改进的T-Coffee多序列比对算法进行蠕虫特征提取。实验分别对Apache-Knacker和TSIG这两种蠕虫病毒进行特征提取,从实验结果可以看出文章提出的模型产生的特征质量优于比较流行的Polygraph、Hamsa两种技术。

  4. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey.

  5. 一个XML文档自动生成器模型设计%DESIGN OF A MODEL OF XML DOCUMENTS' AUTOMATIC GENERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙煜飞; 马良荔; 吴清怡

    2013-01-01

    XML作为交互性电子技术手册创作中技术数据的描述方法,是实现技术信息共享和交换的关键技术.基于相应的XML-Schema约束,设计一个选择数据模块类别、提交数据文档,输出相应的XML文档的自动生成器模型.有效解决了XML编辑过程中的繁琐录入过程,为开发类似的数据模块编辑器提供思路.%As the description way of technical data in compiling Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM) , XML is the key technology to realise the sharing and exchange of technical information. Based on corresponding XML-Schema constraints, we design an automatic generator model, which can select data module category and submit data files, as well as export relevant XML documents. This generator effectively solves the complicated inputting process in XML documents editing, and provides an idea for the development of similar data module editors.

  6. Automatic generation of boundary conditions using Demons non-rigid image registration for use in 3D modality-independent elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Ou, Jao J.; Miga, Michael I.

    2010-02-01

    Modality-independent elastography (MIE) is a method of elastography that reconstructs the elastic properties of tissue using images acquired under different loading conditions and a biomechanical model. Boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm, and are often determined by time-consuming point correspondence methods requiring manual user input. Unfortunately, generation of accurate boundary conditions for the biomechanical model is often difficult due to the challenge of accurately matching points between the source and target surfaces and consequently necessitates the use of large numbers of fiducial markers. This study presents a novel method of automatically generating boundary conditions by non-rigidly registering two image sets with a Demons diffusion-based registration algorithm. The use of this method was successfully performed in silico using magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography image data with known boundary conditions. These preliminary results have produced boundary conditions with accuracy of up to 80% compared to the known conditions. Finally, these boundary conditions were utilized within a 3D MIE reconstruction to determine an elasticity contrast ratio between tumor and normal tissue. Preliminary results show a reasonable characterization of the material properties on this first attempt and a significant improvement in the automation level and viability of the method.

  7. Automatic generation of attack vectors for stored-XSS%存储型XSS攻击向量自动化生成技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景峰; 王一丁; 张玉清; 刘奇旭

    2012-01-01

    针对危害性最为严重的存储型XSS漏洞的特点及其触发方式,设计并实现了一款自动生成存储型XSS攻击向量的工具.使用该工具对中国2个大型视频分享网站的日志发布系统进行测试,发现6类导致存储型XSS漏洞的攻击向量.实验结果验证了该方法及测试工具的有效性,并说明中国视频网站仍存在着较大安全隐患.%The stored-XSS (cross-site scripting) is generally more serious than the other modalities of XSS. We study the characteristics and trigger mechanism of stored-XSS, propose an generation method of attack vectors for stored-XSS, and accomplish a tool which can generate the attack vectors automatically. After we used this tool in testing the blog systems of two popular video-sharing sites in China, we found 6 types of attcak vectors which can trigger stored-XSS. The results of the testing experiments show the effectiveness of our method and also show the potential security risk in the video-sharing sites.

  8. 基于Matlab模糊控制器HDL代码的自动生成%Fuzzy Controller HDL Code Automatically Generated Based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛俊贵

    2012-01-01

    This article, taking the Water Level Control in a Tank as an example, proposes a fuzzy controller automatic HDL code generation method based on Matlab. The generated code can be ported to the FPGA control system. The method is divided into four steps : ( 1 ) The fuzzy controller is designed using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in the Matlab. (2) The fuzzy controller is transformed into the form of Lookup Table. (3) The controller Lookup table is implemented with the state machine. (4) The fuzzy controller implementation with state machine was translated into HDL code by HDL Coder.%以水箱液位控制为例,提出了一种基于Maflab的模糊控制器HDL代码自动生成方法,生成的代码可以移植到FPGA控制系统上。该方法分4个步骤:(1)利用Maflab的FuzzyLogic工具箱设计模糊控制器。(2)将模糊控制器转换为LookupTable的形式。(3)将制作好的控制器查找表用状态机实现。(4)用HDLCoder将状态机实现的模糊控制器翻译成HDL代码。

  9. Design and Implementation of the Parameterized Standard Graphics Automatic Generating System%参数化标准件图形自动生成系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明洁; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    结合标准件自动绘图系统的具体要求及不同标准件的数据特点,在AutoCAD环境下,使用AutoLISP语言开发了参数化标准件图形自动生成系统.该系统采用交互式输入、程序化处理和数据文件管理等方式处理数据,可以自动生成各种标准件图形.%Combined the specific requirements of automatic drawing system of standard parts with the data characteristics of different standard parts, the parameterized standard graphics automatic generating system is developed in AutoLISP language under AutoCAD environment. By the way of interactive input, procedure processing and data file management, the system can generate the graphics of various standard parts automatically.

  10. Production optimization of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium molybate gel generators at semi-automatic device: DISIGEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Guzman, F., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rivero Gutierrez, T., E-mail: tonatiuh.rivero@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez Malpica, I.Z.; Hernandez Cortes, S.; Rojas Nava, P.; Vazquez Maldonado, J.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Norte Lazaro Cardenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    DISIGEG is a synthesis installation of zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gels for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator production, which has been designed, built and installed at the ININ. The device consists of a synthesis reactor and five systems controlled via keyboard: (1) raw material access, (2) chemical air stirring, (3) gel dried by air and infrared heating, (4) moisture removal and (5) gel extraction. DISIGEG operation is described and dried condition effects of zirconium {sup 99}Mo- molybdate gels on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator performance were evaluated as well as some physical-chemical properties of these gels. The results reveal that temperature, time and air flow applied during the drying process directly affects zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel generator performance. All gels prepared have a similar chemical structure probably constituted by three-dimensional network, based on zirconium pentagonal bipyramids and molybdenum octahedral. Basic structural variations cause a change in gel porosity and permeability, favouring or inhibiting {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} diffusion into the matrix. The {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} eluates produced by {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel generators prepared in DISIGEG, air dried at 80 Degree-Sign C for 5 h and using an air flow of 90 mm, satisfied all the Pharmacopoeias regulations: {sup 99m}Tc yield between 70-75%, {sup 99}Mo breakthrough less than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}%, radiochemical purities about 97% sterile and pyrogen-free eluates with a pH of 6. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators based on {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gels were synthesized at a semi-automatic device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generator performances depend on synthesis conditions of the zirconium {sup 99}Mo-molybdate gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} diffusion and yield into generator depends on gel porosity and permeability. Black

  11. Automatic Generation of Agents using Reusable Soft Computing Code Libraries to develop Multi Agent System for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Srinivas Sajja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates architecture for a multi agent system in healthcare domain. The architecture is generic and designed in form of multiple layers. One of the layers of the architecture contains many proactive, co-operative and intelligent agents such as resource management agent, query agent, pattern detection agent and patient management agent. Another layer of the architecture is a collection of libraries to auto-generate code for agents using soft computing techniques. At this stage, codes for artificial neural network and fuzzy logic are developed and encompassed in this layer. The agents use these codes for development of neural network, fuzzy logic or hybrid solutions such as neuro-fuzzy solution. Third layer encompasses knowledge base, metadata and other local databases. The multi layer architecture is supported by personalized user interfaces for friendly interaction with its users. The framework is generic, flexible, and designed for a distributed environment like the Web; with minor modifications it can be employed on grid or cloud platform. The paper also discusses detail design issues, suitable applications and future enhancement of the work.

  12. Aroma compound sorption by oak wood in a model wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, G; Lubbers, S; Charpentier, C; Feuillat, M; Voilley, A; Chassagne, D

    2001-08-01

    Oak wood used for wine barrels was immersed into a model wine containing eight aroma compounds (e.g., aromatic and terpene alcohols, ethyl esters, and aldehyde), for which activity coefficients in water and model wine were determined using the mutual solubility measurement. A mass balance of these volatiles considering their reactivity in model wine was established. For most of the studied aroma compounds, and mainly for linalool and ethyl octanoate, a sorption behavior into wood was reported for the first time. This phenomenon was selective and could not be related to the solubilities in model wine and hydrophobicities of the studied aroma compounds, suggesting that acid-base and polar characteristics of wood were more involved in this sorption mechanism. This study has also shown that the level of sorption is a function of the ratio of wood surface area/solution volume.

  13. The Effects of Aroma Acupuncture applied on Chronic Headache Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Tae JUNG; Su Yong KIM; Doo Ik LEE; Keon Sik KIM; Jae Dong LEE; Yun Ho LEE; Do Young CHOI

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background: Because the cause and etiology of chronic headache is not yet fully explained, the treatment of this symptom is not simple. This study compares the effects of aroma acupuncture and normal acupuncture applied on chronic headache patients, in order to establish a primary data for further studies of new treatments and developments of new practical acupuncture. Methods: 38 clinical experiment participants were gathered and through a questionnaire patients who experienced headache for more than 4 hours a day and more than 15 days per month were qualified as chronic headache patients. The qualified patients were classified into two groups, aroma acupuncture group (Aroma AT group, n=23) and normal acupuncture group (AT group, n=15).

  14. A program for assisting automatic generation control of the ELETRONORTE using artificial neural network; Um programa para assistencia ao controle automatico de geracao da Eletronorte usando rede neuronal artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito Filho, Pedro Rodrigues de; Nascimento Garcez, Jurandyr do [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico; Charone Junior, Wady [Centrais Eletricas do Nordeste do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an application of artificial neural network as a support to decision making in the automatic generation control (AGC) of the ELETRONORTE. It uses a software to auxiliary in the decisions in real time of the AGC. (author) 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Feasibility and application of a retronasal aroma-trapping device to study in vivo aroma release during the consumption of model wine-derived beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Moreno-Arribas, Maria Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, Maria Ángeles

    2014-07-01

    New types of wine-derived beverages are now in the market. However, little is known about the impact of ingredient formulation on aroma release during consumption, which is directly linked to consumer preferences and liking. In this study, the optimization and validation of a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) for the in vivo monitoring of aroma release was carried out. This device was applied to assess the impact of two main ingredients (sugar and ethanol) in these types of beverages on in vivo aroma release. Two aroma-trapping materials (Lichrolut and Tenax) were firstly assayed. Tenax provided higher recovery and lower intra- and inter-trap variability. In in vivo conditions, RATD provided an adequate linear range (R (2) > 0.91) between 0 and 50 mg L(-1) of aroma compounds. Differences in the total aroma release were observed in equally trained panelists. It was proven that the addition of sugar (up to 150 mg kg(-1)) did not have effect on aroma release, while ethanol (up to 40 mg L(-1)) enhanced the aroma release during drinking. The RATD is a useful tool to collect real in vivo data to extract reliable conclusions about the effect of beverage components on aroma release during consumption. The concentration of ethanol should be taken into consideration for the formulation of wine-derived beverages.

  16. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  17. 软件测试数据自动生成算法的仿真研究%Simulation Research on Automatically Generate Software Test Data Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽芬

    2012-01-01

    Testing data is the most crucial part in software testing software, and it is important for the software test automation degree to improve the automatic software test data generation method. Aiming at the defects of genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm, a new software test data generation algorithm was proposed in this paper based on genetic and ant colony algorithm. Firstly, genetic algorithm which has the global searching ability was used to find the optimal solution, and then the optimal solution was converted into the initial pheromone of ant colony algorithm. Finally, the best test data were found by ant colony algorithm positive feedback mechanism quickly. The experimental results show that the proposed method improves the efficiency of software test data generation and has very important using value.%研究软件质量优化问题,传统遗传算法存在局部最优、收敛速度慢,使软件测试数据自动生成效率低.为提高软件测试数据生成效率,对传统遗传算法进行改进,提出一种遗传-蚁群算法的软件测试数据生成算法.针对测试数据自动生成的特点,充分发挥遗传算法的全局搜索和蚁群算法的局部搜索优势,提高了测试数据的生成能力.实验结果表明,遗传-蚁群算法提高了软件测试数据生成效率,是一种较为理想的软件测试数据生成算法.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF GEO-PROCESSING MODELS FOR THE AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF REMEDIATION PLAN AND NAVIGATION DATA TO USE IN INDUSTRIAL DISASTER REMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lucas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces research done on the automatic preparation of remediation plans and navigation data for the precise guidance of heavy machinery in clean-up work after an industrial disaster. The input test data consists of a pollution extent shapefile derived from the processing of hyperspectral aerial survey data from the Kolontár red mud disaster. Three algorithms were developed and the respective scripts were written in Python. The first model aims at drawing a parcel clean-up plan. The model tests four different parcel orientations (0, 90, 45 and 135 degree and keeps the plan where clean-up parcels are less numerous considering it is an optimal spatial configuration. The second model drifts the clean-up parcel of a work plan both vertically and horizontally following a grid pattern with sampling distance of a fifth of a parcel width and keep the most optimal drifted version; here also with the belief to reduce the final number of parcel features. The last model aims at drawing a navigation line in the middle of each clean-up parcel. The models work efficiently and achieve automatic optimized plan generation (parcels and navigation lines. Applying the first model we demonstrated that depending on the size and geometry of the features of the contaminated area layer, the number of clean-up parcels generated by the model varies in a range of 4% to 38% from plan to plan. Such a significant variation with the resulting feature numbers shows that the optimal orientation identification can result in saving work, time and money in remediation. The various tests demonstrated that the model gains efficiency when 1/ the individual features of contaminated area present a significant orientation with their geometry (features are long, 2/ the size of pollution extent features becomes closer to the size of the parcels (scale effect. The second model shows only 1% difference with the variation of feature number; so this last is less interesting for

  19. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  20. A protocol of measurement of In Vivo Aroma release from beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 1

  1. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes.

  2. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  3. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  4. Eclipse计划系统DVH自动生成比较软件开发%Development of a Compared Software for Automatically Generated DVH in Eclipse TPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝; 骆科林; 邹炼; 胡金有

    2016-01-01

    目的:自动快速计算治疗计划的剂量体积直方图(DVH),并与医生处方要求相比较。方法使用AutoHotkey热键脚本语言和高级程序设计语言C#,开发了适合于Eclipse11.0计划系统的DVH自动生成比较软件ShowDVH,该软件由处方文档生成、C#中DVH操作函数、软件可视化及DVH比较报告生成模块构成。结果在临床上选取不同病种各10例,调用ShowDVH在计划系统下运行,ShowDVH不仅能生成DVH报告,还能准确判断治疗计划是否满足医生处方要求,为调强优化参数设置给予方向指导。结论该软件界面友好,功能强大,能快速计算生成比较DVH,大大节约计划设计时间,提高放射治疗物理师工作效率。%Objective This study is to automaticaly calculatethe dose volume histogram(DVH) for the treatment plan, then to compare it with requirements of doctor's prescriptions.Methods The scripting language Autohotkey and programming language C# were used to develop a compared software for automatically generated DVH in Eclipse TPS. This software is named Show Dose Volume Histogram (ShowDVH), which is composed of prescription documents generation, operation functions of DVH, software visualization and DVH compared report generation.Results Ten cases in different cancers have been separately selected, in Eclipse TPS 11.0 ShowDVH could not only automaticaly generate DVH reports but also accurately determine whether treatment plans meet the requirements of doctor’s prescriptions, then reports gave direction for setting optimization parameters of intensity modulated radiated therapy. Conclusions The ShowDVH is an user-friendly and powerful software, and can automaticaly generated compared DVH reports fast in Eclipse TPS 11.0. With the help of ShowDVH, it greatly saves plan designing time and improves working effi ciency of radiation therapy physicists.

  5. Kahvenin Aroma Bileşikleri ve Kahve Aromasını Etkileyen Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Çağlarırmak, Necla; Ünal, Kemal

    1993-01-01

    Bu derlemede, uçucu bileşikler yönünden çok zengin kompozisyona sahip olan kahvenin aroma bileşikleri incelenmiştir. Kahvenin aroma bileşiklerini; kahvenin türü, orijini, kavurma işlemi ve kavurma işlemi ile ilgili parametreler (kavurma sıcaklığı, kavurma süresi, kavurmanın yapıldığı ekipmanın türü, kahvenin çözünürlüğü, depolanması) gibi faktörlerin etkilediği belirtilmektedir. Kahvenin son aromasını daha ziyade kavurma işleminin etkilediği, ısıl işleme bağlı olarak yeni bazı bileşenlerin o...

  6. Dephi中基于ADO技术实现定制报表的生成%ADO technology based automatic generation of customized report forms in Dephi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁风海; 夏伟; 邱斌; 王琳娜

    2012-01-01

    ADO (active data objects) is OLE DB technology developed by Microsoft Corporation. It is based on the data access rules and API access, and provides a consistent, high-performance and high compatibility data access interface. The application of ADO technological development application program allows the program developers to control database access easily, thus can produce database access procedures which meet client requirements. The access mechanism and method of the databases which use ADO technology in Dephi is introduced emphatically. Through a simple example, the highly specialized customized report forms automatically generated by combining OLE Automation technology are described in detail.%ADO是Microsoft发展的OLE DB技术,它基于COM数据访问规则和API访问,并提供一个一致、高性能、高兼容性的数据访问接口.使用ADO技术开发应用程序可以使程序开发者更容易地控制对数据库的访问,从而产生符合用户需求的数据库访问程序.着重介绍了在Dephi中应用ADO技术的数据库的访问机制和实现方法,并通过简单实例详述结合OLE自动化技术自动生成专业性较强的定制报表.

  7. Automatic Generation of the Reconfigurable Robot Forward and Inverse Kinematics%可重组机器人运动学正逆解的自动生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费燕琼; 冯光涛; 赵锡芳; 徐卫良

    2000-01-01

    When the configuration of reconfigurable modular robot is finalized, the link module and joint module are gained. The PME method is adopted. So the forward kinematics is generated automatically. As for the inverse kinematics, this paper transferred the body coordinate system to the fixed coordinate system and found the rules, then divided them into 4 sub-problems. With the PME method, the inverse kinematics algorithm (PMEI method) was got. Under Windows environment some examples were given.%可重组模块机器人构形确定后,找出依序的连杆、关节模块,采用指数积(PME)法,自动生 成运动学正方程.把运动学正方程转换成相对于固定坐标系的方程,找出规律,分成4个子问题,成 功地运用PME法得到自动求模块机器人逆解的算法—逆运动学指数积(PMEI)法.windows环 境下正逆解的自动生成说明了该方法的可行性.

  8. Aroma quality assessment of Korean fermented red pepper paste (gochujang) by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Mo; Baek, Hyung-Hee

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study was to assess aroma quality of gochujang using purge and trap, simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Nineteen and 28 aroma-active compounds were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis of purge and trap and SDE, respectively. Diallyl disulfide and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine played a significant role in the aroma quality of gochujang. Twelve aroma-active compounds were detected by HS-SPME-GC-O based on sample dilution analysis. Methional, diallyl disulfide, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were the most intense aroma-active compounds. 3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine was identified for the first time in gochujang.

  9. Automatic control of plants of direct steam generation with cylinder-parabolic solar collectors; Control automatico de plantas de generacion directa de vapor con colectores solares cilindro-parabolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela Gutierrez, L.

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this dissertation has been the contributions to the operation in automatic mode of a new generation of direct steam generation solar plants with parabolic-trough collectors. The dissertation starts introducing the parabolic-trough collectors solar thermal technology for the generation of process steam or steam for a Rankine cycle in the case of power generation generation, which is currently the most developed and commercialized technology. Presently, the parabolic-trough collectors technology is based on the configuration known as heat-exchanger system, based in the use of a heat transfer fluid in the solar field which is heated during the recirculation through the absorber tubes of the solar collectors, transferring later on the that thermal energy to a heat-exchanger for steam generation. Direct steam generation in the absorber tubes has always been shown as an ideal pathway to reduce generation cost by 15% and increase conversion efficiency by 20% (DISS, 1999). (Author)

  10. Research on the Method Based on LabVlEW for Automatically Generating Detection Report%基于LabVIEW的检测报告自动生成方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 杨峰; 何耀

    2012-01-01

    In order to automatically printout the detection results and judgment conclusion from certain composite detector that is developed based on LabVIEW platform for radar receiver in accordance with designated template format and sequence, the global variable technology and Word document report generation technology have been researched. By adopting Report Generation Toolkit and LabVIEW programming technology, the automatic report generation program for composite detection report is designed. Various detection results and judgment conclusion can be recorded in real time; and the report based on the format of designated Word template can be generated automatically with this program.%为了将检测结果和判别结论按照给定的模版格式和顺序自动地打印出来,研究了LabVIEW中的全局变量技术和Word文档检测报告生成技术.利用Report Generation Toolkit 工具包和LabVIEW编程技术,设计了组合检测报告自动生成程序.该程序能够实时记录各种检测结果和判别结论,并自动生成基于指定Word模板格式的检测报告.

  11. Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allwood, J.W.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Xu, Y.; Mumm, R.; Vos, de C.H.; Deborde, C.; Biais, B.; Maucourt, M.; Berger, Y.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Moing, A.; Hall, R.D.; Goodacre, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting culti

  12. Al-Azahar aromas de leyendas como objeto de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La base de toda la tesis es el estudio de la combinaci??n de aroma y m??sica como experiencia sin??rgica en la immersi??n perceptiva para impulsar el desarrollo en el campo cient??fico-cultural-compositivo, creando as??, un di??logo entre ciencia, tecnol??gia, innovaci??n, sociedad, cultura y m??sica.

  13. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucro

  14. Influence of volatile thiols in the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigou, Peggy; Triay, Aurélie; Razungles, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A strong blackcurrant aroma was recently perceived in some red wines originating from the same appellation. Varietal thiols such as 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP), 3-(mercapto)hexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) are compounds potentially responsible for the development of this aroma. In order to demonstrate the correlation between thiols concentrations in red wines and blackcurrant aroma intensity, a multiple variable analysis was realised with thiols concentrations obtained by chemical analysis and blackcurrant aroma intensities obtained by descriptive sensory analysis. The 4MMP concentration was very well correlated to the blackcurrant aroma, and 3MHA and 3MH present at high concentrations act as enhancers of the perception of this aroma. This correlation was further supported after performing a sensory comparison by classification test. The different factors that could impact on the development of blackcurrant aroma in red wine were discussed.

  15. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  16. Automatic Control System for Neutron Laboratory Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xiao; ZHANG; Guo-guang; FENG; Shu-qiang; SU; Dan; YANG; Guo-zhao; ZHANG; Shuai

    2015-01-01

    In order to cooperate with the experiment of neutron generator,and realize the automatic control in the experiment,a set of automatic control system for the safety of the neutron laboratory is designed.The system block diagram is shown as Fig.1.Automatic control device is for processing switch signal,so PLC is selected as the core component

  17. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky.

  18. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell. This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  19. Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-12

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  20. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  1. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Bianca; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-10-09

    The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-β-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies, the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality.

  2. Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco in China: spatial distribution and association with climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Bin; Peng, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Aroma types of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) are classified into light, medium, and heavy in China. However, the spatial distribution of FCT aroma types and the relationships among aroma types, chemical parameters, and climatic variables were still unknown at national scale. In the current study, multi-year averaged chemical parameters (total sugars, reducing sugars, nicotine, total nitrogen, chloride, and K2O) of FCT samples with grade of C3F and climatic variables (mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, and sunshine hours) during the growth periods were collected from main planting areas across China. Significant relationships were found between chemical parameters and climatic variables ( p aroma types were produced using support vector machine algorithms and chemical parameters. Significant differences in chemical parameters and climatic variables were observed among the three aroma types based on one-way analysis of variance ( p aroma type had significantly lower values of mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures than regions with medium and heavy aroma types ( p aroma type had significantly lower values of rainfall and relative humidity and higher values of sunshine hours than regions with light and medium aroma types ( p aroma types at national scale.

  3. Automatic Construction of Finite Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with model generation for equational theories,i.e.,automatically generating (finite)models of a given set of (logical) equations.Our method of finite model generation and a tool for automatic construction of finite algebras is described.Some examples are given to show the applications of our program.We argue that,the combination of model generators and theorem provers enables us to get a better understanding of logical theories.A brief comparison betwween our tool and other similar tools is also presented.

  4. Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-25

    The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed β-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor.

  5. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  6. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes.

  7. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  8. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Turkish olive oils from different geographic origins by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesen, Songul; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2014-01-15

    The aroma and aroma-active compounds of olive oils obtained from Nizip Yaglik (NY) and Kilis Yaglik (KY) cultivars and the effect of the geographical area (southern Anatolian and Aegean regions) on these compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). For this purpose, two oil samples were obtained from their native geographical area including NY from Nizip province and KY from Kilis province (southern Anatolian region of Turkey). Another two oils of the same cultivar, NY-Bornova (NY-B) and KY-Bornova (KY-B), were obtained from the Olive Oil Research Center-Bornova, Izmir province (Aegean region of Turkey) to compare geographical effect on aroma and aroma-active compounds. Simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with dichloromethane was used for extraction of volatile components. SDE gave a highly representative aromatic extract of the studied olive oil based on the sensory analysis. Totals of 61, 48, 59, and 48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in olive oils obtained from NY, NY-B, KY, and KY-B cultivars, respectively. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profile of native region oils was discriminately different from those of Bornova region oils. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil samples. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oils. The number of aroma-active compounds in native region oils was higher than in Bornova region oils. Within the compounds, aldehydes and alcohols were the largest aroma-active compounds in all olive oils.

  9. Model cheese aroma perception is explained not only by in vivo aroma release but also by salivary composition and oral processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, E; Repoux, M; Qannari, E M; Laboure, H; Feron, G

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the present paper was to determine, from four model cheeses differing in fat content and firmness and consumed by fourteen well characterised subjects, the respective impacts of in vivo aroma release, bolus rheology, chewing activity, mouth coating and salivary composition on dynamic aroma perception. The originality of the approach is that it considers all the parameters together and is able to evaluate their relative contribution using multi-block partial least square (MB-PLS) regression. The fruity aroma perception of the more hydrophilic compound (ethyl propanoate) was related to its dynamic release parameters before swallowing whereas the blue cheese aroma perception of the more hydrophobic compound (nonan-2-one) was related to its dynamic release parameters after swallowing and was highly impacted by mouth coating. Moreover the MB-PLS approach made it possible to evidence the combined effects of saliva composition and cross-modal interactions to understand why in some cases dynamic aroma perception could not be explained by dynamic in vivo aroma release data. Subjects with a low sodium content in saliva perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent with saltiness as less intense and salt- congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which was explained by their higher sensitivity to salt. Subjects with high lipolysis activity perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent to fat as less intense and fat-congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which should be explained by the link between lipolysis activity and fat sensitivity. These results could be considered for the reformulation of foods towards specific populations taking into account nutritional recommendations.

  10. Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Heinlein, A.; Metzger, M.; Walles, H.; Buettner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying ...

  11. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  12. Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, Michel; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Girgih, Abraham T; Pownall, Trisha L; Bugera, Jacqeline L; Eskin, Michael N A

    2013-01-01

    Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described.

  13. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption.

  14. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of La Mancha Verdejo white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Alonso-Villegas, R; González Viñas, M A

    2015-04-15

    The aroma of Verdejo La Mancha white wines was studied by instrumental and sensory analysis across five consecutive vintages to determine their typicity and quality. Free and glycosidically-bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) to later be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-four (74) free aroma compounds and thirty-six (36) bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Verdejo wines oven this five year period. Based on the result, Verdejo white wines presents a complex chemical profile with a wealth of aromas in its aromatic composition. The sensory profile of Verdejo wines was evaluated by experienced wine-tasters and was characterised by fresh, citric, green apple, fruity and tropical fruit aroma descriptors. This study shows the first complete aromatic characterisation of La Mancha Verdejo white wines, also the data suggest that these wines present a great aromatic potential.

  15. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  16. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  17. Authenticity of aroma components Enantiomeric separation and compound specific stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    The word “authenticity” is increasingly used in the marketing of food products. A product can be marketed claiming its authenticity such as containing only natural ingredients or originating from a special location produced using local traditional production methods. Within the area of food ingredients a problem with authenticity of aroma compounds has occurred, because natural aromas are wholly or partly replaced with synthetic ones. This is a large economic problem, since natural aromas are...

  18. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition.

  19. Characterization of the Volatile Substances and Aroma Components from Traditional Soypaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flavor substances of soypaste were extracted by a simultaneous distillation method and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic aroma components of soypaste were determined by the GC-O technique and the FD value of the characteristic aroma components was determined by AEDA method. It could be inferred that the aroma of the soypaste should be attributed to the presence of heterocyclic compounds and organic acids, with the heterocyclic compounds playing a prominent role.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN AROMA DAN CITA RASA BAKSO DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FLAVOR [Development of Aroma and Taste of Meat Ball Using Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia 2

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakso is one of the most popular meat product in Indonesia. This research studied of effect of addition of falvor to the quality of meat ball. The analysis included physical characteristics (specific gravity, hardness, shear, elasticity and color organoleptic test. The results showed that : according to consumer preference, the most like flavour that added in the meat ball were the flavour of beef Q. 1.%, beef Q 1.5%, Beef WIN 1.5% and beef Fat WIN 1.0%. the use of flavor did not cause differences in physical characteristics like specific gravity, hardness, shear, alasticity and color a-value. The use flavour in creased the price of bakso between Rp 4.5,- to Rp 18,-. According to comparison test, meat ball with beef Q 1.5% has the best score compared with Bakso Lapang Tembak (BLT in aroma, and with Bakso Pedagang Keliling (BPK has the best score in aroma, test and texture.

  1. Generating Capacity Prediction of Automatic Tracking Power Generation System on Inflatable Membrane Greenhouse Attached Photovoltaic%光伏充气膜温室自跟踪发电系统发电量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小力; 刘秋爽; 见浪護

    2012-01-01

    A method which can forecast generating capacity of automatic tracking power system on inflatable membrane greenhouse attached photovoltaic was proposed based on the self-adaptive variation particle swarm neural network by adding with weather information. Firstly, through combining historical data of electricity production and meteorological data, the main factors of the impact on generating capacity of power generation system on inflatable membrane greenhouse attached photovoltaic was analyzed. Then, the neural network forecasting model was established by combining the weather forecast. The self-adaptive variation particle swarm algorithm was introduced to improve the training effect by tackling the problems of slowly converging, easily falling into local optimum, and difficultly converging existed in traditional neural network forecasting model based on gradient-descent BP algorithm. The neural network was optimized with adaptable mutation particle swarm optimization ( AMPSO) algorithm. The mutation was put into particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithm to find local optimal value. Experimental results showed that the entire convergence performance was significantly improved by adopting AMPSO and the premature convergence problem can be effectively avoided in PSO.%针对光伏充气膜温室自跟踪发电系统提出了一种加入天气预报信息的自适应变异粒子群神经网络的发电量预测算法.首先结合历史发电量数据和气象数据分析了影响光伏充气膜温室自跟踪发电系统发电量的主要因素,建立了加入天气预报的神经网络预测模型,并针对传统神经网络预测模型中基于梯度下降的BP算法收敛慢、易陷入局部最优、训练难收敛等问题,通过自适应变异粒子群算法改进了神经网络.该算法通过将变异环节引入粒子群优化算法,进行隔代进化找到局部最优解.实验结果表明所采用的自适应变异粒子群的神经网络预测算法的全

  2. Development of a automatic positioning system of photovoltaic panels for electric energy generation; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de posicionamento automatico de placas fotovoltaicas para a geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alceu F.; Cagnon, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Seraphin, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    This work presents an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels, in order to improve the conversion of solar energy to electric energy. A prototype with automatic movement was developed, and its efficiency in generating electric energy was compared to another one with the same characteristics, but fixed in space. Preliminary results point to a significant increase in efficiency, obtained from a simplified process of movement, in which sensors are not used to determine the apparent sun's position, but instead of it, the relative Sun-Earth's position equations are used. An innovative movement mechanical system is also presented, using two stepper motors to move the panel along two-axis, but with independent movement, contributing, this way, to save energy during the positioning times. The use of this proposed system in rural areas is suggested. (author)

  3. 基于攻击模式的完备攻击图自动生成方法%Complete Attack Graph Automatic Generation Method Based on Attack Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙; 陈秀真; 李建华

    2013-01-01

    无圈攻击图结构简单,但在构建过程中会导致部分路径缺失。为此,给出完备攻击图的概念,提出基于攻击模式的完备攻击图自动生成方法。通过分析网络防火墙的配置文件,自动获取网络连通性。完善攻击模式知识库以优化攻击者能力建模,并在此基础上设计广度优先前向搜索的攻击图生成算法,实现自动生成完备攻击图的原型。实验结果表明,该方法的自动化程度高、时间消耗少,可应用于大型网络。%As the generation of attack graph without loops leads to missing of attack paths, this paper puts forward the concept of complete attack graph and builds its automatic generation method. It obtains the network connectivity automatically by analyzing the firewall configuration files, to get rid of tedious manual input. Then the attack patterns are enriched to cover almost all network attack types and based on them, an efficient approach to complete attack graph generation is built. In the end, a model to generate complete attack graph automatically using the algorithm is built. Experimental result shows that this method has less time consumption, high degree of automation, and it can be applied to large networks.

  4. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  5. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  6. 30万t/aPVC装置乙炔站自控仪表改造%Modifications on automatic control instruments of acetylene generating station for 30 000 t/a PVC production facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春严

    2012-01-01

    Modifications were made on the DCS power supply system, automatic control sys- tems for the nitrogen replacement of upper hopper and acetylene generator feeding, and the sodium hypochlorite preparation system in the acetylene generating station for 30 000 t/a PVC production facility. Thus, the production reliability of acetylene generating station was improved, the hidden hazards were eliminated, and the labour intensity was reduced.%对30万t/aPVC装置乙炔站的DCS供电系统、发生器上储斗充氮置换及加料自控系统、次氯酸钠配制系统进行了改造,通过改造提高了乙炔站生产的可靠性,消除了安全隐患,降低了劳动强度。

  7. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citris aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Zijlstra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi

  8. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Yang, Huan-yi; Liu, Tong-jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies. PMID:27704748

  9. Aroma of some plants cultivated in Lithuania : Composition, processing and release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylaite, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, some factors affecting the aroma of some plants of the families Umbelliferae and Asteraceae were evaluated. The composition of the aromas is influenced by several factors: plant family, harvesting time, anatomical part of plant, method used to isolate volatiles, cultivar, fertilisers

  10. Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Rouse, Michelle; Wesnes, Keith A; Moss, Mark

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the potential for the aromas of the essential oils of Salvia species to affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Research has demonstrated that orally administered Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating cognition and mood. The active compounds in the herbal products might also be present in the aromas and so produce similar effects. In an independent groups design, three conditions, S. officinalis aroma, S. lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed. One hundred and thirty-five healthy volunteers acted as participants, with 45 in each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed via the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System. Bond-Lader mood scales measured the participants' mood on three dimensions before and after the cognitive tasks. Data analysis revealed that the S. officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on the quality of memory and secondary memory primary outcome factors from the test battery. The Alert mood measure displayed significant differences between both aromas and the control condition. These findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species reproduce some but not all of the effects found following oral herb administration, and that interesting dissociations occur between subjective and objective responses.

  11. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products.

  12. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A; Yang, Huan-Yi; Liu, Tong-Jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-Qing

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.

  13. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

  14. Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sw

  15. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  16. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  17. 内容管理系统中动态网页静态转化的三种方法%Automatic Generation of Static Page from Dynamic Webpage in the Content Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖

    2012-01-01

    In the content management system,3 methods that can automatically generate static page from dynamic webpage are proposed.The control process,key technology and core code of each method are illustrated.%提出网站内容管理系统中动态网页自动生成静态页面的三种方法,阐述了每种方法的控制流程、关键技术及核心代码。

  18. A Method of Automatic Generation of Diagram-database-rules-order Based on Bay Model%基于间隔模型的图-库-规则-操作票自动生成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董元帅; 程健; 彭彬; 陈欣

    2015-01-01

    The practice of manual generation of primary equipment wiring diagram, equipment attributes, misoperation prevention rules and manual writing of operation order,in the current substation misoperation prevention system and dispatch misoperation prevention system,is time-consuming and labor-intensive,which is inconsistent with the requirement of the automatic system.A method of automatic generation of diagram-database-rules-order based on the bay model is proposed.A typical bay model including primary typical bay and secondary typical bay is developed,based on which,a method of automatic generation of primary equipment wiring diagram,database,misoperation prevention rules,operation order is described.Also developed is the software of automatic generation of diagram-database-rules and operation order.The research results are in application.%现有的变电站防误操作系统和调控防误操作系统中手工生成一次设备接线图、一次设备属性、防误规则,手工开列操作票的方式费时、费力,不符合用户对自动化系统的要求。提出了基于间隔模型的图—库—规则—操作票自动生成方法。建立了包含典型一次间隔和典型二次间隔的典型间隔模型,基于该模型分别介绍了一次设备接线图—库自动生成、防误规则自动生成、操作票自动生成的方法。开发了图—库—规则自动生成和操作票自动生成软件,研究成果已得到工程应用。

  19. Verification of key odorants in rose oil by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis, odour activity value and aroma recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Li, Jing; Niu, Yunwei; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Junhua

    2017-03-28

    Rose oil is much too expensive but very popular. It's well known that the flower oil's aroma profile hasn't been intensively investigated. In order to verify the aroma profile of rose oil, the synthetic blend of odorants was prepared and then compared with the original rose oil using electronic nose analysis (ENA) combined with quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The odorants from rose oils were screened out by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) combined with odour activity value (OAV). Both ENA and QDA indicated the recombination model derived from OAV and GC-O/AEDA closely resembled the original rose oil. The experiment results show that rose oxide, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, nonanal, heptanal citronellal, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β-citronellol, hexyl acetate, β-ionone, nerol, etc. are very important constituent to rose oil aroma profile.

  20. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  1. Differential effects of exposure to ambient vanilla and citrus aromas on mood, arousal and food choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.

  2. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves.

  3. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  4. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  5. Design of a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system based on automatic tracking%高精度自动跟踪太阳光系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾雅祺; 宁铎; 马艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power generation, this paper design a high precision automatic solar tracking system. The system mainly uses the complementary combination manner of the signal acquisition with coarse and fine tune to achieve a wide range, high precision, all-weather automatic tracking of the sunlight, and the tracking accuracy has been up to 0. 1° solid angle. The experimental results show that the system is easy to operate and has high tracking accuracy;and the average output power was 30. 7% higher than that of fixed photovoltaic power generation system.%为了提高太阳能光伏发电的效率,设计了一种高精度自动跟踪太阳光的系统。该系统主要采用粗、细调互补型信号采集相结合的方式,实现了对太阳光的大范围、高精度的自动跟踪,实际跟踪精度高达0.1°立体角。实验结果表明:该系统操作简单,跟踪精度高,平均输出功率比固定式光伏发电系统提高了30.7%。

  6. Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiaoxuan; Wintersteen, Carol L; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2002-03-27

    Characteristic aroma components of buckwheat honey were studied by combined sensory and instrumental techniques. Relative aroma intensity of individual volatile components was evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of solvent extracts and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Results indicated that 3-methylbutanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), and (E)-beta-damascenone were the most potent odorants in buckwheat honey, with 3-methylbutanal being primarily responsible for the distinct malty aroma. Other important aroma-active compounds included methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, maltol, vanillin, methional, coumarin, and p-cresol.

  7. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xia Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le. The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370. The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  8. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  9. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation.

  10. Aroma improvement by repeated freeze-thaw treatment during Tuber melanosporum fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Deng-Rong; Liu, Rui-Sang; He, Long; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-11-26

    The aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy are the most important characteristics of the aroma of Tuber melanosporum. However, these three aroma attributes are absent in the T. melanosporum fermentation system. To improve the quality of the aroma, repeated freeze-thaw treatment (RFTT) was adopted to affect the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using RFTT, not only was the score on the hedonic scale of the aroma increased from the "liked slightly" to the "liked moderately" grade, but the aroma attributes of sulfurous, mushroom and earthy could also be smelled in the T. melanosporum fermentation system for the first time. A total of 29 VOCs were identified, and 9 compounds were identified as the key discriminative volatiles affected by RFTT. Amino acid analysis revealed that methionine, valine, serine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine were the key substrates associated with the biosynthesis of the 9 key discriminative VOCs. This study noted that amino acid metabolism played an important role in the regulation of the aroma of the T. melanosporum fermentation system.

  11. From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Siebert, Tracey E; Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P; Eggers, Marcus; Meier, Manfred; Vössing, Tobias; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard; Sefton, Mark A; Herderich, Markus J

    2008-05-28

    An obscure sesquiterpene, rotundone, has been identified as a hitherto unrecognized important aroma impact compound with a strong spicy, peppercorn aroma. Excellent correlations were observed between the concentration of rotundone and the mean 'black pepper' aroma intensity rated by sensory panels for both grape and wine samples, indicating that rotundone is a major contributor to peppery characters in Shiraz grapes and wine (and to a lesser extent in wine of other varieties). Approximately 80% of a sensory panel were very sensitive to the aroma of rotundone (aroma detection threshold levels of 16 ng/L in red wine and 8 ng/L in water). Above these concentrations, these panelists described the spiked samples as more 'peppery' and 'spicy'. However, approximately 20% of panelists could not detect this compound at the highest concentration tested (4000 ng/L), even in water. Thus, the sensory experiences of two consumers enjoying the same glass of Shiraz wine might be very different. Rotundone was found in much higher amounts in other common herbs and spices, especially black and white peppercorns, where it was present at approximately 10000 times the level found in very 'peppery' wine. Rotundone is the first compound found in black or white peppercorns that has a distinctive peppery aroma. Rotundone has an odor activity value in pepper on the order of 50000-250000 and is, on this criterion, by far the most powerful aroma compound yet found in that most important spice.

  12. Aroma Classification Using One-vs-One and One-vs-Rest Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Kusumoputro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational Intelligence used in pattern classification problem can be divided into two different parts, one based on Neural Network and the other based on Statistical Learning. The Statistical Learning discovered by Vapnik on 70-est decade. For the pattern classification, Vapnik developed hyperplane optimal separation, which is known as Support Vector Machines Method (SVM. In the beginning, SVM was designed only to solve binary classification problem, where data existing are classified into two classes. To classify data whose consist of more than two classes, the SVM method can not directly be used. There are several methods can be used to solve SVM multiclasses classification problem, they are One-vs-One Method and One-vs-Rest Method. Both of this methods are the extension of SVM binary classification, they will be discussed in this article so that we can see their performance in aroma classification process. Data of aroma used in this experiment is consisted of three classes of aroma, each of them has six classes. The division of this class is based on alcohol concentration mixed into each of those aromas. For example, for aroma A, there are six kinds of aroma A with different alcohol concentration: 0%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 45% and 75%. The performance of these methods is measured based on their ability to recognize and classify aroma, precisely and match with the right class or variety of data existed.

  13. Evaluation of aroma enhancement for "Ecolly" dry white wines by mixed inoculation of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Chen; Li, Ai-Hua; Dizy, Marta; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Wei-Xuan; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    To improve the aroma profile of Ecolly dry white wine, the simultaneous and sequential inoculations of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed in wine making of this work. The two yeasts were mixed in various ratios for making the mixed inoculum. The amount of volatiles and aroma characteristics were determined the following year. Mixed fermentation improved both the varietal and fermentative aroma compound composition, especially that of (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol, nerol oxide, certain acetates and ethyls group compounds. Citrus, sweet fruit, acid fruit, berry, and floral aroma traits were enhanced by mixed fermentation; however, an animal note was introduced upon using higher amounts of R. mucilaginosa. Aroma traits were regressed with volatiles as observed by the partial least-square regression method. Analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that the aroma traits were the multiple interactions of volatile compounds, with the fermentative volatiles having more impact on aroma than varietal compounds.

  14. 改进量子遗传算法应用于测试数据自动生成的研究%Research on the Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm Applied to Test Data Automatically Generated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季海婧; 孙军梅

    2013-01-01

    为了提高测试数据的自动生成效率,提出一种改进的量子遗传算法(IQGA),用以自动生成测试数据.该算法以角度编码染色体,减少染色体存储空间;采用一种新的动态旋转角策略,使种群在测试数据生成的过程中优秀测试数据能得以较好的遗传,促进种群收敛;并通过Hadamard门变异策略提高种群多样性,扩大种群探索路径.利用典型的三角形分类问题进行了验证,实验结果表明,改进的量子遗传算法具有用时短,生成测试数据少,覆盖率高等优点,测试数据自动生成效率高于传统量子遗传算法和遗传算法.%In order to improve the efficiency of the automatic test case generation, this paper proposes an improved quantum genetic algorithm (IQGA), for the automatic test data generation. In the algorithm, chromosome is encoded by the angle, which decreases the storage space greatly; And the new dynamic rotation angle of strategy makes that the good test data can be good heritable in the process of test data generation, and promotes population convergence; Hadamard door mutation strategy improves population diversity to enlarge the search path. The typical triangle category problem is used as verification procedure in this paper, and the experiment results show that the improved quantum genetic algorithm has the advantages of short time, less test data and high coverage, and automatic test case generation are more efficient than traditional quantum genetic algorithm and genetic algorithm.

  15. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  16. Production of the pepper aroma compound, (-)-rotundone, by aerial oxidation of α-guaiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, An-Cheng; Burrett, Stacey; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2014-11-01

    The aroma link between pepper and wine has recently been elucidated to be due to the important aroma compound rotundone. To date, rotundone is the only known impact odorant with a peppery aroma. Although the concentration found in products of natural origin is small, the odor detection threshold is among the lowest of any natural product yet discovered. We report herein the identification of the first known precursor to rotundone, namely, α-guaiene, and that one mechanism of transformation is simple aerial oxidation.

  17. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground...... and then mixed with water (GMW). The highest number of aroma compounds was found in Roselle treated in water bath (2hr/40°C) (GMWKB). GMW was chosen as the preparation method because it was shown to be an efficient extraction method without the possibility of excessive chemical changes of the sample....

  18. Alkol Fermantasyonu Sırasında Oluşan Aroma Maddeleri

    OpenAIRE

    Erten, Hüseyin; Canbaş, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    Aroma maddeleri alkollü içkilerin kimyasal ve duyusal özellikleri üzerinde etkili olurlar. Aroma maddelerinin önemli bir kısmı alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulur. Bu maddelerden başhcaları yüksek alkoller, esterler, organik asitler ve karbonil bileşikleridir. Bu makalede, alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulan aroma maddelerinin üretim mekanizmaları ele alınmıştır.  

  19. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...

  20. Research on Automatic Code Generation Based on SDL%基于SDL语言代码自动生成技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琦; 熊光泽

    2003-01-01

    As one of the key technology of CASE tools,code auto-generation has a wide application future. However, at present, some of problems limit its application in the practical project, such as executive efficiency of code generation, the combination with the hardware and software and etc. In thus paper, the main factors of code autogeneration are introduced in details. The main parts of the code auto-generation based on SDL and the main factors which will effect the ultimately code performance are analyzed. The improved methods aiming at the different software and hardware platform and application performance are presented.

  1. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines.

  2. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

    2011-08-01

    Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing.

  4. Research of Comprehensive Evaluation Automatic Generation System Based on Ontology%基于本体的综合评价文本自动生成系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷红梅

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, information processing has become the most important re-search content. How to get what is necessary and relatively accurate information from a large amount of information has become a big problem in current society. Aiming at this problem and based on the analysis of lots of comment texts, this paper puts forward a kind of method for automatic generation of the comprehensive evaluation of text based on ontology, which can rapidly process large amount of texts, and automatically obtain the corresponding comprehensive evaluation of text.%随着信息技术的高速发展,信息处理已经成为目前最重要的研究内容,如何从大量的相关信息中获取我们需要的且相对准确的信息已经成为当前社会的一大难题。本文针对这一问题展开研究,通过对大量评语文本的分析,提出了一种基于本体的综合评价文本自动生成的方法,可以快速处理大量评语文本,从而自动获取相应的综合评价文本。

  5. Automatic generation of force fields and property surfaces for use in variational vibrational calculations of anharmonic vibrational energies and zero-point vibrational averaged properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Jacob; Christiansen, Ove

    2006-09-28

    An automatic and general procedure for the calculation of geometrical derivatives of the energy and general property surfaces for molecular systems is developed and implemented. General expressions for an n-mode representation are derived, where the n-mode representation includes only the couplings between n or less degrees of freedom. The general expressions are specialized to derivative force fields and property surfaces, and a scheme for calculation of the numerical derivatives is implemented. The implementation is interfaced to electronic structure programs and may be used for both ground and excited electronic states. The implementation is done in the context of a vibrational structure program and can be used in combination with vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF), vibrational configuration interaction (VCI), vibrational Moller-Plesset, and vibrational coupled cluster calculations of anharmonic wave functions and calculation of vibrational averaged properties at the VSCF and VCI levels. Sample calculations are presented for fundamental vibrational energies and vibrationally averaged dipole moments and frequency dependent polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of water and formaldehyde.

  6. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  7. 风电自动发电控制策略可行性分析%Feasibility analysis of wind power automatic generation control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程彩艳; 施佳锋; 沈燕

    2012-01-01

    In order to conquer many adverse factors when the operation of the large scale wind power generation connected with the power network, on the basis of the active power conLtrol technology for traditional water and coal-fired generating sets, considering the operation characteristic of wind power generation, analyzes various wind power generation control strategy such as the planning curve track and the time-limit control, successfully realizes the first active power closed-loop control of wind pow- er generation connected with the power network in Ningxia. the research result shows that this wind power generation control strategy has strong feasibility, which can provide key technology support for power network admitting large scale wind power generation.%为应对大规模风电并网运行带来的诸多不利因素,在传统水、火电机组有功控制技术的基础上,综合风电运行特点,研究分析了计划曲线跟踪、限时段控制等多种风电有功控制策略,并且成功实现了宁夏首次风电联网有功闭环控制。研究结果表明:风电有功控制策略有较强的可行性,能够为电网接纳大规模风电运行提供关键技术支撑。

  8. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  9. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  10. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  11. Effect of oxidoreduction potential on aroma biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria in nonfat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Cachon, R; Pernin, K; De Coninck, J; Gervais, P; Guichard, E; Cayot, N

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous conditions (air, nitrogen, and nitrogen/hydrogen). Acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, and pentane-2,3-dione, as the major endogenous odorant compounds of yogurt, were chosen as tracers for the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria. Oxidative conditions favored the production of acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, and diketones (diacetyl and pentane-2,3-dione). The Eh of the medium influences aroma production in yogurt by modifying the metabolic pathways of Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus. The use of Eh as a control parameter during yogurt production could permit the control of aroma formation.

  12. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Salih Sonmezdag

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  13. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  14. Study on Aroma Components in Fruit From Three Different Satsuma Mandarin Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yu; XIE Bi-jun; ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Hai-yan; PAN Si-yi

    2007-01-01

    Fruit aroma of Guoqing 1,Miyagawa Wase,and Owari from three different Satsuma mandarin varieties were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME)combined with GC-MS.The results showed that there were 73,71,and 66 aroma components in the three varieties,and the total contents were 584.67,505.29,and 494.63 μgg-1,respectively.Total 29 constituents were common in the three varieties.It was also found that Guoqing 1,Miyagawa Wase,and Owari had 12,5,and 2 unique components,respectively.The key aroma components were limonene,linalool,γ-terpinene,β-myrcene,α-pinene,and octanal in the three fruits.Guoqing 1 contained more key aroma compounds than Miyagawa Wase and Owad.

  15. Diffusion of aroma compounds in stirred yogurts with different complex viscosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déléris, Isabelle; Lauverjat, Clémentine; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2007-10-17

    To better understand aroma release in relation to yogurt structure and perception, the apparent diffusivity of aroma compounds within complex dairy gels was determined using an experimental diffusion cell. Apparent diffusion coefficients of four aroma compounds (diacetyl, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and linalool) at 7 degrees C in yogurts (varying in composition and structure) ranged from 0.07 x 10 (-10) to 8.91 x 10 (-10) m (2) s (-1), depending on aroma compounds and on product structure. The strong effect of yogurt fat content on the apparent diffusivity of hydrophobic compounds was revealed (15-fold and 50-fold decreases in the apparent diffusion coefficient of linalool and ethyl hexanoate, respectively). Protein composition seemed to have a greater effect than that of mechanical treatment. However, variations in the apparent diffusion coefficient for the considered products remained limited and cannot completely explain differences in flavor release and in perception that were previously observed.

  16. Implementation of Management Information System Based on the Technology of Code Automatic Generation%基于代码自动生成技术的管理信息系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清; 吴海涛; 王璐

    2013-01-01

    Management Information SystemCMIS) is an important way to realize the enterprise modernization. Data operation is the main content of MIS. With the help of Generating the Code Automatically technology, the Code Ruse can be well solved and the quality and efficiency of MIS can also be improved.%管理信息系统(MIS)是实现企业现代化的一项重要手段.对数据的操作是管理信息系统中重要的内容,借助代码自动生成技术,可以有效解决代码重用的问题,提高管理信息系统的开发质量和效率.

  17. Generalduty Question Databank and Exam Papers Automatically Generate System Design and Implementation%通用试题库及试卷自动生成系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊继东

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets up a generalduty question databank and exam papers automatically generate system which use the SQL Server2008 based on Delphi. The system can manually and automoatically produces papers which are saved in Word. Experimen-tal results show that the system has perfect function, reliant performance and good genralduty.%提出了一种基于Delphi,应用SQL Server2008技术的通用题库及试卷自动生成系统,可针对不同课程进行手或自动组卷,并以Word文档形式保存。经测试,该系统功能完善,性能可靠,操作方便,通用性好。

  18. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Álvarez de Toledo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  19. An Automatic Mosaicking Algorithm for the Generation of a Large-Scale Forest Height Map Using Spaceborne Repeat-Pass InSAR Correlation Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic mosaicking algorithm for creating large-scale mosaic maps of forest height. In contrast to existing mosaicking approaches through using SAR backscatter power and/or InSAR phase, this paper utilizes the forest height estimates that are inverted from spaceborne repeat-pass cross-pol InSAR correlation magnitude. By using repeat-pass InSAR correlation measurements that are dominated by temporal decorrelation, it has been shown that a simplified inversion approach can be utilized to create a height-sensitive measure over the whole interferometric scene, where two scene-wide fitting parameters are able to characterize the mean behavior of the random motion and dielectric changes of the volume scatterers within the scene. In order to combine these single-scene results into a mosaic, a matrix formulation is used with nonlinear least squares and observations in adjacent-scene overlap areas to create a self-consistent estimate of forest height over the larger region. This automated mosaicking method has the benefit of suppressing the global fitting error and, thus, mitigating the “wallpapering” problem in the manual mosaicking process. The algorithm is validated over the U.S. state of Maine by using InSAR correlation magnitude data from ALOS/PALSAR and comparing the inverted forest height with Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS height and National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD basal area weighted (BAW height. This paper serves as a companion work to previously demonstrated results, the combination of which is meant to be an observational prototype for NASA’s DESDynI-R (now called NISAR and JAXA’s ALOS-2 satellite missions.

  20. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-19

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  1. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M.; Lara, Juan A.; Lizcano, David

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency. PMID:28106849

  2. Implementation of an Automatic System for the Monitoring of Start-up and Operating Regimes of the Cooling Water Installations of a Hydro Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pădureanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The safe operation of a hydro generator depends on its thermal regime, the basic conditions being that the temperature in the stator winding fall within the limits of the insulation class. As the losses in copper depend on the square current in the stator winding, it is necessary that the cooling water debit should be adapted to the values of these losses, so that the winding temperature falls within the range of the values prescribed in the specifications. This paper presents an efficient solution of commanding and monitoring the water cooling installations of two high-power hydro generators.

  3. Design and Implementation of Urban Planning and Mapping Results Data Automatic Generation System%城市规划测绘成果资料自动化生成系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凯华; 程相兵; 黄昀鹏; 谢武强

    2015-01-01

    With the development and popularization of computer technology , the informatization of surveying and mapping has become a trend today .In the light of the way for urban planning and mapping results data ,according to the actual needs of the production units ,carries on the software code Visual Studio 2013 platform based on the C#language and SQL Server 2008 database management platform ,using .NET and office components of the secondary development of other series version of microsoft office word .Design and implementation of urban planning and mapping results data auto-matic generation system .The software system can automatically generate urban planning surveying and mapping results data ,through the practical application of this unit in many aspects of engineering measuring team production ,validation of the advanced and practicability of the software .%随着计算机技术的发展和普及,信息化测绘已成为当今的一种趋势。针对城市规划测绘成果资料的整理方式,根据生产单位的实际需求,基于SQL Server 2008数据库管理平台和Visual Studio 2013平台的C#语言进行软件编码。利用.NET和office组件对Microsoft Office Word等多系列版本的二次开发,设计和实现了城市规划测绘成果资料自动化生成系统软件。该软件系统能够自动化生成城市规划测绘成果资料,通过本单位测量队工程生产多方面的实际应用,验证了该软件的先进性和实用性。

  4. Microbial Contribution to Wine Aroma and Its Intended Use for Wine Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Belda; Javier Ruiz; Adelaida Esteban-Fernández; Eva Navascués; Domingo Marquina; Antonio Santos; M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas

    2017-01-01

    Wine is a complex matrix that includes components with different chemical natures, the volatile compounds being responsible for wine aroma quality. The microbial ecosystem of grapes and wine, including Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, as well as lactic acid bacteria, is considered by winemakers and oenologists as a decisive factor influencing wine aroma and consumer’s preferences. The challenges and opportunities emanating from the contribution of wine microbiome to the production ...

  5. Automatic Code Generation for MC9S 1 2D64 with Matlab/RTW EC%Matlab/RTW EC面向MC9S12D64的自动代码生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨润泽

    2014-01-01

    Tranditional electronic control software development mode can not meet the requirements of increasingly huge and complex au-tomotive electronic control systems.Model-based design associated with automatic code generation is more and more widely used in the development of vechicle embedded software.This paper presents the method for converting Simulink control model to C codes with Mat-lab/Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (Matlab/RTW EC)and integrating the generated codes with low-level codes of Freescale MC9S12D64 microcontroller.Further more,the validation of generated codes is verified by testing.%传统的电控软件开发模式已无法满足日益庞大、复杂的汽车电控系统的开发要求,基于模型的开发方法以及自动代码生成技术在汽车嵌入式软件开发中得到越来越广泛的应用。本文介绍使用 Matlab/Real Time Workshop Embed-ded Coder(Matlab/RTW EC)将Simulink控制模型生成C代码以及生成代码与 Freescale MC9S12D64单片机底层代码的集成方法,通过测试验证了生成代码的有效性。

  6. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  7. A proteomic study of rice cultivar TNG67 and its high aroma mutant SA0420.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Gin; Chou, Szu-Yi; Wang, Arthur Z; Wang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Wang, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance is a very important economic trait for rice cultivars. To identify the aroma genes in rice, we performed a proteomics analysis of aroma-related proteins between Tainung 67 (TNG67) and its high aroma mutant SA0420. Seventeen of the differentially identified proteins were close related with the aroma phenotype of SA0420. Among them, 9 were found in leaves and 8 were found in grains. One protein (L3) was identified as the chloroplastic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B (OsGAPDHB) which was less abundant in SA0420 than TNG67. Sequence analysis demonstrated that this protein in SA0420 carries a P425S mutation in the C-terminal extension domain, which might hinder the formation of holoenzyme, thereby changing the profile of aroma compounds. The protein profile of OsGAPDHB showed only a weak correlation to its transcription profile. This result indicated that the reduction of OsGAPDHB in SA0420 is regulated by post-translational processes and can only be analyzed by proteomics approach. Transgenic lines suppressing OsGAPDHB through RNAi harbored more fragrance than TNG67 but less than SA0420. With betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase as the only fragrance gene identified in rice to date, OsGAPDHB may serve as the second protein known to contribute to the aroma phenotype.

  8. Intra-oral adsorption and release of aroma compounds following in-mouth wine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Rocha-Alcubilla, Nuria; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2016-08-15

    Wine "after-odour" defined as the long lasting aroma perception that remains after wine swallowing is an outstanding characteristic in terms of wine quality but a relatively unstudied phenomenon. Among the different parameters that might affect wine after-odour, the adsorption of odorants by the oral mucosa could be important but has been little explored. In this work, the impact of the chemical characteristics of aroma compounds on intra-oral adsorption was assessed by an in vivo approach that determined the amounts of odorants remaining in expectorated wine samples. In addition, the subsequent aroma release after in-mouth wine exposure was studied by means of intra-oral SPME/GC-MS using three different panellists. Oral adsorption of the aroma compounds added to the wines ranged from 6% to 43%, depending on their physicochemical characteristics. A progressive intra-oral aroma decrease at different decay rates depending on compound type and panellist was also found. The strength of the aroma-oral mucosa interactions seems to explain these results more than the amount of compound adsorbed by the oral mucosa.

  9. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  10. 基于实时安全约束经济调度的自动发电控制模型%Automatic Generation Control Model Based on Real-time Security Constrained Economic Dispatch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石辉; 袁林山

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve intelligence level and real-time dispatch effect of automatic generation control (AGC),a secu-rity constrained economic dispatch(SCED)model for AGC active coordination based on synchronous ultra-short term predic-tion on distributed load of the whole grid was proposed depending on online data platform of new typed D5000 system.By means of rolling grey prediction on load different frequencies of the whole grid stations,anticipation of AGC adjustability was carried out for reminding artificial intervention on one hand,and on the other hand,with the target of power genera-tion of the unit close to the optimal day-ahead plan and reduction of adjustment price to the greatest extent,output of vari-ous units was pre-distributed for realizing highly intelligent AGC active coordinated dispatching function.Simulating calcula-tion was conducted on dispatching simulation system of some provincial power gird in central China area and the result indi-cated that this model was of obvious advantages in ensuring power grid security,optimizing operational index and improving automation degree of power generation dispatching.%为提高自动发电控制(automatic generation control,AGC)智能化水平及实时调节效果,依托新型 D5000系统在线数据平台,提出基于全网分布负荷同步超短期预测的 AGC 主动协调安全约束经济调度模型。通过全网站点负荷差频滚动灰色预测,一方面预判 AGC 可调以提示人工干预,另一方面以机组发电尽量接近最优日前计划及尽量降低调节代价为目标,预分配各机组出力,从而实现高度智能化的 AGC 主动协调调度功能。在华中某省级电网调度模拟系统进行仿真计算,结果表明该模型在保障电网安全、优化运行指标、提高发电调度自动化程度等方面具有明显的优势。

  11. Design of the Automatic Complementary Switching System for User Type Photovoltaic Power Generation and Utility Power Grid%用户型光伏发电与市电互补自动切换系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武世敏; 徐维昌; 李明滨; 王燕昌

    2014-01-01

    太阳能光伏发电被认为是当今世界极具发展前景的新能源技术之一。对独立光伏发电系统而言,需要铅酸蓄电池为负载提供电能。为了保护蓄电池同时又保证负载正常、安全、可靠地运行,对用户型光伏发电与市网无缝互补自动切换装置进行了设计。该系统装置由电压信号检测、电压信号比较和外围控制电路3部分组成。系统通过比较被检测的电池板两端电压和最低工作电压(可设定)的大小关系,实现市电和光伏发电系统无缝互补和自动切换。系统结构简单、成本低廉,具有广泛的应用价值。%Nowadays, solar photovoltaic power generation is considered as one of the new energy technologies having very promising prospects in the world. For stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system, lead-acid storage batteries are needed for supplying electric energy to the load. To protect batteries while ensuring load running normally, safely and reliably, the seamless complementary automatic switching device for user type photovoltaic power generation and utility power grid is designed. The systematic device is composed of three parts, i. e. , voltage signal detection, voltage signal comparison, and peripheral control circuit. Through comparing the magnitude relationship of the detected voltage on both ends of the panels and the minimum operating voltage ( settable) , seamless complementary and automatic switching for utility power grid and photovoltaic power generation system can be implemented by the system. The system features simple structure, low cost, and possesses wide application value.

  12. Automatic Generation of Attack-based Signature%基于攻击特征签名的自动生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 陈平; 茅兵; 谢立

    2012-01-01

    签名可以基于攻击特征的相关信息生成.在栈上针对控制流攻击中对函数调用返回值和函数调用指针的攻击以及非控制流中对与判断相关联的数据的攻击,结合动态分析技术生成二进制签名.首先,识别出漏洞相关指令;然后,用虚拟机监控运行上述指令;最后,修改虚拟机以在监控到恶意写行为时报警并生成签名.同时生成的补丁文件记录恶意写指令以便后继执行时跳过.签名可迅速分发给其他主机,在轻量级虚拟机上监测程序运行.实验表明,二进制签名具有准确、精简的优点,可以防御多态攻击,同时具有较低漏报率,结合使用轻量级虚拟机可使签名生成和后继检测都快速高效.%Signatures can be generated based on characteristics of attacks. Using dynamic program analyzing skills we generated binary signatures for control flow attack to return value of function call and function call pointer, and non-control flow attack to decision-related variable. First, we identified instructions related to the vulnerability. Second, we monitored these instructions using a modified virtual machine. At last, we alerted and generated signature after finding any malicious write behaviors. Patch recorded malicious write instructions could be generated meanwhile to ignore these instructions in future execution. Generated signature could be sent to other computers to monitor the same software's execution using lightweight virtual machine. Experiment results show that binary level signature has simplified form and precise functionality and low false negative and is effective to defense polymorphic attack. Besides, lightweight virtual machine makes use of the signature fast.

  13. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages.

  14. Potent odorants characterize the aroma quality of leaves and stalks in raw and boiled celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Kouno, Emi; Fujita, Akira; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Kubota, Kikue

    2006-04-01

    The raw and boiled odors of celery leaves and stalks were investigated. Among 12 compounds identified as potent odorants, 3-n-butylphthalide 1, sedanenolide 2, and trans- and cis-sedanolides 3, 4 were assessed to be most contributive to the overall odor of celery. These three phthalides, (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene, myrcene, and (E)-2-nonenal were common to both raw and boiled materials. Two compounds, ((Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenol), were dominant in raw materials and four compounds, (2-methylbutanoic acid, sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone), were dominant in boiled materials. Sensory evaluations were performed on natural celery odor and a series of reconstructed model aromas by assigning each intensity ratings for a set of seven odor qualities which aptly describe the odors of raw and boiled celery. According to the evaluation results, six common components contributed to the moderate odor of raw celery, two components dominant in raw materials enhanced the raw celery character, and four components dominant in boiled materials reduced the raw celery character and enhanced the boiled celery character. It was clarified that boiling-induced changes in celery odor were not affected by the amounts of phthalides, but by thermally generated compounds such as sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone, which reduce the "green spicy" note.

  15. 考虑光伏组件发电性能的自动除尘系统运行时间优化%Optimization of running time of automatic dedusting system considered generating performance of PV mudules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭枭; 澈力格尔; 韩雪; 田瑞

    2015-01-01

    Low power generation efficiency is one of the main obstacles to apply PV (photovoltaic) modules in large scale, and therefore studying the influence factors is of great significance. This article has independently developed a kind of automatic dedusting system of PV modules, which has the advantage of simple structure, low installation cost, reliable operation, without the use of water in the ash deposition, continuous and effective dedusting. The system has been applied to 3 kinds of occasions, including supplying power separately by the PV conversion cell with temperature in the range of -45℃−35℃, having various experimental tests of the assemble angles by the PV module cells and a large area of the PV power system. The dedusting effect of the automatic dedusting system is tested with temperature in the range of -10℃−5℃ when applied in the power separately by the PV conversion cell. Adopting the automatic dedusting system, the dynamic occlusion in the operation process has been simulated and the influence law of the output parameter for PV modules has been researched; the effect of dedusting has been analyzed under different amounts of the ash deposition; the effect of dedusting changing with the amount of the ash deposition has been summarized, and the opening time and the running period have been determined. The experimental PV modules are placed in outdoor open ground at an angle of 45°for 3, 7, 20 days and the amounts of the ash deposition are 0.1274, 0.2933, 0.8493 g/m2separately. The correction coefficient of PV modules involved in the experiments is 0.9943. The results show that, when the system is in the horizontal and vertical cycle, the cleaning brush makes the output parameters of the PV modules, including the output power, the electric current and the voltage, change according to the V-shaped law as it crosses a row of battery. Compared with the process of downlink, the output parameters of PV modules in the process of uplink fluctuate

  16. Çeşitli Sake Örneklerinde Aroma Maddeleri Üzerine Araştırmalar

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaş, İsmail; Rapp, Adolf

    1995-01-01

    With gaschromatographic and massspectrometric investigation of different sake samples, which were enriched with aroma substances, many volatile aroma components were separated and some of them were identified. Comparison of aromagrammes, as well as the quantitative evaluation of 45 components, it was found a great deal of differentiations of quantitative aroma substances, among the different sake samples. On some components between the original (from Japan) and Turkish samples, determined dif...

  17. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fadel,Hoda Hanem Mohamed; Mahmoud,Manal Gomaa; Asker,Mohsen Mohamed Selim; Lotfy,Shereen Nazeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid substrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The se...

  18. Automatic Generation Framework of Model-driven Test Cases%模型驱动的测试用例自动生成框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘扬; 李亚芬; 王普

    2011-01-01

    提出一个基于模型驱动架构(MDA)的测试用例生成框架,其中,平台无关的系统模型通过水平转换成平台无关的测试模型,平台无关的测试模型通过竖直转换生成相应的测试用例.利用MDA转换工具ATL和MOFScript制定相应的转换规则作用于元模型,使测试者只须提供源模型和测试数据即可生成相应的测试用例.%This paper proposes a test cases generation framework based on Model-Driven Architecture(MDA), in which Plafform-Independent Model(PIM) is converted into a Platform-Independent Test(PIT) model through level conversion, and platform-independent test model is converted into the corresponding test cases through vertical conversion. MDA conversion tools including ATL and MOFScript are used to develop the corresponding transformation rules acting on the meta-model, so that testers only need provide source model and test data to generate the corresponding test cases.

  19. ertCPN: The adaptations of the coloured Petri-Net theory for real-time embedded system modeling and automatic code generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattanapong Kurdthongmee

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A real-time system is a computer system that monitors or controls an external environment. The system must meet various timing and other constraints that are imposed on it by the real-time behaviour of the external world. One of the differences between a real-time and a conventional software is that a real-time program must be both logically and temporally correct. To successfully design and implement a real-time system, some analysis is typically done to assure that requirements or designs are consistent and that they satisfy certain desirable properties that may not be immediately obvious from specification. Executable specifications, prototypes and simulation are particularly useful in real-time systems for debugging specifications. In this paper, we propose the adaptations to the coloured Petri-net theory to ease the modeling, simulation and code generation process of an embedded, microcontroller-based, real-time system. The benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by use of our prototype software tool called ENVisAge (an Extended Coloured Petri-Net Based Visual Application Generator Tool.

  20. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  1. 汽轮发电机组轴系对中自动检测系统的研究%A Study on Automatic Measurement System for Aligning the Shafts of a Turbo-Generator Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮晓明; 李林; 刘衍平; 何缨

    2001-01-01

    对汽轮发电机组安装、检修过程中的轴系对中及调整方法进行了研究。设计了轴系参数自动检测技术方案,建立了轴系对中调整的模型及优化算法,并在此基础上,开发研制出由功能可靠的硬件和适合检修现场工况的智能软件组成的汽轮机轴系对中自动检测系统。该系统已在电力企业得到成功应用。与以往工艺比较,因其测量精度高并能提供优化的调整方案,可有效保证调整质量, 明显减少测量和调整的次数,提高效率。%A method for aligning the shafts of a turbo-generator set is introduced.A technical scheme for automatically measuring the shafts parameters is designed.A modol for the alignment of shafts and its optimal algorithm are presented.An automatic measurement system which is composed of excellent hardwares and intelligent softwares suitabe for its application in the maintenance spot is developed.The system has been successfully in the power plant.Comparing with a traditional maintenance technology,the new system has a higher accuracy and an adjustable optimal scheme,can effectively guarantee the alignment precision,and raise the measurement efficiency.

  2. 基于内存建模的复杂结构类型测试数据自动生成方法%Automatic Test Data Generation Method for Complex Structure Based on Memory Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞宇; 宫云战; 王雅文

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at automatic test data generation for complex structure such as list, tree and map, this paper presents a path-oriented test data generation method based on memory modeling. An abstract memory model which models structure variables and numerical variables separately is introduced to assist symbolic execution of the tested path. On symbolic execution of the path, the semantic operation of the statement is mapped to the operation of abstract memory, in this process the alias problem caused by pointers is solved, and the constraints of the path are recorded exactly in the abstract memory. Finally, test data is generated by constraint solving. The proposed method has been implemented in a self-developed automatic unit test tool called UATS. Experimental results prove that the method is feasible.%针对链表、树和图等这类复杂结构类型的测试数据自动生成问题,提出一种面向路径的基于内存建模的测试数据生成方法.采用一种将结构变量和数值变量分别建模的抽象内存模型,并利用此模型辅助符号执行被测路径;把路径执行过程中语句的语义操作映射到对抽象内存的操作,解决指针引起的别名问题,并且在抽象内存中精准地记录了路径的约束条件;最后通过约束求解得到测试数据.文中方法已应用于自主开发的自动单元测试系统——UATS,通过实验证明了该方法的可行件.

  3. 集群并行作业管理系统自动生成器的原理与实现%Mechanism and Implementation of Automatic Parallel Job Management System Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春明; 杨天鸿; 王青; 贾蓬

    2015-01-01

    A cIuster system provides a number of ways of job management based on command Iine, Web or graphicaI user interfaces which either require users to be abIe to write scripts or take up a Iarge capacity of computing resources. Therefore, it is presented in this paper a new paraI eI job management approach, and an automatic script generator is deveIoped as such to heIp users generate corresponding finite eIement anaIysis software user interface source code which can be run on most cIuster systems after compiIation.%集群提供了基于命令行、Web界面或图形用户界面的多种作业管理方式,但各有缺点,要么要求用户会编写命令脚本,要么占用过多的计算资源。文章在此提出一种全新并行作业管理方式,并开发出集群并行作业管理系统自动生成器,可根据用户集群环境自动生成常见有限元分析软件接口源程序,经编译后可运行在大多数集群上。

  4. Reinforcement Based Fuzzy Neural Network Control with Automatic Rule Generation%基于增强型算法并能自动生成规则的模糊神经网络控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耿锋; 傅忠谦

    2001-01-01

    A reinforcement based fuzzy neural network controller (RBFNNC) is proposed. A set of optimised fuzzy control rules can be automatically generated through reinforcement learning based on the state variables of object system. RBFNNC was applied to a cart-pole balancing system and shows significant improvements on the rule generation.%给出了一种基于增强型算法并能自动生成控制规则的模糊神经网络控制器RBFNNC(reinforcements based fuzzy neural network controller).该控制器能根据被控对象的状态通过增强型学习自动生成模糊控制规则.RBFNNC用于倒立摆小车平衡系统控制的仿真实验表明了该系统的结构及增强型学习算法是有效和成功的.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Cinnamyl Long Chain Aroma Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzakowska, Marta

    2015-06-08

    Cinnamyl long chain aroma esters were prepared by using the conventional and microwave-assisted methods. The esterification reaction of naturally occurring 3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-ol and different chain lengths acidic and diol reagents was carried out at the temperature of 140 °C under solvent free conditions. As acidic reagents, oxolane-2,5-dione, oxane-2,6-dione, hexanedioic acid and decanedioic acid were applied. Ethane-1,2-diol and 2,2'-[oxybis(2,1-ethandiyloxy)]diethanol were used as diol reagents. The synthesis of high molecular mass cinnamyl esters under conventional method conditions requires a long time to obtain high yields. The studies confirm that by using microwave irradiation, it is possible to reduce the reaction times to only 10-20 min. The structures of prepared esters were confirmed on the basis of FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. In addition, the newly obtained cinnamyl long chain esters were tested for their thermal properties. The TG studies proved the high thermal resistance of the obtained esters under inert and oxidative conditions.

  6. The aroma of the probiotic yogurts with and without supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in aromacompounds of fermented milks with probiotics during storage as a function of time and temperature. The aroma compounds concentration in probiotic yogurt samples, during storage at + 4 and +20°C were studied. Acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethanol and organic acids (lactate, acetate, citrate content were determined during 20 days, every fifth day from the beginning of storage. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, lactic, citric and acetic acid concentration were determined using an enzymatic method, while diacetyl concentration was determined using colorimetric method. The results showed that the acetaldehyde decreased during storage. The decrease was higher at elevated temperature. On the other hand, diacetyl, ethanol and acetic acid increased during storage at both temperatures. The concentration of lactic acid increased during storage at both temperature and at the end of storage it was doubled. The amount of citric acid increased in the same manner. The increase of all organic acids during storage was higher at elevated temperature.

  7. Identification of characteristic aroma components of Thai fried chili paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsatchakul, Premsiri; Chaiseri, Siree; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2008-01-23

    Three forms of Thai fried chili pastes (CP) were prepared, consisting of an unheated CP (UH-CP), a CP heated at 100 degrees C for 25 min (H25-CP, typical product), and a CP excessively heated for 50 min (H50-CP). The potent odorants in the CPs were investigated by two gas chromatography-olfactometry methods: dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). DHDA revealed that the predominant odorants in heated CPs were mainly sulfur-containing compounds, followed by lipid-derived compounds, Strecker aldehydes, and Maillard reaction products. Dimethyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, 2- (or 3-) methylbutanal, ally methyl sulfide, 2,3-butanedione, 3,3'-thiobis(1-propene), and methyl propyl disulfide were among the most potent headspace odorants detected by DHDA. By AEDA, 2-vinyl-4 H-1,3-dithiin and diallyl trisulfide had the highest FD factors in H25-CP. On the basis of their high FD factors by both GCO methods, the predominant odorants in H25-CP were 3-vinyl-4 H-1,2-dithiin, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl trisulfide. Furthermore, dimethyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide had the highest odor activity values in H25-CP, suggesting that these were also potent odorants in CP. In addition, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2 H)-furanone, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2( 5H)-furanone (sotolon) were indicated as potent thermally derived odorants of H25-CP.

  8. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  9. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  10. Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds in Raw and Thermally Processed Prawns and Thermally Processed Lobsters by Application of Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate of blanched prawn meat (Litopenaeus vannamei) (BPM) revealed 40 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to 1024. The highest FD factors were assigned to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. To understand the influence of different processing conditions on odorant formation, fried prawn meat was investigated by means of AEDA in the same way, revealing 31 odorants with FD factors between 4 and 2048. Also, the highest FD factors were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, followed by 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, (E)-3-heptenoic acid, and 2-aminoacetophenone. As a source of the typical marine, sea breeze-like odor attribute of the seafood, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole was identified in raw prawn meat as one of the contributors. Additionally, the aroma of blanched prawn meat was compared to that of blanched Norway and American lobster meat, respectively (Nephrops norvegicus and Homarus americanus). Identification experiments revealed the same set of odorants, however, with differing FD factors. In particular, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was found as the key aroma compound in blanched Norway lobster, whereas American lobster contained 3-methylindole with a high FD factor.

  11. 一种新颖的自动化攻击图生成方法%A Novel Technology of Automatic Generation of Attack Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武健; 汪东升; 苏格林

    2012-01-01

    Attack Graph act crisis role on internet security estimation and anti-virus defense.By analyzing on the attack graphs,network administrators can estimate the threshold on the network and then come out measures on improving the relevant defect.We have announced the Algorithm on Generating the Attack Graph(AGAG) based on atomic domain.AGAG shows its practical strength on reducing time complexity and its flexibility on extendibility.This paper proposes a collaborative framework and implementation on Attack Graph Generation System(AGGS) for Internet security measurements and estimation.We also evaluated the system by conducting experiments on atomic domain,the analysis on mainly on its time complexity is also included in this paper.%攻击图在网络安全评估和防御方面,占有重要地位。通过对攻击图的分析,网络管理者可以预知网络脆弱程度,采取加强网络安全性的措施。基于原子域的攻击图生成算法,其在生成时间复杂度和扩展性方面具有实用性的优势;本文通过对网络评估系统的介绍,重点介绍基于原子域的攻击图生成系统在网络安全评估中的应用设计与实现,同时对基于原子域生成系统进行性能测试。

  12. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  13. Automatic Generation Control for Interconnected Power Grids Based on Multi-agent Correlated Equilibrium Learning System%基于多智能体相关均衡算法的自动发电控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀智; 余涛; 唐捷

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a multi-agent decentralized correlated equilibrium Q(λ) (DCEQ(λ)) learning algorithm to tackle automatic generation control (AGC) under strong random gird environment considering emerging renewable energy sources. This algorithm does not need to consider the tradeoffs between exploitation and exploration, it also does not need any knowledge of the system model and uses the trial and error methods to find the most desired policy. After the adaptive problem of this algorithm in AGC fields had been figured out, an improved reward function and an equilibrium selected function integrated with fair factor were proposed. Three kinds of eligibility traces were also analyzed and SARSA(λ) was introduced in this algorithm to reassign the delayed reward appropriately due to the long time-delay control link such as AGC thermal plants. Simulation tests on a two-area load frequency control (LFC) power system model and China Southern Power Grid demonstrated that DCEQ(λ) controller has better control performance than Q(λ) controller, and can effectively smooth the instantaneous value of automatic generation control (ACE) and control performance standard (CPS), and thus improve the stability and robustness of interconnected power systems.%提出了一种分散式多智能体均衡算法(decentralized correlated equilibrium Q(λ),DCEQ(λ))以解决新能源接入所带来的强随机环境下的互联电网自动发电控制。该算法以相关均衡概率选择机制平衡利用与探索,是一种典型的试错寻优且与模型无关的智能算法。在综合考虑分散式多智能体均衡算法在自动发电控制(automatic generation control,AGC)系统设计适用性的基础上,改进了多智能体算法的奖励函数;以区域控制偏差(area control error,ACE)实时绝对值赋予公平系数的方法设计了均衡选择函数;在分析了3种常用资格迹算法特点的基础上,融入了SARSA(λ)资格迹以有效解决

  14. Methodology for the Automatic Generation of Assur Groups from Planar Multi-bar Linkages%平面多杆机构杆组自动生成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建友; 袁玉芹; 吕翔宇; 张倩倩; 卢天齐

    2015-01-01

    阿苏尔杆组理论指出,通过对不同运动链选取不同的机架和原动件,能够得到各种可能的阿苏尔杆组与机构构型。基于这一理论提出一种阿苏尔杆组的自动生成方法。针对杆组的结构特点,提出简单易行的杆组同构判别方法,该判别方法也适用于平面多杆机构运动链的同构判别。联合应用运动链的邻接矩阵与关联矩阵,使得自动生成算法与计算机编程相结合,实现了平面多杆机构杆组的自动生成。该自动生成机构杆组的方法理论简单,编程可操作性强,能够实现多杆运动链在构成机构时杆组的准确快速的拆分。该方法将杆组的拆分过程与由杆组搭接形成机构的过程相联系,对拆分得到的所有杆组与机构构型进行同构判别,得到了六杆以内的13种杆组,以及由八杆运动链构成的153种机构。%The theory of Assur groups indicates that the potential Assur groups and linkage types can be obtained by selecting different ground links and driving links of unique kinematic chains. A methodology of automatically generating Assur groups is proposed based on this theory. Aiming at the structure characteristics of Assur groups, an effective and simple method of isomorphism identification of Assur groups is also proposed. This method is also applicable to the isomorphism identification of planar multi-bar kinematic chains. This methodology combines the automatic generation algorithm and computer programming to realize the automatic generation of Assur groups and linkages by using the adjacency matrices and the relevance matrices of the kinematic chains. This methodology makes splitting the Assur groups from planar multi-bar kinematic chains when forming linkages quick and accurate. The automation process has obtained all the 13 Assur groups from four-bar and six-bar and eight-bar kinematic chains and the 153 unique linkage types formed by eight-bar kinematic chains

  15. Automatic generation of time resolved motion vector fields of coronary arteries and 4D surface extraction using rotational x-ray angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Uwe; Schäfer, Dirk; Grass, Michael; Rasche, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Rotational coronary angiography provides a multitude of x-ray projections of the contrast agent enhanced coronary arteries along a given trajectory with parallel ECG recording. These data can be used to derive motion information of the coronary arteries including vessel displacement and pulsation. In this paper, a fully automated algorithm to generate 4D motion vector fields for coronary arteries from multi-phase 3D centerline data is presented. The algorithm computes similarity measures of centerline segments at different cardiac phases and defines corresponding centerline segments as those with highest similarity. In order to achieve an excellent matching accuracy, an increasing number of bifurcations is included as reference points in an iterative manner. Based on the motion data, time-dependent vessel surface extraction is performed on the projections without the need of prior reconstruction. The algorithm accuracy is evaluated quantitatively on phantom data. The magnitude of longitudinal errors (parallel to the centerline) reaches approx. 0.50 mm and is thus more than twice as large as the transversal 3D extraction errors of the underlying multi-phase 3D centerline data. It is shown that the algorithm can extract asymmetric stenoses accurately. The feasibility on clinical data is demonstrated on five different cases. The ability of the algorithm to extract time-dependent surface data, e.g. for quantification of pulsating stenosis is demonstrated.

  16. Automatic generation of time resolved motion vector fields of coronary arteries and 4D surface extraction using rotational x-ray angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandt, Uwe; Schaefer, Dirk; Grass, Michael [Philips Research Europe-Hamburg, Roentgenstr. 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Rasche, Volker [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Robert-Koch-Strasse 8, 89081 Ulm (Germany)], E-mail: ujandt@gmx.de

    2009-01-07

    Rotational coronary angiography provides a multitude of x-ray projections of the contrast agent enhanced coronary arteries along a given trajectory with parallel ECG recording. These data can be used to derive motion information of the coronary arteries including vessel displacement and pulsation. In this paper, a fully automated algorithm to generate 4D motion vector fields for coronary arteries from multi-phase 3D centerline data is presented. The algorithm computes similarity measures of centerline segments at different cardiac phases and defines corresponding centerline segments as those with highest similarity. In order to achieve an excellent matching accuracy, an increasing number of bifurcations is included as reference points in an iterative manner. Based on the motion data, time-dependent vessel surface extraction is performed on the projections without the need of prior reconstruction. The algorithm accuracy is evaluated quantitatively on phantom data. The magnitude of longitudinal errors (parallel to the centerline) reaches approx. 0.50 mm and is thus more than twice as large as the transversal 3D extraction errors of the underlying multi-phase 3D centerline data. It is shown that the algorithm can extract asymmetric stenoses accurately. The feasibility on clinical data is demonstrated on five different cases. The ability of the algorithm to extract time-dependent surface data, e.g. for quantification of pulsating stenosis is demonstrated.

  17. An Automatic Clustering Technique for Optimal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, K Karteeka; Rao, A V Dattatreya; 10.5121/ijcsea.2011.1412

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple, automatic and efficient clustering algorithm, namely, Automatic Merging for Optimal Clusters (AMOC) which aims to generate nearly optimal clusters for the given datasets automatically. The AMOC is an extension to standard k-means with a two phase iterative procedure combining certain validation techniques in order to find optimal clusters with automation of merging of clusters. Experiments on both synthetic and real data have proved that the proposed algorithm finds nearly optimal clustering structures in terms of number of clusters, compactness and separation.

  18. Chinese Natural Language Processing for Animation Automatic Generation of Traditional Architecture%面向古建动画自动生成的中文自然语言处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯

    2011-01-01

    本文提出了一个面向古代建筑领域的自然语言处理的系统模型,它被用于古建筑动画自动生成系统之中,承担着从简单中文描述到古建筑领域语义结果的计算工作。该模型分为三部分,分别为预处理过程,一般语义计算和面向古建筑领域的语义计算。通过调用Stanford大学的中文分词、语法分析程序完成分词、语法分析任务,使用Prolog语言完成一般语义计算,最终计算出古建筑构件以及它的搭建顺序、尺寸和位置,即所谓的面向古建筑领域的语义计算。%In this paper,a model is proposed for Chinese natural language processing for animation automatic generation of traditional architecture,which is applied in the system of animation generation of traditional architecture and undertakes the computing task of transformation from simple Chinese text to result in traditional architecture domain.This model contains three main parts including preprocessing,general semantics computing,and traditional architecture oriented semantics computing.Stanford segmenter and parser programs are called to accomplish the task of segmenting and parsing,and Prolog is utilized to accomplish the general semantics computing,and finally the components of traditional architecture and their construction sequence,size and position is generated,whose procedure is also called traditional architecture domain oriented semantics computing.

  19. Research on Automatic Code-generation of SPWM of Single Phase Inverter%单相桥式逆变器SPWM目标代码自动生成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦宝泉; 胡文华

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种基十Matlab/RTW的系统设计方法和开发流程.结合该集成一体化的摔制平台,提出了一种基于嵌入式目标代码生成工具的单相桥式逆变器SPWM波产牛方法.利用Matlab/Simulink工具建立算法模型,经仿真验证算法后.给出了以TMS320F2812型定点DSP为目标的SPWM控制模型,并自动牛成代码,编译、下载到目标DSP中运行.产生的波形与理论吻合.这种基于模型的设计流程,实现了工程开发过程从算法设计到最终实现的所有阶段,从而提高了产品开发效率,降低了开发成本.%Trying to minimize the time consumption and the cost of the whole product,a system design method and development flow chart based on Matlab/RTW are introduced.An embedded code generation method is proposed in a single phase inverter system.Mter building and validating the algorithm models in Matlab/Simulink,a SPWM control system model using TMS320F2812 DSP as target board is presented.The code-generation is automatically accomplished, compiled and downloaded into the TMS320F2812 DSP board.The experimental results are agreed with theory analysis, and show the benefit of system design and code generation using Matlab/RTW.

  20. Automatic Generation Algorithm of 3 D Navigation Map Based on Seed Algorithm%基于种子算法的三维导航图自动生成算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧平; 刘东峰; 何家峰; 程昱

    2013-01-01

    导航图为人群模拟提供了对应的环境信息,为智能体的移动提供了导航基础。其准确与否对模拟结果的正确性至关重要,是反应智能体自主特征与智能行为的关键技术之一。而目前工作主要针对平坦的地面进行导航图的创建,对实际应用有很大的局限性。文中利用种子填充算法蔓延特性和碰撞检测技术,并根据场景的几何属性自动生成复杂地形的三维导航图,解决了起伏地形、复杂场景导航图自动生成困难的问题。所得结果可以利用到实际人群三维模拟或三维游戏开发中。%Navigation map provides the corresponding environmental information in the crowd simulation for agent movement,it is navi-gation foundation. Its accuracy or not for the correctness of the simulation results is very important,is one of key technologies reacting the agent independent characteristics and behavior. The exsiting work is mainly navigation map creation for flat ground,which has significant limitations on the practical application. In this paper,use the spread characteristic of seed filling algorithm and collision detection technolo-gy to automatically generate complex three-dimensional navigation map of the terrain,and based on the geometric properties of the scene to solve the problems of undulating terrain,complex scenes automatically generating navigational charts difficult. The results can take ad-vantage of the actual crowd 3D simulation or 3D game development.

  1. UMLS-based automatic image indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneiderman, C; Sneiderman, Charles Alan; Demner-Fushman, D; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Fung, K W; Fung, Kin Wah; Bray, B; Bray, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    To date, most accurate image retrieval techniques rely on textual descriptions of images. Our goal is to automatically generate indexing terms for an image extracted from a biomedical article by identifying Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts in image caption and its discussion in the text. In a pilot evaluation of the suggested image indexing method by five physicians, a third of the automatically identified index terms were found suitable for indexing.

  2. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  3. Effect of vine foliar treatments on the varietal aroma of Monastrell wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2014-11-15

    The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment.

  4. Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-05-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

  5. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  6. SubClonal Hierarchy Inference from Somatic Mutations: Automatic Reconstruction of Cancer Evolutionary Trees from Multi-region Next Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Niknafs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing of tumor samples and the ability to identify somatic mutations at low allelic fractions have opened the way for new approaches to model the evolution of individual cancers. The power and utility of these models is increased when tumor samples from multiple sites are sequenced. Temporal ordering of the samples may provide insight into the etiology of both primary and metastatic lesions and rationalizations for tumor recurrence and therapeutic failures. Additional insights may be provided by temporal ordering of evolving subclones--cellular subpopulations with unique mutational profiles. Current methods for subclone hierarchy inference tightly couple the problem of temporal ordering with that of estimating the fraction of cancer cells harboring each mutation. We present a new framework that includes a rigorous statistical hypothesis test and a collection of tools that make it possible to decouple these problems, which we believe will enable substantial progress in the field of subclone hierarchy inference. The methods presented here can be flexibly combined with methods developed by others addressing either of these problems. We provide tools to interpret hypothesis test results, which inform phylogenetic tree construction, and we introduce the first genetic algorithm designed for this purpose. The utility of our framework is systematically demonstrated in simulations. For most tested combinations of tumor purity, sequencing coverage, and tree complexity, good power (≥ 0.8 can be achieved and Type 1 error is well controlled when at least three tumor samples are available from a patient. Using data from three published multi-region tumor sequencing studies of (murine small cell lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in which the authors reconstructed subclonal phylogenetic trees by manual expert curation, we show how different configurations of our tools can

  7. Green tea aroma fraction reduces β-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human β-amyloid minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit Aβ-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD.

  8. Transport of hop aroma compounds across Caco-2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinlein, A; Metzger, M; Walles, H; Buettner, A

    2014-11-01

    Although being reported and used as a sedative remedy for several years, the bioactive principle of hop preparations is still not decisively clarified. Understanding absorption and transformation processes of potential physiologically active constituents is essential to evaluate the likeliness of biological effects on humans. Therefore, single hop aroma compounds as well as digestive transformation products thereof have been investigated in view of their human intestinal absorption, applying Caco-2 transport experiments as well as investigations on potential biotransformation processes. Selective and sensitive identification and quantification were thereby achieved by application of two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with stable isotope dilution analysis, leading to the determination of apparent permeability values by different mathematical approaches considering sink and non-sink conditions. Overall, calculated permeability values ranged from 2.6 × 10(-6) to 1.8 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) with all mathematical approaches, indicating high absorption potential and almost complete bioavailability for all tested compounds with hydroxyl-functionalities. Considering this high permeability together with the high lipophilicity of these substances, a passive transcellular uptake route can be speculated. Investigated sesquiterpenes and β-myrcene showed flat absorption profiles while the investigated esters showed decreasing profiles. In view of the lipophilic and volatile nature of the investigated substances, special attention was paid to recovery and mass balance determination. Furthermore, in the course of the transport experiments of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, additional biotransformation products were observed, namely 3-octanone and 3-methyl-2-butenal, respectively. The absence of these additional substances in control experiments strongly indicates an intestinal first-pass metabolism of the

  9. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  10. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  11. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  12. The Simulation Platform Design for Automatic Generation Control System Based Matlab GUI%基于 Matlab GUI的电力系统自动发电控制仿真平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春慧; 国中琦; 张永

    2014-01-01

    利用Matlab中的图形用户界面( GUI),设计了一个电力系统自动发电控制( AGC)仿真平台。该平台应用于电力系统单区域一次、互联电网二次调频,同时加入控制策略模块,用于经典PID和模糊PID控制策略的分析。该仿真平台可直观地反映AGC系统调节下的频率变化趋势,以及两种控制策略的性能优劣,同时可便捷地设置参数。%Graphical User Interface ( GUI) of Matlab was used to design a simulation platform of Automatic Gener-ation Control system .This platform was used in single area frequency regulation and primary and secondary frequency regulation of the interconnected power grid , at the same time , it compares the performance of classical PID and the fuzzy self-adjustive PID control strategy .At last, the simulation results showed that the effectiveness of the platform which can reflect the frequency change trend under the AGC system and modify the parameter easily .

  13. Research on Automatic Generation of Rule Base in Global Event Management of Hospital%医院全局事件管理中规则库自动生成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振叶; 孟瑞祺; 刘峰

    2013-01-01

    随着数字化医院的不断建设,医院内部的各种IT系统设备和医疗软件运行维护越来越复杂,基于医院IT系统的事件管理的分析和研究,提出了“全局事件管理”的概念,并创新技术“事件规则库自动生成”,从而对海量事件进行全局的、智能的分析和挖掘。%With the deepening construction of the digital hospital,hospital equipment and medical software running within the various IT systems maintenance is more and more complex, Based on the analysis and research of the hospital IT system management,We have put forward the concept of"global event management", and"event rule base automatically generated", So that we can manage the global mass events, intelligent analysis and research.

  14. Event Handling of Chinese Medical Guide and the Automatic Generation of Its Semantic Data%中文医学指南的事件处理及其语义数据自动生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉玲; 顾进广; 黄智生

    2015-01-01

    在临床医学指南的事件研究中,目前最核心的问题仍然是如何把自然语言表达的涉及事件描述的指南知识转换并生成对应的语义数据。针对该问题,采用了一种基于Pattern的医学指南自动处理方法。该方法总结归纳了医学指南中的事件句型,并采用正则表达式进行相关匹配与抽取,可将医学指南中的事件自动转换成XML结构化数据。%In the study of clinical guidelines event, the most important is still the problem of how to convert the guidelines knowledge involving event description expressed by natural language, and generate its corresponding semantic data. For this problem, this paper uses an automated processing method based on pattern. It summarizes the pattern of each event sentence, matches and extracts the pattern using regular expressions. So events in guidelines can be automatically converted into XML structural data.

  15. 基于逻辑推理的配电网地理接线图生成算法%A Logical Reasoning Algorithm For Generating Geographical Wiring Diagrams Automatically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祉燚; 孙怡晓; 付雷进

    2011-01-01

    For electric distribution network based on the geographical features, it brings out a logical reasoning algorithm to generate geographical wiring diagrams automatically, establishes a simplified model of geographic structure, analyzes the data storage structure based on the ArcSDE, and describes the basic idea and processes of the algorithm.Geographical wiring diagrams examples show that algorithm is simple, the process can improve electric distribution network management effectively.%基于配电网的地理结构特点,提出了一种基于逻辑推理的配电网地理接线图自动生成算法.建立了配电网地理结构简化模型,分析了基于ArcSDE的数据库存储结构,阐述了算法的基本思想和流程.地理接线图生成实例表明,算法结构简单,流程清晰,有效提高了配电网管理效率.

  16. 基于J2EE的网站自动生成与管理系统的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Website Automatic Generation and Management System Based on J2EE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙巧凯; 杨国林; 马晓波

    2014-01-01

    In this paper ,we propose an overall architecture and solutions for a website automatic generation and management system based on J2EE .Taking the small and medium -sized educational system for example ,we have researched and implemented such a system which is fully functional ,easi-ly operational and extendable .This system uses a MVC technical framework which is composed of Spring ,SpringMVC and Hibernate .The implementation of this system is a combination of CSS ,DIV and web technology .Simultaneously ,the system realizes the unlimited classification of the column and has a lower coupling ,better stability and portability .%本文提出了基于J2 E E的网站自动生成与管理系统的整体架构及解决方案。同时,使用符合M VC开发模型的Spring、SpringM VC和Hiber-nate技术框架,结合CSS、DIV等网页技术,针对中小型教育系统,研究并实现了一个功能完备、操作简单和便于扩展的网站自动生成与管理系统。该系统实现了栏目的无限分级,具有较低的耦合性、较好的稳定性和可移植性。

  17. New device to simulate swallowing and in vivo aroma release in the throat from liquid and semiliquid food systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Verschueren, M.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel device to simulate in vivo aroma release from liquids. This artificial throat simulates the act of swallowing followed by exhalation and shows aroma release curves that are similar in shape to in vivo release profiles. Liquids are poured down a tube, and a thin liquid fi

  18. Influence of complexation between amylose and a flavored model sponge cake on the degree of aroma compound release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayon, María-Angeles; Biais, Benoît; Rampon, Vincent; Cayot, Nathalie; Le Bail, Patricia

    2008-08-13

    Flavoring is used in the food industry to reinforce the aroma profile of baked cereal goods. During the processing of such products, interactions between starch and aroma compounds can occur, and this may have an impact on aroma release and perception. In the present study, 20 aroma compounds were tested to establish whether they formed complexes with amylose. The structure of the complexes was determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A cocomplexation study proved that several complexing compounds could be present in the same crystalline aggregate. WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed in a flavored model sponge cake at different steps of processing and showed that aroma compounds might form complexes with amylose in a sponge cake as they can do in simple system containing only amylose. Some of the aroma compounds trapped in the sponge cake were quantified, and their release behavior was followed by headspace analysis. The V-type structure could partly explain aroma retention in the product and the rate of aroma release.

  19. On Aroma Type of Flue-cured Tobacco%关于烤烟香型问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐远驹

    2011-01-01

    提出了烟叶香型是"对燃吸烟叶烟气整体香气特征所划分的类别"的概念.根据前人的资料,对我国烤烟清香型、浓香型、中间香型的香韵进行了分析,并概括为烤烟香型构成的"二韵论".对"二韵论"、香型的命名、香型的标准和标样、中间香型等存在的问题以及改进意见进行了探讨.%The concept of tobacco aroma type is proposed, that is: the aroma type is the classifications of overall aroma characteristics from smoking tobacco leaves. With reference to previous studies, the composition of aroma type of flue-cured tobacco was summarized as Two Notes Theory based on the note analysis of clean aroma type, full-bodied type and moderate type used in China. Then, the problems existed in Two Notes Theory, nomenclature of aroma type, standard of aroma type and standard sample,and moderate aroma type are discussed, suggestions for improvement is also presented.

  20. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.