WorldWideScience

Sample records for arnhem land northern

  1. 'Strange changes': indigenous perspectives of climate change and adaptation in NE Arnhem Land (Australia)

    OpenAIRE

    Petheram, L.; Zander, K. K.; Campbell, B.M.; High, C.; Stacey, N.

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing global attention to the development of strategies and policy for climate change adaptation, there has been little allowance for input from Indigenous people. In this study we aimed to improve understanding of factors important in integration of Yolngu perspectives in planning adaptation policy in North East Arnhem Land (Australia). We conducted workshops and in-depth interviews in two 'communities' to develop insight into Yolngu peoples' observations and perspectives on clima...

  2. Diversity of substance use in eastern Arnhem Land (Australia): patterns and recent changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Guyula, Terrence; Yunupingu, Maymuna; Burns, Christopher B

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe patterns of substance use among remote Aboriginal community populations. The setting was the eastern Arnhem Land ('Miwatj') region of the Northern Territory's (NT) 'Top End', with a population of 4217 Aboriginal people over 15 years of age using a cross-sectional description and comparison. Sample 1 (n = 689) from the region used data from health-worker consensus classification of kava, alcohol, tobacco, petrol and cannabis use. Sample 2 (n = 101) from one community used self-reported use, age at commencement, duration, amounts consumed and expenditure. In 1999 (sample 1), 46% of males and 18% of females were kava users, alcohol: 53% males, 12% females, tobacco: 68% males, 65% females, and cannabis: 31% males, 8% females. Less than 5% sniffed petrol. In one community in 2000, 39% males and 20% females reported using cannabis during the previous month. In this community between 1999 and 2000, the proportion of current kava users among men declined (77-52%, p = 0.015) with a tendency in women for a decrease in the proportion of tobacco users (87-69%, p = 0.096). The increase in the proportion of cannabis users in men (21-39%, p = 0.068) was not statistically significant. However, in women the increase was significant (0-20%, p = 0.013). Gross expenditure on tobacco and kava were similar in 2000: both greater than cannabis and alcohol. Median years used ranged from 4 years for cannabis and 20 years for tobacco. The data supported anecdotes of a recent rise in cannabis use, especially in women. Kava use declined in men. Tobacco use patterns in women may have been changing. Average per capita consumption of alcohol was low compared with other 'Top End' areas. Such varied and dynamic substance use patterns pose challenges for research and policy. PMID:12537704

  3. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  4. Bramen rond Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de A.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the Rubus-flora around Arnhem and its phytogeographical significance. Both the genus Rubus and the phytogeography are topics of the botanical interest of Prof. Van Soest, in whose honour this special issue of Gorteria is made. The environment of the town of Arnhem is one of the

  5. Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes in sediments from Cooper Creek, Western Arnhem Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of the environment post-mining is a key objective of rehabilitation, especially where runoff and erosion from rehabilitated mine sites could potentially lead to contamination of the surrounding land and watercourses. As part of an overall assessment of the success of rehabilitation at the former Nabarlek uranium (U) mine, an appraisal of stable lead (Pb) isotopes, radionuclides and trace metals within sediments and soils was conducted to determine the off site impacts from a spatial and temporal perspective. The study found localised areas on and adjacent to the site where soils had elevated levels of trace metals and radionuclides. Lead isotope ratios are highly radiogenic in some samples, indicating the presence of U-rich material. There is some indication that erosion products with more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios have deposited in sediments downstream of the former ore body. However, there is no indication that the radiogenic erosion products found on the mine site at present have significantly contaminated sediments further downstream of Cooper Creek

  6. The Population Ecology of Two Tropical Trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), Harvested by Indigenous Woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year-1 for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year-1 for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  7. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  8. Rapportage resultaten luchtonderzoek Amsterdamseweg 38 e.o. te Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliest JJG; van Ammers H; Fortezza F; Bos HP; IEM; LLO; gemeente Arnhem/Dienst Milieu en Openbare Werken

    1994-01-01

    In een aantal woningen rond een terrein dat gelegen is tussen de Amsterdamseweg, de Brantsenstraat, de Bouriciusstraat en de Sweerts de Landasstraat te Arnhem komt een relatief hoge concentratie van met name perchlooretheen (per) en in mindere mate trichlooretheen (tri) voor. Oorzaak van de verontr

  9. Digital technology impacts on the Arnhem transfer hall structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Straat, R.; Hofman, S.; Coenders, J.L.; Paul, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The new Transfer Hall in Arnhem is one of the key projects to prepare the Dutch railways for the increased future demands for capacity. UNStudio developed a master plan in 1996 for the station area of which the completion of the Transfer Hall in 2015 will be a final milestone. The Transfer Hall is a

  10. Fashion District Arnhem: creative entrepreneurs upgrading a deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jacobs; E. Lentjes; E. Ruiten

    2014-01-01

    The Arnhem Fashion District, which started in 2005, offers workspaces, shops and places to live for fashion designers. More than fifty fashion designers and other creative entrepreneurs have located their business in this neighbourhood. For a few years most of the fashion chain has been present: des

  11. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  12. Arable land increase in northern China: facts and findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on investigations between 1986 and 1996 in the four provinces of northern China, major problems on land reclamation were discovered. The increase of arable land was mainly low quality fields from barren land and was susceptible to disertification and water-induced soil erosion. In the meantime, large area of grassland and forestland was lost or degraded, and original fertile arable land was occupied for residential and industrial use. As a result the environment deteriorated. This change was mainly caused by economic development, population growth, inferior natural conditions, and irrational management strategies. Finally some positive measures were suggested to stop this negative cycle.

  13. Strangers, spirits, and land reforms : conflicts about land in Dande, northern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, Marja J.

    2004-01-01

    This book describes efforts by the Zimbabwean government to enforce land reforms on African farmers in northern Zimbabwe. These efforts compounded rather than alleviated the problem of land scarcity for black small-scale farmers, a problem government now allegedly seeks to redress through invasions

  14. Access To Land And The System Of Land Ownership In Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul AHIDJO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern Cameroon is a vast geographical region made up of a population with diverse customs, religion and migration process. The entire population is made up of paleo-nigritics, neo-Sudanese and pastoral nomads who practice activities such as agriculture, livestock and fisheries. This ethnic heterogeneity, complex historical events and cultural diversity has made the customary systemof land tenure to vary both in their ancient aspects as well as contemporary manifestations. Therefore, based on verbal assertion and written data, this article examines the methods of land access as well as the traditional and modern land tenure system. For the population of Northern Cameroon and elsewhere, land represents a natural resource of prime importance. Access to land and its control constitutes a major economic challenge and it is equally a source ofdiverse conflicts. The system of land ownership has been influenced by external unforeseen events. From the pre-colonial period to the so called post colonial period, access to land and land ownership vary between the conservation of a traditional system which land owners are trying to preserve and the weight of modernity which has economic implications.

  15. Geological map of land and seaareas of northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway, in cooperation with the Geological Surveys of 22 other countries and under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), has compiled a geological map of northern Europe at the 1:4 million scale.For the first time the geology of both land and sea areas of this large region is displayed in a single document. The area covered extends

  16. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Yimyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interviews, field verification, and mapping. Biomass carbon in trees was determined nondestructively, and carbon in ground cover, litter, and soil organic matter was determined by chemical analysis of replicated samples. The 3 villages, with access to land ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ha per capita, managed largely pristine headwater forests for security of water supply and made a living from crop production supplemented by harvests of timber, firewood, and other forest products from managed community forests. Cultivated land varied in composition and management among the villages, from shifting cultivation with fallow periods of different lengths to permanent cultivation of food and commercial crops. Per capita carbon storage in the villages well exceeded average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Thailand, with most of the carbon stored in the forests. This has important implications for programs that offer incentives to mountain villages to maintain or enhance their carbon storage, such as the United Nations’ REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program.

  17. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern...

  18. Human-induced greening of the northern extratropical land surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ribes, Aurélien; Yan, Binyan; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Séférian, Roland; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B.; Douville, Hervé; Piao, Shilong; Zhu, Zaichun; Dickinson, Robert E.; Dai, Yongjiu; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Jin, Mingzhou; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Wang, Bin; Huang, Mengtian; Lian, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Significant land greening in the northern extratropical latitudes (NEL) has been documented through satellite observations during the past three decades. This enhanced vegetation growth has broad implications for surface energy, water and carbon budgets, and ecosystem services across multiple scales. Discernible human impacts on the Earth's climate system have been revealed by using statistical frameworks of detection-attribution. These impacts, however, were not previously identified on the NEL greening signal, owing to the lack of long-term observational records, possible bias of satellite data, different algorithms used to calculate vegetation greenness, and the lack of suitable simulations from coupled Earth system models (ESMs). Here we have overcome these challenges to attribute recent changes in NEL vegetation activity. We used two 30-year-long remote-sensing-based leaf area index (LAI) data sets, simulations from 19 coupled ESMs with interactive vegetation, and a formal detection and attribution algorithm. Our findings reveal that the observed greening record is consistent with an assumption of anthropogenic forcings, where greenhouse gases play a dominant role, but is not consistent with simulations that include only natural forcings and internal climate variability. These results provide the first clear evidence of a discernible human fingerprint on physiological vegetation changes other than phenology and range shifts.

  19. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pastor

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  20. Satellite monitoring of land-use and land-cover changes in northern Togo protected areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fousseni Folega; Chun-yu Zhang; Xiu-hai Zhao; Kperkouma Wala; Komlan Batawila; Hua-guo Huang; Marra Dourma; Koffi Akpagana

    2014-01-01

    Remote-sensing data for protected areas in northern Togo, obtained in three different years (2007, 2000, and 1987), were used to assess and map changes in land cover and land use for this drought prone zone. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was applied to the images to map changes in vegetation. An unsupervised classification, followed by classes recoding, filtering, identifications, area computing and post-classification process were applied to the composite of the three years of NDVI images. Maximum likelihood classification was applied to the 2007 image (ETM+2007) using a supervised classification process. Seven vegetation classes were defined from training data sets. The seven classes included the following biomes:riparian forest, dry forest, flooded vegetation, wooded savanna, fallows, parkland, and water. For these classes, the overall accuracy and the overall kappa statistic for the classi-fied map were 72.5% and 0.67, respectively. Data analyses indicated a great change in land resources;especially between 1987 and 2000 proba-bly due to the impact of democratization process social, economic, and political disorder from 1990. Wide-scale loss of vegetation occurred during this period. However, areas of vegetation clearing and regrowth were more visible between 2000 and 2007. The main source of confusion in the contingency matrix was due to heterogeneity within certain classes. It could also be due to spectral homogeneity among the classes. This research provides a baseline for future ecological landscape research and for the next management program in the area.

  1. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  2. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Lange; Rosemarie Siebert; Tim Barkmann

    2015-01-01

    Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i) agriculture; (ii) forestry; (iii) water management and (iv) rural planning...

  3. The driving forces of land change in the Northern Piedmont of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger F.; Napton, Darrell E.; Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces facilitate or inhibit land-use/land-cover change. Human driving forces include political, economic, cultural, and social attributes that often change across time and space. Remotely sensed imagery provides regional land-change data for the Northern Piedmont, an ecoregion of the United States that continued to urbanize after 1970 through conversion of agricultural and forest land covers to developed uses. Eight major driving forces facilitated most of the land conversion; other drivers inhibited or slowed change. A synergistic web of drivers may be more important in understanding land change than individual drivers by themselves.

  4. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  5. Land use pattern evolution and optimization in the Farming-Pastoral Zone of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yunhao; SU; Wei; WU; Yongfeng; YU; Xiaomin; ZHANG; Jinshui

    2006-01-01

    Using information about the land cover of the Farming-Pastoral Zone of Northern China retrieved from multi-temporal NOAA/AVHRR and SPOT VEGETAN images obtained in 1989, 1994 and 1999, the authors analyzed land-use pattern evolution over this 10-year period and built a land-use pattern simulation model, based on which land-use pattern evolution and optimization modeling in this region were studied. Results showed that the proposed model can effectively simulate regional land-use patterns and help improve regional ecological environments.

  6. Land Reform and Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TRUNG THANH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the abstract of my doctoral dissertation entitled “The Impactof Land Reform on Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam” at theJustus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany under the supervision of Prof. Dr.Siegfried Bauer. The study examined the impact of the recent land reform inVietnam on the economy of rural households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam.It was found that the land reform has positive impact on three important aspects ofrural household’s economy, namely crop production, land market participation, andafforestation. However, further improvement in terms of private land rights isneeded for a more sustainable development in the region.

  7. Land Reform and Farm Land Rental Market Operation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Trung THANH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting the participation of farmhouseholds in farm land rental markets with particular focus on the impact ofthe land reform. The operational outcomes of such market participation are alsoanalysed. The study used a panel dataset of farm households surveyed beforeand after the land reform with Random Effect Tobit model. The analysisshowed that the land reform have contributed to increased land rentalparticipation. The operation of the market has both efficiency and equityoutcomes. Therefore, constraints to functioning of land rental market aredifficult to justify. In other words, farm land rental should be promoted to bringsuch desirable outcomes.

  8. Scenario simulation and forecast of land use/cover in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YueChen; HE ChunYang

    2008-01-01

    Modeling land use/cover scenario changes and its potential impacts on structure and functions of ecosystem in typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use/cover system and ecosystem. Based on the analysis of the existing land use/cover simulation and forecast models, a land use/cover scenario dynamics model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model, Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use/cover scenario changes in northern China in the next 30 years and simulated in this paper. The model is to simulate the land use/cover scenario demands by using a SD model at first, and then allocating the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use/cover suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using BPNN-CA model to satisfy the balance between land use/cover scenario demands and supplies. It integrates the advantages of SD, BPNN and CA. Macro-driving factors and the micro-spatial pattern are also fully taken into account. The BPNN simplifies the identification of the factors' weights used in CA model and improves the reliability of the simulation results. The simulation accuracy of the model developed in this paper was found to be about 74%. It suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complexity of land use/cover system at different scales to some extent and it is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecosystem. The simulated results also indicate that the urban land, water area and forest will increase significantly, and farmland and unable land will decrease gradually. Obvious land use/cover changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone and the southeast area of northern China.

  9. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher K.WRIGHT; Kirsten M.de BEURS; Geoffrey M.HENEBRY

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1).NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05)positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface.LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes;cropland,grassland,and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic.Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC,we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant (p≤0.05)negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought.In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case,represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland,and also associated with statistically significant (p≤0.05) negative NDVI trends.Relatively small clusters of statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region.Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe,Russia,and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets.Here,we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt,involving both broader climatic forcing,and narrower anthropogenic impacts,than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  10. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher K.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001 and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1). NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface. LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes; cropland, grassland, and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic. Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC, we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought. In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case, represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland, and also associated with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends. Relatively small clusters of statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region. Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe, Russia, and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets. Here, we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt, involving both broader climatic forcing, and narrower anthropogenic impacts, than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  11. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  12. Importance of Nitrogen Availability on Land Carbon Sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Melillo, J. M.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Lu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and the application of nitrogen fertilizers provide subsidies to land ecosystems that can increase nitrogen availability for vegetation production and thereby influence land carbon dynamics. In addition, enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) from warming soils and permafrost degradation may also increase nitrogen availability in Northern Eurasia. Here, we examine how changes in nitrogen availability may influence land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario (the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways or RCP 8.5) and a stabilization scenario (RCP 4.5) between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation and soil thermal dynamics on land carbon dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In these simulations, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and fertilizer applications provide an additional 3.3 Pg N (RCP 4.5) to 3.9 Pg N (RCP 8.5) to Northern Eurasian ecosystems over the 21st century. Land ecosystems retain about 38% (RCP4.5) to 48% (RCP 8.5) of this nitrogen subsidy. Net nitrogen mineralization estimated by TEM 6.0 provide an additional 1.0 Pg N to vegetation than estimated by TEM 4.4 over the 21st century from enhanced decomposition of SOM including SOM formerly protected by permafrost. The enhanced nitrogen availability in TEM 6.0 allows Northern Eurasian ecosystems to sequester 1.8x (RCP 8.5) to 2.4x (RCP 4.5) more carbon over the 21st century than estimated by TEM 4.4. Our results indicate that consideration of nitrogen subsidies and soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia will respond to future changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry, and disturbances.

  13. Land Use and Land Cover Change, and Woody Vegetation Diversity in Human Driven Landscape of Gilgel Tekeze Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuale Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC change through inappropriate agricultural practices and high human and livestock population pressure have led to severe land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands. This has led to further degradation such as biodiversity loss, deforestation, and soil erosion. The study examined woody vegetation diversity status and the impact of drivers of change across different LULC types and agroecological zones in Gilgel Tekeze catchment, northern Ethiopian highlands. LULC dynamics were assessed using GIS techniques on 1976, 1986, and 2008 satellite images. Vegetation data were collected from 135 sample plots (20 m × 20 m from five LULC types, namely, forest, shrub-bush, grazing, settlement, and cultivated land, in the three agroecological zones; Kolla, Weyna-Dega, and Dega. Differences in vegetation structure and composition and their relationship to agroecological zones were tested using two-way ANOVA and PCA technique. The results show that vegetation structure and composition significantly differed across all LULC types in different agroecological zones particularly in sapling density, tree height, and shrub height and in each agroecological zone between forest land, shrub-bush land, and settlement area. Overall, Weyna-Dega agroecological zone and the shrub-bush land had more structural and compositional diversity than the other agroecological zones and LULC types.

  14. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  15. Uranium mine rehabilitation in the Gunlom Land Trust, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunlom Land Trust area is Aboriginal freehold land, currently leased to the Director, National Parks (Commonwealth). Parks Australia through the office of the Director, National Parks is responsible for managing the area as part of Kakadu National Park (KNP). The abandoned uranium mines and associated infrastructure covered by the remediation works are located in the southern part of KNP, within the valley containing the headwaters of the South Alligator River. One site, Sleisbeck, is located in the Katherine River catchment. The area is of high significance for both its natural and cultural values. This article describes remediation works that were undertaken at two sites, Guratba and Sleisbeck, during the late dry-season of 2007.

  16. Modelling scenarios of land use change in northern China in the next 50 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEChunyang; LIJinggang; SHIPeijun; CHENJin; PANYaozhong; LIXiaobing

    2005-01-01

    Modelling scenarios of land use change and their impacts in typical regions are helpful to investigate the mechanism between land use and ecological systems and process the land use allocation under the ecological security. A system dynamics (SD) model with the aim to modelling scenarios of land use change and assessing ecological impact in northern China in the next 50 years is developed here. The accuracy assessment with the historic data from 1990 to 2001 indicated the SD model is robust. After the different """"what-if' scenarios controlled by GDP, population, market, and technology advancement were built, the different scenarios of land use change in northern China from 2000 to 2050 were simulated with their ecological impact assessed. The result suggested that such factors as GDP, population, market and technology have a strong relationship with land use structural change innorthern China. It also indicated that such measures as strict controlling of population increase,importing some food to keep the supply-demand balance in the region, and improving agricultural technology will be the guarantee of regional sustainable development with fast economic growth and the obvious land use structural improvement at the same time.

  17. Pastoralists seasonal land rights in land administration : a study of Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lengoiboni, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that incorporating pastoral land rights into the formal system requires identifying and securing pastoralists’ rights on migration corridors and dry season pastures in a manner that, first, reflects their customary practices about ‘where’ and ‘when’ they require access to the land, and second, aligning both the ‘when’ and the ‘where’ within the legal framework for property rights and land administration. This approach ma...

  18. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  19. Effects of Happiness on All-Cause Mortality During 15 Years of Follow-Up: The Arnhem Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, T.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Giltay, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychological characteristics may be beneficial for physical health. However, prospective data on the effects of happiness on survival is scarce. In a population-based cohort study, the Arnhem Elderly Study, happiness was measured by two items, being: "I have many moments of happiness" and

  20. Biomassa voor energie in de stadsregio Arnhem-Nijmegen : ontwikkelingen van een strategie voor biomassa uit bos, natuur en landschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.H.; Vries, de E.A.; Derksen, J.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    De Stadsregio Arnhem-Nijmegen heeft behoefte aan een strategie voor de optimale inzet van biomassa uit natuur en landschap voor energie-opwekking. In dit rapport wordt inleidend het huidige aandeel duurzame energie in Nederland en de beleidsopgave uiteengezet. Daarna wordt aangegeven dat er legio ka

  1. Franz Josef Land: extreme northern outpost for Arctic fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Chernova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The remote Franz Josef Land (FJL Archipelago is the most northerly land in Eurasia and its fish fauna, particularly in nearshore habitats, has been poorly studied. An interdisciplinary expedition to FJL in summer 2013 used scuba, seines, and plankton nets to comprehensively study the nearshore fish fauna of the archipelago. We present some of the first underwater images for many of these species in their natural habitats. In addition, deep water drop cameras were deployed between 32 and 392 m to document the fish fauna and their associated habitats at deeper depths. Due to its high latitude (79°–82°N, extensive ice cover, and low water temperatures (<0 °C much of the year, the fish diversity at FJL is low compared to other areas of the Barents Sea. Sixteen species of fishes from seven families were documented on the expedition, including two species previously unknown to the region. One Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus (Somniosidae, ca. 2 m in length, was recorded by drop camera near Hayes Island at 211 m, and Esipov’s pout, Gymnelus esipovi (Zoarcidae, was collected at Wilton Island at 15 m in a kelp forest. Including the tape-body pout, Gymnelus taeniatus, described earlier from the sub-littoral zone of Kuhn Island, 17 fish species are now known from FJL’s nearshore waters. Species endemic to the Arctic accounted for 75% of the nearshore species observed, followed by species with wider ranges. A total of 43 species from 15 families are known from FJL with the majority of the records from offshore trawl surveys between 110 and 620 m. Resident species have mainly high Arctic distributions, while transient species visit the archipelago to feed (e.g., Greenland shark, and others are brought by currents as larvae and later migrate to spawn grounds in the south (e.g., Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Capelin Mallotus villosus, Beaked redfish Sebastes mentella. Another species group includes warmer-water fishes that are rare waifs (e

  2. Potential influence of climate-induced vegetation shifts on future land use and associated land carbon fluxes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change will alter ecosystem metabolism and may lead to a redistribution of vegetation and changes in fire regimes in Northern Eurasia over the 21st century. Land management decisions will interact with these climate-driven changes to reshape the region’s landscape. Here we present an assessment of the potential consequences of climate change on land use and associated land carbon sink activity for Northern Eurasia in the context of climate-induced vegetation shifts. Under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, climate-induced vegetation shifts allow expansion of areas devoted to food crop production (15%) and pastures (39%) over the 21st century. Under a climate stabilization scenario, climate-induced vegetation shifts permit expansion of areas devoted to cellulosic biofuel production (25%) and pastures (21%), but reduce the expansion of areas devoted to food crop production by 10%. In both climate scenarios, vegetation shifts further reduce the areas devoted to timber production by 6–8% over this same time period. Fire associated with climate-induced vegetation shifts causes the region to become more of a carbon source than if no vegetation shifts occur. Consideration of the interactions between climate-induced vegetation shifts and human activities through a modeling framework has provided clues to how humans may be able to adapt to a changing world and identified the trade-offs, including unintended consequences, associated with proposed climate/energy policies. (paper)

  3. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  4. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lange

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i agriculture; (ii forestry; (iii water management and (iv rural planning and development (“cross-sector” representatives. The data were gathered using 60 semi-structured interviews and were analyzed qualitatively. The results indicate that differences in perceptions are greater between stakeholder groups than between regions; regional land management issues shape the framework of negotiations and the redefinition of concepts, whereas stakeholder group affiliations shape mindsets. The economic dimension of sustainability was emphasized, particularly by land managers; however, the social dimension was underrepresented in the statements. Furthermore, there are considerable differences between stakeholder groups in terms of the ways in which the spatial and temporal scales of sustainable land use are perceived. This study underscores the importance of examining stakeholder knowledge and understanding the complexity of land management and its benefits such that consensual management strategies may be developed.

  5. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  6. Pervasive, tholeiitic refertilisation and heterogeneous metasomatism in Northern Victoria Land lithospheric mantle (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Faccini, Barbara; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of peridotite xenoliths in the Cenozoic volcanics from Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) provides new constraints on the characterisation of the lithospheric mantle beneath the West Antarctic Rift. Based on mineral major and trace element models, this mantle domain is proposed to represent a residuum after 10% and 20% partial melting. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results for Sr and Nd systematics highlight the substantial contribution of tholeiitic melts percolating through peridotites. Close correlation with trace element contents in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Ferrar and Karoo tholeiites allows us to ascribe this refertilisation event to the Jurassic. This asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to the Northern Victoria Land mantle segment. The rare presence of glass and secondary phases indicate that Greene Point xenoliths were heterogeneously affected by alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening; this has also been widely observed in other Northern Victoria Land localities (i.e., Baker Rocks). Temperature and fO2 were calculated (950 °C; Δlog fO2 (QFM), - 1.70 to - 0.39) at a fixed pressure of 15 kbar, confirming the tendency of the anhydrous Greene Point xenolith population to have higher equilibration temperatures and comparable redox conditions, compared to the nearby amphibole-bearing peridotites from Baker Rocks.

  7. An off-line simulation of land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinHong Song; YaoMing Ma; Yu Zhang; WeiQiang Ma; SiQiong Luo

    2014-01-01

    In order to further understand the land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau, this study produced an off-line simulated examination at the Bujiao site on the northern Tibetan Plateau from June 2002 to April 2004, using the Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM) and observed data from the CAMP/Tibet experiment. The observed data were neces-sarily corrected and the number of soil layers in the Noah LSM was changed from 4 to 10 to enable this off-line simulation and analysis. The main conclusions are as follows:the Noah LSM performed well on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The simulated net radiation, upward longwave radiation, and upward shortwave radiation demonstrated the same remarkable annual and seasonal variation as the observed data, especially the upward longwave radiation. The simulated soil tem-peratures were acceptably close to the observed temperatures, especially in the shallow soil layers. The simulated freezing and melting processes were shown to start from the surface soil layer and spread down to the deep soil layers, but they took longer than the observed processes. However, Noah LSM did not adequately simulate the soil moisture. Therefore, addi-tional high-quality, long-term observations of land surface-atmosphere processes over the Tibetan Plateau will be a key factor in proper adjustments of the model parameters in the future.

  8. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  9. Implications of land use change in tropical Northern Africa under global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brücher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major link between climate and humans in Northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. Here we assess possible feedbacks between the type of land use and harvest intensity and climate by analyzing a series of idealized GCM experiments using the MPI-ESM. The base line for these experiments is a simulation forced by the RCP8.5 scenario which includes strong greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic land cover changes. The anthropogenic land cover changes in the RCP8.5 scenario include a mixture of pasture and agriculture. In subsequent simulations, we replace the entire area affected by anthropogenic land cover change in the region between the Sahara in the North and the Guinean Coast in the South (4 to 20° N by either pasture or agriculture, respectively. In a second setup we vary the amount of harvest in case of agriculture. The RCP8.5 base line simulation reveals strong changes in mean agriculture and monsoon rainfall. In comparison with these changes, any variation of the type of land use in the study area leads to very small, mostly insignificantly small, additional differences in mean temperature and annual precipitation change in this region. Within the uncertainty of the representation of land use in current ESMs, our study suggests marginal feedback between land use changes and climate changes triggered by strong greenhouse gas emissions. Hence as a good approximation, climate change can be considered as external driver in models of land-use – conflict dynamics when seasonal or mean values are used as external driver.

  10. Pastoralists seasonal land rights in land administration : a study of Northern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengoiboni, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that incorporating pastoral land rights into the formal system requires identifying and securing pastoralists’ rights on migration corridors and dry season pastures in a manner that, first, reflects their customary practices about ‘where’ and ‘when&rsquo

  11. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  12. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Stephanie; Malcolm, Heath; Buys, Gwen; Moxley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2012 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector of the UNFCCC National Inventory for each of the UK Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

  13. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  14. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  15. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin. PMID:27318516

  16. Conflicts between agricultural policy and sustainable land use: The case of northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murua Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline of agriculture, observable mainly in industrialized countries, shows itself not only in a gradual decrease in the economic weight of the primary sector, but also in the abandonment of land devoted to agricultural and livestock activities. The phenomenon of agricultural land abandonment is complex and, in order to explain the causes, it is necessary to consider not only the physical and productive features of the land but also the social and economic characteristics of the area. It also appears to be conditioned by production specialization, since traditional livestock-raising areas show a higher risk of abandonment. The process, which is gradual, starts with a reduction in production intensity followed by increasing marginalization and, finally, the total abandonment of land use. Focusing on a representative area on the Cantabrian Coast of northern Spain, this study tests the hypothesis that a large portion of agricultural land in livestock-oriented regions is underused. It also evaluates the viability of forestry as an alternative use for abandoned lands and the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform.

  17. Siting, design and cost of shallow land burial facilities in northern New England. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the technical feasibility and cost of shallow land burial (SLB) as one low-level radioactive waste disposal option for Maine and the northern New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The results are presented in five chapters addressing the licensing process for an SLB facility, the siting process, the engineering design, the cost of disposal, and the cost of transportation. Chapter 2 reviews the Federal and State licensing processes and requirements for development of an SLB facility. Included in this discussion are the stages in the life cycle of SLB facility. Chapter 3 provides site selection criteria for Maine and presents a proposed site selection methodology. The site selection criteria are defined and the reasoning behind their selection is explained. Chapter 4 discusses SLB trench and facility designs and costs. To accommodate different waste volume scenarios, differently sized facilities are discussed, representing Maine going-it-alone and a northern New England compact. Designs and costs of scenarios including nuclear power plant decommissioning wastes are also discussed. Cost estimates of licensing, facility construction, operation, closure, and post closure care are presented for the different waste volume scenarios. Chapter 5 presents estimates of what it would cost LLW generators to dispose of their waste in a Maine-only or a northern New England shallow land burial facility. The reliability of the estimates and their sensitivity to changes in waste volume are also discussed. Chapter 6 examines transportation costs

  18. 76 FR 66321 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i... availability of the final draft Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) for our lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern... availability of the final draft Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) for public review and comment....

  19. Soil Quality Indices for Evaluating Smallholder Agricultural Land Uses in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke M. Gelaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF; agroforestry (AF and irrigated crop production (IR. Each land use was replicated five times within a semi-arid watershed in eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Using the framework suggested by Karlen and Stott (1994; four soil functions regarding soil’s ability to: (1 accommodate water entry (WE; (2 facilitate water movement and availability (WMA; (3 resist degradation (RD; and (4 supply nutrients for plant growth (PNS were estimated for each land use. The result revealed that AF affected all soil quality functions positively more than the other land uses. Furthermore, the four soil quality functions were integrated into an overall SQI; and the values for the three land uses were in the order: 0.58 (AF > 0.51 (IR > 0.47 (RF. The dominant soil properties influencing the integrated SQI values were soil organic carbon (26.4%; water stable aggregation (20.0%; total porosity (16.0%; total nitrogen (11.2%; microbial biomass carbon (6.4%; and cation exchange capacity (6.4%. Collectively, those six indicators accounted for more than 80% of the overall SQI values.

  20. Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in Southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-Hui; FAN Zhi-Ping; D.K.LEE

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, large areas of the Horqin sandy land were afforested to prevent desertification. Although the afforestation policy appears successful, many people now doubt whether it is suitable to plant trees with high density on the poor soils in semiarid regions. Little is known about the impacts of afforestation on the sandy soil properties, although the evaluation of these impacts is fundamental to judge the rationality of afforestation policy. Soil phosphorus (P) fractions, acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and other soil chemical properties were compared among five adjoining typical ecosystems on poor sandy soils in southeastern Horqin sandy land. The ecosystems studied are natural elm savanna, degraded grassland, Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica) plantation, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation, and mixed plantation of Mongolian pine and poplar (Populus simonii). The results showed that organic P dominated soil P (47%-65%) was the principal source of available P. The degradation of elm savanna to grassland significantly reduced soil pH and resulted in an overall reduction in soil fertility, although slightly increased labile inorganic P. Grassland afforestation had no significant influence on soil pH, organic carbon, and total N but significantly reduced total P. Impacts of grassland afforestation on soil P fractions depended on tree species. Natural elm savanna had higher soil P conserving ability than artificial plantations. Therefore, with the aim of developing a sustainable ecosystem, we suggested that vegetations with low nutrient demand (particularly P) and efficient nutrient cycling would be more suitable for ecosystem restoration in the semiarid region.

  1. Mapping of the Land Cover Spatiotemporal Characteristics in Northern Russia Caused by Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidi, E.; Tsepelev, V.; Torlopova, N.; Bobkov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover) dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass). We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  2. MAPPING OF THE LAND COVER SPATIOTEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS IN NORTHERN RUSSIA CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Panidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass. We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  3. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  4. Land Use Change and Hydrologic Processes in High-Elevation Tropical Watersheds of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, W. A.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Covino, T. P.; Peña, C.

    2013-12-01

    The humid tropics cover one-fifth of the Earth's land surface and generate the greatest amount of runoff of any biome globally, but remain poorly understood and understudied. Humid tropical regions of the northern and central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land-use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system in the world. Vast expanses of this region are currently undergoing rapid transformation to farmland for production of potatoes and pasture for cattle grazing. Although the humid tropics have some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, there is a lack of scientific literature that addresses hydrologic processes in these regions and very few field observations are available to inform management strategies to ensure the sustainability of water resources of present and future generations. We seek to improve understanding of hydrologic processes and feedbacks in the humid tropics using existing and new information from two high-elevation watersheds that span a LULC gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. One site is located in the preserved Chingaza Natural National Park in Central Colombia (undisturbed). The second site is located ~60 km to the northwest and has experienced considerable LULC change over the last 40 years. Combined, these watersheds deliver over 80% of the water resources to Bogotá and neighboring communities. These watersheds have similar climatological characteristics (including annual precipitation), but have strong differences in LULC which result in substantial differences in hydrologic response and streamflow dynamics. We present an overview of many of the pressing issues and effects that land degradation and climate change are posing to the long-term sustainability of water resources in the northern Andes. Our overarching goal is to provide process-based knowledge that will be useful to prevent, mitigate, or respond to future water crises along the Andean

  5. Development of Ecological Land Classification and mapping in support of forest management in northern Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajzak, D; Roberts, B A

    1996-01-01

    For the sustainable development of forest land, as recently prescribed by the Canadian Forest Strategy, a land classification project in northern Newfoundland was initiated to support the local forest management activities. The method adopted here is a modification of the Canadian Committee for Ecological Land Classification's (CCELC) system, and it applies various levels of mapping to uniform areas based on geomorphology, soils, vegetation, climate, water, and fauna.In this study, all CCELC levels were mapped; resulting maps were digitized and imported into a Geographic Informations System (GIS). The GIS data base contained the following maps: 1) digital terrain model, 2) bedrock geology, 3) surficial geology, 4) forest inventory, and 5) various levels of the ecological land classification, including Vegetation Types at the lowest level. In addition to the mapping, mensurational data were analyzed to provide stand and stock tables for each of the forest types, including growth curves that could be entered into specific forest growth modelling systems to predict wood supply scenarios based upon different management interventions. PMID:24198006

  6. Monitoring Contrasting Land Management in the Savanna Landscapes of Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald C.; Petty, Aaron M.; Williamson, Grant J.; Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  7. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  8. Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-09-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25% of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (>75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7%/yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28%/yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18%/yr) coming from savanna. During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5°-10° latitude), where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm d-1. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback mechanism.

  9. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog, the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE. Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal

  10. Satellite observations of changes in snow-covered land surface albedo during spring in the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    K. Atlaskina; Berninger, F.; De Leeuw, G.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen years of MODIS surface albedo data for the Northern Hemisphere during the spring months (March–May) were analysed to determine temporal and spatial changes over snow-covered land surfaces. Tendencies in land surface albedo change north of 50° N were analysed using data on snow cover fraction, air temperature, vegetation index and precipitation. To this end, the study domain was divided into six smaller areas, based on their geographical position an...

  11. Improving Indigenous Technologies for Sustainable Land Use in Northern Mountainous Areas of Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Quoc Doanh; Ha Dinh Tuan

    2004-01-01

    More than 30 ethnic groups are now living in northern mountainous regions, Vietnam, mainly relying on shifting cultivation with the fallow period being shortened from time to time. Naturally, soil fertility reduces from cycle to cycle, entailing the reduction of productivity. Large areas of moderately sloping lands suitable for upland agriculture have become bare after many cultivation-fallow cycles. The soils there have been severely degraded with more toxicity, low porosity, low water retention capacity and poor floral diversity. Normally, these lands cannot be used for food crop cultivation. So farmers in uplands have to rely on slash-and-burn practices for their livelihood. As there is no more forest with good soil in medium slopes, farmers go to cut forests in watershed, high slope lands and old forests up to the mountains' top. There are ecologically and environmentally very sensitive areas, so their destruction will inevitably cause hazardous consequences in the whole basin. Meanwhile, cultivation in these areas has low economic efficiency and sustainability because the crop yield may decrease very fast due to severe erosion as the higher the slope, the more serious erosion. Consequently living standards of highland farmers remain low and unstable.Sustainable farming on these lands in the perspective of a seriously deteriorated ecology and environmental is not an easy task. There have beenmany projects trying to help mountainous farmers get out of their vicious circle. However, due to different reasons, the results gained are low, and in some cases, things ceased to move after the projects phased out.During past few years, based on the farmer experiences, the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute has cooperated with local and international partners to implement different projects in order to solve the problems by developing simple, easy and cheap cultivation technologies, which can be accepted and applied by local poor farmers for sustainable agricultural

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  14. Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover change on green water and blue water in northern part of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of land use and land cover changes on hydrological process in northern parts of China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. The direct evaporation from the intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model, which would be regarded as input to the distributed hydrological model for the computation of actual evaportranspiration. Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff and the Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. The land cover data were available for 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1999. Daily streamflow measurements were available from 1964 to 2005 and were divided into 4 periods: 1964–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005, based on the land cover scenarios. The distributed hydrological model was coupled with a two-source potential evaportranspiration model for simulating daily runoff. The result of runoff simulation showed that the saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. Model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data corresponding to the same period. Streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these four land cover scenarios. The results showed that the change of land use and land cover had a significant influence on evapotranspiration and runoff. The land cover data showed that forest land and water body had decreased from 1980 through 1999 and farm land and grass land had increased. This change caused the vegetation interception evaporation and vegetation transpiration to decrease, whereas the soil evaporation tended to increase. Thus the green water decreased but the blue water increased over the Laohahe catchment. This result was inconsistent with the fact that runoff ratio had a

  15. Projecting land-use change and its consequences for biodiversity in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The

  16. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara; Law, Beverly; Turner, David P; Campbell, John; Donato, Dan; Duane, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Net uptake of carbon from the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. To improve understanding of the influence of these factors on forest carbon stocks and flux in the western United States, federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements at additional plots were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon and Northern California during the 1990s. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), and mortality. In the semiarid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C/m2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C.m(-2).yr(-1), respectively. Maximum NPP and dead biomass stores were most influenced by climate, whereas maximum live biomass stores and mortality were most influenced by forest type. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (>200 years old) in some ecoregions. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically increase from 3.2 +/- 0.34 Pg C to 5.9 +/- 1.34 Pg C (a 46% increase) if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable, given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase the land-based carbon storage by increasing rotation age and reducing harvest rates. PMID:19323181

  17. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Amanda M.; Hallsworth, Stephen; Malcolm, Heath

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2010 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector for each of the Devolved Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). Supporting data is available at http://naei.defra.gov.uk/report_link.php?report_id=692. A full report for the UK is available in the 1990-2010 UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, available on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory website http://nae...

  18. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990‐2011

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Heath; Hallsworth, Stephen; Thomson, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990‐2011 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector of the UNFCCC National Inventory for each of the Devolved Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). Supporting data is available at http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_id=734. A full report for the UK is available in the 1990‐2011 UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, available on the National Atmos...

  19. Effects of land-use and climate on Holocene vegetation composition in northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Poska, Anneli; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the advent of agriculture, broad-scale vegetation patterns in Europe were controlled primarily by climate. Early agriculture can be detected in palaeovegetation records, but the relative extent to which past regional vegetation was climatically or anthropogenically-forced is of current scientific interest. Using comparisons of transformed pollen data, climate-model data, dynamic vegetation model simulations and anthropogenic land-cover change data, this study aims to estimate the relative impacts of human activities and climate on the Holocene vegetation composition of northern Europe at a subcontinental scale. The REVEALS model was used for pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of vegetation (RV). Climate variables from ECHAM and the extent of human deforestation from KK10 were used as explanatory variables to evaluate their respective impacts on RV. Indices of vegetation-composition changes based on RV and climate-induced vegetation simulated by the LPJ-GUESS model (LPJG) were used to assess the relative importance of climate and anthropogenic impacts. The results show that climate is the major predictor of Holocene vegetation changes until 5000 years ago. The similarity in rate of change and turnover between RV and LPJG decreases after this time. Changes in RV explained by climate and KK10 vary for the last 2000 years; the similarity in rate of change, turnover, and evenness between RV and LPJG decreases to the present. The main conclusions provide important insights on Neolithic forest clearances that affected regional vegetation from 6700 years ago, although climate (temperature and precipitation) still was a major driver of vegetation change (explains 37% of the variation) at the subcontinental scale. Land use became more important around 5000-4000 years ago, while the influence of climate decreased (explains 28% of the variation). Land-use affects all indices of vegetation compositional change during the last 2000 years; the influence of climate

  20. Land Use and Water Quality Along a Mekong Tributary in Northern Lao P.D.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Cuny, Juliette; Sengsoulichanh, Phonexay; Mousquès, Claire; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Pierret, Alain; Huon, Sylvain; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2011-02-01

    Improving access to clean water has the potential to make a major contribution toward poverty reduction in rural communities of Lao P.D.R. This study focuses on stream water quality along a Mekong basin tributary, the Houay Xon that flows within a mountainous, mosaic land-use catchment of northern Lao P.D.R. To compare direct water quality measurements to the perception of water quality within the riparian population, our survey included interviews of villagers. Water quality was found to vary greatly depending on the location along the stream. Overall, it reflected the balance between the stream self-cleaning potential and human pressure on the riparian zone: (i) high bacteria and suspended load levels occurred where livestock are left to free-range within the riparian zone; (ii) very low oxygen content and high bacteriological contamination prevailed downstream from villages; (iii) high concentrations of bacteria were consistently observed along urbanized banks; (iv) low oxygen content were associated with the discharge of organic-rich wastewater from a small industrial plant; (v) very high suspended load and bacteria levels occurred during flood events due to soil erosion from steep cultivated hill slopes. Besides these human induced pollutions we also noted spontaneous enrichments in metals in wetland areas fed by dysoxic groundwater. These biophysical measurements were in agreement with the opinions expressed by the majority of the interviewees who reported poor and decreasing water quality in the Houay Xon catchment. Based on our survey, we propose recommendations to improve or maintain stream water quality in the uplands of northern Lao P.D.R.

  1. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss

  2. A global climate model based, Bayesian climate projection for northern extra-tropical land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2012-04-01

    Projections with contemporary global climate models (GCMs) still markedly deviate from each other on magnitude of climate changes, in particular, in middle to subpolar latitudes. In this work, a climate projection based on the ensemble of 18 CMIP3 GCM models forced by SRES A1B scenario is performed for the northern extra-tropical land. To assess the change of soil state, off-line simulations are performed with the Deep Soil Simulator (DSS) developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). This model is forced by output of the above-mentioned GCM simulations. Ensemble mean and ensemble standard deviation for any variable are calculated by using Bayesian averaging which allows to enhance a contribution from more realistic models and diminish that from less realistic models. As a result, uncertainty for soil and permafrost variables become substantially narrower. The Bayesian weights for each model are calculated based on their performance for the present-day surface air temperature (SAT) and permafrost distributions, and for SAT trend during the 20th century. The results, except for intra-ensemble standard deviations, are not very sensitive to particular choice of Bayesian traits. Averaged over the northern extra-tropical land, annual mean surface air temperature in the ensemble increases by 3.1 ± 1.4 K (ensemble mean±intra-ensemble standard deviation) during the 21st century. Precipitation robustly increases in the pan-Arctic and decreases in the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. The models agree on near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. The area underlain by near-surface permafrost decreases from the contemporary value 20 ± 3 mln sq. km to 14 ± 3 mln sq. km in the late 21st century. This leads to risk for geocryological hazard due to soil subsidence. This risk is classified as moderate to high in the southern and western parts of Siberia and Tibet in Eurasia, and in the region from Alaska

  3. Wood biomass production potential on agricultural lands in Northern Europe. Achieving the goals of energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B.

    2009-07-01

    Short rotation forestry for bioenergy is an important means of meeting renewable energy targets for the shift towards a more sustainable energy model. This research focuses on the production and expansion of short rotation willow coppice on agricultural land in Northern Europe, based on empirical data from a large sample of commercially managed plantations. The thesis reviews six manuscripts concerning: the current yields of willow plantations in Sweden, for first, second and third cutting cycles, the yield trends for the first cutting cycle during the period 1986-2000, the use of remote sensing in order to assess productivity from willow plantations, the geographical spread of willow cultivation in Sweden and the effect of policy incentives on the expansion of willow cultivation in Sweden during the period 1986-2006. The final paper presents estimates of productivity potential from willow plantations on agricultural land on six EU countries in Northern Europe. The results of the analysis of yield performance show a great variability between growers, which suggests the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Although the average yields of the first established plantations were significantly lower than previous estimates, the results show a clear trend of yield improvement over time. During the period studied, the average productivity of the plantations increased each year by 0.20 odt ha-1 yr-1, and in the best managed plantations 0.27 odt ha-1 yr-1, possibly due to the release of improved willow clones and management practices. In addition to regional estimates, the thesis also provides tools for the assessment of yield at plantation level using remote sensed images, with reasonable levels of accuracy. The research stressed the role of policy incentives as an important tool for the spread of short rotation forestry, which significantly affects the adoption of willow cultivation by local farmers. The thesis offers

  4. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Horsák

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N, crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and

  5. Land use changes and its climatic implications in Northern Italy during the Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Oeggl-Wahlmüller, Notburga; Festi, Daniela; Zagermann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Here we present an interdisciplinary study on land use changes in Northern Italy at the transition from the Roman Empire to the Early Middle Ages. The combination of archaeological data and high-resolution pollen analyses carried out in the Fiavè basin (Trentino) provide a detailed insight in socio-economic changes and its implications with climate in the Dark Ages. The vegetation in this area is dominated up to 1000 m by submediterranian trees like Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, superseded by a mixed Fagus and Abies forest with variable amounts of Picea abies. Since 2008 archaeological surveys in the Fiavè basin as well as excavations conducted on a fortified hill-top settlement (castrum) in 985m register the settlement development of this settlement cluster and reveal an almost continuous occupation from Roman to Early Medieval Times. In addition a high-resolution pollen record from a 1.30 m thick peat sequence of the bog "Palude di Fiave" discloses four main phases: (1) in the Late Iron Age high amounts of arboreal pollen and the spread of Abies demonstrate a decrease in settlement activity suggested by wetter climate conditions. (2) During the Roman Empire a phase with arable farming in the basin starts. Olea, Juglans and Castanea sativa are introduced and document the onset of horticulture in this region. (3) After 300 AD - during the Migration Period - the wet and cool conditions have had poor impact on settlement activity. Agricultural (Cerealia) and nitrophilous indicators (Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae) are continuously proved. However a change within the cultivated crops in relation to the climate conditions is observed. Subsequently a progressive recovery of Pinus followed by Abies and Fagus marks the climatic improvement at the beginning of the Early Medieval Times. (4) The time from 600 to 800 AD is characterized by increasing frequency and diversity of anthropogenic-related indicators. The implications of these land use changes with

  6. Scenarios for shale gas development and their related land use impacts in the Baltic Basin, Northern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios for potential shale gas development were modelled for the Baltic Basin in Northern Poland for the period 2015–2030 using the land allocation model EUCS100. The main aims were to assess the associated land use requirements, conflicts with existing land use, and the influence of legislation on the environmental impact. The factors involved in estimating the suitability for placement of shale gas well pads were analysed, as well as the potential land and water requirements to define 2 technology-based scenarios, representing the highest and lowest potential environmental impact. 2 different legislative frameworks (current and restrictive) were also assessed, to give 4 combined scenarios altogether. Land consumption and allocation patterns of well pads varied substantially according to the modelled scenario. Potential landscape fragmentation and conflicts with other land users depended mainly on development rate, well pad density, existing land-use patterns, and geology. Highly complex landscapes presented numerous barriers to drilling activities, restricting the potential development patterns. The land used for shale gas development could represent a significant percentage of overall land take within the shale play. The adoption of appropriate legislation, especially the protection of natural areas and water resources, is therefore essential to minimise the related environmental impact. -- Highlights: •A range of scenarios for shale gas development in Poland were modelled. •The impact in terms of land take and competition for land was assessed. •Of land used for industrial purposes, 7–12% was attributed to shale gas extraction. •If unregulated, 24% of well pads were developed within protected areas. •The legislative framework can have a major influence on overall environmental impact

  7. Impacts of Biomass Burning on the Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa and Associated Alteration of Local Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major anthropogenic event in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), which contributes 15-20% of the global annual total of particulate matter emissions from fires. This burning is mostly for agricultural, grazing or hunting purposes, and thus has a great potential for driving changes in the land use and land cover distribution in that region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have two complimentary data products to support this research: the MOD14/MYD14 active fire products measuring fire locations and strengths, and the MCD12 land cover type product, which includes the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover classification system used in this analysis. More specifically, the MCD12Q1 tiled data product at 500 m was used to match against the 1 km active fire product resolution for the current analysis. Paired data between instantaneous fire measurements and the underlying land cover types for the particular year over the study period of 2003-2013 reveals a dominant burning of savanna, followed by cropland land cover type throughout the region. There are a few indications of the interchange between savanna and cropland due to burning practices. Even though the fire activity in the whole NSSA region is decreasing at a rate of 1.4%/yr during the study period, some land cover types in parts of NSSA show an increase, including local increases in sensitive land cover types such as forest and wetland, which could have serious ecological implications. The changes in the overall redistribution of biomass burning amongst the different land cover types in NSSA dictate that there is also a redistribution of biomass burning emissions. The extent of these changes will also be covered in this presentation.

  8. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus W Ihwagi

    Full Text Available Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem. Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  9. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  10. Application of MODIS Land Products to Assessment of Land Degradation of Alpine Rangeland in Northern India with Limited Ground-Based Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tasumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation of alpine rangeland in Dachigam National Park, Northern India, was evaluated in this study using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land products. The park has been used by a variety of livestock holders. With increasing numbers of livestock, the managers and users of the park are apprehensive about degradation of the grazing land. However, owing to weak infrastructure for scientific and statistical data collection and sociopolitical restrictions in the region, a lack of quality ground-based weather, vegetation, and livestock statistical data had prevented scientific assessment. Under these circumstances, the present study aimed to assess the rangeland environment and its degradation using MODIS vegetation, snow, and evapotranspiration products as primary input data for assessment. The result of the analysis indicated that soil water content and the timing of snowmelt play an important role in grass production in the area. Additionally, the possibility of land degradation in heavily-grazed rangeland was indicated via a multiple regression analysis at a decadal timescale, whereas weather conditions, such as rainfall and snow cover, primarily explained year-by-year differences in grass production. Although statistical uncertainties remain in the results derived in this study, the satellite-based data and the analyses will promote understanding of the rangeland environment and suggest the potential for unsustainable land management based on statistical probability. This study provides an important initial evaluation of alpine rangeland, for which ground-based information is limited.

  11. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R.; Roth, Cali; Carlson, Benjamin; Smart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  12. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R V; Roth, Cali L; Carlson, Benjamin L; Smart, Matthew D

    2016-09-13

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  13. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R V; Roth, Cali L; Carlson, Benjamin L; Smart, Matthew D

    2016-09-13

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes. PMID:27573824

  14. Temporal and spatial changes of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province in recent 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangsheng YI; Yanyu YIN; Yaojie YUE

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to understand the temporal and spatial changes of residential land for the improvement of human settlement environment.Based on the three TM images of 1986,1996 and 2005 and other assistant maps,the temporal and spatial characteristics of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province of China were analyzed by using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology.Some important conclusions were obtained,which mainly contained four aspects as follows.1) The area of residential land in the Yuyang desert region increased 956.07 hm2 in total,and the changes of residential land among the townships were different with four various change trends.The expansion speeds in the Yuyang Township and Qinhe Township were the biggest from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2005,respectively.The expansion intensifies in other townships were below 0.1%,except the Yuyang Township.2) The number of residential land patches increased 2847,while the average area and perimeter of residential land patches decreased 0.304 hm2 and 60.78 m during 1986-2005,respectively.The residential land patches also displayed four different changes from 1986 to 2005 among the townships.3) The residential land mainly distributed in the middle of Yuyang Township and Mahe Township,and the interface of Jinjitan Township and Mengjiawan Township.The total spatial pattern of residential land was relative stability,but the significant changes of residential land were found in the Yuyang Township and its vicinities during 1986-2005.4) Three distribution patterns of residential land at the micro scale were categorized from the 100 typical villages in the study area.The number of villages in the pattern 1 increased,while the pattern 2 and pattern 3 decreased in recent 20 years,which implicated the adaptation of humans to the habitation environment.This research would provide scientific references for harmonizing the human-land relationship

  15. “Nothing Is Like It Was Before”: The Dynamics between Land-Use and Land-Cover, and Livelihood Strategies in the Northern Vietnam Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Turner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land uses are changing rapidly in Vietnam’s upland northern borderlands. Regional development platforms such as the Greater Mekong Subregion, state-propelled market integration and reforestation programs, and lowland entrepreneurs and migrants are all impacting this frontier landscape. Drawing on a mixed methods approach using remote sensing data from 2000 to 2009 and ethnographic fieldwork, we examine how land-use and land-cover change (LULCC has occurred across three borderland provinces—Lai Châu, Lào Cai and Hà Giang—with high proportions of ethnic minority semi-subsistence farmers. After a broad examination of regional land-use changes, we select three case studies to further analyze the underlying relationships between specific LULCC and local livelihood diversification strategies. These include specific patterns of urban growth due to a range of political decisions in Lai Châu and Lào Cai Provinces; reforestation due to non-timber forest (NTFP product cultivation in the west of Lào Cai Province; and a stable landscape that restricts government attempts at refashioning upland livelihoods in the east of Hà Giang. Our findings point to the difficulties of completing LULCC maps for this highly heterogeneous region and the complexity of LULCC and livelihood interactions and relationships examined on the ground.

  16. Importance of soil thermal dynamics on land carbon sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, David; Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Recent modeling studies have suggested that carbon sinks in pan-arctic ecosystems may be weakening partially as a result of warming-induced increases in soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the exposure of previously frozen SOM to decomposition. This weakening of carbon sinks is likely to continue in the future as vast amount of carbon in permafrost soils is vulnerable to thaw. Here, we examine the importance of considering soil thermal dynamics when determining the effects of climate change and land-use change on carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century. This importance is assessed by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider soil thermal dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In this scenario, which is similar to the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 scenario, the net area covered by food crops and pastures in Northern Eurasia is assumed to remain relatively constant over the 21st century, but the area covered by secondary forests is projected to double as a result of timber harvest and the abandonment of land associated with displacement of agricultural land. Enhanced decomposition from the newly exposed SOM from permafrost thaw also increases nitrogen availability for plant production so that the loss of carbon from the enhanced decomposition is partially compensated by enhanced uptake and storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in vegetation. Our results indicate that consideration of soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated terrestrial carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia respond to changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry (e.g., carbon dioxide fertilization, ozone pollution, nitrogen deposition) and disturbances.

  17. Outreach Plan for Opening Additional Land to Hunting on Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outreach plan for Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR will expand hunting opportunities on the Refuge in 2011 in accordance with the approved Refuge Hunt Plan.

  18. The decommissioning and rehabilitation of the Nabarlek uranium mine, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nabarlek uranium mine is located in the Aboriginal area of west Arnhem Land in monsoonal northern Australia and operated from 1979 until 1989. Decommissioning was carried out in 1994-95. Several features of the Nabarlek story are considered unique and offer interesting approaches for consideration in other mine rehabilitation programs. The Nabarlek ore body was mined in a single campaign during the Dry season of 1979. Ore was stockpiled on a specially prepared site while the mill was built. Milling took approximately ten years. The final decommissioning and rehabilitation program was developed from the outset of operations as a series of specific component plans. Throughout the life of the mine these components were reviewed at intervals and updated to take account of changes in mine development as well as incorporating the results of site specific research and new technology. The final domed cover over the pit was shaped on the basis of geomorphological research. The rehabilitation objective, as agreed with the Aboriginal Traditional Owners and the supervising authorities, was to establish a landscape that matched as closely as possible the surrounding areas and would permit traditional hunting and gathering activities to be pursued. The rehabilitation of the site is progressing and on-going monitoring is in train to establish when the site can be returned to the custody of the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Decommissioning of the operation appears to have been successful

  19. Impacts of Sloping Land Conversion Program on the vegetation in loess hilly and gully area of northern Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Junfei; Lu Changhe; Yu Bohua

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at alleviating the serious soil erosion,the Chinese government initiated the Sloping Land Con.version Program (SLCP) in 1999.Now,after 8 years of project implementation,the ecological recovery effects of the SLCP have become the hot issue of academic circle.This paper,taking the loess hdl and gully area of northern Shaanxi as an example,presents a methodology for assessing the vegetation restoration effect of SLCP with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI).The key components include calculation of the Growing Season NDVI (GSNDVI),and estimation of the NVDI change induced by climate and SLCP,re,wectively.Based on the method,the NDVI change between 2000 and 2006 was obtained using the GSNDVI that excluded the noise from snow and ice.Afier the part of total NDVI change caused by climate variation was estimated using empiric formulae,we obtained the part induced by human factors,i.e.the SLCP.The human induced part of NDVI change was considered as an approximation indicating the effect of the SLCP on the vegetation.Finally,we analyzed the NDVI change characters of the whole study area,different slope lands and different land use types by spatial statistics method Results show that the vegetation condition is significantly improved by the SLCP,particularly land types that directly involved in the SLCP,such as steeply slope farmlands,degraded grasslands,etc.

  20. Tree tenure and its implications for sustainable land management: The case of Parkia biglobosa in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther E. Amoako

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species found in Savannah agroforestry parklands of West Africa. The species is important as it prevents against land degradation while providing food and other products. This study focuses on how land and tree tenure arrangements affect tree populations in three traditional areas in the Northern Region of Ghana (Dagomba, Gonja and Mamprusi and the implications that these arrangements have for sustainable land management. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were held in the three communities to provide information on the tenural arrangements of Parkia biglobosa. A tree census was conducted to estimate the densities of Parkia biglobosa in crop and fallow fields. The study shows that differences in tenure systems in the three traditional areas have implications for Parkia biglobosa populations and also for sustainable land management. It is concluded that traditional tenure systems along with regulation protect the trees from destruction as observed in the Dagomba and Gonja areas compared to the open access system identified in Kperiga in the Mamprusi area.

  1. The role of eclogite in the metasomatism and Cenozoic magmatism of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Bonadiman, C.; Faccini, B.; Griffin, W.; Melchiorre, M.; O'Reilly, S.; Pearson, N.

    2009-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from two localities of Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Baker Rocks (BR) and Greene Point (GP), less than 100 km apart, were investigated. Amphibole-bearing and anhydrous lherzolites, minor harzburgites and pyroxenites are present at BR, while only anhydrous lherzolites and harzburgites are found at GP. Previous petrological studies evidenced two different metasomatizing agents which percolated heterogeneous lithospheric mantle domains under the Ross Sea region. At BR a TiO2-rich nephelinite reacted mainly with primary clinopyroxene transforming it in amphibole. At GP metasomatism is caused by a K-rich, Ti-poor, melt reacting mainly with opx resulting in secondary cpx and a SiO2-rich glass. These glasses are also characterized by very low Nb and high Zr contents. Further constraints on the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath NVL derive from Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systematics carried out on separated cpx and from in situ Re-Os data for single sulphides. Psuedo-isochrons were calculated using all samples within each locality. A Ross age (620-517Ma) was reported for both BR and GP, whereas a younger, Cretaceous age (110Ma) was recorded only in BR. Re-Os in situ analyses provide spatially resolved data, thus allowing a better understanding of the temporal evolution of the lithospheric mantle. Although the very limited number of Os-rich sulphides within GP suite does not allow a statistically meaningful results for this locality, Re/Os age determinations for both BR and GP largely overlap. Thus a unique TRD (Time of Rhenium Depletion) histogram is proposed, where six age peaks at 3.0-3.3Ga, 2.3Ga, 1.3-1.4Ga, 0.9-1.1Ga, 580-620Ma and 120Ma are present, this latter value being recorded only at BR. A good agreement exist between these data and those obtained from the pseudo-isochrons. On 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os diagram the data plot in four sectors with respect to PUM. Sector IV is represented by Os less radiogenic and Re

  2. Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples in Australia are disadvantaged on all markers of health and social status across the life course. Psychosocial factors are implicated in the aetiology of chronic diseases and in pathways underpinning social health disparities. Minimal research has investigated psychosocial factors and health in Indigenous peoples. This study evaluated associations between mastery, perceived stress, and health-related behaviour for a remote Indigenous population in Australia. Methods Complete data on mastery (the degree to which individuals feel in control of their lives, perceived stress, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained for 177 participants in a community-based chronic disease risk factor survey. Psychosocial questionnaires were completed as an option during community screening (response rate = 61.9%. Extensive consultation facilitated the cross-cultural adaptation of measures. Results Mastery was inversely correlated with perceived stress measures (p r = -0.47; chronic stress, r = -0.41; and youth stress, r = -0.30. Relationships between mastery and behaviour varied according to age group (p = 0.001 and vegetable consumption (p = 0.005. Individuals aged ≥25 years engaging in ≤2 bouts of physical activity/week had lower mastery than individuals engaging in ≥3 bouts/week, with means (95% CI of 14.8 (13.7–15.8 and 17.1 (15.3–19.0, respectively (p = 0.026. Individuals aged ≥25 years eating vegetables ≤3 times/week had lower mastery than those eating vegetables ≥4 times/week (p = 0.009 [means 14.7 (13.8–15.5 and 17.3 (15.5–19.1, respectively]. Individuals p = 0.022 [means 17.2 (15.2–19.2 and 13.8 (11.9–15.7, respectively]. For men ≥25 years and women ≥15 years, mastery was inversely related to age (p p = 0.001 [means 13.4 (12.1–14.7 and 17.5 (15.3–19.8, respectively]. Conclusion Consistent with previous research, this study provides additional support for a link between mastery and health-related behaviour, and extends evidence of this association to a remote Indigenous population. Mastery's association with perceived stress, its age-specific association with health behaviour, and findings of low mastery amongst young men, highlights a need for life course research accounting for contextual factors affecting Indigenous peoples.

  3. Diagnosing the seasonal land-atmosphere correspondence over northern Australia: dependence on soil moisture state and correspondence strength definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M.; Pitman, A.; Evans, J.

    2015-08-01

    The similarity of the temporal variations of land and atmospheric states during the onset (September) through to the peak (February) of the wet season over northern Australia is statistically diagnosed using ensembles of offline land surface model simulations that produce a range of different background soil moisture states. We derive the temporal correspondence between variations in the soil moisture and the planetary boundary layer via a statistical measure of rank correlation. The simulated evaporative fraction and the boundary layer are shown to be strongly correlated during both SON (September-October-November) and DJF (December-January-February) despite the differing background soil moisture states between the two seasons and among the ensemble members. The sign and magnitude of the boundary layer-surface layer soil moisture association during the onset of the wet season (SON) differs from the correlation between the evaporative fraction and boundary layer from the same season, and from the correlation between the surface soil moisture and boundary layer association during DJF. The patterns and magnitude of the surface flux-boundary layer correspondence are not captured when the relationship is diagnosed using the surface layer soil moisture alone. The conflicting results arise because the surface layer soil moisture lacks strong correlation with the atmosphere during the monsoon onset because the evapotranspiration is dominated by transpiration. Our results indicate that accurately diagnosing the correspondence and therefore coupling strength in seasonally dry regions, such as northern Australia, requires root zone soil moisture to be included.

  4. Looking Forward: Using Scenario Modeling to Support Regional Land Use Planning in Northern Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional land use planning provides opportunities for governments, land users, and stakeholders to consider multiple land and resource interests over large geographic areas and meaningful time periods. The broad and integrative nature of regional planning is therefore well suited to assessing the potential cumulative effects of current and future land use activity. For this reason, cumulative effects assessment models and management concepts are playing an increasingly important role in regional planning. We describe how the ALCES® landscape cumulative effects simulation model was used to explore possible outcomes of an oil and gas scenario in the Eagle Plain basin of the North Yukon Planning Region of Yukon Territory, Canada. Scenario modeling was conducted to facilitate informed discussion about key land use issues and practices, potential levels of landscape change, and possible socioeconomic benefits and environmental impacts. Modeling results supported the sustainable development and cumulative effects management recommendations of the North Yukon Regional Land Use Plan. Land use scenario modeling, as applied in this project, was found to be an effective approach for establishing sustainable development guidelines through a regional planning process.

  5. Desertification triggered by hydrological and geomorphological processes and palaeoclimatic changes in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Scuderi, L. A.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Li, H.; Forman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Although Pleistocene and earlier aeolian sediments in the adjacent regions of deserts were used as indicators for the occurrence of the deserts in northern China, our multidisciplinary investigation in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, a typical landscape in the eastern portion of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt, demonstrates that this sandy desert is just ca. 4000 years old. Before the formation of the current sand dunes, Hunshandke was characterized with large and deep lakes and grasssland vegetation, as many sedimentary sections indicate. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) chronology shows that the three large former lakes where we have done detailed investigation, experienced high stands from early Holocene to ca. 5 ka. During the early and middle Holocene this desert was a temperate steppe environment, dominated by grasslands and trees near lakes and streams, as various palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest. While North Hemisphere's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases at ca. 4.2 ka, many parts of the presently arid and semi-arid zone in northern China were shifted from Green to Desert state. In the eastern portion of the Hunshandake, the desertification was, however, directly associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River, as the palaeo-drainage remains show. The process of groundwater sapping initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that lowered the groundwater table and exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, and further resulting in post-Humid period mass migration of northern China's Hongshan culture from that we think the modern Chinese civilization has been rooted.

  6. Agrarian Land Use Transformation in Northern Laos: from Swidden to Rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2009-01-01

    focusing on the expansion of agricultural land in upland areas. It also examines factors that influence local farmers'livelihood and their decisions on land use. A series of government policies that were implemented since the 1980s restricted upland farmers’ access to upland fields and fallow forests, and...... led to the relocation of upland communities. The opening of regional borders for trade in the early 1990s, which brought new economic opportunities for local farmers, further accelerated the demand for agricultural land and led to a concentration of population in settlements along the road. A...

  7. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  8. Regional climate change in Tropical and Northern Africa due to greenhouse forcing and land use changes

    OpenAIRE

    Paeth, H.; Born, K.; Girmes, R.; Podzun, R.; D. Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Human activity is supposed to affect the earth's climate mainly via two processes: the emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols and the alteration of land cover. While the former process is well established in state-of-the-art climate model simulations, less attention has been paid to the latter. However, the low latitudes appear to be particularly sensitive to land use changes, especially in tropical Africa where frequent drought episodes were observed during recent decades. Here several en...

  9. Land cover change and plants diversity in the Sahel: A case study from northern Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Kadeba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding land cover degradation patterns and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity is important for guiding management decisions and restoration strategies in the Sahelian vulnerables zones. This paper describes land cover degradation by combining Landsat TM image analysis and field data measurements in the Gourouol catchment of the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc-GIS.10 were applied. The change patterns were obtained by superposing land cover maps for 1992 and 2010. The field data were collected by the mean of inventories according to the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological relevés methods. Plot sizes were 50 m x 20 m for woody species and 10 m x 10 m for herbaceous species. Six land cover types were identified and mapped: cultivated lands, bared lands, lowlands, which all spatially increased; and shrub-steppes, grasslands and water bodies, which all spatially decreased. The dynamic patterns based on the geomorphological units were non-degraded lowlands, stable sand dunes and degraded glacis. High plant diversity was found in lowlands, whereas low diversity occurred in glacis. A significant dissimilarity was observed between communities. The Shannon diversity indices in plant communities were approximately close to ln(species richness. The Pielou indices were close to 1, indicating a species fairly good distribution. Our results showed a variation of land cover over time and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity. Furthermore, this variation helps oppose land degradation in the Sahel.

  10. Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a h

  11. Weak Northern and Strong Tropical Land Carbon Uptake from Vertical Profiles of Atmospheric CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, Britton B.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Tans, Pieter P.; Sweeney, Colm; Peters, Wouter; Bruhwiler, Lori; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Bousquet, Philippe; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Aoki, Shuji; Machida, Toshinobu; Inoue, Gen; Vinnichenko, Nikolay; Lloyd, Jon; Jordan, Armin; Heimann, Martin; Shibistova, Olga; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Steele, L. Paul; Francey, Roger J.; Denning, A. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of midday vertical atmospheric CO2 distributions reveal annual-mean vertical CO2 gradients that are inconsistent with atmospheric models that estimate a large transfer of terrestrial carbon from tropical to northern latitudes. The three models that most closely reproduce the observed an

  12. Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, B.B.; Gurney, K.R.; Tans, P.P.; Sweeney, C.; Peters, W.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of midday vertical atmospheric CO2 distributions reveal annual-mean vertical CO2 gradients that are inconsistent with atmospheric models that estimate a large transfer of terrestrial carbon from tropical to northern latitudes. The three models that most closely reproduce the observed an

  13. Toward sustainable desertification reversion:A case study in Horqin Sandy Land of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueYong Zhao; ShaoKun Wang; YaYong Luo; WenDa Huang; Hao Qu; Jie Lian

    2015-01-01

    Desertification reversion is an interactive process involving climate, land use change, and water processes. In order to reveal the relationship between desertification reversion and these factors, we analyzed historical data on precipitation, air temperature, desertified land changes, underground water tables, and water body changes in Naiman County in the central part of Horqin Sandy Land. Our analysis showed that during 1961−2010 the annual precipitation fluctuated dramatically and has decreased fairly consistently in recent years. The air temperature increased by 0.50−1.25 °C, and the minimum temperature increased more obviously. The desertified land area increased from 42,300 km2 in 1959 to 62,000 km2 in 1985, and then declined to about 50,000 km2 in 2010. The underground water tables have been lowered by about 10 m in the past 30 years, and declined more rapidly in recent years. Desertified land is significantly related to the amount of total cropland, and underground water tables are significantly correlated with annual precipitation and the amount of irrigated cropland. Therefore, it is necessary to pursue sustainable desertification reversion without compromising the capacity for local de-velopment and restoration of degraded land, through application of appropriate management measures for improving water availability in this region.

  14. Profiles of carbon stocks in forest, reforestation and agricultural land, Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Pibumrung; N. Gajaseni; A. Popan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess carbon stocks in various forms and land-use types and reliably estimate the impact of land use on C stocks in the Nam Yao sub-watershed (19°05'10"N, 100°37'02"E), Thailand. The carbon stocks of aboveground, soil organic and fine root within primary forest, reforestation and agricultural land were estimated through field data collection. Results revealed that the amount of total carbon stock of forests (357.62 ± 28.51 Mg·ha-1, simplified expression of Mg (carbon)·ha-1) was significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (195.25 ±14.38 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (103.10±18.24 Mg·ha-1). Soil organic carbon in the forests (196.24 ±22.81 Mg·ha-1) was also significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (146.83± 7.22 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (95.09 ± 14.18 Mg·ha-1). The differences in carbon stocks across land-use types are the primary consequence of variations in the vegetation biomass and the soil organic matter. Fine root carbon was a small fraction of carbon stocks in all land-use types. Most of the soil organic carbon and fine root carbon content was found in the upper 40-cm layer and decreased with soil depth. The aboveground carbon(soil organic carbon: fine root carbon ratios (ABGC: SOC: FRC), was 5:8:1, 2:8:1, and 3:50:1 for the forest, reforestation and agricultural land, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively large proportion of the C loss is due to forest conversion to agricultural land. However, the C can be effectively recaptured through reforestation where high levels of C are stored in biomass as carbon sinks, facilitating carbon dioxide mitigation.

  15. Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Ostlund, Lars; Kichenin, Emilie; Wardle, David A

    2014-04-01

    Human activities that involve land-use change often cause major transformations to community and ecosystem properties both aboveground and belowground, and when land use is abandoned, these modifications can persist for extended periods. However, the mechanisms responsible for rapid recovery vs. long-term maintenance of ecosystem changes following abandonment remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the long-term ecological effects of two remote former settlements, regularly visited for -300 years by reindeer-herding Sami and abandoned -100 years ago, within an old-growth boreal forest that is considered one of the most pristine regions in northern Scandinavia. These human legacies were assessed through measurements of abiotic and biotic soil properties and vegetation characteristics at the settlement sites and at varying distances from them. Low-intensity land use by Sami is characterized by the transfer of organic matter towards the settlements by humans and reindeer herds, compaction of soil through trampling, disappearance of understory vegetation, and selective cutting of pine trees for fuel and construction. As a consequence, we found a shift towards early successional plant species and a threefold increase in soil microbial activity and nutrient availability close to the settlements relative to away from them. These changes in soil fertility and vegetation contributed to 83% greater total vegetation productivity, 35% greater plant biomass, and 23% and 16% greater concentrations of foliar N and P nearer the settlements, leading to a greater quantity and quality of litter inputs. Because decomposer activity was also 40% greater towards the settlements, soil organic matter cycling and nutrient availability were further increased, leading to likely positive feedbacks between the aboveground and belowground components resulting from historic land use. Although not all of the activities typical of Sami have left visible residual traces on the ecosystem after

  16. Changes in land use and rainfall-triggered rainfall: a case study in Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Visconti, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides are the most damaging among the all landslide phenomena. Land use change has been recognized as one of the most important factor influencing the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides. On April 27th 2009 a strong rainfall event triggered hundreds of shallow landslides in the western sector of Oltrepo Pavese area, which has an extension of about 800 km2 and is located in Northern Apennines, Italy. The soils involved in the slides were sandy silt and clay derived from the weathering of marls and conglomerates. Land use consists of cultivated areas with extensive vineyards. The events, which involved one fatality and several injured people, provided an opportunity to improve knowledge on the causes of shallow landslides in the study area and an analysis of the relationship between shallow landslide distribution and the changes in land use was carried out. Digital aerial photographs with a spatial resolution of 15 cm were taken in May 2009 and they were used to identify the location and the typologies of the landslides. Results obtained through an extensive field survey (determination of the slide body and runout geometries and the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the soils involved in landslides) combined with photo-interpretation revealed that the causes of the slides involved geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and above all anthropogenic processes. Three sets of aerial photos, taken in 1980, 2003 and 2009, were the basis for constructing the land use maps and to study the influence of land use changes in shallow landslide development. Significant changes occurred in land use, particularly in the agricultural practices, during studied period and they had caused a significant modification of the runoff conditions. Till the 80s traditional vineyard plantations presented tillage perpendicular to the maximum slope gradient; agricultural works were undertaken in the traditional manner with weeding and digging

  17. Recognising land rights for conservation? tenure reforms in the Northern Sierra Madre, The Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Ploeg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legalisation of the customary land rights of rural communities is currently actively promoted as a strategy for conserving biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical information on the conservation outcomes of these tenure reforms. In this paper, we describe four conservation projects that specifically aimed to formalise land rights in the Philippines, a country widely seen as a model for the devolution of control over natural resources to rural communities. We demonstrate that these legalistic interventions are based on flawed assumptions, on: 1 the capacity of the state to enforce tenure; 2 the characteristics of customary land rights; and 3 the causal links between legal entitlements and sustainable natural resource management. As a result, these state-led tenure reforms actually aggravate tenure insecurity on the ground, and ultimately fail to improve natural resource management.

  18. Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, T.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a high poverty rate and low agricultural production and household income. Livelihood of the households is dependent upon self-sufficient agricultural production, which accounts for nearly 80% of the t...

  19. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Discriminating Land Cover in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (VSWIR) of the spectrum have shown impressive capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a VSWIR hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA. The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping relative to multispectral satellites. We mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 22,500 km2 in the San Francisco Bay Area, California using 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery simulated from data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor. Random Forests (RF) and Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) classifiers were applied to the simulated images and accuracies were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. The RF classifier was superior to MESMA, and multi-temporal data yielded higher accuracy than summer-only data. With RF, hyperspectral data had overall accuracy of 72.2% and 85.1% with full 20-class and reduced 12-class schemes, respectively. Multispectral imagery had lower accuracy. For example, simulated and real Landsat data had 7.5% and 4.6% lower accuracy than HyspIRI data with 12 classes, respectively. In summary, our results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different natural vegetation types, such as

  20. Land and fresh water decapod crustacea from the Leeward Group and northern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chace, Fenner A.; Holthuis, Lipke B.

    1948-01-01

    This small paper consists only of an enumeration of the specimens collected by Dr. HUMMELINCK in 1936 and 1937, together with the records of land and fresh water decapods from the articles by RATHBUN (1936) and SCHMITT (1936) on the collections made in 1930. Identifications of many of the brachyuran

  1. Correlation of Spatio-Temporal Contaminant Distribution, Land Use, and Hydrogeological Factors in the Karst Aquifers of Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Torres, N. I.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Karst aquifers are characterized by caves, springs, and sinkholes, and typified by interconnected fissures, fractures and conduits. These characteristics make these aquifers highly productive, and vulnerable to contamination. Previous studies in the northern karst aquifers of Puerto Rico have shown significant distribution of contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, phthalates and other contaminants of emerging concern, beyond demarked sources of contamination. This study develops spatial-temporal distributions of phthalate contaminants in the karst system of northern Puerto Rico and assesses statistical correlations between hydrogeologic factors and groundwater contamination with phthalates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and technologies, and statistical models are applied to attain these objectives. Results show that there is an extensive contamination with phthalates that varies with time. Contamination is present in the confined and shallow aquifers. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most detected contaminant (20.6% of the sites). Diethyl phthalate and and dibutyl phthalate are also detected in 6.7% and 8.24% of the sites, respectively. Phthalates detected as mixtures components are significantly detected in areas of high urban and industrial development. They are also detected in areas within 5 miles of superfund sites and landfills. The results indicate that phthalate contamination is highly related to land use. Statistical models show that the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers, sinkholes density, and time are significantly related to the presence of phthalates in groundwater. The extensive spatio-temporal contamination suggests that contaminants can persist in the environment for long periods of time, and that land use and hydrogeological factors are important factors contributing to the presence of emerging contaminants in karst systems.

  2. Impacts of snow and organic soils parameterization on northern Eurasian soil temperature profiles simulated by the ISBA land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Brun, Eric; Boone, Aaron; Delire, Christine; Le Moigne, Patrick; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyzed how an improved representation of snowpack processes and soil properties in the multilayer snow and soil schemes of the Interaction Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model impacts the simulation of soil temperature profiles over northern Eurasian regions. For this purpose, we refine ISBA's snow layering algorithm and propose a parameterization of snow albedo and snow compaction/densification adapted from the detailed Crocus snowpack model. We also include a dependency on soil organic carbon content for ISBA's hydraulic and thermal soil properties. First, changes in the snowpack parameterization are evaluated against snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface albedo, and soil temperature at a 10 cm depth observed at the Col de Porte field site in the French Alps. Next, the new model version including all of the changes is used over northern Eurasia to evaluate the model's ability to simulate the snow depth, the soil temperature profile, and the permafrost characteristics. The results confirm that an adequate simulation of snow layering and snow compaction/densification significantly impacts the snowpack characteristics and the soil temperature profile during winter, while the impact of the more accurate snow albedo computation is dominant during the spring. In summer, the accounting for the effect of soil organic carbon on hydraulic and thermal soil properties improves the simulation of the soil temperature profile. Finally, the results confirm that this last process strongly influences the simulation of the permafrost active layer thickness and its spatial distribution.

  3. Mapping of land cover in northern California with simulated hyperspectral satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew L.; Kilham, Nina E.

    2016-09-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Analysis of hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery has shown an impressive capacity to map a wide range of natural and anthropogenic land cover. Applications have been mostly with single-date imagery from relatively small spatial extents. Future hyperspectral satellites will provide imagery at greater spatial and temporal scales, and there is a need to assess techniques for mapping land cover with these data. Here we used simulated multi-temporal HyspIRI satellite imagery over a 30,000 km2 area in the San Francisco Bay Area, California to assess its capabilities for mapping classes defined by the international Land Cover Classification System (LCCS). We employed a mapping methodology and analysis framework that is applicable to regional and global scales. We used the Random Forests classifier with three sets of predictor variables (reflectance, MNF, hyperspectral metrics), two temporal resolutions (summer, spring-summer-fall), two sample scales (pixel, polygon) and two levels of classification complexity (12, 20 classes). Hyperspectral metrics provided a 16.4-21.8% and 3.1-6.7% increase in overall accuracy relative to MNF and reflectance bands, respectively, depending on pixel or polygon scales of analysis. Multi-temporal metrics improved overall accuracy by 0.9-3.1% over summer metrics, yet increases were only significant at the pixel scale of analysis. Overall accuracy at pixel scales was 72.2% (Kappa 0.70) with three seasons of metrics. Anthropogenic and homogenous natural vegetation classes had relatively high confidence and producer and user accuracies were over 70%; in comparison, woodland and forest classes had considerable confusion. We next focused on plant functional types with relatively pure spectra by removing open-canopy shrublands

  4. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils in the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuxia; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Chuancheng; Liu, Xinping

    2013-07-01

    Water is a limiting factor to plant growth in Horqin Sand Land of China. Knowledge of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) is of importance because K(sat) influences soil evaporation and water cycling at various scales. In order to analyze the variation of K(sat) along with sand types and soil depths, and its relationship with soil physiochemical properties, six typical lands were chosen, including mobile dune, fixed dune, pine woodland, poplar woodland, grassland, and cropland, and K(sat) was measured in situ by Guelph Permeameter at each type of land. Soil bulk density, organic matter content, and soil particle size distribution were determined in parallel with K(sat) measurement. The results showed that (1) The averaged K(sat) was decreased in the order: mobile dune > fixed dune > pine woodland > poplar woodland > grassland > cropland; changes in K(sat) varied considerably as soil depth increased, e.g., the changes of K(sat) along with soil depth in fixed dune was fitted by exponential model, but it was fitted by parabola model in the pine woodland and grassland. (2) The K(sat) values of fixed dune and mobile dune were varied considerably among three slope positions (dune top, windward slope, and leeward slope). (3) The relationships of K(sat) and soil physiochemical property revealed that soil bulk density, organic matter content, and coarse sand fraction (2∼0.1 mm) were the key factors affecting K(sat) in Horqin Sand Land. Compared with clay and silt content proportion, sand fraction in this region showed a more significant positive correlation with K(sat). PMID:23179727

  5. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  6. Aeolian desertification from the mid-1970s to 2005 in Otindag Sandy Land, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shulin; Wang, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Aeolian desertification in Otindag Sandy Land has expanded dramatically during the past 50 years. This research explored processes and causes of aeolian desertification in the study area. The results showed that aeolian desertification development in Zhenglan Qi of typical region located at the center in the study area can be divided into three stages including rapid occurrence before 1987, parts of rehabilitation and most of deterioration from 1987 to 2000 and little rapid rehabilitation occurrence from 2000 to 2005, according to remote sensing images and field investigations. Gradually declining MI indicated that climate change was not the major cause of aeolian desertification development during the last 40 years, while increasing population should be the underlying cause of local aeolian desertification. Irrational human activities mainly including unsuitable reclamation in the 1960s and lasting over-grazing after 1980 are direct causes contributing to local aeolian desertification, especially over-grazing, while climate change often played a revealer of irrational human activities mainly through drought events. Over-grazing and undesirable climate have different functions during the whole aeolian desertification process. Over-grazing gradually changed grasslands to slight aeolian desertified lands at the initial stage, while climate with windy days or droughts often accelerated formation of serious aeolian desertified lands. Aeolian desertification in the study area both possesses occurrence possibility and great rehabilitative potential. At present, more integrated countermeasures combating local aeolian desertification still are expected.

  7. Changes in soil and vegetation on moving sand dunes after exclosure in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the semiarid Horqin Sandy Land of northern China, land desertification is the main causation in vegetation degradation and formation of moving dunes. A study was conducted from 1996 to 2005 to monitor the changes of vegetation characteristics and soil properties after moving dunes were fenced. The changes were compared between moving sand dunes with exclosure and without exclosure to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetation and soil restoration after exclosure establishment. The results show that exlosure establishment facilitated the colonization and development of plant species by ameliorating stressful environmental conditions. Species diversity, average coverage, and plant density significantly increased after exclosure of moving sand dunes along sequence compared with sand dunes without exclosure. Vegetation recovery on moving sand dunes accelerated by exclosure resulted in significant changes in soil properties including increased silt and clay contents, organic C and total N and decreased sand content, especially at the 0-5 cm depth. The results implied that moving sand dunes can be rapidly fixed by construction of exclosure.

  8. Vertical motions in Northern Victoria Land inferred from GPS: A comparison with a glacial isostatic adjustment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F.; Negusini, M.; Zanutta, A.; Capra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the densification of GPS permanent and episodic trackers in Antarctica, geodetic observations are playing an increasing role in geodynamics research and the study of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The improvement in geodetic measurements accuracy suggests their use in constraining GIA models. It is essential to have a deeper knowledge on the sensitivity of GPS data to motionsrelated to long-term ice mass changes and the present-day mass imbalance of the ice sheets. In order to investigate the geodynamic phenomena in Northern Victoria Land (NVL), GPS geodetic observations were made during the last decade within the VLNDEF (Victoria Land Network for Deformation control) project. The processed data provided a picture of the motions occurring in NVL with a high level of accuracy and depicts, for the whole period, a well defined pattern of vertical motion. The comparison between GPS-derived vertical displacementsand GIA is addressed, showing a good degree of agreement and highlighting the future use of geodetic GPS measurements as constraints in GIA models. In spite of this agreement, the sensitivity of GPS vertical rates to non-GIA vertical motions has to be carefully evaluated.

  9. Coherence among the Northern Hemisphere land, cryosphere, and ocean responses to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing during the satellite era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Shindell, Drew T.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-08-01

    A lack of long-term measurements across Earth's biological and physical systems has made observation-based detection and attribution of climate change impacts to anthropogenic forcing and natural variability difficult. Here we explore coherence among land, cryosphere and ocean responses to recent climate change using 3 decades (1980-2012) of observational satellite and field data throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our results show coherent interannual variability among snow cover, spring phenology, solar radiation, Scandinavian Pattern, and North Atlantic Oscillation. The interannual variability of the atmospheric peak-to-trough CO2 amplitude is mostly impacted by temperature-mediated effects of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA), whereas CO2 concentration is affected by Polar Pattern control on sea ice extent dynamics. This is assuming the trend in anthropogenic CO2 emission remains constant, or the interannual changes in the trends are negligible. Our analysis suggests that sea ice decline-related CO2 release may outweigh increased CO2 uptake through longer growing seasons and higher temperatures. The direct effects of variation in solar radiation and leading teleconnections, at least in part via their impacts on temperature, dominate the interannual variability of land, cryosphere and ocean indicators. Our results reveal a coherent long-term changes in multiple physical and biological systems that are consistent with anthropogenic forcing of Earth's climate and inconsistent with natural drivers.

  10. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  11. Satellite observations of changes in snow-covered land surface albedo during spring in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Atlaskina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen years of MODIS surface albedo data for the Northern Hemisphere during the spring months (March–May were analysed to determine temporal and spatial changes over snow-covered land surfaces. Tendencies in land surface albedo change north of 50° N were analysed using data on snow cover fraction, air temperature, vegetation index and precipitation. To this end, the study domain was divided into six smaller areas, based on their geographical position and climate similarity. Strong differences were observed between these areas. As expected, snow cover fraction (SCF has a strong influence on the albedo in the study area and can explain 56% of variation of albedo in March, 76% in April and 92% in May. Therefore the effects of other parameters were investigated only for areas with 100% SCF. The second largest driver for snow-covered land surface albedo changes is the air temperature when it exceeds −15 °C. At monthly mean air temperatures below this value no albedo changes are observed. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI and precipitation amount and frequency were independently examined as possible candidates to explain observed changes in albedo for areas with 100% SCF. Amount and frequency of precipitation were identified to influence the albedo over some areas in Eurasia and North America, but no clear effects were observed in other areas. EVI is positively correlated with albedo in Chukotka Peninsula and negatively in Eastern Siberia. For other regions the spatial variability of the correlation fields is too high to reach any conclusions.

  12. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Magnetic anomalies northeast of Cape Adare, northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), and their relation to onshore structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, D.; Läufer, A.L.; Goldmann, F.; Möller, H.-D.; Lisker, F.

    2007-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey was flown over the offshore region northeast of Cape Adare and the magnetic anomalies compared to onshore structures between Pennell Coast and Tucker Glacier. The magnetic anomalies show two nearly orthogonal major trends. NNW-SSE trending anomalies northeast of Cape Adare represent seafloor spreading within the Adare Trough. A connection of these anomalies to the Northern Basin of the Ross Sea is not clear. Onshore faults are closely aligned to offshore anomalies. Main trends are NW-SE to NNW-SSE and NE-SW to NNESSW. NNW-SSE oriented dextral-transtensional to extensional faults parallel the Adare Peninsula and Adare Trough anomalies. NE-SW trending normal faults appear to segment the main Hallett volcanic bodies.

  14. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern prairie wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, Richard A; Johnson, W Carter; Gilmanov, Tagir; Guntenspergen, Glenn R; Millett, Bruce V

    2007-03-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  15. A multi-physics ensemble land surface model for northern prairies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M.; Essery, R.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The prairies of Alberta, Canada are subject to highly variable intra-winter meteorological conditions. Chinook winds bring strong wind speeds, high temperatures and humidity deficits that result in frequent mid-winter snowmelt, ground thaw and varying areal snow cover fraction. A number of land surface model intercomparison studies (e.g. PILPS, SnowMIP) have shown that models most often diverge during periods of surface warming, during warmer years and at warmer locations. It is increasingly being demonstrated that multi-model and perturbed model ensembles provide more accurate simulations than a single model over many years. An ensemble land surface model is developed, consisting of various parameterisation options for a number of physical processes (e.g. turbulent exchange, snowpack processes, blowing snow, snow cover fraction, infiltration, ice in soils). Each model configuration was applied at three field sites using intensive observations collected during winter 2011-2012. The models are evaluated against in-situ snow courses, soil moisture observations and eddy covariance data. We identify process parameterisations and combination of parameterisations that result in good and poor simulations. This is done in consideration of different statistical measures of model accuracy (rmse, correlation coefficient). The sensitivity of simulations to particular parameterisations is discussed. These results are used to refine the original ensemble model.

  16. A land cover change study in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia using a flight of aerial photographs dating back to the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Lanckriet, Sil; Demissie, Biadgilgn; Zenebe, Gebreyohanis; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia, land degradation is claimed to have occurred over a long time mainly due agricultural practices and lack of land management. However, quantitative information on the long term land use, cover and management change is rare. The knowledge of such historical changes is essential for the present and future land management for sustainable development, especially in an agriculture-based economy. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the changes of land use, cover and management around Hagere Selam, Northern Ethiopia, over the last 80 years (1935 - 2014). We recovered a flight of ten aerial photographs at an approximate scale of 1:11,500, realized by the Italian Military Geographical Institute in 1935, along a mountain ridge between 13.6490°N, 39.1848°E and 13.6785°N, 39.2658°E. Jointly with Google Earth images (2014), the historical aerial photographs were used to compare changes over the long time. The point-count technique was used by overlaying a grid of 18 x 15 points (small squares) on 20 cm x 15 cm aerial photographs and on Google Earth images representing the same area. Occurrence of major land cover types (cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, bare land, built-up areas and water body) was counted to compute their proportion in 1935 and 2014. In 1935, cropland, shrubland and built-up areas were predominant while other land cover types were not observed. On the Google Earth images, all categories were observed except forest. The results show that in both times cropland was the dominant land cover followed by shrubland. The proportion of cropland at present (70.5%) is approximately the same as in the 1930s (72%), but shrubland decreased and bare land, grassland and built-up areas have increased. Hence, the large share of cropland was maintained over the past long period without allowing for woody vegetation to expand its area, while some cropland was abandoned and converted to grassland and bare land. The increased

  17. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  18. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  19. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) under other geophysical constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Caneva, G.; Caneva, A. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse

    2000-04-01

    The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica) has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV) have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. The possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  20. Mediterranean valleys revisited: Linking soil erosion, land use and climate variability in the Northern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Jesse

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents results of geomorphological and archaeological investigations undertaken in several small drainage basins in the Jebel al-Aqra region of southern Turkey. By focusing intensive archaeological settlement survey in basins where securely dated sequences of sedimentary valley fills have been recorded, spatially and temporally linked, high-resolution records of land use and soil erosion have been generated. Sedimentary data show that throughout most of the Holocene, floodplains remained rather stable, allowing deep soils to form. But in the past two millennia, probably from AD 150-700, a phase of severe soil erosion was initiated and resulted in the deposition of 3.5-5.0 m of alluvial sediments on valley floors. Archaeological and historical evidence suggest that while these areas were occupied by agrarian communities since at least 2800 BC, nearly three millennia of cultivation during the Bronze and Iron Ages had relatively little effect on soil erosion. The intensification of settlement throughout the region and the conversion of upland areas to intensive agricultural production during the Hellenistic, Roman and late Roman periods (300 BC-AD 650), however, created the necessary preconditions for severe soil erosion to occur. These data are compared against modern and paleoclimate studies of the eastern Mediterranean, which show an extremely variable precipitation regime and the effects that it can have on erosion. A 400-year lag between the initial settlement of upland areas and the first evidence of soil erosion suggest that it may have been the intersection of extreme precipitation events with particular land use conditions of the Roman and late Roman periods which worked together to drive soil erosion.

  1. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  2. Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)), email: blas.mola@uef.fi

    2010-07-01

    The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha-1 yr-1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Eleonora; Lurcock, Pontus Conrad; Palmeri, Rosaria; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the integration between rock magnetism and metamorphic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites, variably metamorphosed under UHP, eclogite or HP amphibolite facies peak conditions, and cropping out along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) in three different areas: the Lanterman Range, the Salamander Range and the Dessent Ridge. The outcrops along the Lanterman-Mariner suture provide a unique opportunity to define the relationships between magnetic properties and metamorphic evolution, in a wide P-T range, of ultramafic rocks and metabasites in the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana, an area which is well-studied from a petrological and structural point of view but lacking a rock magnetic study. To characterize the magnetic properties of these rocks, we performed a set of rock magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, natural remanence, thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis loops). We then characterized the minero-petrographical and compositional features of opaque minerals on selected samples using both the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples display a remarkable heterogeneity in the studied magnetic properties depending on both type and abundance of the carriers of magnetization (Fe-Ti oxides and sulphides). Independently of the degree of retrogression and lithology (eclogites, retrogressed eclogites, pirossenites and amphibolites), several samples contain variable amounts of both magnetite and pyrrhotite, while others show only magnetite as the main ferromagnetic mineral. The remaining samples mainly consist of paramagnetic minerals and may display small amounts of magnetite. Based on the microstructural evidence, more than one generation of ferromagnetic minerals may occur in retrogressed UHP ultramafic rocks and eclogites. These new data and interpretations are essential 1) to characterize and to verify primary and secondary oxide and sulphide

  4. Sedimentation of the basal Kombolgie Formation (Upper Precambrian-Carpentarian) Northern Territory, Australia: possible significance in the genesis of the underlying Alligator Rivers unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1400 to 1500 My old Kombolgie Formation of the MacArthur Basin of the Northern Territory overlies or has overlain unconformity-type uranium deposits including Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek and the small deposits of the South Alligator River Valley. A brief study of the basal portion of the formation showed it to consist entirely of mature conglomerates and quartzose sandstones. Analysis of the bedding types (planar cross beds, trough cross beds and parallel beds) and other sedimentary structures (mainly ripple marks and parting lineation) fit a braided alluvial plain model. A paleocurrent study utilizing about 400 measurements from nine localities located along the westward-facing 250 kilometer-long erosional escarpment of the Arnhem Land Plateau showed the dominant paleocurrent trend to be from west and northwest towards the east and southeast, with local divergence. The data and interpretation presented are relevant to the supergene model of uranium deposition at the unconformity, for they add to the suggestion that additional uranium deposits similar to Jabiluka Two may underlie the Kombolgie Formation eastward from the present escarpment

  5. Study on Rangeland production Potential and its Limitations in the Semi-Arid lands of Northern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained from recent studies focused on rangeland potential as influenced by human activity and climatic factors in the semi-arid and pastoral ecosystems of Northern Kenya indicated great temporal and spatial forage production variability. The objective of the studies was to document the primary production potential in relation to water stress (drought), herbivory and direct human activities. Efforts also focused on finding possibilities of increasing productivity while conserving the finite resources for sustainable use. Laboratory field and numeric methods were employed over several seasons and years. Forb and grass production was more viable than that of the brows (dwarf shrub) layer. Compared to forbs and dwarf shrubs, The grass layer contributed less to the total of production in all seasons, indicating that the region had less potential for grazers compared to browsers. Spatial-temporal variations in rangeland carrying capacity reflected the great spatial heterogeneity in vegetation types and production. Similarly, seasonal difference were very evident, with highest estimates in the long rainy and lowest during the dry and short rainy seasons, respectively. Factors limiting rangeland production potential and were identified to be moisture deficiency, resource-use conflicts, an increasing and partial sedentarised nomadic population, overgrazing, tree felling, and land degradation (desert encroachment). Measures that can increase rangelands production potential and provide a better way of life for the inhabitants of the region include: (a) identification of land degradation (e.g. by means of bio-indicators and Geographical Information systems, GIS); (b) technical interventions (i.e. soil and water conservation,restoration of degraded ares, fodder production); (c)socio-economic interventions (i.e. resolution of resource-use conflicts, alleviation of poverty, infrastructure development, improvement of livestock marketing channels, etc) and (d) continued

  6. Effects of land-use change on deposition and composition of organic matter in Frickenhauser See, northern Bavaria, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of bulk organic matter (OM) from lacustrine sediments of Frickenhauser See (northern Bavaria, Germany) reveals considerable variation during the last two millennia. Atomic C/N ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) content are positively correlated with arboreal pollen percentages which are used as an indicator of land-use intensity. Despite possible alterations of OM during early diagenesis, differences between three major lithological units are large enough to be interpreted as human impact on the sedimentation of OM in the lake. Sediments deposited prior to deforestation in the catchment area (unit C) are characterized by mean C/N ratios of 14.5, indicating a mixed composition of organic matter derived from lacustrine and terrestrial sources (forest litter). During a period of intensive soil erosion (ca. 1000 AD until 1870 AD; unit B), low C/N ratios of around 7.7 suggest that the relative proportion of forest litter decreased in favour of the lacustrine component and soil OM. Terrestrial plant detritus is only transported into the lake through numerous turbidite events. Deforestation and agriculture also coincide with a decreasing TOC content from an average value of 10.7% to 1.5%. This decrease is explained through a dilution effect due to the high input of minerogenic matter. Stable carbon isotopes indicate eutrophication of the lake due to the mobilization of nutrients through soil erosion. Starting around 1870 AD, organic-rich sapropelic sediments are deposited (unit A). A decline of turbidite events and increased wind shelter from trees due to reduced land-use intensity led to meromictic conditions. Consequently, negative excursions in the δ 13C isotope record at the onset of unit A probably reflect methanogenesis under permanently anoxic conditions

  7. Size distributions of mineral aerosols and dust emission flux observed over Horqin Sandy Land area in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    Size distribution of mineral aerosols is of primary importance in determining their residence time in atmosphere, transport patterns, removal mechanisms as well as their effects on climate and human health. This study aims to obtain dust particle size distribution and size-resolved dust emission flux under different weather conditions over a sandy land area in northern China (Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia), using the observational data from Horqin sandstorm monitoring station in the spring of 2010 and 2012. Dust (PM20) mass concentration was measured by a 10-stage quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cascade impactor. The statistical results indicate that finer dust particles (r ≤ 1.0 μm) take a large proportion of all PM20 concentration under clear-day conditions, while coarser dust particles (r ≥ 2.5 μm) concentration increased under dust-day conditions, with the peak occurring between 4-7 μm. The dust particle size distributions during the pre-dust-emission and dust-emission periods of a dust event on 7 April 2012 have similar features to the statistical results. During the dust event, the magnitude of dust emission flux of all sizes increased about one or two orders (0.1-10 μg m-2 s-1) as u* increase from 0.54 to 1.29 m s-1. The maximum total F value was about 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 and the maximum size-resolved F(Ddi) is 12.3 μg m-2 s-1 in 0.3-0.45 μm size bin when u* is 1.29 m s-1. Dust advection has effects on airborne dust size distribution, making the proportion of dust particles of different sizes more uniform, as observed in a non-local dust event on 19 April 2012.

  8. A new Eemian record of Antarctic tephra layers retrieved from the Talos Dome ice core (Northern Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria; Petit, Jean Robert; Langone, Antonio; Stenni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Polar ice sheets are remarkable repositories of tephra layers. The Talos Dome ice core (72°49‧S, 159°11‧E), drilled at the edge of the East Antarctic Plateau, close to Late Quaternary volcanoes, offers considerable potential to extend the current tephra time-stratigraphic framework. A tephrochronological study was undertaken of the ice core sections related to the Last Interglacial and the transition to the subsequent glacial period. Thirteen macroscopically visible layers, interpreted to be related to primary deposition of fallout tephra, have been analysed for quantitative grain size and glass shard geochemistry. The layers, precisely framed within the climate (δ18O) record for the core, span in age from 111.6 ± 1.9 to 123.3 ± 2.2 ka. Coarse particle size suggests origin from regional sources. Indeed, the vast majority of the samples display an alkaline affinity and trachytic composition that are both typical geochemical features of rifting Antarctic volcanism. Using subtle differences in the geochemical signatures and the comparison with data from previous studies, a few layers are attributed to known coeval Mt. Melbourne eruptions. Another sample subset is consistent with derivation from The Pleiades and Mt. Rittmann volcanoes. One peculiar trachytic glass population appears to be related to activity of the more distant Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The newly detected tephras provide stratigraphic markers that could facilitate future synchronisation and dating of palaeoclimatic records. The Talos Dome tephra inventory also contributes significantly to the reconstruction of the Northern Victoria Land explosive volcanism, for which chronostratigraphic data for the Last Interglacial temporal segment are poor.

  9. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.

  11. Vegetation pattern variation, soil degradation and their relationship along a grassland desertification gradient in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Guo, Yirui; Yun, Jianying; Wang, Shaokun; Miyasaka, Takafumi

    2009-09-01

    The Horqin Sandy Land is one of the most severely desertified regions in northern China. Plant communities and soil conditions at five stages of grassland desertification (potential, light, moderate, severe and very severe) were selected for the study of vegetation pattern variation relating to soil degradation. The results showed that vegetation cover, species richness and diversity, aboveground biomass (AGB), underground biomass, litter, soil organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), electrical conductivity, very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) content and silt (0.05-0.002 mm) content decreased with the desertification development. Plant community succession presented that the palatable herbaceous plants gave place to the shrub species with asexual reproduction and sand pioneer plants. The decline of vegetation cover and AGB was positively related to the loss of soil organic C and total N with progressive desertification ( P plant community distribution, species diversity and ecological dominance had the close relationship with the gradient of soil nutrients in the processes of grassland desertification. These results suggest that grassland desertification results in the variation of vegetation pattern which presents the different composition and structure of plant community highly influenced by the soil properties.

  12. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969. PMID:27172861

  13. Insecticide residues in bats along a land use-gradient dominated by cotton cultivation in northern Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit; Djossa, Bruno A; Fahr, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Many regions in Africa are currently being converted from subsistence to cash crop farming such as cotton. Agricultural intensification is usually accompanied by increased use of pesticides, which can have an impact on non-target organisms. Bats are particularly sensitive to insecticide loads while providing substantial ecosystem services as predators of herbivorous insects. In this study, pesticide residues in bats in a landscape in northern Benin were investigated, which spanned a land use gradient from an agricultural zone dominated by cotton farms, through a buffer zone, and into a national park. Insecticides used in cotton cultivation, such as endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, flubendiamide, and spirotetramat, as well as persistent insecticides such as bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and aldrine, were analysed. Insecticide residues detected in bats comprised DDT, endosulfan, and their corresponding transformation products. Maximum concentrations in the sampled bats were 11.2 mg/kg lipid of p,p'-DDE (median: 0.0136 mg/kg lipid) and 0.797 mg/kg lipid of β-endosulfan (median: below detection limit [DL]). While insecticide concentrations were below lethal concentrations our data suggest that DDT had probably been recently used in the study region, and larger scale use would pose an increased risk for bat populations due to the high biomagnification of DDT.

  14. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change. PMID:26815296

  15. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas, 1891-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In cooperation with the Harris–Galveston Subsidence District, Fort Bend Subsidence District, and Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and calibrated the Houston Area Groundwater Model (HAGM), which simulates groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2009. Withdrawal of groundwater since development of the aquifer system has resulted in potentiometric surface (hydraulic head, or head) declines in the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments.

  16. Bioavailability and radiocarbon age of fluvial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peatland-dominated catchment: effect of land-use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulatt, C.J.; Kaartokallio, H.; Asmala, E.;

    2014-01-01

    The radiocarbon age and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peat-dominated river system was studied and the effects of land-use were compared. Samples were obtained from streams and ditches comprising sub-catchments of the Kiiminki River, Northern Finland. Sample...... sites included areas of natural mire, areas subjected to moderate disturbance (ditching to enhance forestry), and areas subjected to serious land use change (agriculture and peat excavation). The study employed a 55 day bioassay that measured the biodegradation potential of surface-water DOM. We...... identified release of modern (mean 6-13 year old) DOM from natural sites, and material aged up to 1,553 years from disturbed sites. The proportion of biodegradable DOC ranged from 4.1 to 17.9 %, and bacterial DOC removal was modelled using twin-pool and reactivity-continuum (beta distribution) approaches...

  17. Effects of land-conversion in a biosphere–atmosphere model of Northern South America – Part 1: Regional differences in hydrometeorology

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, R. G.; Longo, M; A. L. S. Swann; Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; R. L. Bras

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how landuse changes over northern South America, driven by human interventions, have affected the regional patterns of hydrology. Comparisons are made to scenarios where no human disturbance of the regional vegetation is assumed. A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model 2 – ED2) is combined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System – BRAMS) to investigate how land conve...

  18. Simulated impact of past and possible future land use changes on the hydrological response of the Northern German lowland ‘Hunte’ catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfert, Simon; Bormann, Helge

    2010-03-01

    SummaryLand use is a key factor controlling the hydrological behaviour of catchments. Changing land use therefore can have an important influence on the local hydrological cycle. Validated and process-based hydrological models are suitable tools to quantify the impact of a change in land use on the hydrological processes. In this study, the physically based catchment model WaSiM-ETH (Water Balance Simulation Model) was applied to a mesoscale lowland catchment in northern Germany (Hunte river, 2141 km 2 at gauge Oldenburg). Model calibration and validation showed that WaSiM-ETH well represented the discharge of the main Hunte river while the discharge dynamics of a few lowland tributaries whose catchments are characterised by peaty soils and intense artificial drainage could not be represented. The purpose of this study was twofold; on the one hand to analyse the sensitivity of WaSiM-ETH to changes in land use observed in the decade 1990-2000, and on the other hand to quantify the impact of land use change projected for the future in terms of land use scenarios available to the public. The results showed that WaSiM-ETH is hardly sensitive to the slight changes observed in the last decade of the 20th century. By contrast, water flows simulated by WaSiM-ETH are clearly impacted by agricultural land use scenarios which were developed based on IPCC scenarios. However, the results also show that it is not sufficient to focus on agricultural land use, only. The proposed reduction of agricultural land leaves open the final land cover after land use change, e.g., forest or urban areas. This study demonstrated that WaSiM-ETH was more sensitive to the choice of the final land cover than to the difference in the scenarios (e.g., A1F1 versus B1). Therefore, we recommend to precisely define change in agricultural land use as well as the final land cover in order to estimate the realistic impact of land use change on hydrological behaviour.

  19. Size distributions of mineral aerosols and dust emission flux observed over Horqin Sandy Land area in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Size distribution of mineral aerosols is of primary importance in determining their residence time in atmosphere, transport patterns, removal mechanisms as well as their effects on climate and human health. This study aims to obtain dust particle size distribution and size-resolved dust emission flux under different weather conditions over a sandy land area in northern China (Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia, using the observational data from Horqin sandstorm monitoring station in the spring of 2010 and 2012. Dust (PM20 mass concentration was measured by a 10-stage quartz crystal microbalance (QCM cascade impactor. The statistical results indicate that finer dust particles (r ≤ 1.0 μm take a large proportion of all PM20 concentration under clear-day conditions, while coarser dust particles (r ≥ 2.5 μm concentration increased under dust-day conditions, with the peak occurring between 4–7 μm. The dust particle size distributions during the pre-dust-emission and dust-emission periods of a dust event on 7 April 2012 have similar features to the statistical results. During the dust event, the magnitude of dust emission flux of all sizes increased about one or two orders (0.1–10 μg m−2 s−1 as u* increase from 0.54 to 1.29 m s−1. The maximum total F value was about 43.0 μg m−2 s−1 and the maximum size-resolved F(Ddi is 12.3 μg m−2 s−1 in 0.3–0.45 μm size bin when u* is 1.29 m s−1. Dust advection has effects on airborne dust size distribution, making the proportion of dust particles of different sizes more uniform, as observed in a non-local dust event on 19 April 2012.

  20. Analysis of Land Covers over Northern Peninsular Malaysia by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data Based on Frequency-Based Contextual and Neural Network Classification Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Optical and microwave remote sensing data have been widely used in land cover and land use classification. Optical satellite remote sensing methods are more appropriate but require cloud-free conditions for data to be useful especially at Equatorial region. In Equatorial region cloud free acquisitions can be rare reducing these sensors' applicability to such studies. ALOS-PALSAR data can be acquired day and night irrespective of weather conditions. This paper presents a comparison between frequency-based contextual and neural network classification technique by using ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover assessment in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. The ALOS-PALSAR data acquired on 10 November 2006 were converted to vegetation, urban, water and other land features. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. Supervised classification techniques were used in the classification analysis. The best supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy and Kappa statistic. Based on the result produced by this study, it can be pointed out the utility of ALOS-PALSAR data as an alternative data source for land cover classification in the Peninsular Malaysia.

  1. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Saipan 1945-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1945-era and 2005-era classifications of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This...

  2. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...

  3. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  4. A time to change? The supply of climate mitigation products from land-use change in northern NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Jonathan; Cacho, Oscar J.; Mounter, Stuart W.

    2010-01-01

    With the impending introduction of an Australian Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, farmers and landholders in rural Australia have increased opportunities to participate in the market. This includes the adoption of land-use change to sequester additional carbon in exchange for carbon credits and the production of a renewable energy source (biofuels). However, these land-use changes compete with existing farm enterprises and may contain significant transaction costs. Therefore it is necessary...

  5. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu Pan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for being the site of occurrence of the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in China and worldwide, and is chosen as our study area. In this study, we have investigated the capabilities and limitations of ALOS PALSAR data for monitoring the land subsidence that accompanies coal fires by means of satellite differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR observations. An approach to map the large and highly non-linear subsidence based on a small number of SAR images was applied to the Wuda coalfield to reveal the spatial and temporal signals of land subsidence in areas affected by coal fires. The DInSAR results agree well with coal fire data obtained from field investigations and thermal anomaly information, which demonstrates that the capability of ALOS PALSAR data and the proposed approach have remarkable potential to detect this land subsidence of interest. In addition, our results also provide a spatial extent and temporal evolution of the land subsidence behavior accompanying the coal fires, which indicated that several coal fire zones suffer accelerated ongoing land subsidence, whilst other coal fire zones are newly subsiding areas arising from coal fires in the period of development.

  6. The impact of land initialization on seasonal forecasts of surface air temperature: role of snow data assimilation in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P.; Wei, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, Z. L.

    2015-12-01

    Land initializations (i.e., snow, soil moisture, leaf area index) have been recognized as important sources of seasonal climate predictability besides ocean and atmosphere initializations. However, studies focusing on assessing how land data assimilation (DA) contributes to seasonal forecast skills are still lacking due to the limited number of large-scale land DA studies. In this study, taking advantage of the snow outputs from a multivariate global land DA system (i.e., DART/CLM), we systematically investigated the role of large-scale snow DA in influencing seasonal forecasts of surface air temperature. Three suites of ensemble seasonal forecast experiments were performed using the Community Earth System Model (CESM v1.2.1), in which three different snow initialization datasets were used. They are (1) CLM4 simulation without DA, (2) CLM4 simulation with MODIS snow cover DA, and (3) CLM4 simulation with joint GRACE and MODIS snow DA. Each suite of the experiment starts from multiple initialization dates of eight years from 2003 to 2010 and has three-month lead times. All experiments used the same atmosphere initializations from ERA-Interim (perturbed to get 8 ensembles) and the same prescribed SSTs. Our results show that snow DA plays an important role in surface air temperature predictions in regions such as Europe, western Canada, northern Alaska, Mongolia Plateau, Tibetan Plateau, and the Rocky Mountains. The analyses also account for multiple lead times as snow can influence the atmosphere through immediate snow-albedo effect and through delayed snow hydrological effect after snow melts and wets the soil. This is a first study to quantify the impacts of snow initializations on seasonal forecasts of surface air temperature with an emphasis on large-scale snow DA. The insights are helpful to both land DA studies as well as research on seasonal climate forecasts.

  7. 中国北方未来50年土地利用变化模拟%Modelling scenarios of land use change in northern China in the next 50 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春阳; 李景刚; 史培军

    2005-01-01

    Modelling scenarios of land use change and their impacts in typical regions are helpful to investigate the mechanism between land use and ecological systems and process the land use allocation under the ecological security. A system dynamics (SD) model with the aim to modelling scenarios of land use change and assessing ecological impact in northern China in the next 50 years is developed here. The accuracy assessment with the historic data from 1990 to 2001 indicated the SD model is robust. After the different "what-if' scenarios controlled by GDP, population, market, and technology advancement were built, the different scenarios of land use change in northern China from 2000 to 2050 were simulated with their ecological impact assessed. The result suggested that such factors as GDP, population, market and technology have a strong relationship with land use structural change in northern China. It also indicated that such measures as strict controlling of population increase, importing some food to keep the supply-demand balance in the region, and improving agricultural technology will be the guarantee of regional sustainable development with fast economic growth and the obvious land use structural improvement at the same time.

  8. Seasonal variation of nitrogen-concentration in the surface water and its relationship with land use in a catchment of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ding; PENG Hong-jia; FU Bo-jie; QIU Jun; ZHANG Shu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Surface waters can be contaminated by human activities in two ways: (1) by point sources, such as sewage treatment discharge and storm-water runoff; and (2) by non-point sources, such as runoff from urban and agricultural areas. With point-source pollution effectively controlled, non-point source pollution has become the most important environmental concern in the world. The formation of non-point source pollution is related to both the sources such as soil nutrient, the amount of fertilizer and pesticide applied, the amount of refuse, and the spatial complex combination of land uses within a heterogeneous landscape. Land-use change, dominated by human activities, has a significant impact on water resources and quality. In this study, fifteen surface water monitoring points in the Yuqiao Reservoir Basin, Zunhua, Hebei Province, northern China, were chosen to study the seasonal variation of nitrogen concentration in the surface water. Water samples were collected in low-flow period(June), high-flow period(July) and mean-flow period(October) from 1999 to 2000. The results indicated that the seasonal variation of nitrogen concentration in the surface water among the fifteen monitoring points in the rainfall-rich year is more complex than that in the rainfall-deficit year. It was found that the land use, the characteristics of the surface river system, rainfall, and human activities play an important role in the seasonal variation of N-concentration in surface water.

  9. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  10. Increased terrestrial to ocean sediment and carbon fluxes in the northern Chesapeake Bay associated with twentieth century land alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, C.; Cronin, T. M.; Willard, D.; Halka, J.; Kerhin, R.

    2008-01-01

    We calculated Chesapeake Bay (CB) sediment and carbon fluxes before and after major anthropogenic land clearance using robust monitoring, modeling and sedimentary data. Four distinct fluxes in the estuarine system were considered including (1) the flux of eroded material from the watershed to streams, (2) the flux of suspended sediment at river fall lines, (3) the burial flux in tributary sediments, and (4) the burial flux in main CB sediments. The sedimentary maximum in Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen marked peak land clearance (~1900 a.d.). Rivers feeding CB had a total organic carbon (TOC)/total suspended solids of 0.24??0.12, and we used this observation to calculate TOC fluxes from sediment fluxes. Sediment and carbon fluxes increased by 138-269% across all four regions after land clearance. Our results demonstrate that sediment delivery to CB is subject to significant lags and that excess post-land clearance sediment loads have not reached the ocean. Post-land clearance increases in erosional flux from watersheds, and burial in estuaries are important processes that must be considered to calculate accurate global sediment and carbon budgets. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  11. Influence of fleet renewal and trawl development on landings per unit effort of the Danish northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Munch-Petersen, Sten

    2011-01-01

    Recent stock assessments of the Pandalus stock in the Skagerrak (ICES Division IIIa) and the Norwegian Deep (Division IVa east) have relied largely on a time-series of landings per unit effort (lpue) calculated from Danish logbook data. Because of fleet renewal and trawl-size changes, the relatio......Recent stock assessments of the Pandalus stock in the Skagerrak (ICES Division IIIa) and the Norwegian Deep (Division IVa east) have relied largely on a time-series of landings per unit effort (lpue) calculated from Danish logbook data. Because of fleet renewal and trawl-size changes...

  12. 1983-2001年中国北方的耕地变化与驱动力%Understanding cultivated land dynamics and its driving forces in northern China during 1983-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春阳; 李景刚; 王圆圆

    2005-01-01

    Based on the long-term serial NOAA/NDVI dataset during 1983-1999 and SPOT/VGT dataset in 2001, the land use/cover change information in the 13 provinces of northern China was extracted based on the analysis of the cultivated landscape characteristics at first, then the effects of human activities on cultivated land process were explored by GIS and the driving forces of cultivated land change were investigated. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The constant increase of weak ecological function land as desert and cultivated land and the decrease of the ecological function land of forest and shrub were the main characteristics of the land use/cover change in the 13 provinces from 1983 to 1999, which showed the effects on the ecological adjustment function. However, such situations were changed to some extent in the 2000s because of the eco-construction policy of the government. (2) From 1983 to 2001, the Barycenter of cultivated land tended to move from northeast to southwest with the topography and transportation situations being the main influences on the cultivated land distribution. It is found that the cultivated land use intensity decreased noticably with the increase of distance from the main communication arteries. (3) The improvement of the people's living standard is closely related with the cultivated land change. The structural adjustment in the agricultural land caused by economic development and the improvement of the people's living standard is an important factor affecting the cultivated land change in northern China from 1983 to 2001.

  13. Size-composition of Annual Landings in the White Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, Fishery of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1960–2006: Its Trend and Relationships with Other Fishery-dependent Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Nance, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The potential for growth overfishing in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, fishery of the northern Gulf of Mexico appears to have been of limited concern to Federal or state shrimp management entities, following the cataclysmic drop in white shrimp abundance in the 1940’s. As expected from surplus production theory, a decrease in size of shrimp in the annual landings accompanies increasing fishing effort, and can eventually reduce the value of the landings. Growth overfishing can exa...

  14. 76 FR 64376 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal land management agencies to conduct long-range transportation planning in a manner that is consistent with metropolitan planning organizations and state departments of transportation planning. With...: http://www.fws.gov/pacific/planning/ . We also have a limited number of printed and CD-ROM copies...

  15. Identification of land surface temperature and albedo trends in AVHRR Pathfinder data from 1982 to 2005 for northern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, M.; Forkel, M.; Schmullius, C.; Hese, S.; Hüttich, C.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    The arctic regions are highly vulnerable to climate change. Climate models predict an increase in global mean temperatures for the upcoming century. The arctic environment is subject to significant changes of the land surface. Especially the changes of vegetation pattern and the phenological cycle i

  16. Global sea-level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S; Siringan, Fernando P

    2006-03-01

    Land subsidence resulting from excessive extraction of groundwater is particularly acute in East Asian countries. Some Philippine government sectors have begun to recognise that the sea-level rise of one to three millimetres per year due to global warming is a cause of worsening floods around Manila Bay, but are oblivious to, or ignore, the principal reason: excessive groundwater extraction is lowering the land surface by several centimetres to more than a decimetre per year. Such ignorance allows the government to treat flooding as a lesser problem that can be mitigated through large infrastructural projects that are both ineffective and vulnerable to corruption. Money would be better spent on preventing the subsidence by reducing groundwater pumping and moderating population growth and land use, but these approaches are politically and psychologically unacceptable. Even if groundwater use is greatly reduced and enlightened land-use practices are initiated, natural deltaic subsidence and global sea-level rise will continue to aggravate flooding, although at substantially lower rates.

  17. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  18. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  19. Land application of waste waters in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory - environmental constraints on design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing uranium mines in the Alligator River Region presently operate under a no release water management regime for water stored within the designated restricted release zones (RRZ). This water is of variable quality ranging from rainwater influenced by runoff from the mill sites and ore stockpiles to mill process water stored within the trailings repositories. There is a pressing need to reduce the volume of stored RRZ water at Nabarlek as a prerequisite to decommissioning. There is also a requirement at Ranger to rapidly reduce the volume of stored water in the mine pit at the end of the season to allow the mining of ore. Land application of RRZ water by spray irrigation has been investigated at both sites because it offers the benefits of applying chemical constituents in the wastewater within a clearly defined irrigation area. the environmental planning for the design of a land application system involves calculations of the chemical load in the wastewater and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the soil-plant system. The monsoon climate, lateritic soil and fluctuating water table creates a unique set of environmental constraints and conditions in which to design and operate a successful land application system for the treatment of stored water at minesites within ecologically sensitive areas

  20. Advanced interpretation of land subsidence by validating multi-interferometric SAR data: the case study of the Anthemountas basin (Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raspini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of repeat-pass space borne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry has been exploited to investigate spatial patterns of land subsidence in the Anthemountas basin, in the northern part of Greece. The PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach, based on the processing of long series of SAR acquisitions, has been applied to forty-two images acquired in 1995–2001 by ERS1/2 satellites. Interferometric results have been analysed at a basin scale as support for land motion mapping and at a local scale for the characterisation of ground motion events affecting the village of Perea in the Thermaikos municipality and the "Macedonia" international airport. PSI results revealed a moderate subsidence phenomenon along the wider coastal zone of Anthemountas basin corresponding to intense groundwater extraction. Highest values, exceeding −20 mm yr−1, were measured in the airport area where the thickest sequence of compressible Quaternary sediments occurs. Intense subsidence has been detected also in the Perea village (maximum deformation of −10 to −15 mm yr−1, where a series of fractures, causing damages to both buildings and infrastructure, occurred in 2005–2006.

  1. Effects of synoptic-scale circulation pattern and local land surface condition on fog at Kushiro, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, S.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine stratiform clouds are frequently observed over western North Pacific offshore of the northeast Japan during summer when warm southerly wind prevails over underlying cold ocean current. Such clouds often migrate over Kushiro located in the coastal area of eastern Hokkaido Island, north Japan and are recognized as sea fog. On the other hand, Kushiro is a middle-sized city with population of over 180,000 and a large wetland expands at the north of Kushiro city. The difference of land surface condition between the city and the wetland might cause heterogeneity of the sea fog distribution over land, via dissipation and regeneration process of fog. In this study, long-term visibility data for Kushiro are investigated to clarify the relationship between interannual variation of fog frequency (FF) and large-scale circulation patterns. Furthermore, frequency of fog/low-level cloud (LC) is identified using satellite images and sensitivity experiments changing land surface condition are conducted using meteorological regional model to understand an impact of land use on the local fog distribution and its physical processes. Monthly mean FF trends observed at Kushiro during 1931 to 2010 shows significant decline (-3.3 day per decade). Since late 1970s, the decline at Kushiro has been particularly remarkable in July and August in association with an increased number of years with very low FF. Analysis of radiosonde data has revealed the development of shallow moist layer under a strong inversion layer during fog occurrence because of abundant moisture supply from southerly wind. However, cold and dry northerly wind prevents the formation of inversion layer during fog-free days. Composite analysis of reanalysis data suggests that the low-level southerly wind toward northeast Japan is weaker in the low FF month of July than climatology owing to a southward shift of the North Pacific High (NPH) and stronger Okhotsk High. In August, eastward displacement or shrinking of the

  2. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  3. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  4. Subsoil Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability to Land Use Change Across a Network of Seven Experimental Sites in the US Northern Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, S.; Rothstein, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report the depth distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at experimental sites in the Northern Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota) spanning a range of textural and geochemical environments. We also determined the vulnerability of SOC and SIC to the disturbance caused land-use change (conversion of old fields to short-rotation woody crop plantations). The experimental network consists of seven bioenergy plantations established in 2009-2010 in idled grass fields using herbicide and tillage. These study sites exhibit differences in soil texture (controlled largely by the type of glacial overlay) and geochemistry (controlled by the regional lithology including shale, basalt, limestone, sandstone and calcareous sandstone), providing the opportunity to gain insight into regional physical and chemical determinants of soil C storage. We conducted intensive soil sampling campaigns to a depth of 1 m prior to land conversion and at 4 years post-disturbance, to determine the depth profile and response of soil C storage as a function of land use and regional edaphic attributes. The proportion of subsoil SOC (stored at a depth greater than 25 cm) ranged from 33 to 50% of whole-profile SOC (to 1 m) prior to land conversion. Soils developed from calcareous parent materials also had significant SIC stocks despite the humid climate promoting carbonate weathering. The SIC stocks made up to half of the total soil C to a depth of 1 m. Measurable carbonates occurred throughout the profile, possibly due to upwards biological translocation mechanisms, but were most abundant at depths greater than 50 cm. Preliminary analyses indicate that SOC decreased in the topsoil following land-use change. These topsoil losses were offset by subsoil gains at sites with reactive mineralogy. The SIC stocks showed re-distribution following disturbance and were likely subject to accelerated weathering. Taken together, these results indicate

  5. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  6. Revegetation of mined land in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia: a review. Supervising Scientist report 150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review aims to assist the Alligator Rivers Technical Committee (ARRTC) in determining whether current practices and plans for revegetation at Ranger mine and elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) are appropriate, and to establish research priorities in this region. The majority of information regarding revegetation in the wet-dry tropics (WDT) of northern Australia pertains to Ranger mine. However, there is a dearth of peer-reviewed published papers which is a significant problem that may limit effective communication and application of appropriate revegetation techniques on mines in the WDT. The use of topsoil on hard rock mines in northern Australia is a contentious issue, with topsoil re-spreading being excluded from many rehabilitation programs. However, the experience of many WDT rehabilitation researchers indicates that use of topsoil containing indigenous microbes, valuable nutrients and organic matter increases the probability of achieving a successful, self-sustaining native ecosystem in the long term (eg Bell 1993. Hinz 1996, Tongway et al 1997). This review examines five methodologies that have been used to assess the success of rehabilitation in the WDT. Success criteria based on a single or narrow set of parameters are likely to be inadequate. A study comparing the indicator value of the various monitoring methods would be valuable, with a possible outcome being the development of a 'multi-discipline' monitoring approach. Gaps in the existing knowledge or practices that may limit the success of revegetation at minesites in the Alligator Rivers Region are identified. The most critical issues are identified broadly as: topsoil utilisation and management; fire; management/prediction of successional processes; establishment of symbiotic micro-organisms; native seed collection, storage and germination; development of monitoring methodologies and acceptable success criteria; and technology transfer

  7. Numerical model to evaluate the mitigation strategies to combat desertification and drought in the arid land of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Carla; Mendieta, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Desertification is considered a global environmental problem with political and socioeconomic implications. Desertification, exacerbated by climate change, is the largest environmental problem in Chile affecting almost two third of the national territory. This study takes place in a latitudinal gradient of the north-central Chilean drylands, where desertification is a threat to agriculture, livestock and forestry (ALF). The critical areas or priority areas for combating desertification are the northernmost areas of the region under study. In the context of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the implementation of the Chilean National Action Programme (NAP), the country is conducting policies and investing in mitigation strategies to combat land degradation and desertification. The main objective of this study is the development of an integrative methodological approach using real data of the territorial and socioeconomic indicators. With the proposed methodology we assess the impact of the mitigation and land degradation strategies supported by the ALF promotion agencies in the fight against desertification, projecting different scenarios of change. The data were collected in 2008 in Santiago, Chile. The results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that technical irrigation and the improvement of grasslands and pastures play an important role in the fight against desertification. The results of the model projections are consistent, suggesting that the efforts of the ALF promotion agencies have a positive impact in fighting desertification. Inaction of ALF mitigation strategies would increase desertification. This methodological approach, performed with real data, can also determine the main causes of desertification in such a complex area as the studied one, where we can find the desert itself, and its desertification endangered valleys, the Andean plateau, the transitional area and the southern regions. Ii is also a

  8. Uso das terras da parte norte da bacia do Rio Descoberto, Distrito Federal, Brasil Land use in the northern region of the descoberto river watershed, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Alves Amaral Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o uso das terras da porção norte da Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Descoberto, englobando as microbacias dos Córregos Barrocão, Bucanhão e Capão da Onça, com auxílio de técnicas de geoprocessamento. Elaborou-se o mapa de uso das terras a partir de processamentos da imagem de satélite SPOT 4, obtida em 2003, por meio do software ENVI 3.6. Posteriormente, verificou-se a adequabilidade do uso das terras, com base em técnicas de cruzamento e operações de tabulação cruzada entre os mapas de uso e aptidão agrícola das terras, utilizando-se o software ArcView 8.3, permitindo a geração do mapa de adequabilidade de uso das terras. Pelos resultados, constatou-se que a maior parte da área estudada a utilização das terras está abaixo do seu potencial agrícola, caracterizando sustentabilidade da utilização dos recursos naturais, particularmente solos.This work had the objective to evaluate the land use in the northern region of the Environmental Protection Area of Descoberto River, which encompasses the watersheds of the streams Barrocão, Bucanhão and Capão da Onça, accomplished with the support of geoprocessing techniques. A land use map of the area was produced through analysis and treatment of SPOT 4 satellite images, obtained in 2003, using the software ENVI 3.6. Then, the adequation of land use was checked using cross-tabulation between the maps of present and potential use for agriculture, with the software ArcView 8.3, allowing development of a map of land use suitability. The results showed that most of the area has been used under its agricultural potential, characterizing sustainability in the use of the natural resources, particularly of the soils.

  9. 1989-2003年中国北方土地覆被变化%Land cover dynamic changes in northern China:1989-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月臣

    2008-01-01

    The 13 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in northern China are located in latitude 31°-54°N and longitude 73°-136°E including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei,Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Xinjiang, where environments are fragile. In recent years, the eco-environmental problems such as vegetation destruction, desertification and soil erosion etc. become serious because of climate change and unreasonable human activities. In this paper, landscape pattern and its evolution in northern China from 1989 to 2003 was investigated by the combined use of RS and GIS based on the basic theory and method of landscape ecology. Land use/cover maps of the study area in 1989, 1999 and 2003 were produced by using 1 km monthly NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and SPOTNGT Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset from national climate bureau of China which were geo-registered to Lambert azimuthal equal-area map projection and were used in the paper.Landscape evolution in the area over the study period was investigated by two methods: (a)the changes of various landscape metrics were analyzed using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS; (b) the transition matrix of landscape patch types was calculated with the help of the RS and GIS software. The results showed that from 1989 to 2003,the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition. The diversity index and evenness index increased during the period, which means that the landscape pattern tended to be diversified and even. The fragmentation index of grassland, forestland and water areas also increased significantly. This showed that the distribution and structure of forestland, grassland and water areas had been changed greatly during the period, especially grassland which became more and more fragmentized, and its fragmentation index increased from 19

  10. Conservation of northern bobwhite on private lands in Georgia, USA under uncertainty about landscape-level habitat effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J.E.; Moore, C.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Hamrick, R.G.; Cooper, R.J.; Thackston, R.E.; Carroll, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale habitat enhancement programs for birds are becoming more widespread, however, most lack monitoring to resolve uncertainties and enhance program impact over time. Georgia?s Bobwhite Quail Initiative (BQI) is a competitive, proposal-based system that provides incentives to landowners to establish habitat for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Using data from monitoring conducted in the program?s first years (1999?2001), we developed alternative hierarchical models to predict bobwhite abundance in response to program habitat modifications on local and regional scales. Effects of habitat and habitat management on bobwhite population response varied among geographical scales, but high measurement variability rendered the specific nature of these scaled effects equivocal. Under some models, BQI had positive impact at both local farm scales (1, 9 km2), particularly when practice acres were clustered, whereas other credible models indicated that bird response did not depend on spatial arrangement of practices. Thus, uncertainty about landscape-level effects of management presents a challenge to program managers who must decide which proposals to accept. We demonstrate that optimal selection decisions can be made despite this uncertainty and that uncertainty can be reduced over time, with consequent improvement in management efficacy. However, such an adaptive approach to BQI program implementation would require the reestablishment of monitoring of bobwhite abundance, an effort for which funding was discontinued in 2002. For landscape-level conservation programs generally, our approach demonstrates the value in assessing multiple scales of impact of habitat modification programs, and it reveals the utility of addressing management uncertainty through multiple decision models and system monitoring.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Vegetation Changes of Pinyon and Juniper Woodlands on the Coconino Plateau Natural Reserve Lands in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundel, S. T.; Arundel, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to document and describe any vegetational change that has occurred on the test site over the last half century. Consequently, the secondary objective was to determine the extent of any changes that have occurred and to explain these changes. Throughout this study, emphasis was placed on understanding the natural processes that occur between the vegetation associations located on the test site to assist in their conservation and preservation. Historical photographs from 1950s were classified and compared to classified 1997 DOQQs. Classifications were divided into five categories: Tree (trunk), Tree Canopy, Tree Shade, Grass/Shrub, and Bare Ground. Raster calculations using ArcGIS compute classification differences both numerically and spatially. The resulting comparisons showed that trees have increased in density within their previously existing range, which is likely due to fire suppression. They have also expanded onto the northern slopes of mountains, probably due to climate change. Most significantly, they have encroached into both grass/shrubland and baregrounds of the past. There may be many reasons for this. Areas of lowland with encroachment, particularly previously bare ground or low cover (grassland) have probably been invaded due to fire suppression. These are areas where grasses would grow, and any invading saplings would be removed by frequent but low intensity fires. While livestock may have helped spread seed to these lower areas, if the natural fire regime had occurred, saplings would have been killed by small fires, and grasses rejuvenated more quickly to fill burnt areas. Movement of trees into bare ground should also be of concern because grass roots can dominate areas several inches beneath, and grass roots are least dense around juniper canopy.

  12. The potential of short rotation willow coppice on agricultural land in northern Europe based on empirical data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forest Sciences; Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation evaluated short rotation coppice for bioenergy in areas where energy crops are under consideration, as a basis for future economic or policy applications. Several studies have demonstrated the high potential productivity of willow for bioenergy and shown the feasibility of average annual growth of 10-20 oven dry tonnes per hectare during the first cutting cycle. From 1986 to 2006, approximately 16000 ha of short rotation willow plantations were planted in the traditional agricultural areas of Sweden. The more recent plantings included the newer varieties, more vigorous than the older clones, which resulted in shorter rotations and more resistance to frost and disease. This study reported on the geographical spread of willow cultivation, linked to the changes in policies that promote wood-energy crops and the local economic framework. A geo-statistical method based on kernel analysis was used to identify the grouping patterns of plantations and areas where the cultivation was successful. Estimates of current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for Sweden and nearby countries in northern Europe were also presented. The study showed that the development of a short rotation coppice for bioenergy requires an infrastructure, a market for willow chips and consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. Potential average yields were shown to be 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 oven dry tonnes per hectare per year for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. tabs., figs.

  13. Seasonality of Air-sea-ice-land Variables for Arctic Tundra in Northern Eurasia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Steele, M.; Epstein, H.; Jia, G.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The strength of tundra productivity trends as measured by the annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MaxNDVI) and time integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI) vary around the Arctic over the 1982-2008 period. Our analysis suggests that the timing of terrestrial vegetation growth is connected to seasonal patterns of sea-ice concentrations, ocean temperatures and land surface temperatures. This study used SSMI estimates of sea ice concentration, based on a bootstrap algorithm and AVHRR radiometric surface temperature. Summer Warmth Index (SWI) was calculated as the sum from May to August of the degree months above freezing of surface temperature at each pixel and is an accepted measure of plant growth potential. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents vegetation greenness and has been used extensively to monitor changes in the Arctic. The albedo of green plants varies with solar radiation wavelength, which is the basis for the NDVI index. The analysis was conducted within 50 km of the Arctic coastline to focus on the region of maximum maritime influence. Time series of regional sea-ice concentration, SWI and NDVI were constructed for the 50-km width domains for the Pan-Arctic, North America, Eurasia and Arctic subregions. Standard climate analysis techniques were applied to the regional time series to investigate the seasonality of sea ice, NDVI and SWI. MaxNDVI has increased in the 50-km land domain contiguous to the Beaufort Sea by 17% since 1982, whereas it has only increased by 3% in the coastal Kara Sea region. Analysis of semimonthly MaxNDVI indicates that the vegetation greens up more rapidly in the spring in the Beaufort than the W. Kara and the Kara has slightly higher NDVI in the fall. The climatological weekly sea ice concentrations in 50-km coastal domain displays an earlier breakup in the Beaufort and a later freeze-up in the Kara Sea area. Regional differences in the seasonal cycle can in part explain the spatially varied trends

  14. Assimilating MODIS Snow Covers into Land Surface Model: Validation with in-situ Snow Measurements in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunlin; Hou, Jinliang; Wang, WeiZhen

    2016-04-01

    Accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of snow cover is important for snowmelt runoff simulation and water resources management especially in mountainous areas. In this work, we develop a snow data assimilation scheme based on Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) algorithm and Common Land Model (CoLM), which can assimilate snow cover fraction (SCF) products from the Moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into CoLM for improving snow depth (SD) and snow cover area simulations. An empirical model between SD and SCF has been built based on MODIS SCF and snow depth observations at meteorological stations located in study area, which is used as observation operator in snow data assimilation scheme. The assimilation experiment is conducted during 2004-2007, in Xingjiang province, west China. The preliminary assimilation results are very promising and show that the assimilation of SCF could significantly improve the CoLM capability of simulating snow cover area and snow depth. The assimilation results are more closer to those of observations, which have more reasonable and reliable snow accumulation and melting trends throughout the snow season. After assimilating MODIS SCF observations, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias error (MBE) of snow cover or snow depth are significantly reduced compared to the results without assimilation.

  15. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  16. Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based on δ13C of speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2011-05-01

    The surface temperature changes for the last 4000 years in northern inland Iberia (an area particularly sensitive to climate change) are determined by a high resolution study of carbon stable isotope records of stalagmites from three caves (Kaite, Cueva del Cobre, and Cueva Mayor) separated several tens of kilometers away in N Spain. Despite the local conditions of each cave, the isotopic series show a good overall coherence, and resulted to be strongly sensitive to surface temperature changes. The record reflects alternating warmer and colder intervals, always within a temperature range of 1.6 °C. The timing and duration of the intervals were provided by 43 230Th- 234U (ICP-MS) ages. Main climatic recognized periods are: (1) 3950-3000 yr BP: warm period punctuated by cool events around ~ 3950, 3550 and 3250 yr BP; (2) 2850-2500 yr BP cold interval (Iron Age Cold Period); (3) 2500-1650 yr BP moderate warm period (Roman Warm Period), with maximum temperatures between 2150 and 1750 yr BP; (4) 1650-1350 yr BP cold interval (Dark Ages Cold Period), with a thermal minimum at ~ 1500 yr BP; (5) 1350-750 yr BP warm period (Medieval Warm Period) punctuated by two cooler events at ~ 1250 and ~ 850 yr BP; (6) 750-100 yr BP cold period (Little Ice Age) with extremes occurring at 600-500 yr BP, 350-300 yr BP, and 150-100 yr BP; and (7) the last 150 years, characterized by rapid but no linear warming (Modern Warming). Remarkably, the presented records allow direct comparison of recent warming with former warm intervals such as the Roman or the Medieval periods. That comparison reveals the 20th century as the time with highest surface temperatures of the last 4000 years for the studied area. Spectral analysis of the time series shows consistent climatic cycles of ~ 400, ~ 900 and ~ 1300 yr, comparable with those recognized in the North Atlantic marine record, the Greenland ice cores, and other terrestrial records for the middle-late Holocene, suggesting common climate forcing

  17. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  18. Factors affecting distribution of microbiotic crusts in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China,from July to August of 2005 to provide a scientific evaluation of the grain-for-green project,including its soil and water conservation and other ecological benefits for the region.The distribution of microbiotic crusts were studied,while human disturbance,aspect,topography,vegetation structure and other factors affecting it were obtained from the analysis of survey data from 78 sample plots.Results show that crust coverage is larger on lessdisturbed plots than on highly-disturbed ones,on northfacing plots than on south-facing ones and on gully-slopes than on ridge-slopes.Coverage increases with herbal coverage and trees can provide better conditions for distribution of crusts than shrubs.Therefore,crust coverage is larger in herb-dominated plots than in tree-dominated ones and crusts in shrub-dominated plots are smaller.However,we made no progress in our study on deciding how slope degrees and herb species affect the distribution of crusts.We believe that more studies are necessary for a further exploration of the relationship between them.

  19. Evaluation of Land Surface Models in Reproducing Satellite-Derived LAI over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part I: Uncoupled DGVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI represents the total surface area of leaves above a unit area of ground and is a key variable in any vegetation model, as well as in climate models. New high resolution LAI satellite data is now available covering a period of several decades. This provides a unique opportunity to validate LAI estimates from multiple vegetation models. The objective of this paper is to compare new, satellite-derived LAI measurements with modeled output for the Northern Hemisphere. We compare monthly LAI output from eight land surface models from the TRENDY compendium with satellite data from an Artificial Neural Network (ANN from the latest version (third generation of GIMMS AVHRR NDVI data over the period 1986–2005. Our results show that all the models overestimate the mean LAI, particularly over the boreal forest. We also find that seven out of the eight models overestimate the length of the active vegetation-growing season, mostly due to a late dormancy as a result of a late summer phenology. Finally, we find that the models report a much larger positive trend in LAI over this period than the satellite observations suggest, which translates into a higher trend in the growing season length. These results highlight the need to incorporate a larger number of more accurate plant functional types in all models and, in particular, to improve the phenology of deciduous trees.

  20. Actual Evapotranspiration in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin (Northern Iraq Using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL and Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jassas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing dependence on groundwater requires a detailed determination of the different outputs and inputs of a basin for better water management. Determination of spatial and temporal actual evapotranspiration (ETa, in this regard, is of vital importance as there is significant water loss from drainage basins. This research paper uses the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL, as well as the water balance, to estimate the spatial and temporal ETa in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, Northern Iraq. To compensate for the shortage in rainfall, and to irrigate summer crops, farmers in this basin have been depending, to a large extent, on groundwater extracted from the underlying unconfined aquifer, which is considered the major source for both domestic and agricultural uses in this basin. Rainfed farming of wheat and barley is one of the most important activities in the basin in the winter season, while in the summer season, agricultural activity is limited to small rice fields and narrow strips of vegetable cultivation along the Al-Khazir River. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images (TM5 acquired on 21 November 2006, 9 March 2007, 5 May 2007, 21 July 2007, and 23 September 2007 were used, along with a digital elevation model (DEM and ground-based meteorological data, measured within the area of interest. Estimation of seasonal ETa from periods between satellite overpasses was computed using the evaporative fraction (Ʌ. The water balance approach was utilized, using meteorological data and river hydrograph analysis, to estimate the ETa as the only missing input in the predefined water balance equation. The results of the two applied methods were comparable. SEBAL results were compared with the land use land cover (LULC map. The river showed the highest ETa, as evaporation from the free-water surface. Rice fields, irrigated in the summer season, have a high ETa in the images, as these fields are immersed in water during June, July and August

  1. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  2. Transforming Tourists and "Culturalising Commerce": Indigenous Tourism at Bawaka in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lloyd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increasing interest in Indigenous tourism in Australia. Policies in Australia often use the rhetoric of sustainability, but position Indigenous tourism as a means for economic growth and development (Whitford & Ruhanen, 2010. This study shows that interpersonal relationships, cultural and social interactions, and learning are key to achieving the goals of Indigenous tourism providers or “hosts,” and to the experiences of tourists. This article explores tourist experiences of activities run by the Indigenous-owned tour company Bawaka Cultural Enterprises (hereafter BCE in North East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. BCE is an example of an Indigenous tourism business that aims to achieve social change by sharing of Indigenous ways of being, knowledges, and practices with non-Indigenous people during tours, whilst also ensuring that the business is sustainable and manageable for the family who runs it. In this sense, BCE’s tourism activities can be understood as an attempt to “culturalise commerce,” rather than commercialising culture (Bunten, 2010. In this article, we contribute to growing literature on transformative learning theory and tourism by considering tourists’ narratives of their experiences with BCE. We focus on the way in which tourists are transformed by an increased connection to their hosts and their country. We argue that BCE’s activities consciously introduce different ways of being to tourists and visitors. A growing awareness, understanding, and respect for these ways of being can inspire a sense of collective purpose and identity, and a deep emotional response to tours. Connection, however, is not always smooth and easy. Central to the process outlined in Mezirow’s (1978 transformative learning theory are encounters and engagements with other people and different and unfamiliar contexts, which may lead to disorienting feelings and experiences. We argue that the practical aspects of being at

  3. On spatial and temporal variation of land surface moisture in Northern Tibetan%藏北高原土壤湿度时空变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅新; 宋春桥; 钟新科

    2012-01-01

    使用2009年DOY(Day of Year)145~288时段与2001~2010年夏季(DOY 161~240时段)的Terra/MODIS 16d合成的植被指数产品数据MOD13 A2和8d合成的地表温度(Land Surface Temperature,TLs)产品数据MOD11 A2,构建TLs~Iev( Enhanced Vegetation Index,Iev)特征空间,从而得到了条件温度植被干旱指数(Temperature Vegetation Drought Index,ITVD)反映的藏北土壤湿度空间分布.对藏北高原2009年植被生长季内土壤湿度的季节性变化及2001~2010年夏季土壤湿度的年际变化特征进行分析,研究结论表明:随着植被盖度的增大,干、湿边斜率逐渐变小,植被对环境温度的变化具有缓冲效应;藏北高原土壤湿度的季节性变化明显,主要受温度、降水、植被覆盖和冻土过程等季节性变化的影响;近10年研究区内土壤湿度有轻微的旱化趋势,但不同气候区内的年际变化表现不一致;气温表现不同程度的显著升温趋势,部分站点的降水有不显著减少趋势,其它站点降水表现为年际波动,而区域统计的ITVD值年际波动与站点气温的变化大体一致.%Using the enhanced vegetation index (IEV) and land surface temperature (TLS) dataset derived from the TERRA/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) synthetic products MOD13 A2 (16-day composite, in DOY (Day of Year) 161 -240 between 2001 and 2010, and DOY 145 -288 in 2009) and M0D11 A2 (8-day composite, the same items of products with MODI3 A2), the TLS-IEV two-dimensional characteristic space can be constructed. The ITVD (temperature-vegetation drought index) is then extracted to indicate the top-soil moisture of northern Tibet. The intra-annual and inter-annual variations of soil moisture on the northern Tibetan Plateau are respectively analyzed for the 2009 growing season and the summer seasons (2001 —2010). The results show that the intra-annual variation of TLS-Iev slope and the slopes of dry-edge and wet-edge will be smaller with the

  4. The Role of Deforestation in the Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization: Lessons for the Current Land Use Management in Northern Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Oglesby, R. J.; Pielke, R. A.; Sever, T. A.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    143.3mm compared to 142.7 mm for current conditions (a negligible decrease of 0.4% over the forested scenario). However, domain averaged dry season rainfall in the Maya lowlands decreases to 128.9mm for the deforested scenario, a decrease in 9.7% over current conditions. The model simulations suggest that to-date deforestation has played an insignificant role in creating drier conditions in the Mayan lowlands, except in the regions in northern Guatemala and adjacent Mexico. However, continued deforestation that would be representative of those prior to the collapse of the Maya civilization in the region can be expected to lead to additional decreases in dry season precipitation throughout the entire region by about 10mm to 100mm. Improper land use management in this region could lead to futures catastrophes for the modern humans similar

  5. Use of synthetic aperture radar for recognition of Coastal Geomorphological Features, land-use assessment and shoreline changes in Bragança coast, Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Filho Pedro W. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images are being used more extensively than ever before for geoscience applications in the moist tropics. In this investigation, a RADARSAT1-1 C-HH SAR image acquired in 1998 was used for coastal mapping and land-cover assessment in the Bragança area, in the northern Brazil. The airborne GEMS 1000 X-HH radar image acquired in 1972 during the RADAM Project was also used for evaluating coastal changes occurring over the last three decades. The research has confirmed the usefulness of RADARSAT-1 image for geomorphological mapping and land-cover assessment, particularly in macrotidal mangrove coasts. It was possible to map mangroves, salt marshes, chenier sand ridges, dunes, barrier-beach ridges, shallow water morphologies and different forms of land-use. Furthermore, a new method to estimate shoreline changes based on the superimposition of vectors extracted from both sources of SAR data has indicated that the shoreline has been subjected to severe coastal erosion responsible for retreat of 32 km² and accretion of 20 km², resulting in a mangrove land loss of almost 12 km². In an application perspective, orbital and airborne SAR data proved to be a fundamental source of information for both geomorphological mapping and monitoring coastal changes in moist tropical environments.

  6. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  7. New species of Metatrichia Coquillett (Diptera: Scenopinidae) from Australia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of the cosmopolitan genus Metatrichia Coquillett are described. Metatrichia dhimurru sp. nov. is described from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), Australia and represents the third species of the genus to be described from the Australian-Papuan region. Metatrichia venezuelensis sp. n...

  8. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China) Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    OpenAIRE

    Delu Pan; Zhaoquan Huang; Dengrong Zhang; Jie Wang; Lifan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as we...

  9. GILLBACKER SEA CATFISH´S FISHERY LANDING, Sciades parkeri TRAILL, 1832 (SILURIFORMES: ARIIDAE, IN A FISHING HUB FROM NORTHERN BRAZILIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane de Carvalho Nogueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide statistical information about fishing of Sciades parkeri in bragantine region, through sampling performed with daily interviews during the years 2008 to 2010 in nine landing spots. These data were extracted from a project named ESTATÍSTICA PESQUEIRA (Fishery Statistics. A total of 206 landing were registered, counting a volume of 170.694,2 kg and 2009 was the most productive with 50,4% of catches. It were identified seven categories of fishing gear and the active fleet was mainly handmade, however there were bigger boats’ records. The highest mean in production was obtained in Bragança, followed by Bacuriteua village. Monthly production’s mean increases expressively in local rainy season’s beginning (March to May and extends itself until the months of transition to dry season (June to August. Only the “days at sea” variable presented statistical significance for volume and CPUE landed. The participation of S. parkeri on landing is significant in all year’s periods being among the main fishes captured in the region. The active fleet is primarily handmade, with greater autonomy and fishing power if compared to others acting on the coast. Keywords: Statistics; records; mean; production and period.

  10. Landscape transformations in savannas of northern South America: Land use/cover changes since 1987 in the Llanos Orientales of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Romero-Ruiz; S.G.A. Flantua; K. Tansey; J.C. Berrio

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the land use/cover changes (LUCC) in the savanna region of Llanos Orientales in Colombia. LUCC was determined from multitemporal satellite imagery (Landsat and CBERS) from 1987 to 2007. Systematic landscape transitions were identifie

  11. Burning crop residues under no-till in semi-arid land, Northern Spain - effects on soil organic matter, aggregation, and earthwor populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virto, I.; Imaz, M.J.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Bescansa, P.

    2007-01-01

    Stubble burning has traditionally been used in semi-arid land for pest and weed control, and to remove the excess of crop residues before seeding in no-tillage systems. We compared differences in soil properties in a long-term (10 years) tillage trial on a carbonated soil in semi-arid north-east Spa

  12. Vulnerability of Coastal Crop Land to Climate Change in the Northern Part of Bay of Bengal: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, A. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal communities of northeastern part of Bay of Bengal are used to live and survive through facing different types of natural disasters since primitive time. Among the natural disasters, salinity intrusion due to climate change and sea level rise in the coastal agriculture land is the major unpleasant incident now days. Because of that wide area of the coastal agricultural land, coastal forest, drinking water facilities and fresh water availability are in critical condition which may cause 40 million people of 147 coastal districts covering 47201 km area are placed in danger. The nation wide assessment on the detected of coastal soil and water salinity is not conducted since 9 years. The survey on the coastal soil salinity on 1973 and 2000 found that the saline effected land is increased from 0.83 million ha to 1.20 million ha within 27 years. It is assumed that at present the rate of salinity intrusion in the coastal agriculture land will be higher than those of 1973 and 2000. The soil salinity was recorded 18-20 psu after AILA in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and increased further 2-4 psu due to low precipitation which causes crop burning. This paper aims to know the salinity intrusion in the coastal soil and water of Bangladesh, which would help to plan and improvement of the sustainable agriculture production. Study revealed that to face any extra stresses on the coastal agriculture land due to climate change requires extensive inventory, awareness activities, mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and extension of indigenous technology.

  13. Participatory Simulation of Land-Use Changes in the Northern Mountains of Vietnam: the Combined Use of an Agent-Based Model, a Role-Playing Game, and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Trung

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the remarkable economic growth that resulted from the doi moi (renovation reforms was based largely on the rural households that had become the new basic unit of agricultural production in the early 1990s. The technical, economic, and social changes that accompanied the decollectivization process transformed agricultural production, resource management, land use, and the institutions that defined access to resources and their distribution. Combined with the extreme biophysical, technical, and social heterogeneity encountered in the northern mountains, these rapid changes led to the extreme complexity of the agrarian dynamics that today challenges traditional diagnostic approaches. Since 1999, a participatory simulation method has been developed to disentangle the cause-and-effect relationships between the different driving forces and changes in land use observed at different scales. Several tools were combined to understand the interactions between human and natural systems, including a narrative conceptual model, an agent-based spatial computational model (ABM, a role-playing game, and a multiscale geographic information system (GIS. We synthesized into an ABM named SAMBA-GIS the knowledge generated from the above tools applied to a representative sample of research sites. The model takes explicitly into account the dynamic interactions among: (1 farmers' strategies, i.e., the individual decision-making process as a function of the farm's resource profile; (2 the institutions that define resource access and usage; and (3 changes in the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. The next step consisted of coupling the ABM with the GIS to extrapolate the application of local management rules to a whole landscape. Simulations are initialized using the layers of the GIS, e.g., land use in 1990, accessibility, soil characteristics, etc., and statistics available at the village level, e.g., population, ethnicity, livestock, etc. At each

  14. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  15. Collective rights in a modernizing North - on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sandberg

    2008-07-01

    and constitutional changes in the modern world. The way such changes take place is nowadays more often through the incorporation of various forms of treaties and international charters into national legislation rather than direct negotiations between sovereign states and indigenous ‘tribes’, ‘clans’ or ethnic minority groups. However, when it comes to acknowledging the rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the lands which they traditionally occupy, these seem to be among the most difficult constitutional processes modern states can undertake. Thus they not only take much longer time than the granting of civil and political rights, but they also involve complex analytical exercises in order to understand the processes connected to the settling of indigenous land claims. This article analyses one such process in a nested and multi-tier system with parallel initiatives for institutional change.

  16. Actual Evapotranspiration in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin (Northern Iraq) Using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) and Water Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Jassas; Wael Kanoua; Broder Merkel

    2015-01-01

    Increasing dependence on groundwater requires a detailed determination of the different outputs and inputs of a basin for better water management. Determination of spatial and temporal actual evapotranspiration (ETa), in this regard, is of vital importance as there is significant water loss from drainage basins. This research paper uses the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), as well as the water balance, to estimate the spatial and temporal ETa in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, No...

  17. 宁夏银北地区沙地营造林技术综合应用--以银川市兴庆区月牙湖移民安置区为例%Integrated Application of Technologies of Sandy Land Afforestation in Northern Area of Ningxia - with Yueya Lake Immigration Resettlement Area in Xingqing District in Yinchuan Municipality as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑英

    2015-01-01

    从树种选择、整地方式、造林技术、抚育管理等方面探讨了宁夏银北地区沙地造林技术的综合应用情况,提出了适合于沙地造林的技术措施。%The integrated application of the technologies for sandy land afforestation in the northern area of Ningxia is dis-cussed in the aspects of tree species selection, land preparation, planting techniques and tending management, etc., and vari-ous technologies and measures suitable for sandy land afforestation are recommended.

  18. Can Land Rregistration and Certification Reduce Land Border Conflicts?

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors related to local land border conflicts and how lowcost land registration and certification has affected land conflicts during and after land registration and certification using data from northern Ethiopia. Border conflicts were more common near district centers, further away from markets, and where property rights had been redistributed more recently. A higher probability of reduction in conflicts during and after the reform was positively associated with nearness...

  19. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local....... Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation...

  20. Competing Claims and Contested Boundaries: Legitimating Land Rights in Isiolo District, Northern Kenya Konkurrierende Ansprüche und umstrittene Grenzlinien: Die Legitimierung von Landrechten im Isiolo-Distrikt in Nordkenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saafo Roba Boye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available People from five different ethnic groups share the territory that is Isiolo District, situated in northern Kenya. This article gives an account of the different groups’ claims to land in this inter-ethnic setting, which is located in the border area of the vast drylands southeast of the Sahara. Presenting contemporary claims in a narrative form, the authors illustrate how these claims seek legitimacy through reference to historical processes, to first-comer status and to former governments’ decisions, to citizenship dues, as well as to “tribal” group rights. Taking into account the fact that the broader constitutional, political and social contexts related to these narratives and claims are, at present, in a state of transition, the article seeks to situate the local people’s perspectives and local land dynamics within broader discourses on land conflict and land policy reform in Africa. In this way, it also provides context for the series of new inter-ethnic clashes that took place in Isiolo District in 2011.Menschen aus fünf unterschiedlichen Ethnien teilen sich das Land im Isiolo-Distrikt (Nordkenia. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die Landansprüche der unterschiedlichen Gruppen in diesem ethnisch komplexen Gebiet, das sich an die großen Trockengebiete im Südosten der Sahara anschließt. In narrativer Form werden aktuelle Ansprüche präsentiert, die dadurch Legitimität beanspruchen, dass sie sich auf historische Prozesse beziehen, auf den Status als zuerst Gekommene, auf Entscheidungen früherer Regierungen oder auf Bürger- wie auch „Stammes“-Rechte. Die Autorinnen stellen den transitorischen Charakter des derzeitigen verfassungsrechtlichen, politischen und sozialen Umfeldes in Rechnung, in das sich die Erzählungen und Ansprüche einfügen, und beziehen die Sichtweisen der in der Region lebenden Menschen auf die breiteren Diskurse um Landkonflikte und Landreform in Afrika. Zugleich stellen sie einen

  1. An integrated assessment of Porcupine caribou seasonal distribution, movements, and habitat preferences for regional land use planning in northern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Ryder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to improve understanding of Porcupine caribou herd distribution, movements, and habitat preferences to assist with developing a regional land use plan for the North Yukon Planning Region, Yukon Territory. Three different methods were used to identify current and historical patterns of caribou distribution and habitat preferences within the region to prioritize conservation areas. Two of the approaches focused on incorporating information on caribou distribution and migrations from scientific and local knowledge, while the third focused on identifying and mapping habitats suitable for supporting caribou. Local knowledge dating back to the 1930s and two decades of satellite telemetry data confirmed that most of the planning region is used by the Porcupine caribou herd and highlighted areas of concentrated use. Maps of suitable winter habitat derived from expert opinion ratings of habitat use did not agree with the other information sources. The local knowledge and satellite telemetry analyses were used to identify spatially explicit priority areas for caribou conservation and the results were applied to develop conservation recommendations for a draft regional land use plan. The plan will be submitted to government approval bodies for review in the spring of 2007. The success in implementing conservation strategies for the Porcupine caribou herd will be reviewed and evaluated following adoption of a final approved plan.

  2. The pedological heritage of the Dolomites (Northern Italy): Features, distribution and evolution of the soils, with some implications for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Diana Maria; Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2011-12-01

    Since 1997, the Department of Environmental Sciences of Ca' Foscari University of Venice has undertaken numerous research projects aimed at deepening understanding of pedogenic processes in the Dolomites, and at highlighting the fundamental contribution that soil science can give to the conservation of natural resources and achieve sustainable management of mountain ecosystems. A total of several hundred profiles have been described, analyzed and mapped. This paper reports the results from the analysis of pedo-environmental characters of profiles developed from different parent materials, at altitudes between 1300 m and 2900 m and in different conditions of slope, exposure and vegetation cover. Soil forming factors, landforms and land surfaces have been interpreted to understand the soil-landscape in the mapped areas and to develop a qualitative model of soil geography into the Dolomites scenery. The application of land evaluation methods in some of the investigated territories that are subjected to intensive tourist fluxes revealed some criticisms. Collected results also highlighted the high environmental heterogeneity of soils of the Dolomites.

  3. Simulations of Hydrologic Response to Land Cover Change in the Laohahe Watershed in Northern China%老哈河流域土地覆被变化水文响应模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 任立良; 刘晓帆; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    Over the recent 30 years, durative drought has been threatening the environment in northern China, resulting in water resources scarcity, environmental degradation, and desertification. To make an attempt to investigate the effects of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes in northern China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. Direct evaporation from intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration, and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration (PET) model, which constituted input to the distributed hydrological model for computation of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff. The Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. Land cover maps of 1980 and 1996 were used for characterizing vegetation cover over the area controlled by the Taipingzhuang hydrologic station in the Laohahe watershed during the periods of 1964-1979 and 1990-1999, respectively.Results of the runoff simulation show that saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. The model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data of the corresponding period. The streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these two land cover scenarios. Effects of land use/cover change on "green water" and "blue water" were quantified by comparing calculated PET, AET, and runoff under different land cover scenarios. Blue water is referred to as visible liquid water moving above and below the ground as surface or groundwater runoff, respectively. Blue water can thus be in the form of surface runoff in rills, gullies and rivers, or water stored in reservoirs and lakes, or water flowing underground,recharging water tables and aquifers. Green water is defined as the invisible vapor moving to the atmosphere, including

  4. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  5. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  6. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  7. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to

  8. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As noted by Gray et al., Sir William Herschel was the first to suggest a possible close connection between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The Sun, being the source of energy that impacts and drives the Earth’s climate system, displays a variety of changes over both short and long term time scales, the most obvious examples being the somewhat regular waxing and waning of sunspots with time (i.e., the sunspot cycle (SC)), first described by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, a German apothecary and amateur astronomer who observed the Sun from Dessau, Germany, and the now well established variation of the Sun’s irradiance over the SC. Other factors related to the SC have been linked to changes in climate as well. Some of these other factors include the role of cosmic rays and the solar wind (i.e., the geomagnetic cycle) on climate, as well as the apparent close association between trends in global and northern hemispheric temperature and the length of the SC, although some investigators have described the inferred association between climate and, in particular, SC length as now being weak. More recently, Solheim et al. have reported on the relation between SC length and the average temperature in the same and immediately following SC for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. They noted that while they found no significant trend (correlation) between SC length and the average temperature when measured for the same cycle, in contrast, they found a significant negative trend when SC length was compared with the following cycle’s average temperature. From this observation, they suggested that average northern hemispheric temperature during the present ongoing SC (SC24) will be lower by about 0.9 °C than was seen in SC23 (spanning 1996–2007, based on yearly averages of sunspot number (SSN), and onset for SC24 occurring in 2008). The purpose of this Technical Publication (TP) is to examine the annual variations of the Armagh

  9. Climate change versus land management in the Po Plain (Northern Italy) during the Bronze Age: New insights from the VP/VG sequence of the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Florenzano, Assunta; Pizzi, Chiara; Marchesini, Marco; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The sedimentary infilling of the moat surrounding the Villaggio Piccolo of the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio was analysed in order to obtain palaeoenvironmental inferences from sediments and pollen assemblage. The high-resolution stratigraphic sequence preserves evidence of the environmental changes that occurred in the Po Plain, in Northern Italy, during the Late Holocene. Our interdisciplinary approach permitted to study climatic and anthropic contributions to the environmental changes in this region. The relationships between these changes and land-use changes were investigated focussing on adaptive strategies of the Terramare people during the Middle and Recent Bronze ages (1550-1170 yr BC). The Terramare are archaeological remains of banked and moated villages, located in the central alluvial plain of the Po river. The Terramara of Santa Rosa consists of two adjoining settlements (Villaggio Grande and Villaggio Piccolo); the moat that separates the two parts of the site is c. 23 m large and reaches a maximum depth of 4 m from the extant ground level. The stratigraphic sequence VP/VG exposed by archaeological excavation inside the moat was sampled for pedosedimentary, thin section, and pollen analyses. Chronology is based on archaeological evidence, stratigraphic correlations and radiocarbon dating. Pedosedimentary features and biological records (pollen of aquatics and algal remains) demonstrate that shallow water, probably subjected to seasonal water-level oscillations, has always been present in the moat. In the lower units of the sequence, the laminations indicate standing water, while occurrence of reworked pollen testified the supply of sediments to the plain from catchment zones located in the Apennine. Open vegetation was widespread; economy was based on wood management, fruit collection on the wild or from cultivated woody plants, crop fields with a fairly diversified set of cereals especially increasing in variety during dryness or phases of water

  10. Heavy metal monitoring Alligator River Region uranium province: a compendium of results 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the data arising from the Alligator Rivers Uranium Environmental (soil monitoring) Project, 1979. It details the location of the study areas; the study's objectives and the field and laboratory analytical methods undertaken. The area concerned within this report is locally termed the Uranium Province of the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory. It encompasses some 650 km2 of the Kakadu National Park and Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve

  11. Foundational sources and purposes of authority in Madayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Kelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Madayin system that continues to be maintained by the Aboriginal Yolngu people of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory is a holistic system of legal, religious and political authority. A recent increase in publically available information has enabled a broader audience to learn about the Madayin system. This article analyses the foundational sources of authority and purpose in the Madayin system.

  12. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  13. 天山北坡经济带宜耕未利用地开发潜力分区及评价——以新疆阜康市为例%Evaluation of potential of unused land exploitation in Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Belt— A case study of Fukang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆敏; 刘新平

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang region has relatively abundant unused land resources that can be rationally developed and used. This is beneficial to ease the increasingly worsening conflict between people and land and ensure regional food security to a certain extent. This paper chose Fukang City in Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Belt as the research area and used twelve factors to build up an evaluation index system for Fukang City. The twelve factors included soil salinity, soil depth, soil texture, organic matter content, landform, forest cover rate, irrigation rate, soil erosion module, cumulative temperature≥10℃, distance from stream, runoff volume of watershed and annual precipitation. The ecological niche model was used to evaluate the suitability of unused lands converted into arable lands in the study area. The results showed that unused lands (including highly suitable and basically suitable) most suitable for conversion into arable lands accounted for 22.21% of total unused lands in the region. Such lands located in the lower part of piedmont alluvial fans and in relatively flat terrains. Reluctantly suitable unused lands only accounted for 16.36% of total unused lands and were mainly located at the edge of the northern desert and in the upper parts of southern piedmont alluvial fans. Unused lands unsuitable for development accounted for 61.43% and mainly distributed in the southern slopes, the edge of piedmont alluvial fans and the fringe zone close to the northern desert. On the basis of the evaluation results, the paper chose potential index, potential increase in arable land, unused land area in town and sub-town, unused arable land development area, unused arable land proportion, average patch area and patch fragmentation index to build a development potential matrix of unused lands in the study area. Cluster analysis was also used to regionalize unused lands. Based on the research, the study area was divided into five potential zones. Grade Ⅰ potential zone

  14. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  15. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  16. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  17. Criteria for uranium occurrences in Saskatchewan and Australia as guides to favorability for similar deposits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to explain the occurrence of the large uranium deposits that have been found in northern Saskatchewan and the Northern Territory of Australia, to provide criteria to evaluate the favorability of Proterozoic rocks in the United States for similar deposits. All of these deposits belong to the class known as the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits. Chapters are devoted to: uranium deposits in Saskatchewan; uranium deposits of the Darwin and Arnhem Land area, Northern Territory of Australia; model for the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits; and evaluation of the geology of selected states for its favorability for Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits

  18. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  19. Land and Forest Management by Land Use/ Land Cover Analysis and Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS are the most effective tools in spatial data analysis. Natural resources like land, forest and water, these techniques have proved a valuable source of information generation as well as in the management and planning purposes. This study aims to suggest possible land and forest management strategies in Chakia tahsil based on land use and land cover analysis and the changing pattern observed during the last ten years. The population of Chakia tahsil is mainly rural in nature. The study has revealed that the northern part of the region, which offers for the settlement and all the agricultural practices constitutes nearly 23.48% and is a dead level plain, whereas the southern part, which constitute nearly 76.6% of the region is characterized by plateau and is covered with forest. The southern plateau rises abruptly from the northern alluvial plain with a number of escarpments. The contour line of 100 m mainly demarcates the boundary between plateau and plain. The plateau zone is deeply dissected and highly rugged terrain. The resultant topography comprises of a number of mesas and isolated hillocks showing elevation differences from 150 m to 385 m above mean sea level. Being rugged terrain in the southern part, nowadays human encroachment are taking place for more land for the cultivation. The changes were well observed in the land use and land cover in the study region. A large part of fallow land and open forest were converted into cultivated land.

  20. Analysis on the geostrategic value of the grand Northern China from the perspective of the struggle between Asian land powers%亚洲陆权博弈视角下中国北方地缘战略价值论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜哲元

    2016-01-01

    古代东亚大陆往往会形成农耕民族(中原王朝)与游牧渔猎民族(北方陆权力量)相并立的二元格局,在两者对抗与博弈的数千年历史中,中国北方地区为保持“中华文明有机体”的生存和发展发挥了不可替代的作用。目前中国北方地区仍然具有重要的地缘战略价值。根据“国家有机体”理论的基本内核,借鉴亚洲陆权博弈的历史经验,结合新形势和新条件来研究中国北方地缘形势,可以将它划分为五个相互交叉和包含的部分———核心地带、上游地带、四个走廊地带、七大要区和两大枢区。这五个部分有着不同的特点和战略价值,就目前的形势而言,东北要区和新疆要区在安全和发展上与中国的外向地缘政治和地缘经济形势存在着重大关联,它们的战略意义更为突出。%There often formed a bipolar structure that the farming people ( Central Plains) VS the hunting and fishing tribes and nomads (northern land power) in ancient east Asia. During this period, the Northern China plays an irreplaceable role in sustaining the survival and development of the“Chinese civilization organism”and it is still crucial under current condition. Ac-cording the basic theory of “national organism”, drawing on the history of struggle between land powers in east Asia, based on the new condition and sit-uation, the Northern China can be divided into five parts: a core region, an upstream belt, four corridor belts, seven significant regions and two pivot regions. The character and function of them are different and the geostrategic value of the northeast region and Xinjiang is becoming more and more important in this age.

  1. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  2. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  3. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  4. Soil carbon stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Vesterdal, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    Northern Europe supports large soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and has been subjected to high frequency of land-use changes during the past decades. However, this region has not been well represented in previous large-scale syntheses of land-use change effects on SOC, especially regarding effects...... of afforestation. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of SOC stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe. Response ratios were calculated for forest floors and mineral soils (0–10 cm and 0–20/30 cm layers) based on paired control (former land use) and afforested plots. We analyzed the influence...... of forest age, former land-use, forest type, and soil textural class. Three major improvements were incorporated in the meta-analysis: analysis of major interaction groups, evaluation of the influence of nonindependence between samples according to study design, and mass correction. Former land use...

  5. 北非地区海-陆热力差异与夏季江淮流域旱涝的关系%Relationships between the anomalies of sea-land thermal contrast in the northern Africa areas and the flood and drought in the Changjiang and Huaihe river areas in summer.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 钱永甫

    2008-01-01

    基于NCEP/NCAR月均再分析资料和中国743站降水资料,根据夏季江淮流域51 a(1954-2004年)区域旱涝指数的年代际变化特征,确定北非地区作为研究的关键区.分析发现,关键区的地表温度异常在冬季具有较好的持续性,冬季北大西洋涛动是导致这种异常持续性的重要原因之一.通过对前冬北非地区地表温度和夏季江淮流域降水的SVD分析发现:当北非大陆地区偏冷,其西北侧的海区偏暖时,江淮流域夏季的降水将整体偏多;反之,江淮流域夏季的降水整体偏少.进一步研究发现,北非地区海陆地表温度异常的对比,要比其中单一海洋或陆地区域的异常对夏季江淮流域的旱涝有更好的指示能力.文中定义了一个海陆热力差异指数来表征这种地表温度异常的对比程度,该指数和夏季江淮流域旱涝指数呈较好的正相关关系,并且对夏季江淮流域极端旱涝年份也有较好的指示,认为该指数可以作为一个指示江淮流域整体旱涝事件的预报因子.%The flood and drought in Changjiang and Huaihe river (Jianghuai) areas are frequent in summer, especially in July and June, so forecasting the summer flood and drought in Jianghuai areas is always one of key points investigated by meteorologists in China. The previous studies more focused on the skin temperature anomalies in a single area, and paid less attention to the connections between the anomalies of sea-land thermal contrast in northern Africa areas and the flood and drought in Jianghuai areas in summer. In this paper, we investigate such relationships and obtain some preliminary results.By use of the NCEP/NCAR monthly mean re-analysis data and the rainfall data at 743 stations in China, the Northern Africa areas are selected as the key regions according to the interdecadal variability characteristics of the flood and drought index (FDI) during 51 years(1954-2004) in Jianghuai areas in summer. Correlation

  6. Exploring land use change in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang

    theoretical lines of thought within the Land Change Science community. The four perspectives are system dynamics, resilience theory, a rationality perspective, and a multifunctional agriculture perspective. The thesis shows how the previous tendency to field expansion in the Sahel has been replaced by a very...... for more research on Sahelian land use changes have thus multiplied as the complexity and sometimes intricate processes of land change became apparent, and especially, the need for novel approaches that combine different perspectives has continuously been highlighted. As part of the interdisciplinary...... research program LASYRE (LAnd SYstem REsilience), this thesis responds to thes calls by applying a portfolio of different perspectives to the study of Sahelian land use changes and the causal mechanisms behind them. It examines the land use changes that have taken place in Northern Burkina Faso over...

  7. Land institutions and land markets

    OpenAIRE

    Deininger, Klaus; Feder, Gershon

    1998-01-01

    In agrarian societies land serves as the main means not only for generating a livelihood but often also for accumulating wealth and transferring it between generations. How land rights are assigned therefore determines households'ability to generate subsistence and income, their social and economic status (and in many cases their collective identity), their incentive to exert nonobservable effort and make investments, and often their ability to access financial markets or to make arrangements...

  8. An Aboriginal perspective on future land use of the land application site of Ranger Uranium Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern Land Council, representing the interests of the traditional owners of the Ranger site, wants the mining site to be restored to its pre-mining condition or as near as possible to it. It is also emphasised that the effective dose equivalent limit to be used for rehabilitation site, including the land application area should be 0.7 mSv per year. Moreover, the land application water should be of such quality that there is no limitation on future land use. 3 refs

  9. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  10. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  11. Impact of Different Land Use Types on Soil Calciumin Northern Guangdong%粤北岩溶区不同土地利用方式对土壤钙离子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈同庆; 魏兴琥; 关共凑; 李忠云

    2014-01-01

    在广东省英德市九龙镇峰林平原选择峰林坡麓灌丛、积水洼地、砂糖橘林、竹林、菜地、稻田6种不同土地利用类型,采集不同土地利用方式下不同深度的土壤,利用原子吸收分光光度计测定了土壤全钙、交换态钙和水溶性钙质量分数,结果表明:1)菜地、稻田、砂糖橘林和竹林土壤厚度显著大于自然坡麓和积水洼地;2)岩溶积水环境中(积水洼地和稻田)土壤全钙质量分数平均超过59 g/kg;其次为坡麓土壤,平均为20.83 g/kg;人工耕作的砂糖橘林和菜地土壤全钙质量分数分别降低至3.51和2.76 g/kg,而相邻的非岩溶区土壤的全钙质量分数仅为1.43 g/kg;3)耕地施肥会增加土壤的交换态钙和水溶性钙质量分数,菜地和砂糖橘林土壤交换态钙离子、水溶性钙占全钙的比例分别为38.04%、23.08%和1.41%、0.88%,而积水洼地和坡麓灌丛只有7.86%、6.87%和0.25%、0.46%。由于菜地和砂糖橘林的全钙质量分数降低,而交换态钙和水溶性钙质量分数增加会进一步加剧钙元素流失;4)不同土地利用类型土壤全钙、交换态钙和水溶性钙质量分数随深度变化呈波状下降趋势,积水洼地与稻田钙随深度的变化远比菜地、砂糖橘林和竹林剧烈;5)土壤厚度、岩石裸露率、坡度相互呈显著负相关,土壤全钙、交换态钙、水溶性钙之间均呈显著正相关,岩石裸露率与交换态钙呈显著负相关,水、土壤厚度、岩石裸露率与坡度共同决定了土壤钙的分布和迁移。%In theKarstpeak forest-plain area of Jiulong Town inYingde,Guangdong,six land use types,namely slope shrubs,water depressions,sugar-orange forests,bamboo groves,vegetable patches and rice fields,were selected to be studied, theirsoilatdifferent depth weresampled, and thenthe total calcium content, the exchangeable calcium content,and the water soluble calcium content

  12. 冀北沙荒地退化程度诊断及其短期封育效果评价%Diagnosis of the degradation degree of ecosystem of sandy badland in northern Hebei Province and effects of short- term land- closing for reforestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓林; 殷晓洁; 卢金平; 刘琳; 李玉灵

    2011-01-01

    以冀北退化沙荒地为研究对象,以恢复生态学为研究理论基础,对冀北沙荒地各项指标进行权重赋值,诊断沙荒地的退化程度,并通过分析封育区、未封育区及其地带植被演替顶级群落的土壤理化性质和植被数量特征,评价5年封育效果.结果表明,沙荒地封育区及未封育区均属中度退化程度,沙荒地土壤状况尚未因为5年的封育得到明显改善;植被状况虽有明显改善,但还处在演替初期的草本植被阶段,与地带植被演替预级群落仍存在很大差距,封育措施需要持续下去.%A degraded ecosystem of sandy badland in village Nanshanzui in northern Hebei Province was studied based on theories of restoration ecology, we analysed the data of soil and plants mensurated in the sandy badland with its contrast indexes assigned by weighting coefficient in combination with the characters of the sandy badland, and then the degradation degree of the ecosystem was diagnosised. The result showed that 1. Soil conditions did not become bettered even 5 years after closing the land for reforestation; 2. Plant condition became much better in the area of closing the land for reforestation, but its total conn'tion was still much worse than Ck; 3. The ecosystem of the sandy badland showed a moderate degree of degradation therefore, closing the land for reforestation should stay the course.

  13. Land politics in the new state organisation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gran, Thorvald

    2009-01-01

    Article in the periodical DSA In a study of land politics carried out from 2001 to 2005 in the two western provinces of South Africa, the Northern and the Western Cape, a high degree of distrust was recorded between institutions in the provincial government. This article attempts to explain the distrust and how it affected the role of the land state in land reform in the two provinces. The analysis is developed from an institutional political science (IPS) perspective. The findings are tha...

  14. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  15. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which to...... grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part of the...... social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  16. 基于C-D生产函数模型的陕北农村土地利用生态经济分析——以延安市赵庄村为例%Eco-economic Analysis of Land Resources Use Based on Cobb-Douglas Production Function in Northern Shaanxi Province --A Case Study of Zhaozhuang Village in Yan'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春越; 王益; 谢永生; 任志远; 王万忠

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate land use patterns and soil types in Zhaozhuang, a village of Yanran City in Northern Shaanxi Province. 298 land parcels, 14 land utilization patterns and28 analysis units were analyzed according to 33 high, medium and low-income household surveys. Based on the Cobb-Douglas production function model, the plot scale and the watershed scale were combined to analyze the eco-economic suitability of suburban rural land and explore the integration of ecological and economic benefits. Results showed that most of the land ecosystem types in Zhaozhuang village are appropriate for agriculture, except part of the laterite type. However, only some are highly suitable for traditional farming, while the othersr suitability is not so high. For traditional farming such as corn and cereal, more organic fertilizers and rational fertilization are needed for an improved economic efficiency. For featured farming such as small melons and greenhouse vegetables, improving the technical level is more important. For beans and cabbage farming, labor is less important for their yields. For tuber crops and turnips, the effects of technical level can be ignored.%以陕北延安市城郊赵庄村为研究对象,以农户地块调查和土壤类型相结合,选取了高、中、低收入农户共33户进行了实地调查,其中涉及到298块地块和14种土地利用方式,28种分析单元。在C—D生产函数模型分析基础上,将地块尺度和流域尺度结合起来进行城郊农村土地生态经济适宜性分析,探索生态效益和经济效益的融合点。研究结果表明,除部分红土类型外,延安市赵庄村大多数土地的生态类型对于农业基本是适宜的。但是除部分对于比较传统的种植业高度适宜外,其他都基本适宜,适宜度并不很高。对于传统的种植作物,如玉米、谷糜,在以后的管理中,要提高经济效益,需要多施有机肥,做到合理施肥。对于小瓜、大

  17. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  19. SITUATION OF THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO HAVE CONSTITUTED ONE OF THE UNRECOGNIZED DISADVANTAGED GROUPS. PER CAPITA INCOME IS LOW AND THE RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE ARE HIGH. THE CAUSES OF THE PRESENT SITUATION ARE--(1) LOSS OF LAND, (2) CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDES, (3) NON-PROVISION OF ADEQUATE PROGRAMS TO…

  20. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  1. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  2. Understanding land administration systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...

  3. Global Warming Potential of Long-Term Grazing Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing lands in the northern Great Plains of North America are extensive, occupying over 50 Mha. Yet grazing land contributions to, or mitigation of, global warming potential (GWP) is largely unknown for the region. The objective of this study was to estimate GWP for three long-term (70 to 90 yr)...

  4. Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) and Eco-Environment Response to LUCC in Farming-Pastoral Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hui-mei; REN Zhi-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand land use/land cover changes (LUCC) and the eco-environment response to LUCC in farming-pastoral zone of the northern China during the recent twenty years, Baotou prefecture was selected as a case study area for investigation and quantitative evaluation. Technologies of remote sensing (RS), global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), and other statistical methods were employed to implement. Results showed that: (1) During the recent twenty years, the areas of forest lands, grasslands and water were reduced, whereas the areas of other types were enlarged. Parts of forest lands, grasslands, and waters had become farmlands, and about 31.5% of the changed grasslands transferred into unused lands. The newly increased farmlands mainly came from grasslands and unused lands. And the newly increased construction lands mainly came from grasslands and farmlands. (2) Regional eco-environmental quality decreased by 12.6%, for which the land degradation (especially the meadow degeneration) and the developing of the cultivated land were mainly responsible, and their contributions to the regional eco-environment changes were 51.84 and 23.63% respectively. (3) The tendency of LUCC and the coo-environment response to LUCC displayed spatial heterogeneity. It can be concluded that the present agricultural production mode was not sustainable in farming-pastoral zone of northern China. Land degradation, especially meadow degradation induced by over-trarnpling and overgrazing, and developing of cultivated land were mainly responsible for regional eco-environment deterioration. Changing the cultivated land to forest or grass, however, can relieve deterioration of local coo-environment to some extents. And in the farming-pastoral zone in the northern China, evaluating regional coo-environment responses to LUCC was very necessary due to its fragile coo-environments.

  5. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to build a general understanding and conceptual approach to integrated land management. The conceptual understanding may take the form of a hierarchy of levels. The foundation stone is an overall national land policy. Appropriate cadastral systems support land policies by providing...... for integrated land management includes some educational and professional challenges to be met at the threshold of the third millennium.    In short, it is critical that we prepare the profession as well the educational system to meet the challenges of tomorrow in achieving sustainable urban and rural...... identification of the land parcels and a framework for security of tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate cadastral systems support a wider land administration infrastructure within the areas of land tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate land administration systems then form the basic for sound land...

  6. No Land Let Idle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China steps up efforts to combat land hoarding to alleviate housing price hikes China’s real estate developers are under pressure from land administrators taking a harder stance against idle land-land purchased for a specific project but left undeveloped for an extensive period of time. The Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) said real estate develop-

  7. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    John Pastor; George Host

    1998-01-01

    Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were an...

  8. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  9. No Land Let Idle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's real estate developers are under pressure from land administrators taking a harder stance against idle land-land purchased for a specific project but left undeveloped for an extensive period of time.

  10. Land rush: simulating negotiations over land rights

    OpenAIRE

    Ansoms, An; Bogaerts, Okke; Claessens, Klara; Geenen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    LAND RUSH is a board game that allows participants to critically assess the ways in which different social classes face both opportunities and constraints in securing land rights and in managing the acquired land sustainably in an extremely competitive environment. The game illustrates three characteristics of contemporary land dynamics in an altering world. First, the logics of smallholder farmers are largely oriented towards risk diversification, and often contrast with those of current agr...

  11. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  12. Timing and Statistics of Autumn and Spring Annual Snow Cover for the Northern Hemisphere, 1972 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Snow and Ice Data Center hosts a time-series data set comprising annual snow cover data for the Northern Hemisphere (covering land primarily over 45...

  13. Far-Northern Destination for Phoenix Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The planned landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander lies at a latitude on Mars equivalent to northern Alaska on Earth. It is within the region designated 'D' on this global image. This is an orthographic projection with color-coded elevation contours and shaded relief based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Total vertical relief is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the top of the highest volcano (red) to the northern lowlands (blue). North pole is where the longitude lines converge.

  14. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  15. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  16. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... closing the gap to the more laborious nuclease protection experiments....

  17. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... claims on land and forest resources and for increasing forest conservation. Not only do these land-use changes impact rural people’s livelihoods, but they also impact their access to land and natural forest resources. In general, rural people in the study area perceive that they have improved......Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...

  18. Water Implications of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Olalekan Williams; Benjamin Gyampoh; Fred Kizito; Regassa Namara

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the water dimensions of recent large-scale land acquisitions for biofuel production in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Using secondary sources of data complemented by individual and group interviews, the paper reveals an almost universal lack of consideration of the implications of large-scale land deals for crop water requirements, the ecological functions of freshwater ecosystems and water rights of local smallholder farmers and other users. It do...

  19. Simulation of the influence of historical land cover changes on the global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Civil Aviation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Yan, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Beijing Normal Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE); Wang, Z. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    In order to estimate biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate during last three centuries, a set of experiments with a climate system model of intermediate complexity (MPM-2) is performed. In response to historical deforestation, the model simulates a decrease in annual mean global temperature in the range of 0.07-0.14 C based on different grassland albedos. The effect of land cover changes is most pronounced in the middle northern latitudes with maximum cooling reaching approximately 0.6 C during northern summer. The cooling reaches 0.57 C during northern spring owing to the large effects of land surface albedo. These results suggest that land cover forcing is important for study on historical climate change and that more research is necessary in the assessment of land management options for climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  20. Developing land use scenario dynamics model by the integration of system dynamics model and cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya

    2005-01-01

    Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.

  1. Modelling land cover change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a 'hot spot' of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land cover change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. In this work a time series dataset of land cover change between 1970 and 2010 is constructed for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The MODIS instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at small regional extent (CLUE-s) modelling framework. Non-spatial estimates of land cover area from national agriculture and forest statistics, available on a state-wise, annual basis, are used as a direct model input. Land cover change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. This dataset will provide an essential input to a high resolution, physically based land surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land cover change on regional climate.

  2. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  3. Laws of the Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With illegal land requisition on the rise, China is attempting to clamp down at the local level with new supervisory measures The complaints about land rights violations are many, and growing. In China's central Hebei Province, a peasant told land regulators that "a person has started mining in our village before securing land use rights from the government." The peasant added that the local land resources management department, without getting permission

  4. Land land (6/4 e)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Land, land, o land! Se, Herrens hand är nu uträckt, Och hafver dig betäckt: Själ, själ, o själ! Beskåd', Hvad nåd, Hvad tröst och frid Dig sändes nid Från nådens stol, Rättfardighetens sol.

  5. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...... fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological...

  6. Formation of land administration system and land use as an economic function of the land ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Tretiak, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with manifestation forms of land management and land use as an economic function of the property rights to land. The need to form an integrated system of land management and land use in Ukraine as an economic function of land ownership has been grounded. A model of comprehensive multifunctional system of land management and land use has been suggested

  7. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  8. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society.

  9. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  10. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  11. Institutional analysis of biofuel production in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwoyiga, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The thesis studied the nature of institutional arrangement around biofuel production and how this arrangement has shaped the production outcome of biofuel companies and community development. The study was conducted in two communities of the Yendi Municipal Assembly of the Northern Region of Ghana. In this area, a biofuel company called Biofuel Africa Limited has acquired areas of land and cultivated Jatropha plantations. A total of 32 informants were interviewed to arrive at information ne...

  12. Improvement of land information system of agricultural lands in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Bordyuzha

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature of the state land cadastre, aspects of the land cadastral system functioning. Role of the land cadastre to create an effective agricultural land management system has been presented. Value of a land information system of the agricultural land in the management sphere and sustainable agricultural land use has been described.

  13. Land evaluation by the process of agricultural land consolidation - the case of land consolidation area Berkovci

    OpenAIRE

    Knavs, Alojz

    2008-01-01

    The thesis describes the course of procedure of agricultural land consolidation in Slovenia, based on valid legislation of land consolidation of agricultural land. The main stress is given on approaches to land evaluation of agricultural land consolidation fund, which is an important step at re-distribution of land from the land consolidation fund among the land owners. The main purpose of the thesis is to point out the importance of land evaluation by the process of land consolidation and to...

  14. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  15. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover. 

  16. Modelling spatial association in pattern based land use simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anputhas, Markandu; Janmaat, Johannus John A; Nichol, Craig F; Wei, Xiaohua Adam

    2016-10-01

    Pattern based land use models are widely used to forecast land use change. These models predict land use change using driving variables observed on the studied landscape. Many of these models have a limited capacity to account for interactions between neighbouring land parcels. Some modellers have used common spatial statistical measures to incorporate neighbour effects. However, these approaches were developed for continuous variables, while land use classifications are categorical. Neighbour interactions are also endogenous, changing as the land use patterns change. In this study we describe a single variable measure that captures aspects of neighbour interactions as reflected in the land use pattern. We use a stepwise updating process to demonstrate how dynamic updating of our measure impacts on model forecasts. We illustrate these results using the CLUE-S (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent) system to forecast land use change for the Deep Creek watershed in the northern Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Results establish that our measure improves model calibration and that ignoring changing spatial influences biases land use change forecasts. PMID:27420169

  17. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  18. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with...

  19. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  20. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use plannin...

  1. Competing Technologies and Economic Opportunities for Northern Logistics: The Airship Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Barry E.; Russell, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Northern Canada is constrained by the cost of transportation and logistics. The limited transportation options available increase the direct costs of shipping and add to the indirect costs of inventories. Concerns about climate change impacts, delays in environmental approvals and uncertainty regarding First Nations land claims further increase investment risk. As a result, the transportation solution offered by airships is gathering increased interest in northern Can...

  2. Use of Satellite Data to Study the Impact of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change in Madison County Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ayala-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of land/use land cover changes along the northern part of Madison County Alabama are essential for the developers, planners, policy makers and management of government, public and private organizations. Remote sensing was used to analyze and study land-use/land-cover use changes impact on the environment of Madison County Alabama. This study area was selected because it is one of the fastest growing areas in the state of Alabama. The study used data sets obtained from several sources. Remote sensing images, land-use/land-cover use maps, global positioning data. The remote sensing images were LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM images acquired during April 1987 and May 1997. The data was processed and analyzed using MAP-X/RS and ERDAS. Six classes or categories of land-use/land-cover were analyzed to determine changes and the relationship to suburban sprawl. Each method used was assessed and checked in field. Six land use/land cover classes are produced. The overall accuracy for the 1987 image is (78.92% and for the 1997 image is (85.44% Analysis of the images for 1987 and 1997 showed a (26 and 15% increase in the urbanization and industrial development respectively and a decrease in all other classes. The most significant decrease (25% was in the pastures class, however, less significant changes were observed for the water resources and forest. The results from this study could be beneficial to state/county planners, researchers and policy makers.

  3. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  4. Martian Sunrise at Phoenix Landing Site, Sol 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This sequence of nine images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the sun rising on the morning of the lander's 101st Martian day after landing. The images were taken on Sept. 5, 2008. The local solar times at the landing site for the nine images were between 1:23 a.m. and 1:41 a.m. The landing site is on far-northern Mars, and the mission started in late northern spring. For nearly the entire first 90 Martian days of the mission, the sun never set below the horizon. As the amount of sunshine each day declined steadily after that, so has the amount of electricity available for the solar-powered spacecraft. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using digitized land use maps of Beijing in 1982, 1992 and 1997 and employing GIS spatial analysis techniques, this paper conducts an empirical study on the spatial differentiation and spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing in the period of 1982-1997. It is observed that urban land use growth in Beijing went beyond the control of urban planning, in terms of the extraordinary high growth rate and undesired spatial pattern. The rate of urban expansion after 1982, which was predominated by growth of industrial land, was extraordinary high compared to its historical period. While its growth centers have been actively shifting toward the northern part, rather than toward the southern and eastern parts as designated by the latest General Plan (1991-2010) of Beijing, its spatial pattern of urban land use growth in general was in distinct concentric sprawl, which seriously violated the General Plan of Beijing.

  6. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes...... and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps...... and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area...

  7. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  8. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...... paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity...

  9. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  10. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  11. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  12. Protecting Land and Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    LAND is a resource vital to life and production. China Today recently visited Wang Dacao, head of the Liaoning Provincial Department of Land and Resources. We asked him how the province protects and utilizes its land and resources for the purposes of sustainable development and benefit of later generations.Rich ResourcesThe land and sea within the boundaries of Liaoning Province, northeastern China

  13. Land Officials' Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wang Songlin (Director of the Zhejiang Provincial Department of Land and Resources): The per-capita land of Zhejiang is only 0.033 hectares, with few backup resources. Thus, we are faced with more difficulties and pressure with regard to cultivated land conservation. Zhejiang is taking the following measures to protect cultivated land: First, we will create more standard farmland. The provincial government is

  14. Land Reform and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Stanton; Peter Rosset; James Boyce

    2005-01-01

    Land reform, equitable distribution, economic development, environmental quality, land reform strategies, Brazil, Landless Workers’ Movement, East Asia, rural poverty, land productivity, sustainable agriculture, comparative advantage, small farms.

  15. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...... role of ownership and the role of land markets. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  16. Tough Land Guardian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues facing Chinese society is the illegal expropriation of farm-land. New head of the Ministry of Land and Resources, China’s top land watchdog, Xu Shaoshi, has taken a tough stance on this issue stepping into his positio

  17. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  18. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  19. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  20. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  1. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Doyle, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land use changes because of antecedent land use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  2. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land-cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land-use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land-use changes because of antecedent land-use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  3. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  4. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  5. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa......For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution...... villages, and lack of good schools and other public services may cause families to split up. For some, however, resettlement in the new lands entails new social and economic possibilities. The paper concludes that while land reclamation may not be ecologically or economic sustainable, the new lands provide...

  6. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  7. Functions Of Land Administration System

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Sakal

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.

  8. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use planning levels and tools which might facilitate dispersal by the grizzly bear and other large mammals. The planning levels discussed include national, regional, state, county and municipal, and federal land management agency. Specific potential federal tools mentioned include zoning, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the Endangered Species Act, beyond boundary authority, land exchanges, less-than-fee acquisition and other incentives, the Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act, and federal land annexation. Besides summarizing existing recommendations, some derived observations are offered.

  9. Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Transforming Landscape in Northern Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Labrière; Yves Laumonier; Bruno Locatelli; Ghislain Vieilledent; Marion Comptour

    2015-01-01

    Because industrial agriculture keeps expanding in Southeast Asia at the expense of natural forests and traditional swidden systems, comparing biodiversity and ecosystem services in the traditional forest-swidden agriculture system vs. monocultures is needed to guide decision making on land-use planning. Focusing on tree diversity, soil erosion control, and climate change mitigation through carbon storage, we surveyed vegetation and monitored soil loss in various land-use areas in a northern B...

  10. Soil erosion and nitrogen leaching in northern Vietnam: expression and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh Van Mai

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:   Soil degradation, remote sensing, watershed, soil erosion model, paddy fields, terraces, water balance model, nitrogen balance model, geostatistics, rice-based systems, spatial dynamic model.Two years research has been conducted in Tam Duong district, Vinh Phuc province, upstream in the Red River Delta in northernVietnam, comprising three geographical regions, i.e. mountainous areas, terraces in hilly land and flat land. The extent of soil degradation in the district was delineate...

  11. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  12. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...

  13. Open Land Use Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mildorf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed datasets, if available, will be used as an update of the Open Land Use Map. The product is treated as Open Data and users will be able to download the data in a specified format and for a selected area. The paper introduces the technical and business aspects of Open Land Use Map app including the integration and harmonisation tools, sustainability plan and apps that accompany the entire platform.

  14. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  15. Influence of land evapotranspiration on climate variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere with a qualified biosphere(GOALS/LASG) has been used to assess the nature of the physical mechanisms for land-atmos-phere interactions, and the impacts of the Asian/North American land-surface evapotranspirationon the regional and global climate. This sensitivity study suggests that the simulated climate wouldbe relatively sensitive to land surface evapotranspiration, especially over the Asian regions. Theremoval of evapotranspiration in Asia would create a warmer and drier climate to a certain degree.Furthermore, the surface evapotranspiration anomalies would make a substantial contribution tothe formation and variation of subtropical anticyclones through the changes in monsoon precipita-tion and the β-effect, but also make a large contribution to the variations of the atmosphericcirculation in the Northern Hemisphere and even the globe. Therefore, besides the traditionalperception that we have generally emphasized on the influence of subtropical anticyclonesactivities on the boreal summer precipitation over the regions of eastern China, the surfaceevapotranspiration anomalies, however, also have substantial impacts on the subtropicalanticyclones through the changes in monsoon precipitation. For this reason, the variation in theinternal heating sources of the atmosphere caused by the land surface evapotranspiration and thevapor phase change during the boreal summer is an important external factor forcing the weatherand climate

  16. Land use in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This book exposes the key land use and environmental problems facing Kenya today due to lack of an appropriate national land use policy. The publication details how the air is increasingly being polluted, the water systems are diminishing in quantity and deteriorating in quality. The desertification process threatens the land and its cover. The soils are being eroded leading to siltation of the ocean and lakes. The forests are being depleted with impunity thus destroying the water...

  17. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  18. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  19. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater - all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a) the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b) the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c) the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  20. Albedo enhancement over land to counteract global warming: impacts on hydrological cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Govindasamy; Nag, Bappaditya [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-09-15

    A recent modelling study has shown that precipitation and runoff over land would increase when the reflectivity of marine clouds is increased to counter global warming. This implies that large scale albedo enhancement over land could lead to a decrease in runoff over land. In this study, we perform simulations using NCAR CAM3.1 that have implications for Solar Radiation Management geoengineering schemes that increase the albedo over land. We find that an increase in reflectivity over land that mitigates the global mean warming from a doubling of CO{sub 2} leads to a large residual warming in the southern hemisphere and cooling in the northern hemisphere since most of the land is located in northern hemisphere. Precipitation and runoff over land decrease by 13.4 and 22.3%, respectively, because of a large residual sinking motion over land triggered by albedo enhancement over land. Soil water content also declines when albedo over land is enhanced. The simulated magnitude of hydrological changes over land are much larger when compared to changes over oceans in the recent marine cloud albedo enhancement study since the radiative forcing over land needed (-8.2 W m{sup -2}) to counter global mean radiative forcing from a doubling of CO{sub 2} (3.3 W m{sup -2}) is approximately twice the forcing needed over the oceans (-4.2 W m{sup -2}). Our results imply that albedo enhancement over oceans produce climates closer to the unperturbed climate state than do albedo changes on land when the consequences on land hydrology are considered. Our study also has important implications for any intentional or unintentional large scale changes in land surface albedo such as deforestation/afforestation/reforestation, air pollution, and desert and urban albedo modification. (orig.)

  1. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  2. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  3. Land Rights at Last!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Norman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 the Wran Government announced an Inquiry to investigate a range of issues including Aboriginal land rights recognition, the causes of Aboriginal social and economic disadvantage, heritage protection and commonwealth and state relations. The Select Committee, chaired by state member Maurie Keane, in its ‘First Report’ that focused on land rights, not only fundamentally changed the way Government’s liaise and consult with Aboriginal people, the Committee unanimously endorsed far-reaching recommendations including the ability to recover land, compensation for cultural loss and three-tier community driven administrative structure. All of this was set in the context of Aboriginal rights to self-determination and fundamental attachment to land as a cultural relationship and historical reality. The movement for land rights was the culmination of many years of land justice activism, shifting policy at the Commonwealth level and wider international movements contesting colonial rule and racism. More specifically the land rights movement in NSW was galvanised in response to the previous Government’s renewed efforts to assimilate Aboriginal people and revoke reserve lands and the limited land rights recognition made possible through the Aboriginal Lands Trust (herein ‘the Trust’. This paper argues a more focused and pronounced campaign emerged in the mid 1970s whereby land rights ‘time had come’ as a result of Aboriginal political activism and the alliances formed with and among left social movements. This movement created the political climate for the Wran Government’s announcement of the Select Committee Inquiry in 1978.

  4. Modelling land use change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, Simon; Mijic, Ana; Buytaert, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a "hot spot" of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land use change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. This work aims to construct a monthly time series dataset of land use change for the period 1966 to 2007 for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality and availability of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) modelling framework, recoded in the R programming language to overcome limitations of the original interface. Non-spatial estimates of land use area published by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) for the study period, available on an annual, district-wise basis, are used as a direct model input. Land use change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. The dataset will provide an essential input to a high-resolution, physically-based land-surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land use change on regional climate.

  5. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  6. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  7. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  8. Coming into Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experts say economic restructuring is essential to avoid a possible hard landing IN economic terms,the "lost decade" refers to Japan’s economic stagnation throughout the 1990s after its strong growth in the 1980s. Against the backdrop of a shaky global recovery, concerns have recently grown over a possible hard landing for the Chinese economy,caused by monetary tightening

  9. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  10. De hundrede byers land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Steen Bo

    2009-01-01

    "De hundrede byers land" var tidligere en yndet omskrivning for Italien. Længere og stærkere end noget andet europæisk land var halvøen præget af en bykultur, hvor de enkelte byers individualitet og gensidige rivalitet endnu langt oppe i 1800-tallet betragtedes som uovervindelige forhindringer for...

  11. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... development towards the capacity to design, build, and manage Land Administration Systems that incorporate sustainable land policies and efficient spatial data infrastructures.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  12. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  13. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  14. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  15. LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative precision landing sensor (LandingNav) for Mars. LandingNav supports space exploration by...

  16. Forest Land Management in the Context of National land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla, A.V. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The relative scarcity of land resources to meet the growing needs of land-users has compelled land specialists to consider the need for a better system in the proper use and management of land resource. Forestlands comprise a major component of the national land and are currently the most degraded areas. In view of this, the study on hand proposes development of a framework for 1) a comprehensive land assessment 2) use of the management science approach in operationalizing a sustained multipl...

  17. LAND REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKETS IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Zvi; SHAGAIDA Natalya

    2005-01-01

    Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and land tenure since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and previous prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been removed by recent laws. The necessary preconditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions th...

  18. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War’s Rentier Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Polson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California’s real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of “illegal” wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the “il/legal” dynamics of marijuana land use. As ...

  19. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier for the...

  20. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and l

  1. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  2. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  3. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  4. Sustainable Management of Conurbation Forestsin Northern Hesse (FRG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHULZKER; STOLLS

    2005-01-01

    Today 42% (9 000 km2) of the area of Hesse is covered with forests. The total area of forests has slightly increased since several years. But actually the forests adjacent to the conurbations of Northern Hesse in the vicinity of Kassel in particular and in the Rhein-Main Region surrounding Frankfurt are in a very difficult position. There is big demand for land to be converted into settlements, infrastructure, etc., while there is increasing need for the protective and recreational functions of the forests. Therefore maintenance of existing forests and establishment of new forests are amongst the most important responsibilities of the forest authorities on regional and district level.

  5. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  6. Reforming land rights in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaido, T.

    2004-01-01

    "Advocates of reforms in land rights and land markets frequently posit two important hypotheses: (1) African countries must grant land titles to farmers because titles increase land tenure security and facilitate access to input, land, and financial markets; and (2) land markets constitute the most efficient mechanism for allocating resources and improving access to productive resources by the poor, especially women and other marginalized groups... Research must focus on understanding the dyn...

  7. Land Use Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses the main types of land use at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Information about geology and water, groundwater, climatic conditions,...

  8. LandLanduse_BUILTUP

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1986,...

  9. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  10. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  11. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  12. KamLAND Zen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search with xenon 136 based on large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. The first phase of the experiment was operated from Oct. 12, 2011 to June 14, 2012 and we set lower limit for the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life , T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 1 . 9 ×1025 yr. The combined result of KamLAND-Zen and EXO data give T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 3 . 4 ×1025 yr. At the first phase, we found problematic background, 110mAg. Then we purified liquid scintillator and xenon gas by distillation to remove the background. The purification campaign was started just after the first phase and ended at Dec. 2013. We present current status and latest results from KamLAND-Zen second phase, and discuss the future prospects.

  13. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  14. Changes in Ecosystem Service Values on the Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; REN Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province of China covers Yulin, Yan'an, and Tongchuan cities mainly. The kind of physiognomy is complicated and various, including the transitional region of the sand and wind, the hilly-gully fragile region, the pimple mound region from North to South. Large-scale land reclamation projects that are severely affecting these ecosystems have been implemented. In this paper, we reported an investigation to the changes in land use and ecosystem services on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province from 1978 to 2000. We used three LANDSAT TM and/or ETM data sets to estimate the changes in the size of five land-cover/land-use categories, and we also used previously published value coefficients to estimate the changes in the value of ecosystem services delivered by each land category. Finally, we ranked the contribution of various ecosystem functions to the overall value of the ecosystem services, we have estimated that the annual value of the ecosystem services is 56.95 billon RMB yuan in the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province in 2000. In the region, from 1978 to 2000, the economic value of the fixing carbon was higher,the economic value of water conservation was the lowest, but the economic value of the NPP, fixing carbon, and supplying oxygen accounted for above ninety percent of the total value, obviously the vegetation created the biggest ecosystem service value. We can conclude that future land-use policy formulation should give precedence to the conservation of these ecosystems over uncontrolled reclamation, and that further land reclamation should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses.

  15. Urban Land Market and Land Policy
    in France

    OpenAIRE

    Aveline, Natacha

    1997-01-01

    Paper presented at the International Symposium on Urban Land Markets and Land Policies in France, Tokyo Metropolitan University, September 13-14, 1997 International audience In France, a strong control has been traditionally exerted over land-use. However, in the early 1980s, land markets shifted progressively from an administratively controlled regime to a more market-oriented economy. A bubble emerged in the Paris region, in a new context of deregulated land-use planning and building ...

  16. Caste Discrimination, Land Reforms and Land Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Jeetendra P.; Holden, Stein T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of caste discrimination and past land reforms on the land rental market performance, land productivity and land use intensity in Nepal. The most severely discriminated group in the caste system is the Dalits, the so-called “untouchables”. Dalits faced religious, occupational and even, territorial discrimination. The study uses data from western Nepal. The low-caste households remain poorer than other households, have significantly smaller land endowments, ...

  17. Agricultural land evaluation in the process of agricultural land consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Fištravec, Polonca

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land is limited and therefore needs to be protected, preserved and adequately managed. One of the most important instruments of rural planning as well as agricultural land planning represent agricultural operations, first of all the process of land consolidation. Diploma thesis deals with the process of agricultural land consolidation as a whole, emphasizing the agricultural land evaluation during the process. This is cruicial for just and efficient dealings of the...

  18. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  19. El Salvador Country Land Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the alignment of land use, land tenure, and land market outcomes in El Salvador with public policy aspirations in recent decades for efficient, inclusive, and environmentally sustainable development in both urban and rural spaces. In doing so the study indirectly gauges the effectiveness of land sector institutions in facilitating such developmental outcomes in agricult...

  20. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th

  1. Effects of historical land cover changes on climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZhengGuo; YAN XiaoDong; YIN ChongHua; WANG ZhaoMin

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of anthropogenic land use on the climate system during the last millennium, a set of experiments is performed with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity--the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM-2). The present paper mainly focuses on biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes. A dynamic scenario of deforestation is described based on changes in cropland fraction (RF99). The model simulates a decrease in global mean annual temperature in the range of 0.09-0.16℃, especially 0.14-0.22℃ in Northern Hemisphere during the last 300 years. The responses of climate system to GHGs concentration changes are also calculated for comparisons. Now, afforestation is becoming an important choice for the enhancement of terrestrial carbon sequestration and adjustment of regional climate. The results indicate that biogeophysical effects of land cover changes cannot be neglected in the assessments of climate change.

  2. Does Land Tenure Security Promote Manure Use by Farm Households in Vietnam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing widespread poverty and land degradation, Vietnam started a land reform in 1993 as part of its renovation policy package known as “Doi Moi”. This paper examines the impacts of improved land tenure security, via this land reform, on manure use by farm households. As manure potentially improves soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil surface, it might contribute to improving soil productive capacity and reversing land degradation. Random effect regression models are applied to a panel dataset of 133 farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam collected in 1993, 1998, and 2006. The results confirm that land tenure security has positive effects on manure use, but the levels of influence differ depending on whether the land has been privatized or whether the land title has already been issued. In addition, manure use is also influenced by the number of cattle and pigs, the education level and ethnicity of household heads, farm land size and non-farm income. The findings suggest that speeding up land privatization and titling, encouraging cattle and pig rearing, and improving education would promote manure use in farm production. However, careful interpretation of our research findings is required as land privatization, together with economic growth and population pressure, might lead to overuse of farm inputs.

  3. Agriculture land use and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is agro-pastoral farming system prevalent in mountainous and sub-mountainous areas of Himalayan region including Azad Jammu and Kashmir. As such, Agriculture Sector includes Crop-husbandry, livestock farming and forestry in its ambit. There are varied forms of land uses, like crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, wildlife conservation etc. Therefore, the paper attempts to spotlight the interplay of these land uses with respect to the environment in general with specific reference to AJK and other mountainous and sub- mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. Agricultural activities have both negative and beneficial effects on the environment. The negative effects in the forms of physical degradation of the soil due to agriculture are: soil erosion, desertification, water logging and salinity and soil compaction. The land use practices such as overgrazing, deforestation and some cultivation practices, removal of vegetative cover or hedgerows, lack of proper drainage outlets, accentuate these problems. The improper management of water use and sometimes excessive mechanization and Ploughing further aggravates problem of physical degradation of the soil. The chemical degradation, as a result of agricultural practices, include acidification, Salinization, contamination caused by pesticides and insecticides and resultantly water and air pollution, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. Further negative effects emerging out of agricultural practices are greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses and lowering of humus content, which makes soil susceptible to compaction and erosion. The beneficial environmental effects emanating from the use of best agricultural management practices and integrated farming systems are protection of soil fertility and stability, prevention of excessive run offs. It also provides habitats for varied forms of flora and fauna, reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2)/ and reduce the incidence and severity of natural

  4. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  5. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  6. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  7. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  8. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  9. A Journey To Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A tourism promotion launched by Northern European countries was held in Shanghai on February 24. Representatives from the tourism authorities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden introduced their special tourism resources to their Chinese counterparts, expressing their strong desire to expand tourism business in the Chinese market.According to the memorandum of understanding signed

  10. Lyme Disease in Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, Joan; Lavoie, Paul E.; Birnbaum, Neal S.; Furman, Deane P.

    1983-01-01

    Lyme disease is a recently described clinical entity with cutaneous, neurologic, articular and cardiac manifestations. Since the original description of the disease in 1977, more than 500 cases have been reported. Although the vast majority of patients have been from the area near Lyme, Connecticut, we have seen four patients from northern California with various aspects of Lyme disease.

  11. Sustainable Land Use in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Džatko

    2003-01-01

    Present land use planning level in Slovakia is resulting from the gradual knowledge evolution from soil survey and land evaluation to the sustainable land resources exploitation modelling. Particular attention is concentrated to the quantification of sustainable land use system parameters in different pedo-ecological conditions. The fundamental basis for the solution of these questions is detailed database not only about soils and land components properties, but about both, real and potential...

  12. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  13. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at purban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  14. THE LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE IMPACT TO LAND COVER TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1 to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2 to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  15. Land use and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 106 acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 106 additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 106 acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States

  16. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  17. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  18. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  19. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  20. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  1. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper...

  2. Sustainable Land Use in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Džatko

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Present land use planning level in Slovakia is resulting from the gradual knowledge evolution from soil survey and land evaluation to the sustainable land resources exploitation modelling. Particular attention is concentrated to the quantification of sustainable land use system parameters in different pedo-ecological conditions. The fundamental basis for the solution of these questions is detailed database not only about soils and land components properties, but about both, real and potential crop yields on representative set of fields, including basic economic soil management data as well. The specific aims of land use efficiency modelling are expressed in the synthesis of both the ecological and economic assessment of soil and land productivity potential. Sustainable land use and farming system models with the economic efficiency calculations are the final results. The set of presented models and maps including economic efficiency calculation enables to apply new concepts of sustainable land use in wider rate as well in agrarian landscape managing.

  3. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  4. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  5. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Francke; A. van de Minne

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical depreciation

  6. Underpinning Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding...

  7. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  8. Impact of Land Use Changes on Surface Warming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; WU Lingyun; WEI Jiangfeng; CHEN Peiyan; Dong-Kyou LEE

    2005-01-01

    Land use changes such as urbanization, agriculture, pasturing, deforestation, desertification and irrigation can change the land surface heat flux directly, and also change the atmospheric circulation indirectly, and therefore affect the local temperature. But it is difficult to separate their effects from climate trends such as greenhouse-gas effects. Comparing the decadal trends of the observation station data with those of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) data provides a good method to separate the effects because the NNR is insensitive to land surface changes. The effects of urbanization and other land use changes over China are estimated by using the difference between the station and the NNR surface temperature trends. Our results show that urbanization and other land use changes may contribute to the observed 0.12℃ (10 yr)- 1 increase for daily mean surface temperature, and the 0.20℃ (10 yr)- 1 and 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 increases for the daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures, respectively. The urban heat island effect and the effects of other land-use changes mayalso play an important role in the diurnal temperature range change. The spatial pattern of the differences in trends shows a marked heterogeneity.The land surface degradation such as deforestation and desertification due to human activities over northern China, and rapidly-developed urbanization over southern China, may have mostly contributed to the increases at stations north of about 38°N and in Southeast China, respectively. Furthermore, the vegetation cover increase due to irrigation and fertilization may have contributed to the decreasing trend of surface temperature over the lower Yellow River Basin. The study illustrates the possible impacts of land use changes on surface temperature over China.

  9. Trends and regional distributions of land and ocean carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarmiento

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We show here an updated estimate of the net land carbon sink (NLS as a function of time from 1960 to 2007 calculated from the difference between fossil fuel emissions, the observed atmospheric growth rate, and the ocean uptake obtained by recent ocean model simulations forced with reanalysis wind stress and heat and water fluxes. Except for interannual variability, the net land carbon sink appears to have been relatively constant at a mean value of −0.27 Pg C yr−1 between 1960 and 1988, at which time it increased abruptly by −0.88 (−0.77 to −1.04 Pg C yr−1 to a new relatively constant mean of −1.15 Pg C yr−1 between 1989 and 2003/7 (the sign convention is negative out of the atmosphere. This result is detectable at the 99% level using a t-test. The land use source (LU is relatively constant over this entire time interval. While the LU estimate is highly uncertain, this does imply that most of the change in the net land carbon sink must be due to an abrupt increase in the land sink, LS = NLS – LU, in response to some as yet unknown combination of biogeochemical and climate forcing. A regional synthesis and assessment of the land carbon sources and sinks over the post 1988/1989 period reveals broad agreement that the Northern Hemisphere land is a major sink of atmospheric CO2, but there remain major discrepancies with regard to the sign and magnitude of the net flux to and from tropical land.

  10. Sweet and bitter: trajectories of sugar cane investments in Northern Luzon, the Philippines, and Aceh, Indonesia, 2006-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Shohibuddin; M.L. Alano; G. Nooteboom

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the complex process of investment and land deal making through the in-depth study of three cases of sugar cane investment in the Philippines and Indonesia. It focuses on three different trajectories of sugar cane schemes—one in northern Luzon, the Philippines, and two

  11. SAND FLUX IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT, NEW MEXICO, USA, AND THE INFLUENCE OF MESQUITE-DOMINATED LANDSCAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) that land dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is the most important area for active sand movement at the Jornada Experimental Range, located in the northern part of the Chihuahuan desert, and (2) that the most active san...

  12. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  13. The taxonomic composition of soil microorganisms in the ecosystems of southern chernozems of Northern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Churkina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the species composition of soil microorganisms in the ecosystems of the southern chernozem of Northern Kazakhstan. Microorganisms are an essential soil component. In fallow soil where there has been no cultivation for over 50 years they amount to over 35 million cells per gram of soil, while in arable ground this increases to 46.2 million cells. Actinomyces tend to dominate in the biotic communities of uncultivated land. In cultivated arable land bacteria assimilating mineral and organic nitrogen predominate - a fact which testifies to the activity of soil-biochemical processes leading to profound mineralization of the organic substances in the soil.

  14. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  15. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...

  16. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseth, S. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  17. Carboniferous geology of Northern England

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Colin N.

    2009-01-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) has produced a wholesale rationalisation of Carboniferous lithostratigraphical nomenclature. This presentation describes the Carboniferous stratigraphy of northern England, illustrated with research carried out as part of recent BGS mapping projects. During the Tournaisian and Visean a phase of north–south rifting resulted in the development of grabens and half-grabens, separated by platforms and tilt-block highs. Visean marine transgressions re...

  18. Depupulation of northern Croatian Istra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zupanc

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with demographic development of the northern part of Croatian Istria in the period from 1948. to 1991. The main problem dealt in the article is depopulation as a dominant feature of this area. The direct consequence and indicator of depopulation is a bad age structure which prevails in the majority of this area. The extinction of particular settlements is a potential threat and imminent demographic perspective.

  19. [Regional difference of land use/cover change in farming-pasturing zone of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chang, Xue-Li; Li, Jian-Ying; Cai, Ming-Yu

    2008-03-01

    Based on the four TM images of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia in 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2005, the extent and relative rate of land use change were used as the indices to analyze the regional difference of land use/cover change in the farming-pasturing zone of Naiman Banner, and the indices abundance and importance value were adopted to analyze the spatial distribution features of land use/cover change in the study area. The results showed that from 1975 to 2005, the types of land use/cover became diversified. The annual change rate was high, and the regional difference was significant. In the northern alluvial plain sub-area, woodland area increased rapidly and largely, while sandy land area decreased obviously. The changing speed of the areas of meadow and sandy land was the fastest, while that of residential area was the slowest. The main forms of land conversion were the conversion from sandy land to cropland and woodland. In the middle sandy land sub-area, sandy land had a wide distribution. The changes of other land use types were comparatively small, and the main form of land conversion was the inter-conversion between cropland and sandy land. In southern loess sub-area, cropland was the dominant land use type and had the smallest change, meadow and sandy land changed most quickly, and the conversion from meadow to cropland and woodland was the most important land conversion form. Natural factors determined the principal characteristics of land use structure in each sub-area of the study area, and artificial factors determined the changing trends of each land use type in each sub-area.

  20. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    Grasslands cover nearly one-fifth of the global terrestrial surface and store most of their carbon below ground. The grassland ecosystem in the Great Plains occupies over 1.5 million km2 of land area and is the primary resource for livestock production in North America. However, the contributions of grasslands to local and regional carbon budgets remain uncertain due to the lack of carbon flux data for the expansive grassland ecosystems under various managements, land uses, and climate variability. A quantitative understanding of carbon fluxes across these systems is essential for developing regional, national, and global carbon budgets and providing guidance to policy makers and managers when substantial conversion to biofuels are implemented. Additionally, these estimates will provide insights into how the grassland ecosystem will respond to future climate and what systems are sustainable and offer net carbon sinks. This knowledge base and decisions support tools are needed for developing land management strategies for the region under a variety of environmental conditions and land use options. In the past, we used a remote sensing-based piecewise regression (PWR) model to estimate the grassland carbon fluxes in the northern Great Plains using the 1-km SPOT VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We estimated the carbon fluxes through integrated spatial databases and remotely sensed extrapolations of flux tower data to regional scales. The PWR model was applied to derive an empirical relationship between environmental variables and tower-based measurements. The PWR equations were then applied through time and space to estimate carbon fluxes across the study area at 1-km resolution. We now improve this modeling approach by 1) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with higher temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions (8-day, 500-m, and 7-band) as input; 2) incorporating the actual vegetation evapotranspiration

  1. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  2. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. PMID:25345850

  3. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪远; 刘明亮; 庄大方; 张增祥; 邓祥征

    2003-01-01

    It is more and more acknowledged that land-use/cover dynamic change has become a key subject urgently to be dealt with in the study of global environmental change. Supported by the Landsat TM digital images, spatial patterns and temporal variation of land-use change during 1995-2000 are studied in the paper. According to the land-use dynamic degree model, supported by the 1km GRID data of land-use change and the comprehensive characters of physical, economic and social features, a dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed to disclose the spatial pattern of land-use change processes. Generally speaking, in the traditional agricultural zones, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas occupy a great proportion of arable land, and in the interlock area of farming and pasturing of northern China and the oases agricultural zones, the reclamation of arable land is conspicuously driven by changes of production conditions, economic benefits and climatic conditions. The implementation of "returning arable land into woodland or grassland" policies has won initial success in some areas, but it is too early to say that the trend of deforestation has been effectively reversed across China. In this paper, the division of dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed, for the sake of revealing the temporal and spatial features of land-use change and laying the foundation for the study of regional scale land-use changes. Moreover, an integrated study, including studies of spatial pattern and temporal process of land-use change, is carried out in this paper, which is an interesting try on the comparative studies of spatial pattern on change process and the change process of spatial pattern of land-use change.

  4. Artificial radioactivity on the coasts of Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Northern Ireland, measurements of artificial radioactivity have been made in inshore seawater, beach sand and mud, sea spray, the air and material deposited from the air, and in coastal soil. The objective was to determine the levels in the coastal environment and also to assess the magnitude of transport of radioactivity from sea to land in sea spray. The results would provide a basis for the development of a model describing sea to land transfer, and allowing the resulting population exposure to be assessed. The results showed the presence of plutonium isotopes, 241Am and 137Cs in some samples of each of the media measured, but concentrations were low in all cases. Large variation in the concentrations in seawater and beach sediment were attributed to variations in dispersion and in the characteristics of the sediment. Sea to land transfer of actinides was detected in samples of sea spray and in air and deposition measurements. Only at some sites on the east coast could the resulting accumulation in soil close to the beach be distinguished from fallout. Following May 1986 137Cs from Chernobyl could be detected in air and in atmospheric deposition. A preliminary assessment of the exposure of the population to the actinides and 137Cs in all the media showed that the resulting dose is a small fraction of the recognised limit. (author)

  5. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  7. LandLandcov_LCLU2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The National Land Cover Database products are created through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The...

  8. LandLandcov_LCLULCB92

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the 2001 LCB LULC...

  9. Global Land Data Assimilation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface...

  10. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  11. LandLandcov_NLCD2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced through a...

  12. LandLandcov_IMPERV2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The LandLandcov_IMPERV2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 for mapping zone 65 was produced through a cooperative...

  13. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the...

  14. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  15. LandLandcov_LULCLCB01

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of NLCD 2001 using...

  16. Climate change affects populations of northern birds in boreal protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Rajasärkkä,Ari

    2010-01-01

    Human land-use effects on species populations are minimized in protected areas and population changes can thus be more directly linked with changes in climate. In this study, bird population changes in 96 protected areas in Finland were compared using quantitative bird census data, between two time slices, 1981–1999 and 2000–2009, with the mean time span being 14 years. Bird species were categorized by distribution pattern and migratory strategy. Our results showed that northern bird species ...

  17. Conflict between Water Buffalo and Market-Oriented Agriculture: A Case Study from Northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAI, Yasuhiro; SIBOUNHEUANG, Thanongsone

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a case study of the decline of water buffalo husbandry under the pressure ofland use change in contemporary northern Laos. Since 2000, with the spread of marketorientedagriculture and the implementation of land use zoning, fallow areas suitable forgrazing have been squeezed leading to a conflict between grazers and cultivators. Localgovernment has prohibited the former from allowing their livestock to graze freely in theareas designated for commercial agriculture, encouraging th...

  18. Stable isotope dynamics in a seasonally changing snow cover on Samoylov Island, Northern Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    While climate change takes place world-wide, the Artic regions are very sensitive to these changes while influencing the biodiversity of the whole world. Therefore, climate archives are considered to better understand the climate of the past. In permafrost regions, covering about 24% of the northern hemisphere land surface, established climate archives such as ice caps, deep lake sediments or tree rings are rarely found. On the other hand, the ground ice contained in permafrost soils is ex...

  19. Transport of pesticides in a river of a tropical mountainous watershed in northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangchan, Walaya

    2013-01-01

    In the northern region of Thailand, in the upland areas population growth and migration of people from the lowlands have rapidly driven land use changes. The expansion of cultivation to increasingly vulnerable areas such as the slopes of mountainous watersheds has led to increasingly adverse impacts on the environment. In particular, intensive application of pesticides poses a contamination risk for stream water and the aquatic ecosystem. This thesis identified the transport patterns of pesti...

  20. From Mount Tai to the East China Sea or from the East China Sea to the Underground: A Discussion of the Common-Use Terms on the Land Certificates Prior to the Middle of the Northern Song Time%从泰山到东海抑或是从东海到地下——关于北宋中期以前买地券中一类常见用语的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费和平

    2012-01-01

    在讨论中国东南地域之江西地区(兼及湖北部分地区)墓葬出土的北宋中期以前买地券中"东海"、"水中鱼"、"高山鹿"等常见用语的含义以及唐宋时期"张坚固"、"李定度"身份之变化的基础上,可以初步得出这样的推论:如果说从前秦到唐初的数百年里在新疆吐鲁番地区还有可能存在着"东海"信仰的话,那么在两宋时期的江西、湖北地区,昔日有关"东海"的观念和记忆正在逐渐消退,到了南宋,已基本消失于人们的脑海中,连同隐没的还有这一观念可能代表的某种有关死后世界的信仰,与它们一起湮灭的还有水中鱼、高山鹿和天上鹤这些居住于东海边的神灵;张坚固、李定度的新身份或许意味着一种新的冥世信仰。%Discussions on the meanings of those common-use terms such as donghai (East China Sea), shuizhongyu (fish in the water), and gaoshanlu (deer in the mountain) regularly seen on the land certificates before the middle of the Northern Song and the changes to identify the landlords in the Tang and Song dynasties may reason out the following conclusions: While the belief of the East China Sea might exist around Xinjiang area during the years between the former Qin and the Early Tang, the relevant ideas and memories were fading away at Jiangxi and Hubei from the Song and had almost disappeared when it came to the Southern Song; The beliefs of after-death world, which might be connected to the belief of East China Sea, as well as the sacred creatures living by the eastern coast including the fishes, deer and cranes also faded away; the new ways to call the landlords, which used to be specific names such as Zhang Jiangu and Li Dingduo, might refer to a new belief in otherworld.

  1. Biological assessment for the transfer of the DP land tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer to the County of Los Alamos up to 10-ha (25-ac) of federal land located in Technical Area-21 to be developed for commercial uses. Previous studies for the proposed land transfer area indicate that potential habitat for four threatened, endangered, and sensitive species occurs in or adjacent to the proposed land transfer area. These include the northern goshawk (federal species of concern), Mexican spotted owl (federal threatened), the spotted bat (federal species of concern, state threatened), die peregrine falcon (federal endangered, state endangered), and the. In order to determine the possible influences of the land transfer on these organisms, information from species-specific surveys was collected. These surveys were used to confirm the presence of these species or to infer their absence in or near the project area. It was concluded that none of die above mentioned species occur in the project area. Stretches of the stream channel within Los Alamos Canyon have been identified as palustrine and riverine, temporarily flooded wetlands. The proposed land transfer should not affect these wetlands.

  2. Transportation and Land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Gordon; Harry W. Richardson

    2000-01-01

    While several reports (e.g. Lebergott, 1993; Moore and Simon, 1999; Cox and Alm, 1999) document stunning advances in health, longevity and material well being and while it is no longer disreputable to credit the market economy, most current discussions of cities and land use see only market failures. A representative example is a recent magazine article by Katz and Bradley (1999), ominously named "Divided We Sprawl." It blames most U.S. social ills on how cities are growing (especially suburb...

  3. The great land theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Leckie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami has reminded us of the need for a rights-based approach to post-disaster reconstruction. If housing, land and property rights are put at the heart of a post-disaster plan – rather than cast aside as too complicated or expensive – the chances are that it will succeed. If these rights are ignored or, more ominously, systematically violated, not only will rights be abused but also reconstruction will fail.

  4. The great land theft

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Leckie

    2005-01-01

    The tsunami has reminded us of the need for a rights-based approach to post-disaster reconstruction. If housing, land and property rights are put at the heart of a post-disaster plan – rather than cast aside as too complicated or expensive – the chances are that it will succeed. If these rights are ignored or, more ominously, systematically violated, not only will rights be abused but also reconstruction will fail.

  5. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  6. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  7. Distribution of Nitrogen in Water, Soil and Sediment in Water/Land Ecotone of Returning Fishpond to Lake Area of Northern Gonghu Bay%贡湖湾北部退渔还湖区水、沉积物和土壤中氮的时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少勇; 曲洁婷; 许秋瑾; 胡小贞; 汪祖茂; 赵维电

    2014-01-01

    太湖贡湖湾北部退渔还湖区(2.18 km2)的水陆交错带,虽已进行了基底改造和小部分植物种植,但仍需开展大规模种植,故迫切需要了解其生境特性的状况,为此开展了该区域的水陆交错带水、沉积物、土壤中氮的时空分布特征调查,以便为后续示范工程的设计提供基本参数。选择南部和北部两处交错带(面积分别为6700、8300 m2)及其周边陆域、水域,分别在2012年11月和2013年5月采集17个点位的水、沉积物和土壤样品,分析了其氮的时空分布。结果表明:水、沉积物和土壤样品中的氮存在明显的季节变化,春季水、沉积物和土壤中的总氮和氨氮均低于秋季,而春季沉积物和土壤中硝氮含量较高。人为栽种植物有利于氮的去除,温度和微生物的活动对此也有一定的贡献。在春季,水陆交错区的硝化作用更强烈;氨氮的空间分布与总氮基本一致,水中氮的主要存在形式是氨氮,而沉积物和土壤中的氮以有机氮为主。%Returning fishpond to lake is one of approaches to restore regional ecosystems. Understanding transformation and cycling of nutri-ents in the restored area is critical to implementation of such practice. Here, a water-land ecotone(2.18 km2)in returning fishpond to lake area of north Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu was selected to examine the temporal and spatial variations of nitrogen in water, sediment, and soil. Seventeen sampling locations were chosen at the north and south zones. Water, sediment and soil samples were collected in November 2012 and May 2013. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen in water, soil and sediment samples were lower in Spring than in Autumn, but nitrate ni-trogen in soils was higher in Spring than in Autumn, showing a significant seasonal variation. Growing plants artificially had a great contribu-tion to the removal of nitrogen. In addition, temperature and microbial activity would

  8. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  9. Landing quality in artistic gymnastics is related to landing symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, I; Marinšek, M

    2013-03-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  10. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Future Land Use (FLU) 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County Future Land Use 2010. This is the original land use map for 2010. It was drafted for the comprehensive plan in 1990 and contains adopted amendments.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Land Use 2000 (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land cover and land use in the St. Johns River Water Management District based on 1999 and 2000 color infrared aerial photography. * Data in this layer may change...

  12. Land use effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josep; G.; Canadell

    2002-01-01

    Current and past land use practices are critical in determining the distribution and size of global terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks. Althoughfossil fuel emissions dominate the anthropogenic perturbation of the global C cycle, land use still drives the largest portion of anthropogenic emissions in a number of tropical regions of Asia. The size of the emission flux owing to land use change is still the biggest uncertainty in the global C budget. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported a flux term of 1.7 PgC@a-1 for 1990-1995 but more recent estimates suggest the magnitude of this source may be only of 0.96 PgC@a-1 for the 1990s. In addition, current and past land use practices are now thought to contribute to a large degree to the northern hemisphere terrestrial sink, and are the dominant driver for some regional sinks. However, mechanisms other than land use change need to be invoked in order to explain the inferred C sink in the tropics. Potential candidates are the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization and climate change; fertilization due to nitrogen (N) deposition is believed to be small or nil. Although the potential for managing C sinks is limited, improved land use management and new land uses such as reforestation and biomass fuel cropping, can further enhance current terrestrial C sinks. Best management practices in agriculture alone could sequester 0.4-0.8 PgC per year in soils if implemented globally. New methodologies to ensure verification and permanency of C sequestration need to be developed.

  13. Trends and regional distributions of land and ocean carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarmiento

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We show here a new estimate of the variability and long-term trends in the net land carbon sink from 1960 onwards calculated from the difference between fossil fuel emissions, the observed atmospheric growth rate, and the ocean uptake obtained by recent ocean model simulations forced with reanalysis wind stress and heat and water fluxes. The net land carbon sink appears to have increased by −0.88 (−0.77 to −1.04 Pg C yr−1 after ~1988/1989 from a relatively constant mean of −0.27 Pg C yr−1 before then to −1.15 Pg C yr−1 thereafter (the sign convention is negative out of the atmosphere. This result is significant at the 1% critical level. The increase in net land uptake is partially compensated by a reduction in the expected oceanic uptake, which we estimate from model simulations as about 0.35 (0.26 to 0.49 Pg C yr−1. This implies that the atmospheric growth rate must have decreased by about −0.53 (−0.51 to −0.55 Pg C yr−1 (equivalent to −0.25 ppm yr−1 below what would have been projected if the ocean uptake had continued to grow at the rate expected from a constant climate model and if the net land uptake had continued at its pre-1988/1989 level. A regional synthesis and assessment of the land carbon sources and sinks over the post 1988/1989 period reveals broad agreement that the northern hemisphere land is a major sink of atmospheric CO2, but there remain major discrepancies with regard to the sign and magnitude of the net flux to and from tropical land.

  14. Effective radiative forcing from historical land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy; Betts, Richard A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Jones, Chris D.; Jones, Gareth S.

    2016-08-01

    The effective radiative forcing (ERF) from the biogeophysical effects of historical land use change is quantified using the atmospheric component of the Met Office Hadley Centre Earth System model HadGEM2-ES. The global ERF at 2005 relative to 1860 (1700) is -0.4 (-0.5) Wm-2, making it the fourth most important anthropogenic driver of climate change over the historical period (1860-2005) in this model and larger than most other published values. The land use ERF is found to be dominated by increases in the land surface albedo, particularly in North America and Eurasia, and occurs most strongly in the northern hemisphere winter and spring when the effect of unmasking underlying snow, as well as increasing the amount of snow, is at its largest. Increased bare soil fraction enhances the seasonal cycle of atmospheric dust and further enhances the ERF. Clouds are shown to substantially mask the radiative effect of changes in the underlying surface albedo. Coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations forced only with time-varying historical land use change shows substantial global cooling (dT = -0.35 K by 2005) and the climate resistance (ERF/dT = 1.2 Wm-2 K-1) is consistent with the response of the model to increases in CO2 alone. The regional variation in land surface temperature change, in both fixed-SST and coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations, is found to be well correlated with the spatial pattern of the forced change in surface albedo. The forcing-response concept is found to work well for historical land use forcing—at least in our model and when the forcing is quantified by ERF. Our results suggest that land-use changes over the past century may represent a more important driver of historical climate change then previously recognised and an underappreciated source of uncertainty in global forcings and temperature trends over the historical period.

  15. Scaling behavior in land markets

    OpenAIRE

    Taisei Kaizoji

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of power law statistics on land markets. There have been no other studies that have analyzed power law statistics on land markets up to now. We analyzed a database of the assessed value of land, which is officially monitored and made available to the public by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport Government of Japan. This is the largest database of Japan's land prices, and consists of approximately 30,000 points for each year of a 6-year per...

  16. Prehistoric land use in southern Loess Plateau reconstructed from archeological data by a new developed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Wu, H.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of land use during the Holocene is crucial to understand impacts of human activity on climate change in preindustrial period. Until now it is still a key issue to reconstruct amount and spatial distribution of prehistoric land use due to lack of data. Most reconstructions are simply extrapolations of population, cleared land amount per person and land suitability for agriculture. In this study, a new quantitative prehistoric land use model (PLUM) is developed based on semi-quantitative predictive models of archeological sites. The PLUM is driven by environmental and social parameters of archeological sites, which are objective evidences of prehistoric human activity, and produces realistic patterns of land use. After successful validations of the model with modern observed data, the PLUM was applied to reconstruct land use from 8 to 4 ka B.P. in Yiluo and Wei valleys, southern Loess Plateau. Both of them are the most important agriculture origin centers in northern China. Results reveal that about 9% of land areas in both valleys have been used by human activity from 8 to 4 ka B.P., expanding from gentle slopes along the river to hinterlands of the valleys. The land cover was affected by increasing agricultural land use during the middle Holocene. The extensive spreads of land use since 7 ka B.P. in both valleys were driven by the combined impacts of population increase and agriculture development, which was further favored by wet and warm climate conditions during middle Holocene; while the decreasing rates of land use expansions after 5 ka B.P. were mainly induced by improved agriculture technology. With the scaling up of PLUM to larger regional or global levels by a greater use of archeological data, the impact of human land use on global change can be studied more accurately.

  17. GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Optimal Allocation in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jie-Yong; GUO Li-Ying

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based method was used to assess land suitability in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province of China through simultaneous consideration of physical features and current land use. Through interpretation of Landsat TM images and extensive field visits the area was modeled into 40 land types in five altitudinal zones (valleys and gullies, hillsides and terraces, foothills, mid-mountain, and sub-alpine mountain). Then, a suitability score was assigned to five physical factors (climate, hydrology, topography, soil, and vegetation). Next, their integrated overall suitability value scores were compared with the observed land cover to determine whether it should be reallocated a new use. Results showed that the five suitability classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, farmland-woodland, and scrub-pasture had altitudinal stratification and a total of 1 151 km2 (8.89%) of lands on the northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains had to be reallocated. To achieve this reallocation, 657 km2 of arable land should be reduced, and forest, grassland and scrub-pasture increased by 615 km2, 131 km2 and 405 km2, respectively. Implementation of these recommended land reallocations should help achieve suitable use of land resources and prevent land degradation.

  18. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  19. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.

  20. Geologic setting and concepts on the origin of uranium deposits in the East Alligator River region, N.T., Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Alligator River region lies approximately 220 kilometers east of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Uranium exploration in the region commenced in 1967, and in 1969 the surface expressions of the Koongarra and Ranger deposits were detected by airborne radiometric surveys. In 1970 similar surveys were conducted over the Nabarlek and Jabiluka areas with the former deposit exhibiting a high priority uranium anomaly. To date, approximately 350,000 metric tons of contained U;sub 3;O;sub 8; have been indicated as reasonably assured reserves and estimated additional resources in the East Alligator River region. Topography in the region consists of low-lying flood plains to the west while a deeply incided sandstone sequence forming the Arnhem Land Plateau rises abruptly to the east. The main uranium mineralizing events are dated at approximately 900 and 500 m.y. 10 refs

  1. Asset Bubbles, Inflation, and Agricultural Land Values

    OpenAIRE

    Schurle, Bryan; Wilson, Christine; Featherstone, Allen; Remaury, Hugo; Harmon, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses asset bubbles, the Kansas and Illinois land markets, estimates land values, and develops a land price/earnings ratio. Current land sales data are also examined. Finally, we examine relationships between land values and interest rates, inflation rates, and cash rents. Results show that real land values increase substantially when inflation increases. Recent land values are explored for both Kansas and Illinois with somewhat differing results. Development of land price bu...

  2. Waterfowl production survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan River Delta: July 10-22, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1973. The...

  3. Northern Alaska Landscape/Permafrost GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This update includes permafrost mapping to include the following new layers:...

  4. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  5. Natural contributions to particulate matter and ozone concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions play an important role in determining ambient levels of harmful atmospheric pollutants, especially tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM). Natural sources have also become more important with the ongoing reductions of anthropogenic emissions and will be even more significant in the future in connection with planning of abatement strategies. Although efforts have been carried out to investigate and quantify natural emissions, the uncertainties and gaps with regard to these emissions are still quite large. Therefore, improvement of our understanding of natural emissions and quantifying their contribution to present and future air pollution levels have been defined as an important field of research in air pollution modeling. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. The relative contributions are calculated for the domain covering more than the Northern Hemisphere (the DEHM mother domain) as well as for the six continental regions: North America, Northern part of South America, Asia, Europe, Middle East and northern and central part of Africa. Our simulations indicate that at the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone concentrations over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, biogenic VOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation. Our results show that biogenic VOCs enhance the average ozone concentration with around 11% over land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest

  6. The Relationship between Landless Farmers and Land Adjustment, Land Transfer,Land Inheritance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunrong; SHANG; Lan; YE

    2013-01-01

    Based on the household survey of nine villages in Guangdong Province and Hunan Province,we research the relationship between landless farmers and land adjustment,land transfer in the context of rural land contract rights on a long term basis.We demonstrate that the existence of landless farmers does not pose a serious problem for the current rural community.We also explain the reason why the land is no longer readjusted:the expected return of land adjustment is low and the organizational costs are high.

  7. Evaluation of precipitation variability over northern South America based on CMIP5 historical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S. C.; Sierra, J. P.; Arias, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have caused diverse socio-economic consequences. Hence, the evaluation of the representation of local climate of rainfall simulations at intra-annual seasonal and inter-annual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required, in order to identify and analyze projections of regional and local climate under a global climate change scenario. Here, we evaluate the ability of seven of the CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review) to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its inter-annual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land, since during these seasons, not only incoming radiation, but also ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans, locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, models exhibit the worse simulations of the seasonal mean precipitation during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America.

  8. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  9. Solar Cycle Length and Northern Hemisphere mean temperature revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, P.

    2009-04-01

    The statistical relationship between the smoothed curve for solar cycle length and northern hemisphere land mean temperature has been a source of investigation in the question of whether and how much the Sun influences climate variations. The relationship was widely discussed following the 1991 paper by Friis-Christensen and Lassen and was updated in 2000 by Thejll and Lassen. Data for one more solar cycle has now accumulated, and the relationship is again reviewed and discussed. We derive and show the updated SCL and mean temperature curves. The relationship between the two is analysed using standard statistical methods. Additional climate forcing factors are introduced to improve the fit. Changes in the historical part of the mean temperature curve has occurred which modifies the previously seen relationship, and this is discussed.

  10. Hydrologic response of northern wetlands to silvicultural water management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of water management systems are used to ameliorate saturated soil conditions which limit silvicultural operations and site productivity in northern wetlands. The pattern ditch system is an intensive drainage network designed to regulate water table depth in peat soils. The prescription drainage system is a low-intensity drainage system that is used to develop apparent drainage patterns in mineral and histic-mineral soils. These water management systems may either increase or decrease peak flow, base flow, and the duration of peak flow events, depending on drainage system design, climate, season, site characteristics, and land use. The most common hydrologic response to drainage is an increase in peak flow and base flow, and an increase in annual runoff. The effect of wetland drainage on watershed hydrology depends on the proportion of the watershed drained. Drainage may also affect water quality, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition and structure.

  11. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  13. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  14. Bildungsreform auf dem Lande

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Im Fokus der Arbeit stehen die Bildungsreformen auf dem Lande in der Zeitspanne von 1949 bis zum Ende der 1960er Jahre. Die Entwicklung der Volksschule in Nordhessen, genauer im südlichen Ringgau nahe der thüringischen Grenze, wird genauer betrachtet. Dafür wurden Schulchroniken aus dem Südringgau beschrieben und analysiert. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Entstehung der Mittelpunktschule Herleshausen/Nesselröden und den damit verbundenen Schließungen der einklassigen Volksschulen in den einzel...

  15. Expecting a Soft Landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the uncertainties of the global economy, China’s e conomic slowdown this year has triggered worries that the country’s growth engine is losing steam. Some even anticipate a hard landing. Lu Zhongyuan, Vice President of the Development Research Center of the State Council, dismissed the worries at a recent briefing in Beijing,saying the slowdown is the result of the government’s macro-control and is still within the normal fluctuation range. Edited excerpts of his views follow:

  16. Causes of spring vegetation growth in the northern mid-high latitudes from 1982 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    The ability of a process-based ecosystem model like Version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) to provide accurate estimates vegetation growth is a top priority for researchers, modelers and policy makers. Remote sensing can provide long-term and large scale products suitable for ecosystem model evaluation. Here we will describe how the CLM4 and the satellite-derived NDVI are applied to examine the spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes in response to climate, CO2 fertilization, nitrogen deposition and land use land cover change (LULCC) effects on the inter-annual timescale over the northern mid-high latitudes (NMH) (>25 °N) for the recent decades (1982-2004). Our results show that the rising CO2 is simulated to cause a general increase of vegetation greenness. The predicted effects of nitrogen deposition on the vegetation growth are positive or negative dependent on the trend of the nitrogen change. The LULCC influence relies on the type of land management and the latitudes where the conversion happens. On the whole, the complicated impacts of multiple non-climate factors on spring NDVI variations locally alter the temperate-dominated inter-annual variations in the northern vegetation growth. Our results highlight the importance of the non-climate factors in mitigating or exacerbating the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intense human activity.

  17. Protected Areas' Role in Climate-change Mitigation in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, David; Lu, Xiaoliang; Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-04-01

    In Northern Eurasia, about 2.0 million square kilometers of land are currently identified as protected areas, which provide society with many ecosystem services including climate-change mitigation. These areas represent about 13% of the protected areas identified across the globe. Combining a global database of protected areas, a reconstruction of global land-use history, and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model, we estimate that protected areas in Northern Eurasia currently sequester 0.05 Pg C annually, which is about one tenth of the carbon sequestered by all land ecosystems annually in this region (0.5 Pg C/yr) and also about one tenth of the carbon sequestered in all protected areas across the globe. Using an integrated earth systems model to generate climate and land-use scenarios for the 21st century, we project that rapid climate change, similar to high-end projections in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, would cause the annual carbon sequestration rate in the protected areas of Northern Eurasia to increase to about 0.07 Pg C/yr by 2100. In contrast, the annual carbon sequestration rate for all protected areas across the globe drops to 0.3 Pg C/yr by the end of the 21st century. For the scenario with both rapid climate change and extensive land-use change driven by population and economic pressures so that development encroaches upon designated "protected areas", we project that 0.6 million square kilometers of the protected areas in Northern Eurasia would be converted to other uses (10.7% of global protected area losses), and carbon sequestration in the remaining protected areas of Northern Eurasia would drop to 0.03 Pg C/yr by 2100. This small regional carbon sink is compensated by carbon losses in the remaining protected areas outside of the region so that overall no net carbon would be sequestered by global protected areas at the end of the 21st century if these areas are not truly protected.

  18. The Response of Ecosystem Services Value to Land Use Change in Keriya Oasis, Northern Slope of Kulun Mountain%昆仑山北麓克里雅绿洲生态服务价值对土地利用变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦麦提吐尔逊·艾则孜; 海米提·依米提; 迪拉娜·尼加提; 魏彬

    2012-01-01

    The effects of land use change on ecosystem services values and functions of Keriya Oasis in 1991-2008 were analyzed based on TM image data in 1991, 2002 and 2008, and using the evaluation methods of terrestrial ecosystem services value of China. Results showed that: 1) The total value of ecosystem services decreased from 1 442.248 million Yuan in 1991 to 1 287.163 million Yuan in 2008, the loss of total ecosystem service value was 10.8%, and net loss of yearly ecosystem service value was about 24.2 Yuan per hectare. The main causes of the decline of total ecosystem service value were the decrease of the total area of wetland and water body; 2) The overall rank order for each ecosystem function based on their contributions to overall val- ue of ecosystem services was that the contribution of waste treatment function is the highest, then the soil for- mation, biodiversity protection, water supply, climate regulation, gas regulation, food production, the contribu- tion of recreation and culture and raw material is the lowest; 3) The total ecosystem services value was relative- ly inelastic to the value coefficients, therefore, the estimation in this study area was robust in spite of uncertain- ties on the value coefficients.%基于1991、2002与2008年卫星遥感资料,采用中国陆地生态系统的服务价值测算方法,分析克里雅绿洲土地利用变化对生态系统服务价值与结构的影响。研究表明:①研究区生态服务价值从1991年的144 224.8万元降到2008年的128 716.3万元,生态服务价值损失10.8%,每年净损失生态服务价值达24.2元/hm2。生态服务总价值的减少主要是由湿地、水域总面积的减少而导致的;②研究区各生态服务功能对区域总生态服务价值贡献率由高到低依次为:废物处理、土壤形成、生物多样性保护、水源涵养、气候调价、气体调价、食物生产、娱乐休闲和原材料;③研究区生态服务价值对生态服务功能指数缺乏弹性。

  19. Development opportunities for northern aboriginal communities from Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Richards, a public relations specialist from Cogema Resources Inc., discussed the programmes for human resource and community development in northern Saskatchewan. This region has the world's largest known high-grade deposits of uranium as well as a high level of provincial, public and northern community support. A mainly Aboriginal population of around 35 000 with a very high proportion of young persons entering the work force, lives in small, dispersed communities in a landscape of forest and lakes. All of the uranium mines are in remote locations with 'local impact' communities often several hundred kilometres away. In the late 1970's a public board of inquiry set none operating conditions that included maximizing opportunities for northern business and employment. Dozens of joint initiatives have since been developed and resulted in innovative hiring, training and transportation programmes, as well as support programmes to improve health, education, professional and business development and quality of life in the communities. Residents of northern Saskatchewan, like all other Canadians, are not prepared to accept environmental risks in return for economic opportunities. Three regional Environmental Quality Committees, with representatives froth all of the northern communities, work with Provincial agencies and the uranium mining industry to ensure community concerns are included in decisions. Northern hunters and fishermen, whose close links with the land are respected, provide relevant data to the Environmental Monitoring Program. Mutual trust is developed through constant interaction and dialogue in one-to-one relationships. Traditional activities like trapping are given their full importance. A Community Vitality Project jointly monitors social well being as defined by northern interests and culture. Compensations and company donations in some cases provide resources for community activities. (author)

  20. Moving from pixels to parcels: Modeling agricultural scenarios in the northern Great Plains using a hybrid raster- and vector-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T.; Wika, S.; Dornbierer, J.; Sayler, K. L.; Quenzer, R.

    2015-12-01

    Policy and economic driving forces have resulted in a higher demand for biofuel feedstocks in recent years, resulting in substantial increases in cultivated cropland in the northern Great Plains. A cellulosic-based biofuel industry could potentially further impact the region, with grassland and marginal agricultural land converted to perennial grasses or other feedstocks. Scenarios of projected land-use change are needed to enable regional stakeholders to plan for the potential consequences of expanded agricultural activity. Land-use models used to produce spatially explicit scenarios are typically raster-based and are poor at representing ownership units on which land-use change is based. This work describes a hybrid raster/vector-based modeling approach for modeling scenarios of agricultural change in the northern Great Plains. Regional scenarios of agricultural change from 2012 to 2050 were constructed, based partly on the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion Ton Update. Land-use data built from the 2012 Cropland Data Layer and the 2011 National Land Cover Database was used to establish initial conditions. Field boundaries from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Common Land Unit dataset were used to establish ownership units. A modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey's Forecasting Scenarios of land-use (FORE-SCE) model was used to ingest vector-based field boundaries to facilitate the modeling of a farmer's choice of land use for a given year, while patch-based raster methodologies were used to represent expansion of urban/developed lands and other land use conversions. All modeled data were merged to a common raster dataset representing annual land use from 2012 to 2050. The hybrid modeling approach enabled the use of traditional, raster-based methods while integrating vector-based data to represent agricultural fields and other ownership-based units upon which land-use decisions are typically made.

  1. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  2. Impact of Labor Transfer on Agricultural Land Use Conversion at Rural Household Level Based on Logit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Taiyang; ZHANG Xiuying; HUANG Xianjin

    2008-01-01

    Since land and labor force are primary resources to be used and controlled by rural households, the alloca-tion of labor forces will influence land uses, and further lead to land use conversion. The present study used the Binary Logit model to investigate the influence of labor force transfer, characteristics of rural households, location, and land market on agricultural land use conversion at rural household level. This study was conducted based on 329 valid questionnaires, which were obtained in Changshu, Rudong, and Tongshan counties, respectively representing the southern, middle and northern areas of Jiangsu Province. The results showed that land market participation, location, zonal difference and labor transfer had strong influences on agricultural land use conversion. The participation of land market had a strong positive effect on land use conversion, especially for the farmland converted to the fishpond. The nearer to the county seat, the more conversion of land use occurred. Particularly, the labor force transfer caused by wage employment decreased this conversion probability, while the labor transfer caused by self-employment led to more conversion; and the increasing of income from labor transfer increased the conversion. Moreover, land use con-versions demonstrated zonal difference, which were more in Rudong and Changshu counties than in Tongshan County, and the factors influencing this conversion were different in the three regions.

  3. Accumulation and seepages of biogenic gas in northern Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Troels; Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Buchardt, Bjørn; Cederberg, Tommy; Kuijpers, Antoon

    1992-10-01

    Gas from two shallow submarine seeps in northern Kattegat were found to consist of methane (94.8-98.6%), carbon dioxide (0.3-2.1%) and nitrogen (up to 3%). The stable isotopic ratios of methane, δ 13C: -65.3 to -68.4‰ and δ 2 H: -168 to -191‰, clearly show it to be biogenic. The gas most likely originates from the Late Pleistocene marine deposits in which gas with similar chemical and isotopic composition has been found by the authors in several on-land shallow (100-120 m) wells. These marine deposits were found to contain 0.6-0.9% total organic matter of mainly terrestrial origin (based on Rock-Eval data), deposited at high sedimentation rates. The processes of generation and accumulation of biogenic gas during the Late Pleistocene is found to parallel those known to be acting today in a major depocentre in northern Kattegat. Recent tectonic activity in the area has created fractures through which the gas escapes. With regard to sediment type, seeps in the seabed from the area are more likely to occur in coarser sediments rather than fine grained sediments, since consumption of methane by sulphate reduction is probably more important in the latter.

  4. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  5. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  6. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  7. Climate Variability and Local Land Use in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Zachary; Wieber, Josef; Boyd, Sylke

    2014-03-01

    We have analyzed the longitudinal weather records from 12 distinct weather stations in Minnesota and the Dakotas in conjunction with long-term changes in land use in those locations including diurnal temperature range, precipitation, daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures and other data. The land types include rural cultivated land, urban areas and forest. One motivation for this study was to investigate the role of the transition from prairie land to high-evapo-transpiration crops such as soy and corn. The weather records were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We observe an increase in the extreme minimum temperatures throughout all months of the year. The increase in minimum temperatures is most pronounced for the northern-most locations in the dataset and for the winter months. Consistent with similar observations from other US locations, the mean daily temperature range has a decreasing trend for all non-urban locations. Urban locations are showing clear heat-island effects of increases in all temperature markers but no significant variations in daily temperature range. No significant difference in trends was found between cultivated and forested locations. Supported by HHMI grant.

  8. Regulation of land attitudes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land relations play an important role in the life of any state. The article is devoted to the questions of the land relations development in Kazakhstan. Tasks, stages and results of land reform are considered in it. The analysis has shown that land reform has not affected on a condition of land fund in a good way: the huge areas have been transmitted into stock lands, arable land has sharply decreased, fallow lands that have negatively affected on a quality of the lands and economy of republic was formed. In addition, the problems and ways of land relations perfection in republic were considered

  9. Analysis on mechanism of land resource security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the relationship among individual benefits, benefits of the country, common benefits of all humans in land use and land resource security. The following balanced land use model is proposed: the harmonious and interactive relationship between man and nature, two main bodies of land ecological system, constitutes the mechanism of land resources security. The feedback relationship between man and nature is the basis for the land resources security and the core is the relationship among people established for the benefit equilibrium in land use. The conflicts, in land use stem from the rarity of land resource and the solution to those conflicts in harmony helps land resource security.

  10. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  11. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  12. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  13. LAND MEASUREMENT IN HOLY BOOKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Nelu Leu

    2012-01-01

    Data and facts presented here will show measurement methods for time, land, buildings and first map designs of Israel County used during time. There are also described the instruments and measurement units used to perform these types of measurements, like the plot of land, the cubit, the mason string, the cane and the pole. Like any scientific approach, the land measurement domain begins with training specialists to elaborate all projects needed. This can be done “with the help of the H...

  14. Deforestation, Land Taxes and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkuhl, Matthias; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines neoclassical growth theory with the von Th nen approach of land conversion to model deforestation and land allocation decisions in an intertemporal general equilibrium context suitable for developing countries. Analyzing the impact of several forest conservation policies, including international transfers under a REDD+ scheme, emphasized the role of taxes on non-forest land as effective and powerful policy that has been largely neglected so far.The findings of our equilibr...

  15. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  16. The economics of land degradation

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim; Gerber, Nicolas; Mirzabaev, Alisher; Nkonya, Ephraim

    2013-01-01

    Healthy soils are essential for sustaining economies and human livelihoods. In spite of this, the key ecosystem services provided by soils have usually been taken for granted and their true value – beyond market value – is being underrated. This pattern of undervaluation of soils is about to change in view of rapidly raising land prices, which is the result of increased shortage of land and raising output prices that drive implicit prices of land (with access to water) upward. Moreover, the v...

  17. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  18. Contamination from Russian Northern Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, from an environmental group known as Bellona and based in Norway, is highly critical of the Russian navy's apparently short-sighted attitude to nuclear power's longer term economic and environmental consequences. Six main sources of radioactive contamination from the activities of the Russian Northern Fleet are summarised, namely, the still increasing numbers of nuclear-powered submarines in service, naval bases, shipyards (including the storage of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuels), safety problems with service ships providing transport for nuclear materials, the whole unaddressed problem of decommissioning nuclear submarines due to go out of service (eighty-eight vessels at present), and accidents involving nuclear submarines. (UK)

  19. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Ra 226 is proved and measured by radiom emanation-method in waters and food products of North , North West and North – East of Iran. A total of 126 water, 249 food and 22 air samples have been examined. The concertration of Ra 226 in waters found to be 0.01 to 1.104 Pci/1 and in food products from 0.01 to Pci/gr. Ash.The amount found in due ranges from 0.003 to 0.227 Pci/m 3.It is concluded that the presence of higher than normal activity in some parts of Northern Iran is due to radiationanomalies in subsurface strata, where these mineral waters pass. Further investigattions are recommended.