WorldWideScience

Sample records for arnhem land northern

  1. The Aboriginal Australian in Northern-Eastern Arnhem Land. Resources Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoll, Peter

    The paper examines the nature of current curriculum and resource materials related to Aboriginal studies, and reviews the curriculum materials "The Aboriginal Australian in North-Eastern Arnhem Land" which were trialled with Year 8 and Year 9 classes during 1980 in four Queensland State High Schools - Kingston, Mackay North, Murgon, and Pimlico.…

  2. Taking Them Back: Archival Media in Arnhem Land Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the significance of footage of the sacred ceremonies of indigenous people in 1948 filmed by the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in Australia's Northern Territory. The author shows a group of scientifically-minded Westerners drawn into secret Aboriginal rituals and argues that the archives open new possibilities for preserving an endangered body of knowledge.

  3. Diversity of substance use in eastern Arnhem Land (Australia): patterns and recent changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Guyula, Terrence; Yunupingu, Maymuna; Burns, Christopher B

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe patterns of substance use among remote Aboriginal community populations. The setting was the eastern Arnhem Land ('Miwatj') region of the Northern Territory's (NT) 'Top End', with a population of 4217 Aboriginal people over 15 years of age using a cross-sectional description and comparison. Sample 1 (n = 689) from the region used data from health-worker consensus classification of kava, alcohol, tobacco, petrol and cannabis use. Sample 2 (n = 101) from one community used self-reported use, age at commencement, duration, amounts consumed and expenditure. In 1999 (sample 1), 46% of males and 18% of females were kava users, alcohol: 53% males, 12% females, tobacco: 68% males, 65% females, and cannabis: 31% males, 8% females. Less than 5% sniffed petrol. In one community in 2000, 39% males and 20% females reported using cannabis during the previous month. In this community between 1999 and 2000, the proportion of current kava users among men declined (77-52%, p = 0.015) with a tendency in women for a decrease in the proportion of tobacco users (87-69%, p = 0.096). The increase in the proportion of cannabis users in men (21-39%, p = 0.068) was not statistically significant. However, in women the increase was significant (0-20%, p = 0.013). Gross expenditure on tobacco and kava were similar in 2000: both greater than cannabis and alcohol. Median years used ranged from 4 years for cannabis and 20 years for tobacco. The data supported anecdotes of a recent rise in cannabis use, especially in women. Kava use declined in men. Tobacco use patterns in women may have been changing. Average per capita consumption of alcohol was low compared with other 'Top End' areas. Such varied and dynamic substance use patterns pose challenges for research and policy. PMID:12537704

  4. Bramen rond Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de A.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the Rubus-flora around Arnhem and its phytogeographical significance. Both the genus Rubus and the phytogeography are topics of the botanical interest of Prof. Van Soest, in whose honour this special issue of Gorteria is made. The environment of the town of Arnhem is one of the

  5. Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes in sediments from Cooper Creek, Western Arnhem Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of the environment post-mining is a key objective of rehabilitation, especially where runoff and erosion from rehabilitated mine sites could potentially lead to contamination of the surrounding land and watercourses. As part of an overall assessment of the success of rehabilitation at the former Nabarlek uranium (U) mine, an appraisal of stable lead (Pb) isotopes, radionuclides and trace metals within sediments and soils was conducted to determine the off site impacts from a spatial and temporal perspective. The study found localised areas on and adjacent to the site where soils had elevated levels of trace metals and radionuclides. Lead isotope ratios are highly radiogenic in some samples, indicating the presence of U-rich material. There is some indication that erosion products with more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios have deposited in sediments downstream of the former ore body. However, there is no indication that the radiogenic erosion products found on the mine site at present have significantly contaminated sediments further downstream of Cooper Creek

  6. The Population Ecology of Two Tropical Trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), Harvested by Indigenous Woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year-1 for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year-1 for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  7. Northern Land Council v. the Commonwealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ranger Project Area in the Northern Territory contains deposits of uranium. By section 5 of the Atomic Energy Amendment Act (No. 2) 1980 the assignment of an agreement between the Commonwealth and joint venturers for the conduct of uranium mining was authorised. The Northern Land Council, representing Aboriginal interests, challenged the validity of the section. It was held that the section was valid. The Council also submitted that, although it had entered into an agreement with the Commonwealth in 1978, the agreement was void or voidable

  8. Evaluation of the MTBE incident in Arnhem, Netherlands; Naschrift MTBE incident Arnhem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    November 22, 2004, a train at the station Arnhem, Netherlands, loaded with the hazardous material Methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), caused several complaints by passengers. Although it appeared that there were no leaks from the train, people who became unwell showed high concentrations of MTBE in their blood. In the end, the Public Prosecutor could not find evidence for the cause of the incident and closed the inquiry in April 2005. In this paper the incident is outlined and background information is given about MTBE. [Dutch] Op maandag 22 november 2004 raakten in het station van Arnhem enige tientallen mensen onwel. In eerste instantie leek een trein, geladen met de gevaarlijke stof Methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), de veroorzaker van de klachten. Hierop heeft de Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat in samenwerking met andere diensten ter plaatse onderzoek verricht. Daaruit en uit nader onderzoek bleek de trein niet te lekken en wezen wegingen uit dat er geen lading was verdwenen. Mede omdat was gebleken dat de in Arnhem onwel geworden mensen hoge concentraties MTBE in hun bloed hadden, zette het Openbaar Ministerie het strafrechtelijke onderzoek voort. Uiteindelijk heeft het OM geen oorzaak voor het incident kunnen aanwijzen en is het onderzoek begin april afgesloten. Deze notitie schetst een achtergrondbeeld over de stof MTBE en geeft een beknopte toelichting op het incident.

  9. Fashion District Arnhem: creative entrepreneurs upgrading a deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jacobs; E. Lentjes; E. Ruiten

    2014-01-01

    The Arnhem Fashion District, which started in 2005, offers workspaces, shops and places to live for fashion designers. More than fifty fashion designers and other creative entrepreneurs have located their business in this neighbourhood. For a few years most of the fashion chain has been present: des

  10. Digital technology impacts on the Arnhem transfer hall structural design

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Straat, R.; Hofman, S; Coenders, J.L.; J.C. Paul

    2015-01-01

    The new Transfer Hall in Arnhem is one of the key projects to prepare the Dutch railways for the increased future demands for capacity. UNStudio developed a master plan in 1996 for the station area of which the completion of the Transfer Hall in 2015 will be a final milestone. The Transfer Hall is a merging point of passengers, commercial and social interchanges, containing a multi-use development integrating program and flows of people and vehicles. The design includes a complex geometrical,...

  11. Renovation of the Palace of Justice in Arnhem, Netherlands. Integral installation concept; Renovatie Paleis van Justitie Arnhem. Integraal installatieconcept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wildt, M.G. [Grontmij, Technical Management, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    An unconventional building retrofitting strategy was developed for a building, belonging to the Palace of Justice in Arnhem, Netherlands. The architecture of the building appeared to limit the possibilities to install a modern HVAC system. However, integrated design methods facilitated the development of an unconventional solution involving, among other things, ceiling islands. Despite the higher capacity of the heating and cooling systems, the result was a more spatially interesting interior with a substantially improved indoor climate. [Dutch] Bij de renovatie van een gebouw, behorende bij het Paleis van Justitie in Arnhem, is een onconventionele installatieopzet gekozen. Het gebouw leek vanwege bouwkundige beperkingen niet echt geschikt om moderne installaties in onder te brengen. Door integraal ontwerpen werd een oplossing bedacht met o.a. plafondeilanden, waarbij ondanks de uitgebreidere installaties een ruimtelijker gebouw werd bereikt samen met een sterk verbeterd binnenklimaat.

  12. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  13. Arable land increase in northern China: facts and findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on investigations between 1986 and 1996 in the four provinces of northern China, major problems on land reclamation were discovered. The increase of arable land was mainly low quality fields from barren land and was susceptible to disertification and water-induced soil erosion. In the meantime, large area of grassland and forestland was lost or degraded, and original fertile arable land was occupied for residential and industrial use. As a result the environment deteriorated. This change was mainly caused by economic development, population growth, inferior natural conditions, and irrational management strategies. Finally some positive measures were suggested to stop this negative cycle.

  14. Access To Land And The System Of Land Ownership In Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul AHIDJO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern Cameroon is a vast geographical region made up of a population with diverse customs, religion and migration process. The entire population is made up of paleo-nigritics, neo-Sudanese and pastoral nomads who practice activities such as agriculture, livestock and fisheries. This ethnic heterogeneity, complex historical events and cultural diversity has made the customary systemof land tenure to vary both in their ancient aspects as well as contemporary manifestations. Therefore, based on verbal assertion and written data, this article examines the methods of land access as well as the traditional and modern land tenure system. For the population of Northern Cameroon and elsewhere, land represents a natural resource of prime importance. Access to land and its control constitutes a major economic challenge and it is equally a source ofdiverse conflicts. The system of land ownership has been influenced by external unforeseen events. From the pre-colonial period to the so called post colonial period, access to land and land ownership vary between the conservation of a traditional system which land owners are trying to preserve and the weight of modernity which has economic implications.

  15. Geological map of land and seaareas of northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway, in cooperation with the Geological Surveys of 22 other countries and under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), has compiled a geological map of northern Europe at the 1:4 million scale.For the first time the geology of both land and sea areas of this large region is displayed in a single document. The area covered extends

  16. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern...

  17. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pastor

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  18. Contribution of the NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change (LCLUC) Program to the Northern Eurasia Partnership Initiative (NEESPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, G.

    2004-12-01

    Northern Eurasia - a geographic area, which includes the territory of the Former Soviet Union, northern China and Mongolia, Scandinavia and Eastern Europe - has recently become a study area of an international, interagency program NEESPI (Northern Eurasia Partnership Initiative, http://neespi.gsfc.nasa.gov). NASA is currently the NEESPI major partner, with several NASA programs contributing to this initiative. Among them is the Land-Cover/Land-Use Change (LCLUC) Program. This talk will discuss the LCLUC Program contribution to the NEESPI, in particular the start-up projects on Carbon Cycle science studies. The area of Northern Eurasia plays a major role in the global carbon budget merely due to its vast territory covered by the boreal forests and peat lands. Also, climate warming is most pronounced in this geographic area with temperature rise expected to be the greatest over the globe. This, in turn, induces natural terrestrial processes, especially in permafrost areas, to release more carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. As far as the LCLUC processes are concerned, northern Eurasia is specifically interesting due to the dramatic socio-economic shifts throughout this region during the last decade. The rapid land use changes create the possibility for large and significant biological and climatic feedbacks in this region that could be of global importance. Regionally, significant changes in land use coupled with climate change may affect various sectors, including forestry, costal zone and agricultural systems. Additionally, these processes may have direct impacts on the society, including human health issues. This talk will present the use of NASA remote sensing data in reducing uncertainties in regional carbon budget estimates in studies of northern Eurasia. Current and planned research on detection, monitoring and impacts of changes in land cover and land use in northern Eurasia will be discussed. http://lcluc.gsfc.nasa.gov

  19. Canada: Native Land Rights and Northern Development. IWGIA Document 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Peter A.

    Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…

  20. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  1. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Lange; Rosemarie Siebert; Tim Barkmann

    2015-01-01

    Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i) agriculture; (ii) forestry; (iii) water management and (iv) rural planning...

  2. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  3. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  4. Land Reform and Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TRUNG THANH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the abstract of my doctoral dissertation entitled “The Impactof Land Reform on Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam” at theJustus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany under the supervision of Prof. Dr.Siegfried Bauer. The study examined the impact of the recent land reform inVietnam on the economy of rural households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam.It was found that the land reform has positive impact on three important aspects ofrural household’s economy, namely crop production, land market participation, andafforestation. However, further improvement in terms of private land rights isneeded for a more sustainable development in the region.

  5. Soil conservation, land use and property rights in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Atakilte

    2003-01-01

    Land resources are key aspects in food production and livelihood systems for the majority of the population of developing countries. For these reasons promotion of sustainable management of agricultural land resources is, and will continue to be, of concern to a range of actors: the public, the state, donor agencies, the scientific community and not the least the smallholders themselves. Major initiatives to address such concerns are soil and water conservation programmes. It is, however, wid...

  6. Land Reform and Farm Land Rental Market Operation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Trung THANH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting the participation of farmhouseholds in farm land rental markets with particular focus on the impact ofthe land reform. The operational outcomes of such market participation are alsoanalysed. The study used a panel dataset of farm households surveyed beforeand after the land reform with Random Effect Tobit model. The analysisshowed that the land reform have contributed to increased land rentalparticipation. The operation of the market has both efficiency and equityoutcomes. Therefore, constraints to functioning of land rental market aredifficult to justify. In other words, farm land rental should be promoted to bringsuch desirable outcomes.

  7. Scenario simulation and forecast of land use/cover in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YueChen; HE ChunYang

    2008-01-01

    Modeling land use/cover scenario changes and its potential impacts on structure and functions of ecosystem in typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use/cover system and ecosystem. Based on the analysis of the existing land use/cover simulation and forecast models, a land use/cover scenario dynamics model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model, Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use/cover scenario changes in northern China in the next 30 years and simulated in this paper. The model is to simulate the land use/cover scenario demands by using a SD model at first, and then allocating the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use/cover suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using BPNN-CA model to satisfy the balance between land use/cover scenario demands and supplies. It integrates the advantages of SD, BPNN and CA. Macro-driving factors and the micro-spatial pattern are also fully taken into account. The BPNN simplifies the identification of the factors' weights used in CA model and improves the reliability of the simulation results. The simulation accuracy of the model developed in this paper was found to be about 74%. It suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complexity of land use/cover system at different scales to some extent and it is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecosystem. The simulated results also indicate that the urban land, water area and forest will increase significantly, and farmland and unable land will decrease gradually. Obvious land use/cover changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone and the southeast area of northern China.

  8. INSTITUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE LAND USE: THE CASE OF FOREST AND GRAZING LANDS IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2009-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production for agriculture, horticulture, forestry as well as other land related activities. Institutions that govern its use determine the sustainability and efficient use of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting has resulted in major degradation of Ethiopia’s land resources and dissipation of the resource rent, as available forest and grazing lands are exploited in a suboptimal fashion. An alternative to...

  9. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  10. Land Use and Land Cover Change, and Woody Vegetation Diversity in Human Driven Landscape of Gilgel Tekeze Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuale Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC change through inappropriate agricultural practices and high human and livestock population pressure have led to severe land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands. This has led to further degradation such as biodiversity loss, deforestation, and soil erosion. The study examined woody vegetation diversity status and the impact of drivers of change across different LULC types and agroecological zones in Gilgel Tekeze catchment, northern Ethiopian highlands. LULC dynamics were assessed using GIS techniques on 1976, 1986, and 2008 satellite images. Vegetation data were collected from 135 sample plots (20 m × 20 m from five LULC types, namely, forest, shrub-bush, grazing, settlement, and cultivated land, in the three agroecological zones; Kolla, Weyna-Dega, and Dega. Differences in vegetation structure and composition and their relationship to agroecological zones were tested using two-way ANOVA and PCA technique. The results show that vegetation structure and composition significantly differed across all LULC types in different agroecological zones particularly in sapling density, tree height, and shrub height and in each agroecological zone between forest land, shrub-bush land, and settlement area. Overall, Weyna-Dega agroecological zone and the shrub-bush land had more structural and compositional diversity than the other agroecological zones and LULC types.

  11. Uranium mine rehabilitation in the Gunlom Land Trust, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunlom Land Trust area is Aboriginal freehold land, currently leased to the Director, National Parks (Commonwealth). Parks Australia through the office of the Director, National Parks is responsible for managing the area as part of Kakadu National Park (KNP). The abandoned uranium mines and associated infrastructure covered by the remediation works are located in the southern part of KNP, within the valley containing the headwaters of the South Alligator River. One site, Sleisbeck, is located in the Katherine River catchment. The area is of high significance for both its natural and cultural values. This article describes remediation works that were undertaken at two sites, Guratba and Sleisbeck, during the late dry-season of 2007.

  12. The Northern Territory Intervention: The Symbolic Value of ‘Authentic’ Indigeneity and Impoverishment, and the Interests of the (Progressive Liberal Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Rolls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 the federal Howard government announced The Northern Territory National Emergency Response, known more prosaically as ‘The Intervention’. This initiative was hurriedly implemented to address a broad range of issues highlighted in ‘The Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse’. The report bore a title expressing a traditional Yolngu belief (north east Arnhem Land that for some unexplained reason had been translated into a l anguage from the central desert. This was paraphrased in the emotive and cloying English subtitle ‘Little Children are Sacred,’ and it is the latter by which the report is widely known.

  13. Pastoralists seasonal land rights in land administration : a study of Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lengoiboni, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that incorporating pastoral land rights into the formal system requires identifying and securing pastoralists’ rights on migration corridors and dry season pastures in a manner that, first, reflects their customary practices about ‘where’ and ‘when’ they require access to the land, and second, aligning both the ‘when’ and the ‘where’ within the legal framework for property rights and land administration. This approach ma...

  14. USGS Historical, Current, and Projected Future Land Cover Mapping for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T. L.; Gallant, A.; Sayler, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Land cover in the Northern Great Plains has changed considerably in the last several decades. While a significant proportion of the landscape has been cultivated for over one hundred years, the intensity of cultivation, crop type, and management practices have changed in response to shifts in government policy, commodity prices, access to water, and technological advances. Changes in land cover impact a wide variety of ecosystem processes and services, including carbon balances, climate, hydrology and water quality, and biodiversity. A consistent record of historical land cover is required to understand relations between land- cover change and these ecological processes, while projections of future land cover are needed for planning and potential mitigation efforts. Several U.S. Geological Survey efforts have been completed or are ongoing in the Northern Great Plains, resulting in the compilation of an unmatched record of historical, current, and future land-cover information for the region. The USGS Land Cover Trends project is using the historical record of Landsat imagery and a robust sampling approach to examine the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change on an ecoregional basis for the conterminous United States. Results from completed Trends analyses for Great Plains ecoregions revealed changes in the proportion and distribution of grassland/shrubland and agricultural uses during the study period; Some areas exhibited considerable loss in cultivated land after initiation of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the mid 1980s. In recent years (post-2000), agricultural commodity prices have skyrocketed as food and energy compete for use of agricultural products, which in conjunction with the expiration of many CRP contracts, has led to expansion of cultivated land. In the coming decades, calls for U.S. energy independence and the development of biofuels from cellulosic stock could result in a transformation of the Great

  15. Potential influence of climate-induced vegetation shifts on future land use and associated land carbon fluxes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change will alter ecosystem metabolism and may lead to a redistribution of vegetation and changes in fire regimes in Northern Eurasia over the 21st century. Land management decisions will interact with these climate-driven changes to reshape the region’s landscape. Here we present an assessment of the potential consequences of climate change on land use and associated land carbon sink activity for Northern Eurasia in the context of climate-induced vegetation shifts. Under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, climate-induced vegetation shifts allow expansion of areas devoted to food crop production (15%) and pastures (39%) over the 21st century. Under a climate stabilization scenario, climate-induced vegetation shifts permit expansion of areas devoted to cellulosic biofuel production (25%) and pastures (21%), but reduce the expansion of areas devoted to food crop production by 10%. In both climate scenarios, vegetation shifts further reduce the areas devoted to timber production by 6–8% over this same time period. Fire associated with climate-induced vegetation shifts causes the region to become more of a carbon source than if no vegetation shifts occur. Consideration of the interactions between climate-induced vegetation shifts and human activities through a modeling framework has provided clues to how humans may be able to adapt to a changing world and identified the trade-offs, including unintended consequences, associated with proposed climate/energy policies. (paper)

  16. Effects of Happiness on All-Cause Mortality During 15 Years of Follow-Up: The Arnhem Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, T.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Giltay, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychological characteristics may be beneficial for physical health. However, prospective data on the effects of happiness on survival is scarce. In a population-based cohort study, the Arnhem Elderly Study, happiness was measured by two items, being: "I have many moments of happiness" and

  17. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lange

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i agriculture; (ii forestry; (iii water management and (iv rural planning and development (“cross-sector” representatives. The data were gathered using 60 semi-structured interviews and were analyzed qualitatively. The results indicate that differences in perceptions are greater between stakeholder groups than between regions; regional land management issues shape the framework of negotiations and the redefinition of concepts, whereas stakeholder group affiliations shape mindsets. The economic dimension of sustainability was emphasized, particularly by land managers; however, the social dimension was underrepresented in the statements. Furthermore, there are considerable differences between stakeholder groups in terms of the ways in which the spatial and temporal scales of sustainable land use are perceived. This study underscores the importance of examining stakeholder knowledge and understanding the complexity of land management and its benefits such that consensual management strategies may be developed.

  18. ASSESSING LAND SUITABILITY FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERMAFROST REGIONS: A MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH TO LAND-USE PLANNING IN NORTHERN QUEBEC, CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    KATERINE GRANDMONT; Cardille, Jeffrey A.; DANIEL FORTIER; TANIA GIBÉRYEN

    2012-01-01

    Northern Quebec (Nunavik) presents an important intersection between population growth and climate change. The Inuit population of Nunavik has the fastest growth rate in any region of Canada. Land-use planning is an urgent and pressing need for northern communities built on permafrost, where there are considerable risks to development in areas where permafrost may thaw. As northern communities work to adapt to climate changes, they will be in great need of confident recommendations about loca...

  19. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  20. Pervasive, tholeiitic refertilisation and heterogeneous metasomatism in Northern Victoria Land lithospheric mantle (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Faccini, Barbara; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of peridotite xenoliths in the Cenozoic volcanics from Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) provides new constraints on the characterisation of the lithospheric mantle beneath the West Antarctic Rift. Based on mineral major and trace element models, this mantle domain is proposed to represent a residuum after 10% and 20% partial melting. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results for Sr and Nd systematics highlight the substantial contribution of tholeiitic melts percolating through peridotites. Close correlation with trace element contents in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Ferrar and Karoo tholeiites allows us to ascribe this refertilisation event to the Jurassic. This asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to the Northern Victoria Land mantle segment. The rare presence of glass and secondary phases indicate that Greene Point xenoliths were heterogeneously affected by alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening; this has also been widely observed in other Northern Victoria Land localities (i.e., Baker Rocks). Temperature and fO2 were calculated (950 °C; Δlog fO2 (QFM), - 1.70 to - 0.39) at a fixed pressure of 15 kbar, confirming the tendency of the anhydrous Greene Point xenolith population to have higher equilibration temperatures and comparable redox conditions, compared to the nearby amphibole-bearing peridotites from Baker Rocks.

  1. An off-line simulation of land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinHong Song; YaoMing Ma; Yu Zhang; WeiQiang Ma; SiQiong Luo

    2014-01-01

    In order to further understand the land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau, this study produced an off-line simulated examination at the Bujiao site on the northern Tibetan Plateau from June 2002 to April 2004, using the Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM) and observed data from the CAMP/Tibet experiment. The observed data were neces-sarily corrected and the number of soil layers in the Noah LSM was changed from 4 to 10 to enable this off-line simulation and analysis. The main conclusions are as follows:the Noah LSM performed well on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The simulated net radiation, upward longwave radiation, and upward shortwave radiation demonstrated the same remarkable annual and seasonal variation as the observed data, especially the upward longwave radiation. The simulated soil tem-peratures were acceptably close to the observed temperatures, especially in the shallow soil layers. The simulated freezing and melting processes were shown to start from the surface soil layer and spread down to the deep soil layers, but they took longer than the observed processes. However, Noah LSM did not adequately simulate the soil moisture. Therefore, addi-tional high-quality, long-term observations of land surface-atmosphere processes over the Tibetan Plateau will be a key factor in proper adjustments of the model parameters in the future.

  2. Implications of land use change in tropical Northern Africa under global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brücher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major link between climate and humans in Northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. Here we assess possible feedbacks between the type of land use and harvest intensity and climate by analyzing a series of idealized GCM experiments using the MPI-ESM. The base line for these experiments is a simulation forced by the RCP8.5 scenario which includes strong greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic land cover changes. The anthropogenic land cover changes in the RCP8.5 scenario include a mixture of pasture and agriculture. In subsequent simulations, we replace the entire area affected by anthropogenic land cover change in the region between the Sahara in the North and the Guinean Coast in the South (4 to 20° N by either pasture or agriculture, respectively. In a second setup we vary the amount of harvest in case of agriculture. The RCP8.5 base line simulation reveals strong changes in mean agriculture and monsoon rainfall. In comparison with these changes, any variation of the type of land use in the study area leads to very small, mostly insignificantly small, additional differences in mean temperature and annual precipitation change in this region. Within the uncertainty of the representation of land use in current ESMs, our study suggests marginal feedback between land use changes and climate changes triggered by strong greenhouse gas emissions. Hence as a good approximation, climate change can be considered as external driver in models of land-use – conflict dynamics when seasonal or mean values are used as external driver.

  3. Pastoralists seasonal land rights in land administration : a study of Northern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengoiboni, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that incorporating pastoral land rights into the formal system requires identifying and securing pastoralists’ rights on migration corridors and dry season pastures in a manner that, first, reflects their customary practices about ‘where’ and ‘when&rsquo

  4. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  5. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Stephanie; Malcolm, Heath; Buys, Gwen; Moxley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2012 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector of the UNFCCC National Inventory for each of the UK Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

  6. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin. PMID:27318516

  7. Siting, design and cost of shallow land burial facilities in northern New England. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the technical feasibility and cost of shallow land burial (SLB) as one low-level radioactive waste disposal option for Maine and the northern New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The results are presented in five chapters addressing the licensing process for an SLB facility, the siting process, the engineering design, the cost of disposal, and the cost of transportation. Chapter 2 reviews the Federal and State licensing processes and requirements for development of an SLB facility. Included in this discussion are the stages in the life cycle of SLB facility. Chapter 3 provides site selection criteria for Maine and presents a proposed site selection methodology. The site selection criteria are defined and the reasoning behind their selection is explained. Chapter 4 discusses SLB trench and facility designs and costs. To accommodate different waste volume scenarios, differently sized facilities are discussed, representing Maine going-it-alone and a northern New England compact. Designs and costs of scenarios including nuclear power plant decommissioning wastes are also discussed. Cost estimates of licensing, facility construction, operation, closure, and post closure care are presented for the different waste volume scenarios. Chapter 5 presents estimates of what it would cost LLW generators to dispose of their waste in a Maine-only or a northern New England shallow land burial facility. The reliability of the estimates and their sensitivity to changes in waste volume are also discussed. Chapter 6 examines transportation costs

  8. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-use types and management practices are critical factors that affect soil CO2 efflux (Rs). In the agro-pastoral area of northern China, land-use types have changed considerably during the last 60 years due to changes in the social-economic status of the human population and associated changes i...

  9. Soil Quality Indices for Evaluating Smallholder Agricultural Land Uses in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke M. Gelaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF; agroforestry (AF and irrigated crop production (IR. Each land use was replicated five times within a semi-arid watershed in eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Using the framework suggested by Karlen and Stott (1994; four soil functions regarding soil’s ability to: (1 accommodate water entry (WE; (2 facilitate water movement and availability (WMA; (3 resist degradation (RD; and (4 supply nutrients for plant growth (PNS were estimated for each land use. The result revealed that AF affected all soil quality functions positively more than the other land uses. Furthermore, the four soil quality functions were integrated into an overall SQI; and the values for the three land uses were in the order: 0.58 (AF > 0.51 (IR > 0.47 (RF. The dominant soil properties influencing the integrated SQI values were soil organic carbon (26.4%; water stable aggregation (20.0%; total porosity (16.0%; total nitrogen (11.2%; microbial biomass carbon (6.4%; and cation exchange capacity (6.4%. Collectively, those six indicators accounted for more than 80% of the overall SQI values.

  10. Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in Southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-Hui; FAN Zhi-Ping; D.K.LEE

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, large areas of the Horqin sandy land were afforested to prevent desertification. Although the afforestation policy appears successful, many people now doubt whether it is suitable to plant trees with high density on the poor soils in semiarid regions. Little is known about the impacts of afforestation on the sandy soil properties, although the evaluation of these impacts is fundamental to judge the rationality of afforestation policy. Soil phosphorus (P) fractions, acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and other soil chemical properties were compared among five adjoining typical ecosystems on poor sandy soils in southeastern Horqin sandy land. The ecosystems studied are natural elm savanna, degraded grassland, Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica) plantation, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation, and mixed plantation of Mongolian pine and poplar (Populus simonii). The results showed that organic P dominated soil P (47%-65%) was the principal source of available P. The degradation of elm savanna to grassland significantly reduced soil pH and resulted in an overall reduction in soil fertility, although slightly increased labile inorganic P. Grassland afforestation had no significant influence on soil pH, organic carbon, and total N but significantly reduced total P. Impacts of grassland afforestation on soil P fractions depended on tree species. Natural elm savanna had higher soil P conserving ability than artificial plantations. Therefore, with the aim of developing a sustainable ecosystem, we suggested that vegetations with low nutrient demand (particularly P) and efficient nutrient cycling would be more suitable for ecosystem restoration in the semiarid region.

  11. Mapping of the Land Cover Spatiotemporal Characteristics in Northern Russia Caused by Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidi, E.; Tsepelev, V.; Torlopova, N.; Bobkov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover) dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass). We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  12. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  13. Detecting Land Use And Land Cover Changes In Northern German Agricultural Landscapes To Assess Ecosystem Service Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Dörnhöfer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC and their changes in share and number of classes can be documented by remote sensing techniques. Information on LULC is needed for the assessment of ecosystem services and is used as input data for mapping and modelling. This information is important for decision-making and management of ecosystems and landscapes. In this study, LULC were analysed in two agricultural areas in Northern Germany by means of a pixel-based maximum likelihood classification approach of 11 Landsat TM 5 scenes between 1987 and 2011 followed by a post-classification refinement using the tool IRSeL. In this time period, grassland declined by about 50 % in both case study areas. This loss in grassland area can be associated with changes in provisioning ecosystem services as the supply of fodder and crops and the number of livestock declined from 1987 to 2007. Furthermore, an on-going increase in maize cultivation area, which is nowadays more and more used as biomass for biogas production, documents the addition of another provisioning service, i.e., biomass for energy. Combining remote sensing and research on ecosystem services supports the assessment and monitoring of ecosystem services on different temporal, spatial, and semantic scales.

  14. Land Use Change and Hydrologic Processes in High-Elevation Tropical Watersheds of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, W. A.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Covino, T. P.; Peña, C.

    2013-12-01

    The humid tropics cover one-fifth of the Earth's land surface and generate the greatest amount of runoff of any biome globally, but remain poorly understood and understudied. Humid tropical regions of the northern and central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land-use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system in the world. Vast expanses of this region are currently undergoing rapid transformation to farmland for production of potatoes and pasture for cattle grazing. Although the humid tropics have some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, there is a lack of scientific literature that addresses hydrologic processes in these regions and very few field observations are available to inform management strategies to ensure the sustainability of water resources of present and future generations. We seek to improve understanding of hydrologic processes and feedbacks in the humid tropics using existing and new information from two high-elevation watersheds that span a LULC gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. One site is located in the preserved Chingaza Natural National Park in Central Colombia (undisturbed). The second site is located ~60 km to the northwest and has experienced considerable LULC change over the last 40 years. Combined, these watersheds deliver over 80% of the water resources to Bogotá and neighboring communities. These watersheds have similar climatological characteristics (including annual precipitation), but have strong differences in LULC which result in substantial differences in hydrologic response and streamflow dynamics. We present an overview of many of the pressing issues and effects that land degradation and climate change are posing to the long-term sustainability of water resources in the northern Andes. Our overarching goal is to provide process-based knowledge that will be useful to prevent, mitigate, or respond to future water crises along the Andean

  15. Development of Ecological Land Classification and mapping in support of forest management in northern Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajzak, D; Roberts, B A

    1996-01-01

    For the sustainable development of forest land, as recently prescribed by the Canadian Forest Strategy, a land classification project in northern Newfoundland was initiated to support the local forest management activities. The method adopted here is a modification of the Canadian Committee for Ecological Land Classification's (CCELC) system, and it applies various levels of mapping to uniform areas based on geomorphology, soils, vegetation, climate, water, and fauna.In this study, all CCELC levels were mapped; resulting maps were digitized and imported into a Geographic Informations System (GIS). The GIS data base contained the following maps: 1) digital terrain model, 2) bedrock geology, 3) surficial geology, 4) forest inventory, and 5) various levels of the ecological land classification, including Vegetation Types at the lowest level. In addition to the mapping, mensurational data were analyzed to provide stand and stock tables for each of the forest types, including growth curves that could be entered into specific forest growth modelling systems to predict wood supply scenarios based upon different management interventions. PMID:24198006

  16. Monitoring Contrasting Land Management in the Savanna Landscapes of Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald C.; Petty, Aaron M.; Williamson, Grant J.; Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  17. Environmental compliance requirements for uranium mines in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current phase of uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia began in the late 70's and is governed by a large number of legislative and administrative requirements. The primary responsibility for environmental regulation rests with the Northern Territory Government but the legislative framework is complex and involves agencies of the Commonwealth Government as well as the Aboriginal traditional owners. Two of the current uranium mining projects, Ranger and Jabiluka, are surrounded by the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. Thirteen former mines are located within the Park and one former mine, Nabarlek, is in the same catchment as part of the Park, in West Arnhem Land. For these reasons, environmental management at the operating mines has to be of the highest standard and environmental requirements are attached to all laws and agreements controlling the operating facilities. The paper describes the spirit and rationale behind the regulations as well as the operating details and methodology of the regulatory system in place for the operating mines. An integral part of the overall environmental protection regime is a bi-annual program of Environmental Audits and Environmental Performance Reviews and regular reporting to a stakeholder committee. Other elements include internal and external environmental auditing at the minesites as well as programs of routine monitoring, check monitoring and reporting on a scale and frequency rarely seen elsewhere. Public concern and perception is considered to be a valid issue requiring attention

  18. Land surface phenology, hydrology and CO2 fluxes of forests and grasslands in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Li, C.; Kurbatova, J.; Varlagin, A.; Zhang, J.; Wu, J.; Wu, W.; Biradar, C.; Chen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) is a key indicator of ecosystem dynamics under a changing environment. Changes in phenology of plants affect the carbon cycle, water cycle, climate through photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. We have combined satellite observations, CO2 eddy flux tower sites and process-based biogeochemical model to improve our understanding of the effect of land surface phenology and hydrology on gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) from a variety of ecosystem types. In this paper, we will present case studies from two spruce forest sites (wet spruce forest and dry spruce forest) in Russia, a deciduous broadleaf forest site and a grassland site in Northern China. Among the three vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), both LSWI and EVI agreed well with the photosynthetically active period (as defined by estimated GPP data from CO2 eddy flux tower sites) than NDVI does. The Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), which uses EVI and LSWI data as input, provides improved prediction of GPP for various types of terrestrial ecosystems. NEE is the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration. Simulations of processed-based DNDC model for two spruce forests (wet and dry spruce forests) suggested that ecosystem respiration (and consequently NEE) fluxes are highly sensitive to water table depth at the sites. Because Northern Eurasia has a large area of wetlands and underwent significant climate change, potential change in water table due to hydrological processes could have significant implication to the carbon fluxes and carbon balance (carbon sink or source) in the region.

  19. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog, the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE. Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal

  20. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  1. Satellite observations of changes in snow-covered land surface albedo during spring in the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    K. Atlaskina; Berninger, F.; De Leeuw, G.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen years of MODIS surface albedo data for the Northern Hemisphere during the spring months (March–May) were analysed to determine temporal and spatial changes over snow-covered land surfaces. Tendencies in land surface albedo change north of 50° N were analysed using data on snow cover fraction, air temperature, vegetation index and precipitation. To this end, the study domain was divided into six smaller areas, based on their geographical position an...

  2. Improving Indigenous Technologies for Sustainable Land Use in Northern Mountainous Areas of Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Quoc Doanh; Ha Dinh Tuan

    2004-01-01

    More than 30 ethnic groups are now living in northern mountainous regions, Vietnam, mainly relying on shifting cultivation with the fallow period being shortened from time to time. Naturally, soil fertility reduces from cycle to cycle, entailing the reduction of productivity. Large areas of moderately sloping lands suitable for upland agriculture have become bare after many cultivation-fallow cycles. The soils there have been severely degraded with more toxicity, low porosity, low water retention capacity and poor floral diversity. Normally, these lands cannot be used for food crop cultivation. So farmers in uplands have to rely on slash-and-burn practices for their livelihood. As there is no more forest with good soil in medium slopes, farmers go to cut forests in watershed, high slope lands and old forests up to the mountains' top. There are ecologically and environmentally very sensitive areas, so their destruction will inevitably cause hazardous consequences in the whole basin. Meanwhile, cultivation in these areas has low economic efficiency and sustainability because the crop yield may decrease very fast due to severe erosion as the higher the slope, the more serious erosion. Consequently living standards of highland farmers remain low and unstable.Sustainable farming on these lands in the perspective of a seriously deteriorated ecology and environmental is not an easy task. There have beenmany projects trying to help mountainous farmers get out of their vicious circle. However, due to different reasons, the results gained are low, and in some cases, things ceased to move after the projects phased out.During past few years, based on the farmer experiences, the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute has cooperated with local and international partners to implement different projects in order to solve the problems by developing simple, easy and cheap cultivation technologies, which can be accepted and applied by local poor farmers for sustainable agricultural

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  4. Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover change on green water and blue water in northern part of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of land use and land cover changes on hydrological process in northern parts of China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. The direct evaporation from the intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model, which would be regarded as input to the distributed hydrological model for the computation of actual evaportranspiration. Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff and the Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. The land cover data were available for 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1999. Daily streamflow measurements were available from 1964 to 2005 and were divided into 4 periods: 1964–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005, based on the land cover scenarios. The distributed hydrological model was coupled with a two-source potential evaportranspiration model for simulating daily runoff. The result of runoff simulation showed that the saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. Model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data corresponding to the same period. Streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these four land cover scenarios. The results showed that the change of land use and land cover had a significant influence on evapotranspiration and runoff. The land cover data showed that forest land and water body had decreased from 1980 through 1999 and farm land and grass land had increased. This change caused the vegetation interception evaporation and vegetation transpiration to decrease, whereas the soil evaporation tended to increase. Thus the green water decreased but the blue water increased over the Laohahe catchment. This result was inconsistent with the fact that runoff ratio had a

  5. Assessing Naturalness in Northern Great Lakes Forests Based on Historical Land-Cover and Vegetation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmi, Urs; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2013-08-01

    The concept of naturalness was developed to assess to what degree landscapes represent a natural state. Protected areas are often regarded as the remnants of untouched landscapes although many landscapes commonly perceived as pristine have a long history of human impact. Here, we introduced a historical perspective into the concept of naturalness and the analysis of the effectiveness of protected areas by analyzing historical trajectories in land-cover and forest communities for the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore on Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA). Distribution of land-cover and forest community types was reconstructed for pre-settlement time (around 1850), the height of agricultural expansion (1928), and modern conditions (2000). Naturalness of the landscape was assessed by analyzing similarity between pre-settlement and current conditions and by assessing landscape continuity (1850-1928-2000). We compared changes in the strictly protected park core zone with those in the inland buffer zone with ongoing sustainable logging, and a not protected area adjacent to the park. Forest was the dominant land-cover type over the entire study period. We detected a gradient in land-cover continuity from the core zone (81 % continuity) to the inland buffer zone (74 %) and the area outside the park (66 %). Northern hardwood was the dominating forest type in all time points with high continuity (76 %). In contrast, pine forests show a more dynamic pattern with more than 50 % of the initial forests switching to non-forest or early succession forest types by 1928. More than half of the study area was considered as "natural virgin" (no changes in land-cover and forest community type) with a higher portion within the park than in the adjacent area. In contrast, areas with low naturalness are more abundant outside the park. Our study demonstrates the value of integrating historical information into naturalness assessments and the results provide useful information for future park

  6. Evaporation and land surface energy budget at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Tyler, Scott W.; Ortiz, Cristián A.; Muñoz, José F.; Adkins, Paula L.

    2005-08-01

    Playa systems are driven by evaporation processes, yet the mechanisms by which evaporation occurs through playa salt crusts are still poorly understood. In this study we examine playa evaporation as it relates to land surface energy fluxes, salt crust characteristics, groundwater and climate at the Salar de Atacama, a 3000 km 2 playa in northern Chile containing a uniquely broad range of salt crust types. Land surface energy budget measurements were taken at eight representative sites on this playa during winter (August 2001) and summer (January 2002) seasons. Measured values of net all-wave radiation were highest at vegetated and rough halite crust sites and lowest over smooth, highly reflective salt crusts. Over most of the Salar de Atacama, net radiation was dissipated by means of soil and sensible heat fluxes. Dry salt crusts tended to heat and cool very quickly, whereas soil heating and cooling occurred more gradually at wetter vegetated sites. Sensible heating was strongly linked to wind patterns, with highest sensible heat fluxes occurring on summer days with strong afternoon winds. Very little energy available at the land surface was used to evaporate water. Eddy covariance measurements could only constrain evaporation rates to within 0.1 mm d -1, and some measured evaporation rates were less than this margin of uncertainty. Evaporation rates ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 mm d -1 in smooth salt crusts around the margin of the salar and from 0.4 to 2.8 mm d -1 in vegetated areas. No evaporation was detected from the rugged halite salt crust that covers the interior of the salar, though the depth to groundwater is less than 1 m in this area. These crusts therefore represent a previously unrecorded end member condition in which the salt crusts form a practically impermeable barrier to evaporation.

  7. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara; Law, Beverly; Turner, David P; Campbell, John; Donato, Dan; Duane, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Net uptake of carbon from the atmosphere (net ecosystem production, NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. To improve understanding of the influence of these factors on forest carbon stocks and flux in the western United States, federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements at additional plots were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon and Northern California during the 1990s. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), and mortality. In the semiarid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C/m2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C.m(-2).yr(-1), respectively. Maximum NPP and dead biomass stores were most influenced by climate, whereas maximum live biomass stores and mortality were most influenced by forest type. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (>200 years old) in some ecoregions. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically increase from 3.2 +/- 0.34 Pg C to 5.9 +/- 1.34 Pg C (a 46% increase) if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable, given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase the land-based carbon storage by increasing rotation age and reducing harvest rates. PMID:19323181

  8. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Amanda M.; Hallsworth, Stephen; Malcolm, Heath

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990-2010 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector for each of the Devolved Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). Supporting data is available at http://naei.defra.gov.uk/report_link.php?report_id=692. A full report for the UK is available in the 1990-2010 UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, available on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory website http://nae...

  9. Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990‐2011

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Heath; Hallsworth, Stephen; Thomson, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the net emissions and removals of greenhouse gases for 1990‐2011 by the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector of the UNFCCC National Inventory for each of the Devolved Administrations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). Supporting data is available at http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_id=734. A full report for the UK is available in the 1990‐2011 UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, available on the National Atmos...

  10. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J. C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-07-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960-2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m-2 yr-2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960-1969 vs. 2000-2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model elements

  11. Effects of land-use and climate on Holocene vegetation composition in northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Poska, Anneli; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the advent of agriculture, broad-scale vegetation patterns in Europe were controlled primarily by climate. Early agriculture can be detected in palaeovegetation records, but the relative extent to which past regional vegetation was climatically or anthropogenically-forced is of current scientific interest. Using comparisons of transformed pollen data, climate-model data, dynamic vegetation model simulations and anthropogenic land-cover change data, this study aims to estimate the relative impacts of human activities and climate on the Holocene vegetation composition of northern Europe at a subcontinental scale. The REVEALS model was used for pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of vegetation (RV). Climate variables from ECHAM and the extent of human deforestation from KK10 were used as explanatory variables to evaluate their respective impacts on RV. Indices of vegetation-composition changes based on RV and climate-induced vegetation simulated by the LPJ-GUESS model (LPJG) were used to assess the relative importance of climate and anthropogenic impacts. The results show that climate is the major predictor of Holocene vegetation changes until 5000 years ago. The similarity in rate of change and turnover between RV and LPJG decreases after this time. Changes in RV explained by climate and KK10 vary for the last 2000 years; the similarity in rate of change, turnover, and evenness between RV and LPJG decreases to the present. The main conclusions provide important insights on Neolithic forest clearances that affected regional vegetation from 6700 years ago, although climate (temperature and precipitation) still was a major driver of vegetation change (explains 37% of the variation) at the subcontinental scale. Land use became more important around 5000-4000 years ago, while the influence of climate decreased (explains 28% of the variation). Land-use affects all indices of vegetation compositional change during the last 2000 years; the influence of climate

  12. Proposed Mars Surveyor Landing Sites in Northern Meridiani Sinus, Southern Elysium Planitia, and Argyre Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Edgett, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    from the present study images from current and future orbiter spacecraft, until such data does become readily available. Within each proposed region, it may be possible to identify additional sites once these data become available. Second, the fine-component thermal inertia data, should be greater than about 5 or 6 cgs Units (10(exp -3) cal/sq cm s(exp -0.5)/K). Low thermal inertias imply dusty environments, which could pose a mobility hazard. Similarly, the albedo of the site should not be particularly high, which would also suggest dusty surfaces. Low albedos are preferred, as they often coincide with low Viking red:violet ratios and indicate less dusty surfaces. Next, the Modeled Block Abundance should also not be too high or too low. Based on the Viking Lander and Mars Pathfinder experiences, percentages of blocks should be on the order of 5-25%. Too many blocks could pose a hazard to the landing and mobility. Too few blocks could also indicate a dusty surface. Primary Landing Site: Northern Meridiani Sinus (Proposed by T. J. Parker and K., S. Edgett) Vital Statistics: (1) Latitude, Longitude: 0-3 N, 350-2 W. *Elevation (Viking): about0.5-1.5 Ian. (2) Viking Orbiter Image coverage: Excellent coverage by 15 - 25 m/pixel images (orbits 709A and 410B). Possible stereo coverage in region where two orbits overlap (probably small parallax angle, as these orbits are not listed in NASA Contractor Report 3501) (3) Albedo: about .18 -.26 (4) Block Abundance: 5-26% (5)Fine-Component Thermal Inertia: 5-9 cgs units This region consists of bright deposits similar to those described by Edgett et al, that also lie within a prominent dark albedo region. These deposits are flat-lying, to such a degree that they ramp against topography rather than draping over it. This led Edgett and Parker to suggest that they may be subaqueous sediments, possibly lacustrine or marine evaporites, laid down sometime from the late Noachian to middle Hesperian (age determination pending crater counts

  13. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss

  14. Land Use and Water Quality Along a Mekong Tributary in Northern Lao P.D.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Cuny, Juliette; Sengsoulichanh, Phonexay; Mousquès, Claire; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Pierret, Alain; Huon, Sylvain; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2011-02-01

    Improving access to clean water has the potential to make a major contribution toward poverty reduction in rural communities of Lao P.D.R. This study focuses on stream water quality along a Mekong basin tributary, the Houay Xon that flows within a mountainous, mosaic land-use catchment of northern Lao P.D.R. To compare direct water quality measurements to the perception of water quality within the riparian population, our survey included interviews of villagers. Water quality was found to vary greatly depending on the location along the stream. Overall, it reflected the balance between the stream self-cleaning potential and human pressure on the riparian zone: (i) high bacteria and suspended load levels occurred where livestock are left to free-range within the riparian zone; (ii) very low oxygen content and high bacteriological contamination prevailed downstream from villages; (iii) high concentrations of bacteria were consistently observed along urbanized banks; (iv) low oxygen content were associated with the discharge of organic-rich wastewater from a small industrial plant; (v) very high suspended load and bacteria levels occurred during flood events due to soil erosion from steep cultivated hill slopes. Besides these human induced pollutions we also noted spontaneous enrichments in metals in wetland areas fed by dysoxic groundwater. These biophysical measurements were in agreement with the opinions expressed by the majority of the interviewees who reported poor and decreasing water quality in the Houay Xon catchment. Based on our survey, we propose recommendations to improve or maintain stream water quality in the uplands of northern Lao P.D.R.

  15. A global climate model based, Bayesian climate projection for northern extra-tropical land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2012-04-01

    Projections with contemporary global climate models (GCMs) still markedly deviate from each other on magnitude of climate changes, in particular, in middle to subpolar latitudes. In this work, a climate projection based on the ensemble of 18 CMIP3 GCM models forced by SRES A1B scenario is performed for the northern extra-tropical land. To assess the change of soil state, off-line simulations are performed with the Deep Soil Simulator (DSS) developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). This model is forced by output of the above-mentioned GCM simulations. Ensemble mean and ensemble standard deviation for any variable are calculated by using Bayesian averaging which allows to enhance a contribution from more realistic models and diminish that from less realistic models. As a result, uncertainty for soil and permafrost variables become substantially narrower. The Bayesian weights for each model are calculated based on their performance for the present-day surface air temperature (SAT) and permafrost distributions, and for SAT trend during the 20th century. The results, except for intra-ensemble standard deviations, are not very sensitive to particular choice of Bayesian traits. Averaged over the northern extra-tropical land, annual mean surface air temperature in the ensemble increases by 3.1 ± 1.4 K (ensemble mean±intra-ensemble standard deviation) during the 21st century. Precipitation robustly increases in the pan-Arctic and decreases in the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. The models agree on near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. The area underlain by near-surface permafrost decreases from the contemporary value 20 ± 3 mln sq. km to 14 ± 3 mln sq. km in the late 21st century. This leads to risk for geocryological hazard due to soil subsidence. This risk is classified as moderate to high in the southern and western parts of Siberia and Tibet in Eurasia, and in the region from Alaska

  16. Electrical conductivity imaging of crustal structures in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetovariational (MV) and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys are useful tools to understand both the structure and evolution of the Antarctic lithosphere over regionally extensive areas. This is particularly the case over the interior of East Antarctica, the most poorly understood part of our planet and a major frontier for future exploration. However, the application of these techniques is still in its infancy in Antarctica compared to the other continents. This is in part due to the polar electrojet current system which can cause source fields that may violate the uniform plane wave assumption underlying standard MV and MT data processing. Since year 2000, we initiated a phase of systematic deep electrical conductivity studies over Northern Victoria Land, in East Antarctica. Among the first results achieved, the most outstanding evidence, revealed by MV probing, is a wide electromagnetic anomaly under the Deep Freeze Range crustal block. Following this experience a larger number of MV stations were deployed over the Transantarctic Mountains and the enigmatic Wilkes Subglacial Basin. The BACKTAM array across the Cenozoic Rennick Graben and the Early Paleozoic terrane boundaries of northern Victoria Land provides an example of the potential of the MV technique in the detection of major glaciated fault zones. Here we show a new set of 2D deep electrical conductivity images across the Rennick Graben and the eastern faulted margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Induction arrows analysis and a 2D inversion models provide a unique deep electrical resistivity window beneath these fault zones. The electrical resistivity break across the Lanterman Fault is apparently restricted to the upper crust, suggesting that this strike-slip fault may not represent a deep lithospheric suture. Further east, a westward-dipping conductor is traced to a depth of 40 km beneath the Robertson Bay Terrane. It may image a remnant of the paleo-Pacific oceanic

  17. Wood biomass production potential on agricultural lands in Northern Europe. Achieving the goals of energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B.

    2009-07-01

    Short rotation forestry for bioenergy is an important means of meeting renewable energy targets for the shift towards a more sustainable energy model. This research focuses on the production and expansion of short rotation willow coppice on agricultural land in Northern Europe, based on empirical data from a large sample of commercially managed plantations. The thesis reviews six manuscripts concerning: the current yields of willow plantations in Sweden, for first, second and third cutting cycles, the yield trends for the first cutting cycle during the period 1986-2000, the use of remote sensing in order to assess productivity from willow plantations, the geographical spread of willow cultivation in Sweden and the effect of policy incentives on the expansion of willow cultivation in Sweden during the period 1986-2006. The final paper presents estimates of productivity potential from willow plantations on agricultural land on six EU countries in Northern Europe. The results of the analysis of yield performance show a great variability between growers, which suggests the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Although the average yields of the first established plantations were significantly lower than previous estimates, the results show a clear trend of yield improvement over time. During the period studied, the average productivity of the plantations increased each year by 0.20 odt ha-1 yr-1, and in the best managed plantations 0.27 odt ha-1 yr-1, possibly due to the release of improved willow clones and management practices. In addition to regional estimates, the thesis also provides tools for the assessment of yield at plantation level using remote sensed images, with reasonable levels of accuracy. The research stressed the role of policy incentives as an important tool for the spread of short rotation forestry, which significantly affects the adoption of willow cultivation by local farmers. The thesis offers

  18. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Horsák

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N, crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and

  19. Land use changes and its climatic implications in Northern Italy during the Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Oeggl-Wahlmüller, Notburga; Festi, Daniela; Zagermann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Here we present an interdisciplinary study on land use changes in Northern Italy at the transition from the Roman Empire to the Early Middle Ages. The combination of archaeological data and high-resolution pollen analyses carried out in the Fiavè basin (Trentino) provide a detailed insight in socio-economic changes and its implications with climate in the Dark Ages. The vegetation in this area is dominated up to 1000 m by submediterranian trees like Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, superseded by a mixed Fagus and Abies forest with variable amounts of Picea abies. Since 2008 archaeological surveys in the Fiavè basin as well as excavations conducted on a fortified hill-top settlement (castrum) in 985m register the settlement development of this settlement cluster and reveal an almost continuous occupation from Roman to Early Medieval Times. In addition a high-resolution pollen record from a 1.30 m thick peat sequence of the bog "Palude di Fiave" discloses four main phases: (1) in the Late Iron Age high amounts of arboreal pollen and the spread of Abies demonstrate a decrease in settlement activity suggested by wetter climate conditions. (2) During the Roman Empire a phase with arable farming in the basin starts. Olea, Juglans and Castanea sativa are introduced and document the onset of horticulture in this region. (3) After 300 AD - during the Migration Period - the wet and cool conditions have had poor impact on settlement activity. Agricultural (Cerealia) and nitrophilous indicators (Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae) are continuously proved. However a change within the cultivated crops in relation to the climate conditions is observed. Subsequently a progressive recovery of Pinus followed by Abies and Fagus marks the climatic improvement at the beginning of the Early Medieval Times. (4) The time from 600 to 800 AD is characterized by increasing frequency and diversity of anthropogenic-related indicators. The implications of these land use changes with

  20. Impacts of Changing Climate and Land Cover on Water and Carbon Dynamics in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, J.; Melillo, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystems in Northern Eurasia (NE) play an important role in the global climate system due to their vast land coverage, higher-than-global average rate of warming, and the potential feedbacks to the global climate. Water and carbon fluxes interact with each other and vary with climate change and land cover change (LUC). To understand the coupled effects of climate change and LUC on water and carbon dynamics in NE, we modified the algorithms for evapotranspiration (ET), incorporated the effects of forest stand age and fires on these dynamics, and assimilated forest inventory data and eddy covariance observations into the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to better estimate water and carbon fluxes. With consideration of ET from uplands and wetlands, evaporation from water bodies, and snow sublimation, TEM substantially improves its estimation of ET and runoff. Estimated regional ET varies between 263.5-369.3 mm yr-1 during 1979-2008 depending on the choice of forcing data. With the most accurate available forcing data, modification to TEM results in a decrease of root mean square error from 527.74 km3 yr-1 to 126.23 km3 yr-1 for the total discharge estimates of the six largest watersheds in NE. Site-level experiments show that with/without consideration of forest stand age and fires leads to 12.8-53.5% differences in ET estimates, and shifts NE ecosystems between carbon sink and source activities depending on fire severities. Consequently, consideration of these impacts at regional scales may result in large differences in estimates of water and carbon fluxes across NE. Our study highlights the role of snow in the hydrometeorology of NE, and suggests that the quality of forcing data remains a major challenge for accurate quantification of regional water balance, and urges consideration of forest stand age and fires in estimation of water and carbon fluxes in NE.

  1. Analysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in arid region of Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, C.; Musa, A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Land use plays an important role in controlling spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture by influencing infiltration rates, runoff, and evapotranspiration, which is substantive meaning to crop growth and vegetation restoration in semiarid environments, such as the Horqin Sandy Land in north China. However, few studies have been conducted comparing differences of dynamics of soil water conditions and the responses of soil water to precipitation infiltration under different land use types in this semiarid region. Five different land use types were selected to analyze soil moisture variations in relation to land use patterns during the growing season of two years. Results showed that soil moisture condition was affected by different land uses in semi-arid sandy land. The order of soil moisture (from high to low) among different land uses was grassland, cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. Moreover, soil water in surface, root zone and deep soil layer indicated statistical difference for different land covers. Meanwhile, temporal variations of soil moisture profile changed with precipitation. However, in deep soil layer, there was a clear lag in response to precipitation. In addition, seasonal variations of profile soil moisture were classified into two types: increasing and waving types. And the stable soil water layer was at 80-120 cm. Furthermore, the infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.

  2. Scenarios for shale gas development and their related land use impacts in the Baltic Basin, Northern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios for potential shale gas development were modelled for the Baltic Basin in Northern Poland for the period 2015–2030 using the land allocation model EUCS100. The main aims were to assess the associated land use requirements, conflicts with existing land use, and the influence of legislation on the environmental impact. The factors involved in estimating the suitability for placement of shale gas well pads were analysed, as well as the potential land and water requirements to define 2 technology-based scenarios, representing the highest and lowest potential environmental impact. 2 different legislative frameworks (current and restrictive) were also assessed, to give 4 combined scenarios altogether. Land consumption and allocation patterns of well pads varied substantially according to the modelled scenario. Potential landscape fragmentation and conflicts with other land users depended mainly on development rate, well pad density, existing land-use patterns, and geology. Highly complex landscapes presented numerous barriers to drilling activities, restricting the potential development patterns. The land used for shale gas development could represent a significant percentage of overall land take within the shale play. The adoption of appropriate legislation, especially the protection of natural areas and water resources, is therefore essential to minimise the related environmental impact. -- Highlights: •A range of scenarios for shale gas development in Poland were modelled. •The impact in terms of land take and competition for land was assessed. •Of land used for industrial purposes, 7–12% was attributed to shale gas extraction. •If unregulated, 24% of well pads were developed within protected areas. •The legislative framework can have a major influence on overall environmental impact

  3. Analysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in the arid region of Horqin sandy land, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, C. Y.; Musa, A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Land use plays an important role in controlling spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture by influencing infiltration rates, runoff and evapotranspiration, which is important to crop growth and vegetation restoration in semiarid environments, such as Horqin sandy land in north China. However, few studies have been conducted comparing differences of dynamics of soil water conditions and the responses of soil to infiltration under different land use types in semiarid area. Five different land use types were selected to analyze soil moisture variations in relation to land use patterns during the growing season of 2 years. Results showed that soil moisture condition was affected by different land uses in semi-arid sandy soils. The higher soil moisture content among different land uses was exhibited by the grassland, followed by cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. Moreover, soil water at the surface, in the root zone and at the deep soil layer indicated statistical differences for different types of land cover. Meanwhile, temporal variations of soil moisture profile changed with precipitation. However, in the deep soil layer, there was a clear lag in response to precipitation. In addition, seasonal variations of profile soil moisture were classified into two types: increasing and waving types. And the stable soil water layer was at 80-120 cm. Furthermore, the infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.

  4. Strangers in their own land: Maasai and wildlife conservation in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara J Goldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite dramatic transformations in conservation rhetoric regarding local people, indigenous rights, and community-oriented approaches, conservation in many places in Tanzania today continues to infringe on human rights. This happens through the exclusion of local people as knowledgeable active participants in management, policy formation, and decision-making processes in land that ′belongs′ to them and on which their livelihoods depend. In this paper, I focus on a relatively new conservation area designed on the Conservation Trust Model-Manyara Ranch in Monduli district in northern Tanzania. I present this case as a conservation opportunity lost, where local Maasai who were initially interested in utilising the area for conservation, have come to resent and disrespect the conservation status of the area, after having lost it from their ownership and control. I illustrate how the denial of Maasai memories, knowledge, and management practices in Manyara Ranch threaten the future viability of the place both for conservation and for Maasai use. The paper contributes to a growing literature as well as a set of concerns regarding the relationship between conservation and human rights.

  5. Scenarios of Future Climate and Land-Management Effects on Carbon Stocks in Northern Patagonian Shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Analia; Ares, Jorge; Labraga, Juan; Thurner, Stephanie; Bertiller, Mónica

    2007-12-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of grazing management and future climate change on carbon (C) stocks in soils of northern Patagonian shrublands. To this aim, we coupled the outputs of three (HadCM3, CSIRO Mk2, and CCSR/NIES) global climate models to the CENTURY (v5.3) model of terrestrial C balance. The CENTURY model was initialized with long-term field data on local biome physiognomy, seasonal phenologic trends, and prevailing land-management systems and was validated with recent sequences of 1-km Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MODIS-Terra) images and soil C data. In the tested scenarios, the predicted climate changes would result in increased total C in soil organic matter (SOMTC). Maximum SOMTC under changed climate forcing would not differ significantly from that expected under baseline conditions (8 kg m-2). A decrease in grazing intensity would result in SOMTC increases of 11% to 12% even if climate changes did not occur. Climate change would account for SOMTC increases of 5% to 6%.

  6. Impacts of Biomass Burning on the Land Use / Land Cover Dynamics in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa and Associated Alteration of Local Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major anthropogenic event in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA), which contributes 15-20% of the global annual total of particulate matter emissions from fires. This burning is mostly for agricultural, grazing or hunting purposes, and thus has a great potential for driving changes in the land use and land cover distribution in that region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have two complimentary data products to support this research: the MOD14/MYD14 active fire products measuring fire locations and strengths, and the MCD12 land cover type product, which includes the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land-cover classification system used in this analysis. More specifically, the MCD12Q1 tiled data product at 500 m was used to match against the 1 km active fire product resolution for the current analysis. Paired data between instantaneous fire measurements and the underlying land cover types for the particular year over the study period of 2003-2013 reveals a dominant burning of savanna, followed by cropland land cover type throughout the region. There are a few indications of the interchange between savanna and cropland due to burning practices. Even though the fire activity in the whole NSSA region is decreasing at a rate of 1.4%/yr during the study period, some land cover types in parts of NSSA show an increase, including local increases in sensitive land cover types such as forest and wetland, which could have serious ecological implications. The changes in the overall redistribution of biomass burning amongst the different land cover types in NSSA dictate that there is also a redistribution of biomass burning emissions. The extent of these changes will also be covered in this presentation.

  7. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and dissipation of the resource rent. An alternative to this is assigning a private property institution. In this paper, we examine the consumer welfare effects of a change in the institutional setting on ...

  8. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus W Ihwagi

    Full Text Available Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem. Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  9. Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Southavilay Boundeth; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi; Tetsuo SATHO

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study ar...

  10. In northern Poland, villagers are struggling against shale gas exploration that threatens to transform their lands and livelihoods.

    OpenAIRE

    Materka , Edyta

    2012-01-01

    Shale gas exploration, or ‘fracking’, is on the rise, and is not without controversy with many concerned about its potential for environmental damage. In northern Poland, gas and oil exploration companies are increasingly making use of the technique with the full support of the government. Edyta Materka looks at the response of local villagers and Kashubians – a Polish-German ethnic group – who are forming coalitions and pressure groups to challenge the exploitation of their ethnic lands and ...

  11. First record of the Late Cretaceous denudation phase in the Admiralty Block (Transantarctic Mountains, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatite fission-track analysis was performed on 13 granitoid samples of the Devonian Admiralty Intrusive Complex collected along two elevation profiles in the Admiralty Block, northern Victoria Land (NVL), East Antarctica. The sample age-elevation diagram shows a break in slope that indicates the presence of the Late Cretaceous phase of uplift and denudation already recognized in other sectors of NVL. Modeling of data suggests that the rocks may record also an Early Cenozoic pulse of denudation

  12. Soil organic carbon and land use in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Renzi, Gianluca; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The Italian Ministry of Agricultural Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF) has set up a statistical survey aimed to provide the national forecast of yields and areas related to the main Italian agricultural crops (AGRIT). The methodology is based on field surveys and remote-sensed data, covers yearly the whole national territory, and is based on 100,000 observations which are statistically selected from a predefined grid made up of about 1,200,000 georeferenced points. In 2011-2012 we determined the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of 1,160 sampling points situated in Northern Italy in the plains and hills of Veneto (VEN) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), for which the land use in the period 2008-2010 was known. Samples have been subdivided in three main classes: arable crops, orchards and fodder crops. SOC was higher in FVG samples (2.48%, n=266) than in VEN samples (1.90%, n=894). The average value (2.03%) is clearly affected by the higher number of VEN samples. FVG data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean, wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean wheat, maize-soybean), 3-yr rotations, vineyards (totally, partially and no-grassed), alfalfa, and permanent fodder crops. No significant differences were detected among the land uses due to the low number of samples in some classes, but some important findings do exist from the agronomic point of view. Fodder crops (5.65%), alfalfa (3.41%) and vineyards (2.72%) showed the higher SOC content. SOC was 2.94% and 1.39 % in the grassed and no-grassed vineyards respectively. In the arable crops the average SOC was 2.18%, ranging from 2.32% (soybean-wheat rotation) to 2.03% (continuous soybean). SOC was 2.19% in the continuous maize, with 2.23% in corn and 1.87% in silage maize. The lower values were in the maize-wheat rotation (1.53%) and the continuous wheat (1.47%). VEN data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean and wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean-wheat, maize

  13. Application of MODIS Land Products to Assessment of Land Degradation of Alpine Rangeland in Northern India with Limited Ground-Based Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tasumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation of alpine rangeland in Dachigam National Park, Northern India, was evaluated in this study using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land products. The park has been used by a variety of livestock holders. With increasing numbers of livestock, the managers and users of the park are apprehensive about degradation of the grazing land. However, owing to weak infrastructure for scientific and statistical data collection and sociopolitical restrictions in the region, a lack of quality ground-based weather, vegetation, and livestock statistical data had prevented scientific assessment. Under these circumstances, the present study aimed to assess the rangeland environment and its degradation using MODIS vegetation, snow, and evapotranspiration products as primary input data for assessment. The result of the analysis indicated that soil water content and the timing of snowmelt play an important role in grass production in the area. Additionally, the possibility of land degradation in heavily-grazed rangeland was indicated via a multiple regression analysis at a decadal timescale, whereas weather conditions, such as rainfall and snow cover, primarily explained year-by-year differences in grass production. Although statistical uncertainties remain in the results derived in this study, the satellite-based data and the analyses will promote understanding of the rangeland environment and suggest the potential for unsustainable land management based on statistical probability. This study provides an important initial evaluation of alpine rangeland, for which ground-based information is limited.

  14. Bioavailability and radiocarbon age of fluvial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peatland-dominated catchment: effect of land-use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulatt, C.J.; Kaartokallio, H.; Asmala, E.; Autio, R.; Stedmon, Colin; Sonninen, E.; Oinonen, M.; Thomas, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    The radiocarbon age and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peat-dominated river system was studied and the effects of land-use were compared. Samples were obtained from streams and ditches comprising sub-catchments of the Kiiminki River, Northern Finland. Sample si...

  15. Characterization of land surface energy fluxes at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile using ASTER image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, S. K.; Tyler, S. W.

    2003-12-01

    Models of land surface energy fluxes often use remotely sensed data to derive surface temperature, albedo, and emissivity, important parameters in energy budget calculations. The ability to determine the spatial distribution of these parameters can lead to improved estimations of the spatial variability of land surface energy fluxes. However, other parameters used in energy flux calculations such as aerodynamic resistance are not directly linked to quantities commonly derived from remotely sensed data. If images can be accurately classified into separate land cover types, empirically determined values of unknown parameters can then be assigned separately to each land cover classification. This study examines several techniques of determining the spatial distribution of land surface energy fluxes at the Salar de Atacama, a large playa in northern Chile. Fluxes are calculated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Level 2 surface kinetic temperature, surface emissivity, and surface reflectance data in conjunction with ground-based meteorological measurements. Energy fluxes are calculated initially by applying a single value of aerodynamic resistance to the entire image area. Subsequently, the ASTER scene is classified into distinct land cover types, and land surface roughness is characterized using the ratio of ASTER band 3N (nadir-viewing) to band 3B (back-viewing). Separate values of aerodynamic resistance are then assigned to each land cover type, and energy fluxes over the entire Salar de Atacama are calculated using these spatially distributed aerodynamic resistance values. Results of both energy flux calculation techniques are evaluated at several sites on the playa using ground-based energy flux measurements.

  16. “Nothing Is Like It Was Before”: The Dynamics between Land-Use and Land-Cover, and Livelihood Strategies in the Northern Vietnam Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Turner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land uses are changing rapidly in Vietnam’s upland northern borderlands. Regional development platforms such as the Greater Mekong Subregion, state-propelled market integration and reforestation programs, and lowland entrepreneurs and migrants are all impacting this frontier landscape. Drawing on a mixed methods approach using remote sensing data from 2000 to 2009 and ethnographic fieldwork, we examine how land-use and land-cover change (LULCC has occurred across three borderland provinces—Lai Châu, Lào Cai and Hà Giang—with high proportions of ethnic minority semi-subsistence farmers. After a broad examination of regional land-use changes, we select three case studies to further analyze the underlying relationships between specific LULCC and local livelihood diversification strategies. These include specific patterns of urban growth due to a range of political decisions in Lai Châu and Lào Cai Provinces; reforestation due to non-timber forest (NTFP product cultivation in the west of Lào Cai Province; and a stable landscape that restricts government attempts at refashioning upland livelihoods in the east of Hà Giang. Our findings point to the difficulties of completing LULCC maps for this highly heterogeneous region and the complexity of LULCC and livelihood interactions and relationships examined on the ground.

  17. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  18. ‘Ik voel niet dat ik nuttig ben’: Lucas Maillette de Buy Wenniger, dermatoloog en uroloog te Arnhem (1901-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Verhoef

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available

    'I do not feel that I am helpful'

    Lucas Maillette de Buy Wenniger, dermatologist and urologist at Arnhem (1901-1903


    This case study describes the theoretical, practical and financial problems as they were encountered by the hardly specialised specialist Lucas Maillette de Buy Wenniger (1875- 1934 when he settled as dermatologist and urologist in the provincial town of Arnhem between 1901-1903. This paper is primarily based on the hitherto unknown correspondence between Wenniger and his fiancée (later his wife, the physician Louise Christine Marianne Hulsebos (1876-1945. 262

  19. ‘Ik voel niet dat ik nuttig ben’: Lucas Maillette de Buy Wenniger, dermatoloog en uroloog te Arnhem (1901-1903)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Verhoef

    1996-01-01

    'I do not feel that I am helpful'

    Lucas Maillette de Buy Wenniger, dermatologist and urologist at Arnhem (1901-1903)


    This case study describes the theoretical, practical and financial problems as they were encountered by the hardly specialised specialist Lucas Maillette de Buy Wenniger (1875- 1934) when he sett...

  20. Spatial characterization of land surface energy fluxes and uncertainty estimation at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Tyler, Scott W.

    2006-02-01

    We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) data to estimate spatial energy flux and evaporation distributions at the Salar de Atacama, a playa in Northern Chile. Our approach incorporates ASTER surface kinetic temperature, emissivity, and reflectance data, ground-based meteorological measurements, and empirical parameters. Energy flux distributions are estimated using either spatially constant or spatially distributed values of model parameters, with spatially distributed parameters assigned separately to each land cover category in an image classification. We test the sensitivity of energy budget calculations to state variable and parameter values by conducting Monte Carlo simulations for regions with ground energy budget measurements. Results show that assigning spatially distributed model parameters via land cover classifications yields significant improvements to ground and sensible heat flux predictions. Latent heat fluxes cannot, however, be predicted with sufficient accuracy to allow estimation of area-integrated evaporative moisture loss at this low-evaporation playa.

  1. The decommissioning and rehabilitation of the Nabarlek uranium mine, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nabarlek uranium mine is located in the Aboriginal area of west Arnhem Land in monsoonal northern Australia and operated from 1979 until 1989. Decommissioning was carried out in 1994-95. Several features of the Nabarlek story are considered unique and offer interesting approaches for consideration in other mine rehabilitation programs. The Nabarlek ore body was mined in a single campaign during the Dry season of 1979. Ore was stockpiled on a specially prepared site while the mill was built. Milling took approximately ten years. The final decommissioning and rehabilitation program was developed from the outset of operations as a series of specific component plans. Throughout the life of the mine these components were reviewed at intervals and updated to take account of changes in mine development as well as incorporating the results of site specific research and new technology. The final domed cover over the pit was shaped on the basis of geomorphological research. The rehabilitation objective, as agreed with the Aboriginal Traditional Owners and the supervising authorities, was to establish a landscape that matched as closely as possible the surrounding areas and would permit traditional hunting and gathering activities to be pursued. The rehabilitation of the site is progressing and on-going monitoring is in train to establish when the site can be returned to the custody of the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Decommissioning of the operation appears to have been successful

  2. The decommissioning and rehabilitation of the Nabarlek uranium mine, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nabarlek uranium mine is located in the aboriginal area of West Arnhem Land in monsoonal Northern Australia and operated from 1979 until 1989. Decommissioning was carried out in 1994-95. Several features of the Nabarlek story are considered unique and offer interesting approaches for consideration in other mine rehabilitation programs. The Nabarlek ore body was mined in a single campaign during the dry season of 1979. Ore was stockpiled on a specially prepared site while the mill was built. Milling took approximately ten years. The final decommissioning and rehabilitation program was developed from the outset of operations as a series of specific component plans. Throughout the life of the mine these components were reviewed at intervals and updated to take account of changes in mine development as well as incorporating the results of site specific research and new technology. The final domed cover over the pit was shaped on the basis of geomorphological research. The rehabilitation objective, as agreed with the aboriginal Traditional Owners and the supervising authorities, was to establish a landscape that matched as closely as possible the surrounding areas and would permit traditional hunting and gathering activities to be pursued. The rehabilitation of the site is progressing well and on-going monitoring is in train to establish when the site can be returned to the custody of the aboriginal Traditional Owners. 14 refs

  3. Petrological study of Greene Point mantle xenoliths, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Faccini, Barbara; Coltorti, Massimo; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel

    2015-04-01

    A petrological study of mantle, anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites from Greene Point (GP) (Northern Victoria Land, NVL) have been carried out. Texturally they vary from protogranular to porphyroclastic with large orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine (ol) grains. Clinopyroxene (cpx) is smaller and often associated with vermicular and lobated spinel (sp). Several types of reaction textures occur with secondary phases represented by olivine (ol2), clinopyroxene (cpx2), cpx with spongy rim, and glass. Ol in lherzolites presents lower forsteritic content (90.5-91.7) than in harzburgites (Fo: 91.6-92.3), but for three samples with an anomalously high Fo contents (92.3-92.7). Irrespective of lithology NiO contents are on the average ~0.38 wt%. Opx, equilibrated with ol1, has mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100mol) values ranging from 91.0 to 92.6 with the highest values found in harzburgites. As for Ol, however three lherzolitic samples have mg# in opx overlapping the most residual harzburgites; Al2O3 varies from 2.33 to 4.92 wt% following a residual trend. Opx is characterized by fractionated REE-chondrite normalized patterns, depleted in light REE (LREE), with the most residual character in harzburgites. Cpx1 has mg# varying from 91.5 to 93.9, with cpx in harzburgites presenting the highest values. As for the other two phases, cpx in three lherzolites presents mg# values comparable with those of harzburgites. Al2O3 contents is between 4.00 and 6.42 wt% in lherzolites and from 2.32 to 4.37 wt% in harzburgites. TiO2 never exceeds 0.66 wt%. Cpx in lherzolites are usually depleted in Th, U, Nb, and Ta with Ti, Zr and Hf negative anomalies. They present a REE patterns variable from slightly LREE-enriched (with La and Ce inflections) to LREE-depleted with a general convex-upward trend. This latter trend is related to mg# rich lherzolites. In harzburgites cpx show the lowest HREE contents (YbN 1.00-2.94), with a strong positive fractionated L-MREE and flat HREE. Sp1 show a

  4. Diagnosing the seasonal land-atmosphere correspondence over northern Australia: dependence on soil moisture state and correspondence strength definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M.; Pitman, A.; Evans, J.

    2015-08-01

    The similarity of the temporal variations of land and atmospheric states during the onset (September) through to the peak (February) of the wet season over northern Australia is statistically diagnosed using ensembles of offline land surface model simulations that produce a range of different background soil moisture states. We derive the temporal correspondence between variations in the soil moisture and the planetary boundary layer via a statistical measure of rank correlation. The simulated evaporative fraction and the boundary layer are shown to be strongly correlated during both SON (September-October-November) and DJF (December-January-February) despite the differing background soil moisture states between the two seasons and among the ensemble members. The sign and magnitude of the boundary layer-surface layer soil moisture association during the onset of the wet season (SON) differs from the correlation between the evaporative fraction and boundary layer from the same season, and from the correlation between the surface soil moisture and boundary layer association during DJF. The patterns and magnitude of the surface flux-boundary layer correspondence are not captured when the relationship is diagnosed using the surface layer soil moisture alone. The conflicting results arise because the surface layer soil moisture lacks strong correlation with the atmosphere during the monsoon onset because the evapotranspiration is dominated by transpiration. Our results indicate that accurately diagnosing the correspondence and therefore coupling strength in seasonally dry regions, such as northern Australia, requires root zone soil moisture to be included.

  5. Desertification triggered by hydrological and geomorphological processes and palaeoclimatic changes in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Scuderi, L. A.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Li, H.; Forman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Although Pleistocene and earlier aeolian sediments in the adjacent regions of deserts were used as indicators for the occurrence of the deserts in northern China, our multidisciplinary investigation in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, a typical landscape in the eastern portion of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt, demonstrates that this sandy desert is just ca. 4000 years old. Before the formation of the current sand dunes, Hunshandke was characterized with large and deep lakes and grasssland vegetation, as many sedimentary sections indicate. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) chronology shows that the three large former lakes where we have done detailed investigation, experienced high stands from early Holocene to ca. 5 ka. During the early and middle Holocene this desert was a temperate steppe environment, dominated by grasslands and trees near lakes and streams, as various palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest. While North Hemisphere's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases at ca. 4.2 ka, many parts of the presently arid and semi-arid zone in northern China were shifted from Green to Desert state. In the eastern portion of the Hunshandake, the desertification was, however, directly associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River, as the palaeo-drainage remains show. The process of groundwater sapping initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that lowered the groundwater table and exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, and further resulting in post-Humid period mass migration of northern China's Hongshan culture from that we think the modern Chinese civilization has been rooted.

  6. Land cover change and plants diversity in the Sahel: A case study from northern Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Kadeba; Blandine Marie Ivette Nacoulma; Amadé Ouedraogo; Yvonne Bachmann; Adjima Thiombiano; Marco Schmidt; Joseph Issaka Boussim

    2015-01-01

    Understanding land cover degradation patterns and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity is important for guiding management decisions and restoration strategies in the Sahelian vulnerables zones. This paper describes land cover degradation by combining Landsat TM image analysis and field data measurements in the Gourouol catchment of the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc-GIS.10 were applied. The change patterns were obtained by superposing land cover m...

  7. Agrarian Land Use Transformation in Northern Laos: from Swidden to Rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2009-01-01

    focusing on the expansion of agricultural land in upland areas. It also examines factors that influence local farmers'livelihood and their decisions on land use. A series of government policies that were implemented since the 1980s restricted upland farmers’ access to upland fields and fallow forests, and...... led to the relocation of upland communities. The opening of regional borders for trade in the early 1990s, which brought new economic opportunities for local farmers, further accelerated the demand for agricultural land and led to a concentration of population in settlements along the road. A...

  8. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  9. Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples in Australia are disadvantaged on all markers of health and social status across the life course. Psychosocial factors are implicated in the aetiology of chronic diseases and in pathways underpinning social health disparities. Minimal research has investigated psychosocial factors and health in Indigenous peoples. This study evaluated associations between mastery, perceived stress, and health-related behaviour for a remote Indigenous population in Australia. Methods Complete data on mastery (the degree to which individuals feel in control of their lives, perceived stress, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained for 177 participants in a community-based chronic disease risk factor survey. Psychosocial questionnaires were completed as an option during community screening (response rate = 61.9%. Extensive consultation facilitated the cross-cultural adaptation of measures. Results Mastery was inversely correlated with perceived stress measures (p r = -0.47; chronic stress, r = -0.41; and youth stress, r = -0.30. Relationships between mastery and behaviour varied according to age group (p = 0.001 and vegetable consumption (p = 0.005. Individuals aged ≥25 years engaging in ≤2 bouts of physical activity/week had lower mastery than individuals engaging in ≥3 bouts/week, with means (95% CI of 14.8 (13.7–15.8 and 17.1 (15.3–19.0, respectively (p = 0.026. Individuals aged ≥25 years eating vegetables ≤3 times/week had lower mastery than those eating vegetables ≥4 times/week (p = 0.009 [means 14.7 (13.8–15.5 and 17.3 (15.5–19.1, respectively]. Individuals p = 0.022 [means 17.2 (15.2–19.2 and 13.8 (11.9–15.7, respectively]. For men ≥25 years and women ≥15 years, mastery was inversely related to age (p p = 0.001 [means 13.4 (12.1–14.7 and 17.5 (15.3–19.8, respectively]. Conclusion Consistent with previous research, this study provides additional support for a link between mastery and health-related behaviour, and extends evidence of this association to a remote Indigenous population. Mastery's association with perceived stress, its age-specific association with health behaviour, and findings of low mastery amongst young men, highlights a need for life course research accounting for contextual factors affecting Indigenous peoples.

  10. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from scanned black and white aerial photographs and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)...

  11. Regional climate change in Tropical and Northern Africa due to greenhouse forcing and land use changes

    OpenAIRE

    Paeth, H.; Born, K.; Girmes, R.; Podzun, R.; D. Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Human activity is supposed to affect the earth's climate mainly via two processes: the emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols and the alteration of land cover. While the former process is well established in state-of-the-art climate model simulations, less attention has been paid to the latter. However, the low latitudes appear to be particularly sensitive to land use changes, especially in tropical Africa where frequent drought episodes were observed during recent decades. Here several en...

  12. Land cover change and plants diversity in the Sahel: A case study from northern Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Kadeba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding land cover degradation patterns and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity is important for guiding management decisions and restoration strategies in the Sahelian vulnerables zones. This paper describes land cover degradation by combining Landsat TM image analysis and field data measurements in the Gourouol catchment of the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc-GIS.10 were applied. The change patterns were obtained by superposing land cover maps for 1992 and 2010. The field data were collected by the mean of inventories according to the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological relevés methods. Plot sizes were 50 m x 20 m for woody species and 10 m x 10 m for herbaceous species. Six land cover types were identified and mapped: cultivated lands, bared lands, lowlands, which all spatially increased; and shrub-steppes, grasslands and water bodies, which all spatially decreased. The dynamic patterns based on the geomorphological units were non-degraded lowlands, stable sand dunes and degraded glacis. High plant diversity was found in lowlands, whereas low diversity occurred in glacis. A significant dissimilarity was observed between communities. The Shannon diversity indices in plant communities were approximately close to ln(species richness. The Pielou indices were close to 1, indicating a species fairly good distribution. Our results showed a variation of land cover over time and the effects of geomorphological units on phytodiversity. Furthermore, this variation helps oppose land degradation in the Sahel.

  13. Weak Northern and Strong Tropical Land Carbon Uptake from Vertical Profiles of Atmospheric CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, Britton B.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Tans, Pieter P.; Sweeney, Colm; Peters, Wouter; Bruhwiler, Lori; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Bousquet, Philippe; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Aoki, Shuji; Machida, Toshinobu; Inoue, Gen; Vinnichenko, Nikolay; Lloyd, Jon; Jordan, Armin; Heimann, Martin; Shibistova, Olga; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Steele, L. Paul; Francey, Roger J.; Denning, A. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of midday vertical atmospheric CO2 distributions reveal annual-mean vertical CO2 gradients that are inconsistent with atmospheric models that estimate a large transfer of terrestrial carbon from tropical to northern latitudes. The three models that most closely reproduce the observed an

  14. Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, B.B.; Gurney, K.R.; Tans, P.P.; Sweeney, C.; Peters, W.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of midday vertical atmospheric CO2 distributions reveal annual-mean vertical CO2 gradients that are inconsistent with atmospheric models that estimate a large transfer of terrestrial carbon from tropical to northern latitudes. The three models that most closely reproduce the observed an

  15. Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, T.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a h

  16. Toward sustainable desertification reversion:A case study in Horqin Sandy Land of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueYong Zhao; ShaoKun Wang; YaYong Luo; WenDa Huang; Hao Qu; Jie Lian

    2015-01-01

    Desertification reversion is an interactive process involving climate, land use change, and water processes. In order to reveal the relationship between desertification reversion and these factors, we analyzed historical data on precipitation, air temperature, desertified land changes, underground water tables, and water body changes in Naiman County in the central part of Horqin Sandy Land. Our analysis showed that during 1961−2010 the annual precipitation fluctuated dramatically and has decreased fairly consistently in recent years. The air temperature increased by 0.50−1.25 °C, and the minimum temperature increased more obviously. The desertified land area increased from 42,300 km2 in 1959 to 62,000 km2 in 1985, and then declined to about 50,000 km2 in 2010. The underground water tables have been lowered by about 10 m in the past 30 years, and declined more rapidly in recent years. Desertified land is significantly related to the amount of total cropland, and underground water tables are significantly correlated with annual precipitation and the amount of irrigated cropland. Therefore, it is necessary to pursue sustainable desertification reversion without compromising the capacity for local de-velopment and restoration of degraded land, through application of appropriate management measures for improving water availability in this region.

  17. Complex land use and cover trajectories in the northern Choco bioregion of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina

    The Choco bioregion in Northwestern Colombia is a lowland rain forest and hotspot of biodiversity. Significant land use and cover change (LUCC) is occurring throughout the region driven by global markets, illicit drug production, and civil unrest. The dominant land cover conversion is from primary forest to African Palm plantations, mediated and modified by complex combinations of social and biophysical drivers. This research combined a remote sensing based methodology to monitor LUCC in the region with an analytical approach for evaluating the possible trajectories of LUCC in a complex biological, socio-economical, and political environment. Synoptic LUCC models were developed using textural classification derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for the period 1995 to 2010. LUCC models along with empirical social and spatial biophysical drivers were used to project historical land use trajectories. DINAMICA EGO a complex systems based spatial analytical framework was adopted as the platform to model land use change. The RADAR backscatter was able to capture areas were forest has been converted to African Oil Palm Plantations. However, an in depth characterization of the LUC dynamics was problematic given the spectral and spatial limitations of the sensor combined with the lack of ground data. The results of the LUC model suggest that under the current socio-political conditions African oil palm plantations will continue to expand toward forested areas into the territories traditionally inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Indigenous populations. Insecure land tenure appears as a main driver of the transformation in close association with the conditions created by the armed conflict, and the drug traffic. The rate of the transformation appears to slow down in the period after 2007. However, according to the model by 2020 most of the area inhabited by ethnic groups will be transform to AOP. This study contributes towards the understanding of land use change

  18. Remote sensing of soils, land forms, and land use in the northern Great Plains in preparation for ERTS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, C. J.; Westin, F. C.; Gropper, J.; Myers, V. I.

    1972-01-01

    Research to determine the optimum time or season for obtaining imagery to identify and map soil limitations was conducted in the proposed Oahe irrigation project area in South Dakota. The optimum time for securing photographs or imagery is when the soil surface patterns are most apparent. For cultivated areas similar to the study area, May is the optimum time. The density slicing analysis of the May image provided additional and more accurate information than did the existing soil map. The soil boundaries were more accurately located. The use of a density analysis system for an operational soil survey has not been tested, but is obviously dependent upon securing excellent photographs for interpretation. The colors or densities of photographs will have to be corrected for sun angle effects, vignetting effects, and processing to have maximum effectiveness for mapping soil limitations. Rangeland sites were established in Bennett County, South Dakota to determine the usefulness of ERTS imagery. Imagery from these areas was interpreted for land use and drainage patterns.

  19. Profiles of carbon stocks in forest, reforestation and agricultural land, Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Pibumrung; N. Gajaseni; A. Popan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess carbon stocks in various forms and land-use types and reliably estimate the impact of land use on C stocks in the Nam Yao sub-watershed (19°05'10"N, 100°37'02"E), Thailand. The carbon stocks of aboveground, soil organic and fine root within primary forest, reforestation and agricultural land were estimated through field data collection. Results revealed that the amount of total carbon stock of forests (357.62 ± 28.51 Mg·ha-1, simplified expression of Mg (carbon)·ha-1) was significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (195.25 ±14.38 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (103.10±18.24 Mg·ha-1). Soil organic carbon in the forests (196.24 ±22.81 Mg·ha-1) was also significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (146.83± 7.22 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (95.09 ± 14.18 Mg·ha-1). The differences in carbon stocks across land-use types are the primary consequence of variations in the vegetation biomass and the soil organic matter. Fine root carbon was a small fraction of carbon stocks in all land-use types. Most of the soil organic carbon and fine root carbon content was found in the upper 40-cm layer and decreased with soil depth. The aboveground carbon(soil organic carbon: fine root carbon ratios (ABGC: SOC: FRC), was 5:8:1, 2:8:1, and 3:50:1 for the forest, reforestation and agricultural land, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively large proportion of the C loss is due to forest conversion to agricultural land. However, the C can be effectively recaptured through reforestation where high levels of C are stored in biomass as carbon sinks, facilitating carbon dioxide mitigation.

  20. Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, T.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a high poverty rate and low agricultural production and household income. Livelihood of the households is dependent upon self-sufficient agricultural production, which accounts for nearly 80% of the t...

  1. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Discriminating Land Cover in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (VSWIR) of the spectrum have shown impressive capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a VSWIR hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA. The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping relative to multispectral satellites. We mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 22,500 km2 in the San Francisco Bay Area, California using 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery simulated from data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor. Random Forests (RF) and Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) classifiers were applied to the simulated images and accuracies were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. The RF classifier was superior to MESMA, and multi-temporal data yielded higher accuracy than summer-only data. With RF, hyperspectral data had overall accuracy of 72.2% and 85.1% with full 20-class and reduced 12-class schemes, respectively. Multispectral imagery had lower accuracy. For example, simulated and real Landsat data had 7.5% and 4.6% lower accuracy than HyspIRI data with 12 classes, respectively. In summary, our results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different natural vegetation types, such as

  2. Correlation of Spatio-Temporal Contaminant Distribution, Land Use, and Hydrogeological Factors in the Karst Aquifers of Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Torres, N. I.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Karst aquifers are characterized by caves, springs, and sinkholes, and typified by interconnected fissures, fractures and conduits. These characteristics make these aquifers highly productive, and vulnerable to contamination. Previous studies in the northern karst aquifers of Puerto Rico have shown significant distribution of contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, phthalates and other contaminants of emerging concern, beyond demarked sources of contamination. This study develops spatial-temporal distributions of phthalate contaminants in the karst system of northern Puerto Rico and assesses statistical correlations between hydrogeologic factors and groundwater contamination with phthalates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and technologies, and statistical models are applied to attain these objectives. Results show that there is an extensive contamination with phthalates that varies with time. Contamination is present in the confined and shallow aquifers. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most detected contaminant (20.6% of the sites). Diethyl phthalate and and dibutyl phthalate are also detected in 6.7% and 8.24% of the sites, respectively. Phthalates detected as mixtures components are significantly detected in areas of high urban and industrial development. They are also detected in areas within 5 miles of superfund sites and landfills. The results indicate that phthalate contamination is highly related to land use. Statistical models show that the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifers, sinkholes density, and time are significantly related to the presence of phthalates in groundwater. The extensive spatio-temporal contamination suggests that contaminants can persist in the environment for long periods of time, and that land use and hydrogeological factors are important factors contributing to the presence of emerging contaminants in karst systems.

  3. Impacts of snow and organic soils parameterization on northern Eurasian soil temperature profiles simulated by the ISBA land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Brun, Eric; Boone, Aaron; Delire, Christine; Le Moigne, Patrick; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyzed how an improved representation of snowpack processes and soil properties in the multilayer snow and soil schemes of the Interaction Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model impacts the simulation of soil temperature profiles over northern Eurasian regions. For this purpose, we refine ISBA's snow layering algorithm and propose a parameterization of snow albedo and snow compaction/densification adapted from the detailed Crocus snowpack model. We also include a dependency on soil organic carbon content for ISBA's hydraulic and thermal soil properties. First, changes in the snowpack parameterization are evaluated against snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface albedo, and soil temperature at a 10 cm depth observed at the Col de Porte field site in the French Alps. Next, the new model version including all of the changes is used over northern Eurasia to evaluate the model's ability to simulate the snow depth, the soil temperature profile, and the permafrost characteristics. The results confirm that an adequate simulation of snow layering and snow compaction/densification significantly impacts the snowpack characteristics and the soil temperature profile during winter, while the impact of the more accurate snow albedo computation is dominant during the spring. In summer, the accounting for the effect of soil organic carbon on hydraulic and thermal soil properties improves the simulation of the soil temperature profile. Finally, the results confirm that this last process strongly influences the simulation of the permafrost active layer thickness and its spatial distribution.

  4. Mapping of land cover in northern California with simulated hyperspectral satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew L.; Kilham, Nina E.

    2016-09-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Analysis of hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery has shown an impressive capacity to map a wide range of natural and anthropogenic land cover. Applications have been mostly with single-date imagery from relatively small spatial extents. Future hyperspectral satellites will provide imagery at greater spatial and temporal scales, and there is a need to assess techniques for mapping land cover with these data. Here we used simulated multi-temporal HyspIRI satellite imagery over a 30,000 km2 area in the San Francisco Bay Area, California to assess its capabilities for mapping classes defined by the international Land Cover Classification System (LCCS). We employed a mapping methodology and analysis framework that is applicable to regional and global scales. We used the Random Forests classifier with three sets of predictor variables (reflectance, MNF, hyperspectral metrics), two temporal resolutions (summer, spring-summer-fall), two sample scales (pixel, polygon) and two levels of classification complexity (12, 20 classes). Hyperspectral metrics provided a 16.4-21.8% and 3.1-6.7% increase in overall accuracy relative to MNF and reflectance bands, respectively, depending on pixel or polygon scales of analysis. Multi-temporal metrics improved overall accuracy by 0.9-3.1% over summer metrics, yet increases were only significant at the pixel scale of analysis. Overall accuracy at pixel scales was 72.2% (Kappa 0.70) with three seasons of metrics. Anthropogenic and homogenous natural vegetation classes had relatively high confidence and producer and user accuracies were over 70%; in comparison, woodland and forest classes had considerable confusion. We next focused on plant functional types with relatively pure spectra by removing open-canopy shrublands

  5. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zhao; Wu, W.; Xu, X; Xu, Y

    2014-01-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolian grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land use. A total of 16 soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil org...

  6. Soil quality indices for evaluating smallholder agricultural land uses in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aweke M. Gelaw; Singh, B R; Lal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI) within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF); agroforestry (...

  7. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  8. Aeolian desertification from the mid-1970s to 2005 in Otindag Sandy Land, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shulin; Wang, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Aeolian desertification in Otindag Sandy Land has expanded dramatically during the past 50 years. This research explored processes and causes of aeolian desertification in the study area. The results showed that aeolian desertification development in Zhenglan Qi of typical region located at the center in the study area can be divided into three stages including rapid occurrence before 1987, parts of rehabilitation and most of deterioration from 1987 to 2000 and little rapid rehabilitation occurrence from 2000 to 2005, according to remote sensing images and field investigations. Gradually declining MI indicated that climate change was not the major cause of aeolian desertification development during the last 40 years, while increasing population should be the underlying cause of local aeolian desertification. Irrational human activities mainly including unsuitable reclamation in the 1960s and lasting over-grazing after 1980 are direct causes contributing to local aeolian desertification, especially over-grazing, while climate change often played a revealer of irrational human activities mainly through drought events. Over-grazing and undesirable climate have different functions during the whole aeolian desertification process. Over-grazing gradually changed grasslands to slight aeolian desertified lands at the initial stage, while climate with windy days or droughts often accelerated formation of serious aeolian desertified lands. Aeolian desertification in the study area both possesses occurrence possibility and great rehabilitative potential. At present, more integrated countermeasures combating local aeolian desertification still are expected.

  9. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  10. Magnetic anomalies northeast of Cape Adare, northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), and their relation to onshore structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, D.; Läufer, A.L.; Goldmann, F.; Möller, H.-D.; Lisker, F.

    2007-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey was flown over the offshore region northeast of Cape Adare and the magnetic anomalies compared to onshore structures between Pennell Coast and Tucker Glacier. The magnetic anomalies show two nearly orthogonal major trends. NNW-SSE trending anomalies northeast of Cape Adare represent seafloor spreading within the Adare Trough. A connection of these anomalies to the Northern Basin of the Ross Sea is not clear. Onshore faults are closely aligned to offshore anomalies. Main trends are NW-SE to NNW-SSE and NE-SW to NNESSW. NNW-SSE oriented dextral-transtensional to extensional faults parallel the Adare Peninsula and Adare Trough anomalies. NE-SW trending normal faults appear to segment the main Hallett volcanic bodies.

  11. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern prairie wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, Richard A; Johnson, W Carter; Gilmanov, Tagir; Guntenspergen, Glenn R; Millett, Bruce V

    2007-03-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data. PMID:17489257

  13. A land cover change study in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia using a flight of aerial photographs dating back to the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Lanckriet, Sil; Demissie, Biadgilgn; Zenebe, Gebreyohanis; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia, land degradation is claimed to have occurred over a long time mainly due agricultural practices and lack of land management. However, quantitative information on the long term land use, cover and management change is rare. The knowledge of such historical changes is essential for the present and future land management for sustainable development, especially in an agriculture-based economy. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the changes of land use, cover and management around Hagere Selam, Northern Ethiopia, over the last 80 years (1935 - 2014). We recovered a flight of ten aerial photographs at an approximate scale of 1:11,500, realized by the Italian Military Geographical Institute in 1935, along a mountain ridge between 13.6490°N, 39.1848°E and 13.6785°N, 39.2658°E. Jointly with Google Earth images (2014), the historical aerial photographs were used to compare changes over the long time. The point-count technique was used by overlaying a grid of 18 x 15 points (small squares) on 20 cm x 15 cm aerial photographs and on Google Earth images representing the same area. Occurrence of major land cover types (cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, bare land, built-up areas and water body) was counted to compute their proportion in 1935 and 2014. In 1935, cropland, shrubland and built-up areas were predominant while other land cover types were not observed. On the Google Earth images, all categories were observed except forest. The results show that in both times cropland was the dominant land cover followed by shrubland. The proportion of cropland at present (70.5%) is approximately the same as in the 1930s (72%), but shrubland decreased and bare land, grassland and built-up areas have increased. Hence, the large share of cropland was maintained over the past long period without allowing for woody vegetation to expand its area, while some cropland was abandoned and converted to grassland and bare land. The increased

  14. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  15. Mediterranean valleys revisited: Linking soil erosion, land use and climate variability in the Northern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Jesse

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents results of geomorphological and archaeological investigations undertaken in several small drainage basins in the Jebel al-Aqra region of southern Turkey. By focusing intensive archaeological settlement survey in basins where securely dated sequences of sedimentary valley fills have been recorded, spatially and temporally linked, high-resolution records of land use and soil erosion have been generated. Sedimentary data show that throughout most of the Holocene, floodplains remained rather stable, allowing deep soils to form. But in the past two millennia, probably from AD 150-700, a phase of severe soil erosion was initiated and resulted in the deposition of 3.5-5.0 m of alluvial sediments on valley floors. Archaeological and historical evidence suggest that while these areas were occupied by agrarian communities since at least 2800 BC, nearly three millennia of cultivation during the Bronze and Iron Ages had relatively little effect on soil erosion. The intensification of settlement throughout the region and the conversion of upland areas to intensive agricultural production during the Hellenistic, Roman and late Roman periods (300 BC-AD 650), however, created the necessary preconditions for severe soil erosion to occur. These data are compared against modern and paleoclimate studies of the eastern Mediterranean, which show an extremely variable precipitation regime and the effects that it can have on erosion. A 400-year lag between the initial settlement of upland areas and the first evidence of soil erosion suggest that it may have been the intersection of extreme precipitation events with particular land use conditions of the Roman and late Roman periods which worked together to drive soil erosion.

  16. Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)), email: blas.mola@uef.fi

    2010-07-01

    The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha-1 yr-1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations. (orig.)

  17. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  18. The Effectiveness of Conservation Reserves: Land Tenure Impacts upon Biodiversity across Extensive Natural Landscapes in the Tropical Savannahs of the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C.Z. Woinarski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether there is a biodiversity benefit (“dividend” associated with the existence and management of conservation reserves in the extensive and largely natural landscape of northern Australia. Species richness and abundance of vertebrate fauna and the intensity of a range of disturbance factors were compared across a set of 967 sampled quadrats, located either in pastoral lands, Indigenous lands or conservation reserves, with all sampled quadrats within a single vegetation type (open forests and savannah woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus miniata and/or E. tetrodonta. The relationships with land tenure varied between major taxonomic groups, but generally (and particularly for threatened species values were highest for conservation reserves. This “biodiversity dividend” associated with conservation reserves is considered to be due to the effects of management rather than because conservation reserves were established on lands supporting atypically high conservation values. The impact of weeds and (unsurprisingly livestock was greatest on pastoral lands, and pig impact was greatest in conservation reserves. Although pastoral and Indigenous lands supported lower biodiversity tallies than reserved lands, the conservation values of reserved lands in this region are probably substantially supported by the maintenance of relatively intact ecological systems across all lands.

  19. Effects of land-use change on deposition and composition of organic matter in Frickenhauser See, northern Bavaria, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of bulk organic matter (OM) from lacustrine sediments of Frickenhauser See (northern Bavaria, Germany) reveals considerable variation during the last two millennia. Atomic C/N ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) content are positively correlated with arboreal pollen percentages which are used as an indicator of land-use intensity. Despite possible alterations of OM during early diagenesis, differences between three major lithological units are large enough to be interpreted as human impact on the sedimentation of OM in the lake. Sediments deposited prior to deforestation in the catchment area (unit C) are characterized by mean C/N ratios of 14.5, indicating a mixed composition of organic matter derived from lacustrine and terrestrial sources (forest litter). During a period of intensive soil erosion (ca. 1000 AD until 1870 AD; unit B), low C/N ratios of around 7.7 suggest that the relative proportion of forest litter decreased in favour of the lacustrine component and soil OM. Terrestrial plant detritus is only transported into the lake through numerous turbidite events. Deforestation and agriculture also coincide with a decreasing TOC content from an average value of 10.7% to 1.5%. This decrease is explained through a dilution effect due to the high input of minerogenic matter. Stable carbon isotopes indicate eutrophication of the lake due to the mobilization of nutrients through soil erosion. Starting around 1870 AD, organic-rich sapropelic sediments are deposited (unit A). A decline of turbidite events and increased wind shelter from trees due to reduced land-use intensity led to meromictic conditions. Consequently, negative excursions in the δ 13C isotope record at the onset of unit A probably reflect methanogenesis under permanently anoxic conditions

  20. Study on Rangeland production Potential and its Limitations in the Semi-Arid lands of Northern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained from recent studies focused on rangeland potential as influenced by human activity and climatic factors in the semi-arid and pastoral ecosystems of Northern Kenya indicated great temporal and spatial forage production variability. The objective of the studies was to document the primary production potential in relation to water stress (drought), herbivory and direct human activities. Efforts also focused on finding possibilities of increasing productivity while conserving the finite resources for sustainable use. Laboratory field and numeric methods were employed over several seasons and years. Forb and grass production was more viable than that of the brows (dwarf shrub) layer. Compared to forbs and dwarf shrubs, The grass layer contributed less to the total of production in all seasons, indicating that the region had less potential for grazers compared to browsers. Spatial-temporal variations in rangeland carrying capacity reflected the great spatial heterogeneity in vegetation types and production. Similarly, seasonal difference were very evident, with highest estimates in the long rainy and lowest during the dry and short rainy seasons, respectively. Factors limiting rangeland production potential and were identified to be moisture deficiency, resource-use conflicts, an increasing and partial sedentarised nomadic population, overgrazing, tree felling, and land degradation (desert encroachment). Measures that can increase rangelands production potential and provide a better way of life for the inhabitants of the region include: (a) identification of land degradation (e.g. by means of bio-indicators and Geographical Information systems, GIS); (b) technical interventions (i.e. soil and water conservation,restoration of degraded ares, fodder production); (c)socio-economic interventions (i.e. resolution of resource-use conflicts, alleviation of poverty, infrastructure development, improvement of livestock marketing channels, etc) and (d) continued

  1. Size distributions of mineral aerosols and dust emission flux observed over Horqin Sandy Land area in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    Size distribution of mineral aerosols is of primary importance in determining their residence time in atmosphere, transport patterns, removal mechanisms as well as their effects on climate and human health. This study aims to obtain dust particle size distribution and size-resolved dust emission flux under different weather conditions over a sandy land area in northern China (Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia), using the observational data from Horqin sandstorm monitoring station in the spring of 2010 and 2012. Dust (PM20) mass concentration was measured by a 10-stage quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cascade impactor. The statistical results indicate that finer dust particles (r ≤ 1.0 μm) take a large proportion of all PM20 concentration under clear-day conditions, while coarser dust particles (r ≥ 2.5 μm) concentration increased under dust-day conditions, with the peak occurring between 4-7 μm. The dust particle size distributions during the pre-dust-emission and dust-emission periods of a dust event on 7 April 2012 have similar features to the statistical results. During the dust event, the magnitude of dust emission flux of all sizes increased about one or two orders (0.1-10 μg m-2 s-1) as u* increase from 0.54 to 1.29 m s-1. The maximum total F value was about 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 and the maximum size-resolved F(Ddi) is 12.3 μg m-2 s-1 in 0.3-0.45 μm size bin when u* is 1.29 m s-1. Dust advection has effects on airborne dust size distribution, making the proportion of dust particles of different sizes more uniform, as observed in a non-local dust event on 19 April 2012.

  2. A new Eemian record of Antarctic tephra layers retrieved from the Talos Dome ice core (Northern Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria; Petit, Jean Robert; Langone, Antonio; Stenni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Polar ice sheets are remarkable repositories of tephra layers. The Talos Dome ice core (72°49‧S, 159°11‧E), drilled at the edge of the East Antarctic Plateau, close to Late Quaternary volcanoes, offers considerable potential to extend the current tephra time-stratigraphic framework. A tephrochronological study was undertaken of the ice core sections related to the Last Interglacial and the transition to the subsequent glacial period. Thirteen macroscopically visible layers, interpreted to be related to primary deposition of fallout tephra, have been analysed for quantitative grain size and glass shard geochemistry. The layers, precisely framed within the climate (δ18O) record for the core, span in age from 111.6 ± 1.9 to 123.3 ± 2.2 ka. Coarse particle size suggests origin from regional sources. Indeed, the vast majority of the samples display an alkaline affinity and trachytic composition that are both typical geochemical features of rifting Antarctic volcanism. Using subtle differences in the geochemical signatures and the comparison with data from previous studies, a few layers are attributed to known coeval Mt. Melbourne eruptions. Another sample subset is consistent with derivation from The Pleiades and Mt. Rittmann volcanoes. One peculiar trachytic glass population appears to be related to activity of the more distant Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The newly detected tephras provide stratigraphic markers that could facilitate future synchronisation and dating of palaeoclimatic records. The Talos Dome tephra inventory also contributes significantly to the reconstruction of the Northern Victoria Land explosive volcanism, for which chronostratigraphic data for the Last Interglacial temporal segment are poor.

  3. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Sedimentation of the basal Kombolgie Formation (Upper Precambrian-Carpentarian) Northern Territory, Australia: possible significance in the genesis of the underlying Alligator Rivers unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1400 to 1500 My old Kombolgie Formation of the MacArthur Basin of the Northern Territory overlies or has overlain unconformity-type uranium deposits including Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek and the small deposits of the South Alligator River Valley. A brief study of the basal portion of the formation showed it to consist entirely of mature conglomerates and quartzose sandstones. Analysis of the bedding types (planar cross beds, trough cross beds and parallel beds) and other sedimentary structures (mainly ripple marks and parting lineation) fit a braided alluvial plain model. A paleocurrent study utilizing about 400 measurements from nine localities located along the westward-facing 250 kilometer-long erosional escarpment of the Arnhem Land Plateau showed the dominant paleocurrent trend to be from west and northwest towards the east and southeast, with local divergence. The data and interpretation presented are relevant to the supergene model of uranium deposition at the unconformity, for they add to the suggestion that additional uranium deposits similar to Jabiluka Two may underlie the Kombolgie Formation eastward from the present escarpment

  5. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land-use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolia grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land-use. The total of sixteen soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG, native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG, groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG. Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were −24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, −24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, −25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and −26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxylalkanoic acids and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60–70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10–20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolia grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot vs. root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for global carbon cycle since root derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  6. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Xu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolian grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land use. A total of 16 soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were -24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, -24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, -25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and -26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxyalkanoic acids) and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60-70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10-20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolian grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot- versus root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for the global carbon cycle since root-derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  7. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969. PMID:27172861

  8. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.

  9. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the McMurdo Volcanic Group at The Pleiades, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen samples from The Pleiades volcanic centre in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, were dated using the 40Ar/39Ar furnace step-heating method. Ages range from 847 to 6 ka. Eight samples are <100 ka, showing that The Pleiades are very young. Three trachyte samples suggest eruptive activity started at c. 830 ka. An apparent increase in volcanic activity began at c. 100 ka, and at c. 65 ka a significant phase of cone building occurred at Mt Atlas, the largest volcanic cone at The Pleiades. At c. 45 ka, lava flows were erupted on the western flank of Mt Pleiones adjacent to Mt Atlas and near the summit of Alcyone Cone. The youngest activity (6 ± 6 ka) occurred at Taygete Cone, an endogenous dome of trachyte. The near-zero age for Taygete Cone is consistent with evidence of recent volcanism, including fresh hydrothermal activity and compositionally similar pumice lapilli scattered over parts of The Pleiades. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change. PMID:26815296

  13. Multiple shallow level sill intrusions coupled with hydromagmatic explosive eruptions marked the initial phase of Ferrar large igneous province magmatism in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck-Goette, L.; Schöner, R.; Bomfleur, B.; Schneider, J.

    2007-01-01

    Field data gathered during GANOVEX IX (2005/2006) in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate that volcaniclastic deposits of phreatomagmatic eruptions (so-called Exposure Hill Type events) are intercalated with fluvial deposits of Triassic-Jurassic age at two stratigraphic levels. Abundant scoriaceous spatter (locally welded) indicates a hawaiian/strombolian component. Breccia-filled diatremes, from which volcaniclastic deposits were sourced, are rooted in sills which intruded wet sediments. The deposits are thus subaerial expressions of initial Ferrar magmatism involving intrusion of multiple shallow-level sills. Due to magma-sediment interaction abundant clastic dikes are developed that intrude the sediments and sills. All igneous components in the volcaniclastic deposits are andesitic in composition, as are the chilled margins of the sills. They are more differentiated than the basaltic andesites of the younger effusive section of Kirkpatrick plateau lavas which in northern Victoria Land start with pillow lavas and small volume lava flows from volcanic necks.

  14. Climate Change, Land Use Conflicts, Predation and Ecological Degradation as Challenges for Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Europe: What do We Really Know After Half a Century of Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Pape, Roland; Löffler, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic–alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe. Nowadays, reindeer husbandry is challenged in several ways, of which pasture degradation, climate change, conflicting land uses and predation are the most important. Research on reindeer-related topics has been conducted for more than half a century and this review illuminates whether or no...

  15. Effects of land-conversion in a biosphere–atmosphere model of Northern South America – Part 1: Regional differences in hydrometeorology

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, R. G.; Longo, M; A. L. S. Swann; Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; R. L. Bras

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how landuse changes over northern South America, driven by human interventions, have affected the regional patterns of hydrology. Comparisons are made to scenarios where no human disturbance of the regional vegetation is assumed. A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model 2 – ED2) is combined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System – BRAMS) to investigate how land conve...

  16. Simulated impact of past and possible future land use changes on the hydrological response of the Northern German lowland ‘Hunte’ catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfert, Simon; Bormann, Helge

    2010-03-01

    SummaryLand use is a key factor controlling the hydrological behaviour of catchments. Changing land use therefore can have an important influence on the local hydrological cycle. Validated and process-based hydrological models are suitable tools to quantify the impact of a change in land use on the hydrological processes. In this study, the physically based catchment model WaSiM-ETH (Water Balance Simulation Model) was applied to a mesoscale lowland catchment in northern Germany (Hunte river, 2141 km 2 at gauge Oldenburg). Model calibration and validation showed that WaSiM-ETH well represented the discharge of the main Hunte river while the discharge dynamics of a few lowland tributaries whose catchments are characterised by peaty soils and intense artificial drainage could not be represented. The purpose of this study was twofold; on the one hand to analyse the sensitivity of WaSiM-ETH to changes in land use observed in the decade 1990-2000, and on the other hand to quantify the impact of land use change projected for the future in terms of land use scenarios available to the public. The results showed that WaSiM-ETH is hardly sensitive to the slight changes observed in the last decade of the 20th century. By contrast, water flows simulated by WaSiM-ETH are clearly impacted by agricultural land use scenarios which were developed based on IPCC scenarios. However, the results also show that it is not sufficient to focus on agricultural land use, only. The proposed reduction of agricultural land leaves open the final land cover after land use change, e.g., forest or urban areas. This study demonstrated that WaSiM-ETH was more sensitive to the choice of the final land cover than to the difference in the scenarios (e.g., A1F1 versus B1). Therefore, we recommend to precisely define change in agricultural land use as well as the final land cover in order to estimate the realistic impact of land use change on hydrological behaviour.

  17. Size distributions of mineral aerosols and dust emission flux observed over Horqin Sandy Land area in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Size distribution of mineral aerosols is of primary importance in determining their residence time in atmosphere, transport patterns, removal mechanisms as well as their effects on climate and human health. This study aims to obtain dust particle size distribution and size-resolved dust emission flux under different weather conditions over a sandy land area in northern China (Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia, using the observational data from Horqin sandstorm monitoring station in the spring of 2010 and 2012. Dust (PM20 mass concentration was measured by a 10-stage quartz crystal microbalance (QCM cascade impactor. The statistical results indicate that finer dust particles (r ≤ 1.0 μm take a large proportion of all PM20 concentration under clear-day conditions, while coarser dust particles (r ≥ 2.5 μm concentration increased under dust-day conditions, with the peak occurring between 4–7 μm. The dust particle size distributions during the pre-dust-emission and dust-emission periods of a dust event on 7 April 2012 have similar features to the statistical results. During the dust event, the magnitude of dust emission flux of all sizes increased about one or two orders (0.1–10 μg m−2 s−1 as u* increase from 0.54 to 1.29 m s−1. The maximum total F value was about 43.0 μg m−2 s−1 and the maximum size-resolved F(Ddi is 12.3 μg m−2 s−1 in 0.3–0.45 μm size bin when u* is 1.29 m s−1. Dust advection has effects on airborne dust size distribution, making the proportion of dust particles of different sizes more uniform, as observed in a non-local dust event on 19 April 2012.

  18. Integrated approaches to restore gullies in land prone to soil piping: innovations from the drylands of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Moulaert, Lys; Van Damme, Alexander; Haile, Mitiku; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Multiple on-site and off-site effects of gully erosion threaten sustainable development, which is especially evident in dryland environments. To control soil erosion by gullying, various soil and water conservation measures have been developed, of which check dams are the most common. Where soil piping occurs, soil and water conservation measures have limited effect on gully stabilization, and check dams easily collapse. Therefore, new integrated approaches are needed to control gully erosion induced by soil piping. Here, a subsurface geomembrane dam is proposed as an innovative measure to reduce subsurface flow in soil pipes near gullies. Application of such a dam in Northern Ethiopia, resulted in a decrease of gully erosion rates in Vertisols, and a rising water table in the intergully areas near the gully channel. The consequence of this effect for agriculture near gully channels is the reduction of soil desiccation and hence, increased crop yields in the intergully areas near the gully channels. With the gully filling and stabilizing, runoff water could be diverted into adjacent land, offering additional benefits to the local communities. Here, the runoff diversion was done into a vegetation protection site, in order to enhances biomass production, especially tree growth. Moreover, a water collection pound was created to make water available in the prolonged dry season. These interventions support additional economical activities such as beekeeping and the establishment of a tree nursery. With the multiple on-site and off-site benefits of the integrated approach, local communities have a better guarantee of investment return and livelihood improvement, increasing their support to gully rehabilitation schemes. Keywords: Crop, Subsurface dam, Soil and water conservation, Tree growth, Vertisol, Dryland.

  19. Analysis of Land Covers over Northern Peninsular Malaysia by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data Based on Frequency-Based Contextual and Neural Network Classification Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Optical and microwave remote sensing data have been widely used in land cover and land use classification. Optical satellite remote sensing methods are more appropriate but require cloud-free conditions for data to be useful especially at Equatorial region. In Equatorial region cloud free acquisitions can be rare reducing these sensors' applicability to such studies. ALOS-PALSAR data can be acquired day and night irrespective of weather conditions. This paper presents a comparison between frequency-based contextual and neural network classification technique by using ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover assessment in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. The ALOS-PALSAR data acquired on 10 November 2006 were converted to vegetation, urban, water and other land features. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. Supervised classification techniques were used in the classification analysis. The best supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy and Kappa statistic. Based on the result produced by this study, it can be pointed out the utility of ALOS-PALSAR data as an alternative data source for land cover classification in the Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Saipan 1945-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1945-era and 2005-era classifications of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This...

  1. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...... to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  2. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution to...... global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  3. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  4. Investigating the interactions between biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes in the northern high latitudes using a land surface model; feedbacks and climatic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, R.; Jain, A.; Liang, M.; McGuire, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    northern high latitude region. Efforts are currently underway to couple the ISAM with the newly released Community Earth System Model (CESM1) to study land-atmosphere interactions in northern high latitudes, specifically for the permafrost dominated regions, and to investigate the associated future climatic impacts.

  5. A time to change? The supply of climate mitigation products from land-use change in northern NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Jonathan; Cacho, Oscar J.; Mounter, Stuart W.

    2010-01-01

    With the impending introduction of an Australian Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, farmers and landholders in rural Australia have increased opportunities to participate in the market. This includes the adoption of land-use change to sequester additional carbon in exchange for carbon credits and the production of a renewable energy source (biofuels). However, these land-use changes compete with existing farm enterprises and may contain significant transaction costs. Therefore it is necessary...

  6. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu Pan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for being the site of occurrence of the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in China and worldwide, and is chosen as our study area. In this study, we have investigated the capabilities and limitations of ALOS PALSAR data for monitoring the land subsidence that accompanies coal fires by means of satellite differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR observations. An approach to map the large and highly non-linear subsidence based on a small number of SAR images was applied to the Wuda coalfield to reveal the spatial and temporal signals of land subsidence in areas affected by coal fires. The DInSAR results agree well with coal fire data obtained from field investigations and thermal anomaly information, which demonstrates that the capability of ALOS PALSAR data and the proposed approach have remarkable potential to detect this land subsidence of interest. In addition, our results also provide a spatial extent and temporal evolution of the land subsidence behavior accompanying the coal fires, which indicated that several coal fire zones suffer accelerated ongoing land subsidence, whilst other coal fire zones are newly subsiding areas arising from coal fires in the period of development.

  7. 中国北方未来50年土地利用变化模拟%Modelling scenarios of land use change in northern China in the next 50 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春阳; 李景刚; 史培军

    2005-01-01

    Modelling scenarios of land use change and their impacts in typical regions are helpful to investigate the mechanism between land use and ecological systems and process the land use allocation under the ecological security. A system dynamics (SD) model with the aim to modelling scenarios of land use change and assessing ecological impact in northern China in the next 50 years is developed here. The accuracy assessment with the historic data from 1990 to 2001 indicated the SD model is robust. After the different "what-if' scenarios controlled by GDP, population, market, and technology advancement were built, the different scenarios of land use change in northern China from 2000 to 2050 were simulated with their ecological impact assessed. The result suggested that such factors as GDP, population, market and technology have a strong relationship with land use structural change in northern China. It also indicated that such measures as strict controlling of population increase, importing some food to keep the supply-demand balance in the region, and improving agricultural technology will be the guarantee of regional sustainable development with fast economic growth and the obvious land use structural improvement at the same time.

  8. Seasonal variation of nitrogen-concentration in the surface water and its relationship with land use in a catchment of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ding; PENG Hong-jia; FU Bo-jie; QIU Jun; ZHANG Shu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Surface waters can be contaminated by human activities in two ways: (1) by point sources, such as sewage treatment discharge and storm-water runoff; and (2) by non-point sources, such as runoff from urban and agricultural areas. With point-source pollution effectively controlled, non-point source pollution has become the most important environmental concern in the world. The formation of non-point source pollution is related to both the sources such as soil nutrient, the amount of fertilizer and pesticide applied, the amount of refuse, and the spatial complex combination of land uses within a heterogeneous landscape. Land-use change, dominated by human activities, has a significant impact on water resources and quality. In this study, fifteen surface water monitoring points in the Yuqiao Reservoir Basin, Zunhua, Hebei Province, northern China, were chosen to study the seasonal variation of nitrogen concentration in the surface water. Water samples were collected in low-flow period(June), high-flow period(July) and mean-flow period(October) from 1999 to 2000. The results indicated that the seasonal variation of nitrogen concentration in the surface water among the fifteen monitoring points in the rainfall-rich year is more complex than that in the rainfall-deficit year. It was found that the land use, the characteristics of the surface river system, rainfall, and human activities play an important role in the seasonal variation of N-concentration in surface water.

  9. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  10. Influence of fleet renewal and trawl development on landings per unit effort of the Danish northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Munch-Petersen, Sten

    2011-01-01

    Recent stock assessments of the Pandalus stock in the Skagerrak (ICES Division IIIa) and the Norwegian Deep (Division IVa east) have relied largely on a time-series of landings per unit effort (lpue) calculated from Danish logbook data. Because of fleet renewal and trawl-size changes, the relatio......Recent stock assessments of the Pandalus stock in the Skagerrak (ICES Division IIIa) and the Norwegian Deep (Division IVa east) have relied largely on a time-series of landings per unit effort (lpue) calculated from Danish logbook data. Because of fleet renewal and trawl-size changes...

  11. 1983-2001年中国北方的耕地变化与驱动力%Understanding cultivated land dynamics and its driving forces in northern China during 1983-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春阳; 李景刚; 王圆圆

    2005-01-01

    Based on the long-term serial NOAA/NDVI dataset during 1983-1999 and SPOT/VGT dataset in 2001, the land use/cover change information in the 13 provinces of northern China was extracted based on the analysis of the cultivated landscape characteristics at first, then the effects of human activities on cultivated land process were explored by GIS and the driving forces of cultivated land change were investigated. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The constant increase of weak ecological function land as desert and cultivated land and the decrease of the ecological function land of forest and shrub were the main characteristics of the land use/cover change in the 13 provinces from 1983 to 1999, which showed the effects on the ecological adjustment function. However, such situations were changed to some extent in the 2000s because of the eco-construction policy of the government. (2) From 1983 to 2001, the Barycenter of cultivated land tended to move from northeast to southwest with the topography and transportation situations being the main influences on the cultivated land distribution. It is found that the cultivated land use intensity decreased noticably with the increase of distance from the main communication arteries. (3) The improvement of the people's living standard is closely related with the cultivated land change. The structural adjustment in the agricultural land caused by economic development and the improvement of the people's living standard is an important factor affecting the cultivated land change in northern China from 1983 to 2001.

  12. Size-composition of Annual Landings in the White Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, Fishery of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 1960–2006: Its Trend and Relationships with Other Fishery-dependent Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Nance, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The potential for growth overfishing in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, fishery of the northern Gulf of Mexico appears to have been of limited concern to Federal or state shrimp management entities, following the cataclysmic drop in white shrimp abundance in the 1940’s. As expected from surplus production theory, a decrease in size of shrimp in the annual landings accompanies increasing fishing effort, and can eventually reduce the value of the landings. Growth overfishing can exa...

  13. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  14. Wagering the land: Ritual, capital, and environmental degradation in the cordillera of Northern Luzon 1900-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropical deforestation and land degradation in the Third World countries are topics that have moved to the academic center stage in the past 15 years. While this attention is long overdue, it is remarkable how little is understood of these processes. In addition, in the present rush to model global environmental change, the detail and place-specific nature of the expansion of agriculture and decline of forest cover may be ignored or overlooked. Wagering the Land is an important book because it forces one to confront the remarkably varied, complex, and site-specific causes of long-term environmental change. This book is strongly recommended to those engaged in the whole enterprise of modeling environmental change (particularly at the global level)

  15. Land application of waste waters in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory - environmental constraints on design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing uranium mines in the Alligator River Region presently operate under a no release water management regime for water stored within the designated restricted release zones (RRZ). This water is of variable quality ranging from rainwater influenced by runoff from the mill sites and ore stockpiles to mill process water stored within the trailings repositories. There is a pressing need to reduce the volume of stored RRZ water at Nabarlek as a prerequisite to decommissioning. There is also a requirement at Ranger to rapidly reduce the volume of stored water in the mine pit at the end of the season to allow the mining of ore. Land application of RRZ water by spray irrigation has been investigated at both sites because it offers the benefits of applying chemical constituents in the wastewater within a clearly defined irrigation area. the environmental planning for the design of a land application system involves calculations of the chemical load in the wastewater and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the soil-plant system. The monsoon climate, lateritic soil and fluctuating water table creates a unique set of environmental constraints and conditions in which to design and operate a successful land application system for the treatment of stored water at minesites within ecologically sensitive areas

  16. Advanced interpretation of land subsidence by validating multi-interferometric SAR data: the case study of the Anthemountas basin (Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raspini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of repeat-pass space borne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry has been exploited to investigate spatial patterns of land subsidence in the Anthemountas basin, in the northern part of Greece. The PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach, based on the processing of long series of SAR acquisitions, has been applied to forty-two images acquired in 1995–2001 by ERS1/2 satellites. Interferometric results have been analysed at a basin scale as support for land motion mapping and at a local scale for the characterisation of ground motion events affecting the village of Perea in the Thermaikos municipality and the "Macedonia" international airport. PSI results revealed a moderate subsidence phenomenon along the wider coastal zone of Anthemountas basin corresponding to intense groundwater extraction. Highest values, exceeding −20 mm yr−1, were measured in the airport area where the thickest sequence of compressible Quaternary sediments occurs. Intense subsidence has been detected also in the Perea village (maximum deformation of −10 to −15 mm yr−1, where a series of fractures, causing damages to both buildings and infrastructure, occurred in 2005–2006.

  17. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  18. Subsoil Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability to Land Use Change Across a Network of Seven Experimental Sites in the US Northern Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, S.; Rothstein, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report the depth distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at experimental sites in the Northern Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota) spanning a range of textural and geochemical environments. We also determined the vulnerability of SOC and SIC to the disturbance caused land-use change (conversion of old fields to short-rotation woody crop plantations). The experimental network consists of seven bioenergy plantations established in 2009-2010 in idled grass fields using herbicide and tillage. These study sites exhibit differences in soil texture (controlled largely by the type of glacial overlay) and geochemistry (controlled by the regional lithology including shale, basalt, limestone, sandstone and calcareous sandstone), providing the opportunity to gain insight into regional physical and chemical determinants of soil C storage. We conducted intensive soil sampling campaigns to a depth of 1 m prior to land conversion and at 4 years post-disturbance, to determine the depth profile and response of soil C storage as a function of land use and regional edaphic attributes. The proportion of subsoil SOC (stored at a depth greater than 25 cm) ranged from 33 to 50% of whole-profile SOC (to 1 m) prior to land conversion. Soils developed from calcareous parent materials also had significant SIC stocks despite the humid climate promoting carbonate weathering. The SIC stocks made up to half of the total soil C to a depth of 1 m. Measurable carbonates occurred throughout the profile, possibly due to upwards biological translocation mechanisms, but were most abundant at depths greater than 50 cm. Preliminary analyses indicate that SOC decreased in the topsoil following land-use change. These topsoil losses were offset by subsoil gains at sites with reactive mineralogy. The SIC stocks showed re-distribution following disturbance and were likely subject to accelerated weathering. Taken together, these results indicate

  19. Revegetation of mined land in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia: a review. Supervising Scientist report 150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review aims to assist the Alligator Rivers Technical Committee (ARRTC) in determining whether current practices and plans for revegetation at Ranger mine and elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) are appropriate, and to establish research priorities in this region. The majority of information regarding revegetation in the wet-dry tropics (WDT) of northern Australia pertains to Ranger mine. However, there is a dearth of peer-reviewed published papers which is a significant problem that may limit effective communication and application of appropriate revegetation techniques on mines in the WDT. The use of topsoil on hard rock mines in northern Australia is a contentious issue, with topsoil re-spreading being excluded from many rehabilitation programs. However, the experience of many WDT rehabilitation researchers indicates that use of topsoil containing indigenous microbes, valuable nutrients and organic matter increases the probability of achieving a successful, self-sustaining native ecosystem in the long term (eg Bell 1993. Hinz 1996, Tongway et al 1997). This review examines five methodologies that have been used to assess the success of rehabilitation in the WDT. Success criteria based on a single or narrow set of parameters are likely to be inadequate. A study comparing the indicator value of the various monitoring methods would be valuable, with a possible outcome being the development of a 'multi-discipline' monitoring approach. Gaps in the existing knowledge or practices that may limit the success of revegetation at minesites in the Alligator Rivers Region are identified. The most critical issues are identified broadly as: topsoil utilisation and management; fire; management/prediction of successional processes; establishment of symbiotic micro-organisms; native seed collection, storage and germination; development of monitoring methodologies and acceptable success criteria; and technology transfer

  20. Numerical model to evaluate the mitigation strategies to combat desertification and drought in the arid land of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Carla; Mendieta, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Desertification is considered a global environmental problem with political and socioeconomic implications. Desertification, exacerbated by climate change, is the largest environmental problem in Chile affecting almost two third of the national territory. This study takes place in a latitudinal gradient of the north-central Chilean drylands, where desertification is a threat to agriculture, livestock and forestry (ALF). The critical areas or priority areas for combating desertification are the northernmost areas of the region under study. In the context of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the implementation of the Chilean National Action Programme (NAP), the country is conducting policies and investing in mitigation strategies to combat land degradation and desertification. The main objective of this study is the development of an integrative methodological approach using real data of the territorial and socioeconomic indicators. With the proposed methodology we assess the impact of the mitigation and land degradation strategies supported by the ALF promotion agencies in the fight against desertification, projecting different scenarios of change. The data were collected in 2008 in Santiago, Chile. The results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggest that technical irrigation and the improvement of grasslands and pastures play an important role in the fight against desertification. The results of the model projections are consistent, suggesting that the efforts of the ALF promotion agencies have a positive impact in fighting desertification. Inaction of ALF mitigation strategies would increase desertification. This methodological approach, performed with real data, can also determine the main causes of desertification in such a complex area as the studied one, where we can find the desert itself, and its desertification endangered valleys, the Andean plateau, the transitional area and the southern regions. Ii is also a

  1. 1989-2003年中国北方土地覆被变化%Land cover dynamic changes in northern China:1989-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月臣

    2008-01-01

    The 13 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in northern China are located in latitude 31°-54°N and longitude 73°-136°E including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei,Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Xinjiang, where environments are fragile. In recent years, the eco-environmental problems such as vegetation destruction, desertification and soil erosion etc. become serious because of climate change and unreasonable human activities. In this paper, landscape pattern and its evolution in northern China from 1989 to 2003 was investigated by the combined use of RS and GIS based on the basic theory and method of landscape ecology. Land use/cover maps of the study area in 1989, 1999 and 2003 were produced by using 1 km monthly NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and SPOTNGT Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset from national climate bureau of China which were geo-registered to Lambert azimuthal equal-area map projection and were used in the paper.Landscape evolution in the area over the study period was investigated by two methods: (a)the changes of various landscape metrics were analyzed using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS; (b) the transition matrix of landscape patch types was calculated with the help of the RS and GIS software. The results showed that from 1989 to 2003,the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition. The diversity index and evenness index increased during the period, which means that the landscape pattern tended to be diversified and even. The fragmentation index of grassland, forestland and water areas also increased significantly. This showed that the distribution and structure of forestland, grassland and water areas had been changed greatly during the period, especially grassland which became more and more fragmentized, and its fragmentation index increased from 19

  2. Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (pplanting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience

  3. The potential of short rotation willow coppice on agricultural land in northern Europe based on empirical data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forest Sciences; Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation evaluated short rotation coppice for bioenergy in areas where energy crops are under consideration, as a basis for future economic or policy applications. Several studies have demonstrated the high potential productivity of willow for bioenergy and shown the feasibility of average annual growth of 10-20 oven dry tonnes per hectare during the first cutting cycle. From 1986 to 2006, approximately 16000 ha of short rotation willow plantations were planted in the traditional agricultural areas of Sweden. The more recent plantings included the newer varieties, more vigorous than the older clones, which resulted in shorter rotations and more resistance to frost and disease. This study reported on the geographical spread of willow cultivation, linked to the changes in policies that promote wood-energy crops and the local economic framework. A geo-statistical method based on kernel analysis was used to identify the grouping patterns of plantations and areas where the cultivation was successful. Estimates of current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for Sweden and nearby countries in northern Europe were also presented. The study showed that the development of a short rotation coppice for bioenergy requires an infrastructure, a market for willow chips and consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. Potential average yields were shown to be 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 oven dry tonnes per hectare per year for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. tabs., figs.

  4. Seasonality of Air-sea-ice-land Variables for Arctic Tundra in Northern Eurasia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Steele, M.; Epstein, H.; Jia, G.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The strength of tundra productivity trends as measured by the annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MaxNDVI) and time integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI) vary around the Arctic over the 1982-2008 period. Our analysis suggests that the timing of terrestrial vegetation growth is connected to seasonal patterns of sea-ice concentrations, ocean temperatures and land surface temperatures. This study used SSMI estimates of sea ice concentration, based on a bootstrap algorithm and AVHRR radiometric surface temperature. Summer Warmth Index (SWI) was calculated as the sum from May to August of the degree months above freezing of surface temperature at each pixel and is an accepted measure of plant growth potential. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents vegetation greenness and has been used extensively to monitor changes in the Arctic. The albedo of green plants varies with solar radiation wavelength, which is the basis for the NDVI index. The analysis was conducted within 50 km of the Arctic coastline to focus on the region of maximum maritime influence. Time series of regional sea-ice concentration, SWI and NDVI were constructed for the 50-km width domains for the Pan-Arctic, North America, Eurasia and Arctic subregions. Standard climate analysis techniques were applied to the regional time series to investigate the seasonality of sea ice, NDVI and SWI. MaxNDVI has increased in the 50-km land domain contiguous to the Beaufort Sea by 17% since 1982, whereas it has only increased by 3% in the coastal Kara Sea region. Analysis of semimonthly MaxNDVI indicates that the vegetation greens up more rapidly in the spring in the Beaufort than the W. Kara and the Kara has slightly higher NDVI in the fall. The climatological weekly sea ice concentrations in 50-km coastal domain displays an earlier breakup in the Beaufort and a later freeze-up in the Kara Sea area. Regional differences in the seasonal cycle can in part explain the spatially varied trends

  5. Assimilating MODIS Snow Covers into Land Surface Model: Validation with in-situ Snow Measurements in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunlin; Hou, Jinliang; Wang, WeiZhen

    2016-04-01

    Accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of snow cover is important for snowmelt runoff simulation and water resources management especially in mountainous areas. In this work, we develop a snow data assimilation scheme based on Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) algorithm and Common Land Model (CoLM), which can assimilate snow cover fraction (SCF) products from the Moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into CoLM for improving snow depth (SD) and snow cover area simulations. An empirical model between SD and SCF has been built based on MODIS SCF and snow depth observations at meteorological stations located in study area, which is used as observation operator in snow data assimilation scheme. The assimilation experiment is conducted during 2004-2007, in Xingjiang province, west China. The preliminary assimilation results are very promising and show that the assimilation of SCF could significantly improve the CoLM capability of simulating snow cover area and snow depth. The assimilation results are more closer to those of observations, which have more reasonable and reliable snow accumulation and melting trends throughout the snow season. After assimilating MODIS SCF observations, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias error (MBE) of snow cover or snow depth are significantly reduced compared to the results without assimilation.

  6. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  7. The origin of late archaean granitoids in the Sukuma land greenstone belt of northern Tanzania: Geochemical and isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitoids intruding the late Archaean sequences of the Sukumaland Greenstone Belt of northern Tanzania belong to two distinct geochemical suites. Suite 1 is characterised by Na2O/K2O > 1 (1.04 - 4.67), high Sr/Y (56 - 204) and Ba/Rb ratios (6.1 - 27.1) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.08 - 0.25). The rocks are enriched in Sr (405 - 1264 ppm) and depleted in Yb (0.17 - 0.93 ppm) and Rb (56 -132 ppm). On chondrite-normalised REE diagrams, the rocks display highly fractionated patterns characterised by relative LREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 23 - 128 and (Gd/Yb)N = 3.10- 8.54) and lower concentrations of the HREE (YbN = 0.80 - 4.45). On primitive mantle-normalised spidergrams, Nb and Ti, together with P and Y are depleted relative to adjacent elements. The major and trace element characteristics of Suite 1 are comparable to those of typical Archaean TTG suites and High Silica Adakites (HSA). Suite 2 granitoids are characterised by Na2O/K2O N = 15 -86 and (Gd/Yb)N = 1.73 - 6.74) and are characterised by higher concentrations of the HREE (YbN = 2.1 - 6.5). On primitive mantle-normalised spidergrams, Suite 2 samples, like those of Suite 1, show relative depletion in Th, Nb and Ti, together with P and Y relative to adjacent elements. Sm-Nd mean crustal residence ages for both suites are indistinguishable and range between 2470 and 2720 Ma with a mean of 2610 ± 35 Ma (2 SE), similar to the emplacement age of 2620 ± 40 Ma. The granitoids are interpreted to have formed by partial melting at the base of a late Archaean thickened sub-arc basaltic crust. Melting to form the Suite 1 granitoids occurred in the eclogite stability field whereas Suite 2 formed by melting at shallower depth in the garnet amphibolite stability field. (author)

  8. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  9. Evaluation of Land Surface Models in Reproducing Satellite-Derived LAI over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part I: Uncoupled DGVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI represents the total surface area of leaves above a unit area of ground and is a key variable in any vegetation model, as well as in climate models. New high resolution LAI satellite data is now available covering a period of several decades. This provides a unique opportunity to validate LAI estimates from multiple vegetation models. The objective of this paper is to compare new, satellite-derived LAI measurements with modeled output for the Northern Hemisphere. We compare monthly LAI output from eight land surface models from the TRENDY compendium with satellite data from an Artificial Neural Network (ANN from the latest version (third generation of GIMMS AVHRR NDVI data over the period 1986–2005. Our results show that all the models overestimate the mean LAI, particularly over the boreal forest. We also find that seven out of the eight models overestimate the length of the active vegetation-growing season, mostly due to a late dormancy as a result of a late summer phenology. Finally, we find that the models report a much larger positive trend in LAI over this period than the satellite observations suggest, which translates into a higher trend in the growing season length. These results highlight the need to incorporate a larger number of more accurate plant functional types in all models and, in particular, to improve the phenology of deciduous trees.

  10. Factors affecting distribution of microbiotic crusts in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China,from July to August of 2005 to provide a scientific evaluation of the grain-for-green project,including its soil and water conservation and other ecological benefits for the region.The distribution of microbiotic crusts were studied,while human disturbance,aspect,topography,vegetation structure and other factors affecting it were obtained from the analysis of survey data from 78 sample plots.Results show that crust coverage is larger on lessdisturbed plots than on highly-disturbed ones,on northfacing plots than on south-facing ones and on gully-slopes than on ridge-slopes.Coverage increases with herbal coverage and trees can provide better conditions for distribution of crusts than shrubs.Therefore,crust coverage is larger in herb-dominated plots than in tree-dominated ones and crusts in shrub-dominated plots are smaller.However,we made no progress in our study on deciding how slope degrees and herb species affect the distribution of crusts.We believe that more studies are necessary for a further exploration of the relationship between them.

  11. Actual Evapotranspiration in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin (Northern Iraq Using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL and Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jassas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing dependence on groundwater requires a detailed determination of the different outputs and inputs of a basin for better water management. Determination of spatial and temporal actual evapotranspiration (ETa, in this regard, is of vital importance as there is significant water loss from drainage basins. This research paper uses the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL, as well as the water balance, to estimate the spatial and temporal ETa in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, Northern Iraq. To compensate for the shortage in rainfall, and to irrigate summer crops, farmers in this basin have been depending, to a large extent, on groundwater extracted from the underlying unconfined aquifer, which is considered the major source for both domestic and agricultural uses in this basin. Rainfed farming of wheat and barley is one of the most important activities in the basin in the winter season, while in the summer season, agricultural activity is limited to small rice fields and narrow strips of vegetable cultivation along the Al-Khazir River. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images (TM5 acquired on 21 November 2006, 9 March 2007, 5 May 2007, 21 July 2007, and 23 September 2007 were used, along with a digital elevation model (DEM and ground-based meteorological data, measured within the area of interest. Estimation of seasonal ETa from periods between satellite overpasses was computed using the evaporative fraction (Ʌ. The water balance approach was utilized, using meteorological data and river hydrograph analysis, to estimate the ETa as the only missing input in the predefined water balance equation. The results of the two applied methods were comparable. SEBAL results were compared with the land use land cover (LULC map. The river showed the highest ETa, as evaporation from the free-water surface. Rice fields, irrigated in the summer season, have a high ETa in the images, as these fields are immersed in water during June, July and August

  12. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  13. On spatial and temporal variation of land surface moisture in Northern Tibetan%藏北高原土壤湿度时空变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅新; 宋春桥; 钟新科

    2012-01-01

    使用2009年DOY(Day of Year)145~288时段与2001~2010年夏季(DOY 161~240时段)的Terra/MODIS 16d合成的植被指数产品数据MOD13 A2和8d合成的地表温度(Land Surface Temperature,TLs)产品数据MOD11 A2,构建TLs~Iev( Enhanced Vegetation Index,Iev)特征空间,从而得到了条件温度植被干旱指数(Temperature Vegetation Drought Index,ITVD)反映的藏北土壤湿度空间分布.对藏北高原2009年植被生长季内土壤湿度的季节性变化及2001~2010年夏季土壤湿度的年际变化特征进行分析,研究结论表明:随着植被盖度的增大,干、湿边斜率逐渐变小,植被对环境温度的变化具有缓冲效应;藏北高原土壤湿度的季节性变化明显,主要受温度、降水、植被覆盖和冻土过程等季节性变化的影响;近10年研究区内土壤湿度有轻微的旱化趋势,但不同气候区内的年际变化表现不一致;气温表现不同程度的显著升温趋势,部分站点的降水有不显著减少趋势,其它站点降水表现为年际波动,而区域统计的ITVD值年际波动与站点气温的变化大体一致.%Using the enhanced vegetation index (IEV) and land surface temperature (TLS) dataset derived from the TERRA/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) synthetic products MOD13 A2 (16-day composite, in DOY (Day of Year) 161 -240 between 2001 and 2010, and DOY 145 -288 in 2009) and M0D11 A2 (8-day composite, the same items of products with MODI3 A2), the TLS-IEV two-dimensional characteristic space can be constructed. The ITVD (temperature-vegetation drought index) is then extracted to indicate the top-soil moisture of northern Tibet. The intra-annual and inter-annual variations of soil moisture on the northern Tibetan Plateau are respectively analyzed for the 2009 growing season and the summer seasons (2001 —2010). The results show that the intra-annual variation of TLS-Iev slope and the slopes of dry-edge and wet-edge will be smaller with the

  14. Transforming Tourists and "Culturalising Commerce": Indigenous Tourism at Bawaka in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lloyd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increasing interest in Indigenous tourism in Australia. Policies in Australia often use the rhetoric of sustainability, but position Indigenous tourism as a means for economic growth and development (Whitford & Ruhanen, 2010. This study shows that interpersonal relationships, cultural and social interactions, and learning are key to achieving the goals of Indigenous tourism providers or “hosts,” and to the experiences of tourists. This article explores tourist experiences of activities run by the Indigenous-owned tour company Bawaka Cultural Enterprises (hereafter BCE in North East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. BCE is an example of an Indigenous tourism business that aims to achieve social change by sharing of Indigenous ways of being, knowledges, and practices with non-Indigenous people during tours, whilst also ensuring that the business is sustainable and manageable for the family who runs it. In this sense, BCE’s tourism activities can be understood as an attempt to “culturalise commerce,” rather than commercialising culture (Bunten, 2010. In this article, we contribute to growing literature on transformative learning theory and tourism by considering tourists’ narratives of their experiences with BCE. We focus on the way in which tourists are transformed by an increased connection to their hosts and their country. We argue that BCE’s activities consciously introduce different ways of being to tourists and visitors. A growing awareness, understanding, and respect for these ways of being can inspire a sense of collective purpose and identity, and a deep emotional response to tours. Connection, however, is not always smooth and easy. Central to the process outlined in Mezirow’s (1978 transformative learning theory are encounters and engagements with other people and different and unfamiliar contexts, which may lead to disorienting feelings and experiences. We argue that the practical aspects of being at

  15. Use of synthetic aperture radar for recognition of Coastal Geomorphological Features, land-use assessment and shoreline changes in Bragança coast, Pará, Northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are being used more extensively than ever before for geoscience applications in the moist tropics. In this investigation, a RADARSAT1-1 C-HH SAR image acquired in 1998 was used for coastal mapping and land-cover assessment in the Bragança area, in the northern Brazil. The airborne GEMS 1000 X-HH radar image acquired in 1972 during the RADAM Project was also used for evaluating coastal changes occurring over the last three decades. The research has confirm...

  16. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... of negative effects on the entire land use system, especially on soil fertility, rice yields and food production....... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade...

  17. Use of synthetic aperture radar for recognition of Coastal Geomorphological Features, land-use assessment and shoreline changes in Bragança coast, Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Filho Pedro W. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images are being used more extensively than ever before for geoscience applications in the moist tropics. In this investigation, a RADARSAT1-1 C-HH SAR image acquired in 1998 was used for coastal mapping and land-cover assessment in the Bragança area, in the northern Brazil. The airborne GEMS 1000 X-HH radar image acquired in 1972 during the RADAM Project was also used for evaluating coastal changes occurring over the last three decades. The research has confirmed the usefulness of RADARSAT-1 image for geomorphological mapping and land-cover assessment, particularly in macrotidal mangrove coasts. It was possible to map mangroves, salt marshes, chenier sand ridges, dunes, barrier-beach ridges, shallow water morphologies and different forms of land-use. Furthermore, a new method to estimate shoreline changes based on the superimposition of vectors extracted from both sources of SAR data has indicated that the shoreline has been subjected to severe coastal erosion responsible for retreat of 32 km² and accretion of 20 km², resulting in a mangrove land loss of almost 12 km². In an application perspective, orbital and airborne SAR data proved to be a fundamental source of information for both geomorphological mapping and monitoring coastal changes in moist tropical environments.

  18. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  19. New species of Metatrichia Coquillett (Diptera: Scenopinidae) from Australia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of the cosmopolitan genus Metatrichia Coquillett are described. Metatrichia dhimurru sp. nov. is described from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), Australia and represents the third species of the genus to be described from the Australian-Papuan region. Metatrichia venezuelensis sp. n...

  20. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China) Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    OpenAIRE

    Delu Pan; Zhaoquan Huang; Dengrong Zhang; Jie Wang; Lifan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as we...

  1. GILLBACKER SEA CATFISH´S FISHERY LANDING, Sciades parkeri TRAILL, 1832 (SILURIFORMES: ARIIDAE, IN A FISHING HUB FROM NORTHERN BRAZILIAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane de Carvalho Nogueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide statistical information about fishing of Sciades parkeri in bragantine region, through sampling performed with daily interviews during the years 2008 to 2010 in nine landing spots. These data were extracted from a project named ESTATÍSTICA PESQUEIRA (Fishery Statistics. A total of 206 landing were registered, counting a volume of 170.694,2 kg and 2009 was the most productive with 50,4% of catches. It were identified seven categories of fishing gear and the active fleet was mainly handmade, however there were bigger boats’ records. The highest mean in production was obtained in Bragança, followed by Bacuriteua village. Monthly production’s mean increases expressively in local rainy season’s beginning (March to May and extends itself until the months of transition to dry season (June to August. Only the “days at sea” variable presented statistical significance for volume and CPUE landed. The participation of S. parkeri on landing is significant in all year’s periods being among the main fishes captured in the region. The active fleet is primarily handmade, with greater autonomy and fishing power if compared to others acting on the coast. Keywords: Statistics; records; mean; production and period.

  2. Determination and monitoring of land use changes by using quickbird satellite data and aerial photographs in a selected area of the Northern Adana in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Çopur Kitiş

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high-resolution QuickBird satellite images of year October 2006, visual interpretation of aerial photographs of year 1989 and the land cover and changes in land use of North Adana in Turkey between 1989-2006 were monitored and analyzed. In each Picture that imported into GIS, residental areas, agricultural areas, forests, water surfaces and the other categories have been determined. The study area in North Adana in Turkey was determined first as 41.932 hectares, while in 1989 the city center residential areas were 1.351,86 hectaresin 2006 they turned into 2.956,25 hectares, and showed 118,68 % increase, indistrial areas expanded from 115 hectaresto 148,7 and showed 29,36 % increase. Dry agricultural lands turned from 12.442 hectaresinto10.728 hectares and decreased by % 13,8. The statistical data obtained from results showed the dynamics of land use and also consisted a base for future planning.

  3. Landscape transformations in savannas of northern South America: Land use/cover changes since 1987 in the Llanos Orientales of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Romero-Ruiz; S.G.A. Flantua; K. Tansey; J.C. Berrio

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the land use/cover changes (LUCC) in the savanna region of Llanos Orientales in Colombia. LUCC was determined from multitemporal satellite imagery (Landsat and CBERS) from 1987 to 2007. Systematic landscape transitions were identifie

  4. Vulnerability of Coastal Crop Land to Climate Change in the Northern Part of Bay of Bengal: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, A. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal communities of northeastern part of Bay of Bengal are used to live and survive through facing different types of natural disasters since primitive time. Among the natural disasters, salinity intrusion due to climate change and sea level rise in the coastal agriculture land is the major unpleasant incident now days. Because of that wide area of the coastal agricultural land, coastal forest, drinking water facilities and fresh water availability are in critical condition which may cause 40 million people of 147 coastal districts covering 47201 km area are placed in danger. The nation wide assessment on the detected of coastal soil and water salinity is not conducted since 9 years. The survey on the coastal soil salinity on 1973 and 2000 found that the saline effected land is increased from 0.83 million ha to 1.20 million ha within 27 years. It is assumed that at present the rate of salinity intrusion in the coastal agriculture land will be higher than those of 1973 and 2000. The soil salinity was recorded 18-20 psu after AILA in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and increased further 2-4 psu due to low precipitation which causes crop burning. This paper aims to know the salinity intrusion in the coastal soil and water of Bangladesh, which would help to plan and improvement of the sustainable agriculture production. Study revealed that to face any extra stresses on the coastal agriculture land due to climate change requires extensive inventory, awareness activities, mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and extension of indigenous technology.

  5. Participatory Simulation of Land-Use Changes in the Northern Mountains of Vietnam: the Combined Use of an Agent-Based Model, a Role-Playing Game, and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Trung

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the remarkable economic growth that resulted from the doi moi (renovation reforms was based largely on the rural households that had become the new basic unit of agricultural production in the early 1990s. The technical, economic, and social changes that accompanied the decollectivization process transformed agricultural production, resource management, land use, and the institutions that defined access to resources and their distribution. Combined with the extreme biophysical, technical, and social heterogeneity encountered in the northern mountains, these rapid changes led to the extreme complexity of the agrarian dynamics that today challenges traditional diagnostic approaches. Since 1999, a participatory simulation method has been developed to disentangle the cause-and-effect relationships between the different driving forces and changes in land use observed at different scales. Several tools were combined to understand the interactions between human and natural systems, including a narrative conceptual model, an agent-based spatial computational model (ABM, a role-playing game, and a multiscale geographic information system (GIS. We synthesized into an ABM named SAMBA-GIS the knowledge generated from the above tools applied to a representative sample of research sites. The model takes explicitly into account the dynamic interactions among: (1 farmers' strategies, i.e., the individual decision-making process as a function of the farm's resource profile; (2 the institutions that define resource access and usage; and (3 changes in the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. The next step consisted of coupling the ABM with the GIS to extrapolate the application of local management rules to a whole landscape. Simulations are initialized using the layers of the GIS, e.g., land use in 1990, accessibility, soil characteristics, etc., and statistics available at the village level, e.g., population, ethnicity, livestock, etc. At each

  6. Na and K Levels in forage species from the communal grazing lands during the dry season at some locations in the Northern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forage species were taken, during the dry season, from five districts in the Northern Region of Ghana and analysed for Na and K using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Na level varied in plants species as well as location. The level ranged between 0.049 g/kg DM and 1.14 g/kg DM. This was found to be inadequate for the animals and require supplementation during the dry season. Potassium level in the forage species was between 7.8 to 91.3g/kg DM and appeared to be adequate for the grazing animals. (author)

  7. Collective rights in a modernizing North - on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sandberg

    2008-07-01

    and constitutional changes in the modern world. The way such changes take place is nowadays more often through the incorporation of various forms of treaties and international charters into national legislation rather than direct negotiations between sovereign states and indigenous ‘tribes’, ‘clans’ or ethnic minority groups. However, when it comes to acknowledging the rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the lands which they traditionally occupy, these seem to be among the most difficult constitutional processes modern states can undertake. Thus they not only take much longer time than the granting of civil and political rights, but they also involve complex analytical exercises in order to understand the processes connected to the settling of indigenous land claims. This article analyses one such process in a nested and multi-tier system with parallel initiatives for institutional change.

  8. Actual Evapotranspiration in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin (Northern Iraq) Using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) and Water Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Jassas; Wael Kanoua; Broder Merkel

    2015-01-01

    Increasing dependence on groundwater requires a detailed determination of the different outputs and inputs of a basin for better water management. Determination of spatial and temporal actual evapotranspiration (ETa), in this regard, is of vital importance as there is significant water loss from drainage basins. This research paper uses the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), as well as the water balance, to estimate the spatial and temporal ETa in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, No...

  9. Can Land Rregistration and Certification Reduce Land Border Conflicts?

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors related to local land border conflicts and how lowcost land registration and certification has affected land conflicts during and after land registration and certification using data from northern Ethiopia. Border conflicts were more common near district centers, further away from markets, and where property rights had been redistributed more recently. A higher probability of reduction in conflicts during and after the reform was positively associated with nearness...

  10. 宁夏银北地区沙地营造林技术综合应用--以银川市兴庆区月牙湖移民安置区为例%Integrated Application of Technologies of Sandy Land Afforestation in Northern Area of Ningxia - with Yueya Lake Immigration Resettlement Area in Xingqing District in Yinchuan Municipality as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑英

    2015-01-01

    从树种选择、整地方式、造林技术、抚育管理等方面探讨了宁夏银北地区沙地造林技术的综合应用情况,提出了适合于沙地造林的技术措施。%The integrated application of the technologies for sandy land afforestation in the northern area of Ningxia is dis-cussed in the aspects of tree species selection, land preparation, planting techniques and tending management, etc., and vari-ous technologies and measures suitable for sandy land afforestation are recommended.

  11. Competing Claims and Contested Boundaries: Legitimating Land Rights in Isiolo District, Northern Kenya Konkurrierende Ansprüche und umstrittene Grenzlinien: Die Legitimierung von Landrechten im Isiolo-Distrikt in Nordkenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saafo Roba Boye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available People from five different ethnic groups share the territory that is Isiolo District, situated in northern Kenya. This article gives an account of the different groups’ claims to land in this inter-ethnic setting, which is located in the border area of the vast drylands southeast of the Sahara. Presenting contemporary claims in a narrative form, the authors illustrate how these claims seek legitimacy through reference to historical processes, to first-comer status and to former governments’ decisions, to citizenship dues, as well as to “tribal” group rights. Taking into account the fact that the broader constitutional, political and social contexts related to these narratives and claims are, at present, in a state of transition, the article seeks to situate the local people’s perspectives and local land dynamics within broader discourses on land conflict and land policy reform in Africa. In this way, it also provides context for the series of new inter-ethnic clashes that took place in Isiolo District in 2011.Menschen aus fünf unterschiedlichen Ethnien teilen sich das Land im Isiolo-Distrikt (Nordkenia. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die Landansprüche der unterschiedlichen Gruppen in diesem ethnisch komplexen Gebiet, das sich an die großen Trockengebiete im Südosten der Sahara anschließt. In narrativer Form werden aktuelle Ansprüche präsentiert, die dadurch Legitimität beanspruchen, dass sie sich auf historische Prozesse beziehen, auf den Status als zuerst Gekommene, auf Entscheidungen früherer Regierungen oder auf Bürger- wie auch „Stammes“-Rechte. Die Autorinnen stellen den transitorischen Charakter des derzeitigen verfassungsrechtlichen, politischen und sozialen Umfeldes in Rechnung, in das sich die Erzählungen und Ansprüche einfügen, und beziehen die Sichtweisen der in der Region lebenden Menschen auf die breiteren Diskurse um Landkonflikte und Landreform in Afrika. Zugleich stellen sie einen

  12. The pedological heritage of the Dolomites (Northern Italy): Features, distribution and evolution of the soils, with some implications for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Diana Maria; Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2011-12-01

    Since 1997, the Department of Environmental Sciences of Ca' Foscari University of Venice has undertaken numerous research projects aimed at deepening understanding of pedogenic processes in the Dolomites, and at highlighting the fundamental contribution that soil science can give to the conservation of natural resources and achieve sustainable management of mountain ecosystems. A total of several hundred profiles have been described, analyzed and mapped. This paper reports the results from the analysis of pedo-environmental characters of profiles developed from different parent materials, at altitudes between 1300 m and 2900 m and in different conditions of slope, exposure and vegetation cover. Soil forming factors, landforms and land surfaces have been interpreted to understand the soil-landscape in the mapped areas and to develop a qualitative model of soil geography into the Dolomites scenery. The application of land evaluation methods in some of the investigated territories that are subjected to intensive tourist fluxes revealed some criticisms. Collected results also highlighted the high environmental heterogeneity of soils of the Dolomites.

  13. Simulations of Hydrologic Response to Land Cover Change in the Laohahe Watershed in Northern China%老哈河流域土地覆被变化水文响应模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 任立良; 刘晓帆; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    Over the recent 30 years, durative drought has been threatening the environment in northern China, resulting in water resources scarcity, environmental degradation, and desertification. To make an attempt to investigate the effects of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes in northern China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. Direct evaporation from intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration, and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration (PET) model, which constituted input to the distributed hydrological model for computation of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff. The Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. Land cover maps of 1980 and 1996 were used for characterizing vegetation cover over the area controlled by the Taipingzhuang hydrologic station in the Laohahe watershed during the periods of 1964-1979 and 1990-1999, respectively.Results of the runoff simulation show that saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. The model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data of the corresponding period. The streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these two land cover scenarios. Effects of land use/cover change on "green water" and "blue water" were quantified by comparing calculated PET, AET, and runoff under different land cover scenarios. Blue water is referred to as visible liquid water moving above and below the ground as surface or groundwater runoff, respectively. Blue water can thus be in the form of surface runoff in rills, gullies and rivers, or water stored in reservoirs and lakes, or water flowing underground,recharging water tables and aquifers. Green water is defined as the invisible vapor moving to the atmosphere, including

  14. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  15. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  16. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  17. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As noted by Gray et al., Sir William Herschel was the first to suggest a possible close connection between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The Sun, being the source of energy that impacts and drives the Earth’s climate system, displays a variety of changes over both short and long term time scales, the most obvious examples being the somewhat regular waxing and waning of sunspots with time (i.e., the sunspot cycle (SC)), first described by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, a German apothecary and amateur astronomer who observed the Sun from Dessau, Germany, and the now well established variation of the Sun’s irradiance over the SC. Other factors related to the SC have been linked to changes in climate as well. Some of these other factors include the role of cosmic rays and the solar wind (i.e., the geomagnetic cycle) on climate, as well as the apparent close association between trends in global and northern hemispheric temperature and the length of the SC, although some investigators have described the inferred association between climate and, in particular, SC length as now being weak. More recently, Solheim et al. have reported on the relation between SC length and the average temperature in the same and immediately following SC for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. They noted that while they found no significant trend (correlation) between SC length and the average temperature when measured for the same cycle, in contrast, they found a significant negative trend when SC length was compared with the following cycle’s average temperature. From this observation, they suggested that average northern hemispheric temperature during the present ongoing SC (SC24) will be lower by about 0.9 °C than was seen in SC23 (spanning 1996–2007, based on yearly averages of sunspot number (SSN), and onset for SC24 occurring in 2008). The purpose of this Technical Publication (TP) is to examine the annual variations of the Armagh

  18. Climate change versus land management in the Po Plain (Northern Italy) during the Bronze Age: New insights from the VP/VG sequence of the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Florenzano, Assunta; Pizzi, Chiara; Marchesini, Marco; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The sedimentary infilling of the moat surrounding the Villaggio Piccolo of the Terramara Santa Rosa di Poviglio was analysed in order to obtain palaeoenvironmental inferences from sediments and pollen assemblage. The high-resolution stratigraphic sequence preserves evidence of the environmental changes that occurred in the Po Plain, in Northern Italy, during the Late Holocene. Our interdisciplinary approach permitted to study climatic and anthropic contributions to the environmental changes in this region. The relationships between these changes and land-use changes were investigated focussing on adaptive strategies of the Terramare people during the Middle and Recent Bronze ages (1550-1170 yr BC). The Terramare are archaeological remains of banked and moated villages, located in the central alluvial plain of the Po river. The Terramara of Santa Rosa consists of two adjoining settlements (Villaggio Grande and Villaggio Piccolo); the moat that separates the two parts of the site is c. 23 m large and reaches a maximum depth of 4 m from the extant ground level. The stratigraphic sequence VP/VG exposed by archaeological excavation inside the moat was sampled for pedosedimentary, thin section, and pollen analyses. Chronology is based on archaeological evidence, stratigraphic correlations and radiocarbon dating. Pedosedimentary features and biological records (pollen of aquatics and algal remains) demonstrate that shallow water, probably subjected to seasonal water-level oscillations, has always been present in the moat. In the lower units of the sequence, the laminations indicate standing water, while occurrence of reworked pollen testified the supply of sediments to the plain from catchment zones located in the Apennine. Open vegetation was widespread; economy was based on wood management, fruit collection on the wild or from cultivated woody plants, crop fields with a fairly diversified set of cereals especially increasing in variety during dryness or phases of water

  19. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Heavy metal monitoring Alligator River Region uranium province: a compendium of results 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the data arising from the Alligator Rivers Uranium Environmental (soil monitoring) Project, 1979. It details the location of the study areas; the study's objectives and the field and laboratory analytical methods undertaken. The area concerned within this report is locally termed the Uranium Province of the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory. It encompasses some 650 km2 of the Kakadu National Park and Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve

  1. Foundational sources and purposes of authority in Madayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Kelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Madayin system that continues to be maintained by the Aboriginal Yolngu people of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory is a holistic system of legal, religious and political authority. A recent increase in publically available information has enabled a broader audience to learn about the Madayin system. This article analyses the foundational sources of authority and purpose in the Madayin system.

  2. Tenure Insecurity, Gender, Low-Cost Land Certification and Land Rental Market Participation in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in whether land reforms can contribute to market development and poverty reduction in Africa. This paper assesses effects on the allocative efficiency of the land rental market of the low-cost approach to land registration and certification of restricted property rights that was implemented in Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Four rounds of a balanced household panel from 16 villages in northern Ethiopia are analysed, showing that land certification initially enhanced l...

  3. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  4. 天山北坡经济带宜耕未利用地开发潜力分区及评价——以新疆阜康市为例%Evaluation of potential of unused land exploitation in Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Belt— A case study of Fukang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆敏; 刘新平

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang region has relatively abundant unused land resources that can be rationally developed and used. This is beneficial to ease the increasingly worsening conflict between people and land and ensure regional food security to a certain extent. This paper chose Fukang City in Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Belt as the research area and used twelve factors to build up an evaluation index system for Fukang City. The twelve factors included soil salinity, soil depth, soil texture, organic matter content, landform, forest cover rate, irrigation rate, soil erosion module, cumulative temperature≥10℃, distance from stream, runoff volume of watershed and annual precipitation. The ecological niche model was used to evaluate the suitability of unused lands converted into arable lands in the study area. The results showed that unused lands (including highly suitable and basically suitable) most suitable for conversion into arable lands accounted for 22.21% of total unused lands in the region. Such lands located in the lower part of piedmont alluvial fans and in relatively flat terrains. Reluctantly suitable unused lands only accounted for 16.36% of total unused lands and were mainly located at the edge of the northern desert and in the upper parts of southern piedmont alluvial fans. Unused lands unsuitable for development accounted for 61.43% and mainly distributed in the southern slopes, the edge of piedmont alluvial fans and the fringe zone close to the northern desert. On the basis of the evaluation results, the paper chose potential index, potential increase in arable land, unused land area in town and sub-town, unused arable land development area, unused arable land proportion, average patch area and patch fragmentation index to build a development potential matrix of unused lands in the study area. Cluster analysis was also used to regionalize unused lands. Based on the research, the study area was divided into five potential zones. Grade Ⅰ potential zone

  5. Preface to: Marine micropaleontological studies from the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.

    Indian Ocean is unique, being land-locked towards the northern margin, and experiences, highest reported oceanic productivity. It is also the locale for the most severe oxygen depleted waters in the coastal and intermediate depth regions...

  6. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  7. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  8. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  9. Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

  10. Mining and energy in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Included in this book is a section on each of the major minerals of present or future importance to the Northern Territory. Brief details of the uranium mining projects at Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka in the Alligator Rivers regions are given. Subjects such as environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights and the geology of the area are also considered

  11. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  12. Criteria for uranium occurrences in Saskatchewan and Australia as guides to favorability for similar deposits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to explain the occurrence of the large uranium deposits that have been found in northern Saskatchewan and the Northern Territory of Australia, to provide criteria to evaluate the favorability of Proterozoic rocks in the United States for similar deposits. All of these deposits belong to the class known as the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits. Chapters are devoted to: uranium deposits in Saskatchewan; uranium deposits of the Darwin and Arnhem Land area, Northern Territory of Australia; model for the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits; and evaluation of the geology of selected states for its favorability for Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits

  13. Participatory simulation of land-use changes in the northern mountains of Vietnam : the combined use of an agent-base model, a role-playing game, and a geographic information system

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Ngoc Trung; Jean-Christophe Castella; Stanislas Boissau

    2005-01-01

    In Vietnam, the remarkable economic growth that resulted from the doi moi (renovation) reforms was based largely on the rural households that had become the new basic unit of agricultural production in the early 1990s. The technical, economic, and social changes that accompanied the decollectivization process transformed agricultural production, resource management, land use, and the institutions that defined access to resources and their distribution. Combined with the extreme biophysical, t...

  14. Land and Forest Management by Land Use/ Land Cover Analysis and Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS are the most effective tools in spatial data analysis. Natural resources like land, forest and water, these techniques have proved a valuable source of information generation as well as in the management and planning purposes. This study aims to suggest possible land and forest management strategies in Chakia tahsil based on land use and land cover analysis and the changing pattern observed during the last ten years. The population of Chakia tahsil is mainly rural in nature. The study has revealed that the northern part of the region, which offers for the settlement and all the agricultural practices constitutes nearly 23.48% and is a dead level plain, whereas the southern part, which constitute nearly 76.6% of the region is characterized by plateau and is covered with forest. The southern plateau rises abruptly from the northern alluvial plain with a number of escarpments. The contour line of 100 m mainly demarcates the boundary between plateau and plain. The plateau zone is deeply dissected and highly rugged terrain. The resultant topography comprises of a number of mesas and isolated hillocks showing elevation differences from 150 m to 385 m above mean sea level. Being rugged terrain in the southern part, nowadays human encroachment are taking place for more land for the cultivation. The changes were well observed in the land use and land cover in the study region. A large part of fallow land and open forest were converted into cultivated land.

  15. LAND COVER ASSESSMENT OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE BOSAWAS REGION OF NICARAGUA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data derived from remotely sensed images were utilized to conduct land cover assessments of three indigenous communities in northern Nicaragua. Historical land use, present land cover and land cover change processes were all identified through the use of a geographic informat...

  16. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  17. LAND SUBSIDENCE IN SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRABADEVI A.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify monitoring land subsidence in Semarang has been done using raster data operation of the DEM in GIS environment. Digital representation of relief of Semarang area was generated from a point map which contains elevation data. The last update of the elevation data was made using geodetic, using Global Positioning System (GPS. Decrease in land distribution is estimated from the data of GPS Geodetic years 2008-2011, in the Semarang area north, west, central, east and south. Reduction in the range of 2008-2009 reached -12.4 cm, then increased in 2009-2010 to be -20-4 cm and -10.5 cm fell back to the years 2010-2011. Decline in the face of the land in Hyderabad occurs mainly in the n01th, east, central and south of Semarang. Subsidence causing damage to infrastmcture, buildings, and results in moving tidal lowlands.damage potential economic loss is cracks in buildings and infrastmcture (roads and bridges, the number of homes that have been tilted and nearly drowned. In addition to direct losses, reduction in ground level also cause indirect losses that rob the increasingly widespread flooding in the northern region of Semarang.in 2008- 2010 June-July with a high tide occurs o.6 cm from the surface of the sea water in the area of Semarang.

  18. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  19. Soil carbon stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Vesterdal, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    Northern Europe supports large soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and has been subjected to high frequency of land-use changes during the past decades. However, this region has not been well represented in previous large-scale syntheses of land-use change effects on SOC, especially regarding effects...... of afforestation. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of SOC stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe. Response ratios were calculated for forest floors and mineral soils (0–10 cm and 0–20/30 cm layers) based on paired control (former land use) and afforested plots. We analyzed the...... influence of forest age, former land-use, forest type, and soil textural class. Three major improvements were incorporated in the meta-analysis: analysis of major interaction groups, evaluation of the influence of nonindependence between samples according to study design, and mass correction. Former land...

  20. 北非地区海-陆热力差异与夏季江淮流域旱涝的关系%Relationships between the anomalies of sea-land thermal contrast in the northern Africa areas and the flood and drought in the Changjiang and Huaihe river areas in summer.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 钱永甫

    2008-01-01

    基于NCEP/NCAR月均再分析资料和中国743站降水资料,根据夏季江淮流域51 a(1954-2004年)区域旱涝指数的年代际变化特征,确定北非地区作为研究的关键区.分析发现,关键区的地表温度异常在冬季具有较好的持续性,冬季北大西洋涛动是导致这种异常持续性的重要原因之一.通过对前冬北非地区地表温度和夏季江淮流域降水的SVD分析发现:当北非大陆地区偏冷,其西北侧的海区偏暖时,江淮流域夏季的降水将整体偏多;反之,江淮流域夏季的降水整体偏少.进一步研究发现,北非地区海陆地表温度异常的对比,要比其中单一海洋或陆地区域的异常对夏季江淮流域的旱涝有更好的指示能力.文中定义了一个海陆热力差异指数来表征这种地表温度异常的对比程度,该指数和夏季江淮流域旱涝指数呈较好的正相关关系,并且对夏季江淮流域极端旱涝年份也有较好的指示,认为该指数可以作为一个指示江淮流域整体旱涝事件的预报因子.%The flood and drought in Changjiang and Huaihe river (Jianghuai) areas are frequent in summer, especially in July and June, so forecasting the summer flood and drought in Jianghuai areas is always one of key points investigated by meteorologists in China. The previous studies more focused on the skin temperature anomalies in a single area, and paid less attention to the connections between the anomalies of sea-land thermal contrast in northern Africa areas and the flood and drought in Jianghuai areas in summer. In this paper, we investigate such relationships and obtain some preliminary results.By use of the NCEP/NCAR monthly mean re-analysis data and the rainfall data at 743 stations in China, the Northern Africa areas are selected as the key regions according to the interdecadal variability characteristics of the flood and drought index (FDI) during 51 years(1954-2004) in Jianghuai areas in summer. Correlation

  1. Land institutions and land markets

    OpenAIRE

    Deininger, Klaus; Feder, Gershon

    1998-01-01

    In agrarian societies land serves as the main means not only for generating a livelihood but often also for accumulating wealth and transferring it between generations. How land rights are assigned therefore determines households'ability to generate subsistence and income, their social and economic status (and in many cases their collective identity), their incentive to exert nonobservable effort and make investments, and often their ability to access financial markets or to make arrangements...

  2. An Aboriginal perspective on future land use of the land application site of Ranger Uranium Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern Land Council, representing the interests of the traditional owners of the Ranger site, wants the mining site to be restored to its pre-mining condition or as near as possible to it. It is also emphasised that the effective dose equivalent limit to be used for rehabilitation site, including the land application area should be 0.7 mSv per year. Moreover, the land application water should be of such quality that there is no limitation on future land use. 3 refs

  3. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  4. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  5. Land development from agricultural land to land developed for construction

    OpenAIRE

    Grandovec, Tevž

    2012-01-01

    This Graduation Thesis represents basic concepts of real estate market and factors, affecting value of the landed property or real estate. It describes the development process of landed property - from agricultural land to urbanized land for construction with building permission. Landed property prices are analysed by the development stages and are based on The Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia's (Geodetska uprava Republike Slovenije - GURS) data. GURS divides landed...

  6. 冀北沙荒地退化程度诊断及其短期封育效果评价%Diagnosis of the degradation degree of ecosystem of sandy badland in northern Hebei Province and effects of short- term land- closing for reforestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓林; 殷晓洁; 卢金平; 刘琳; 李玉灵

    2011-01-01

    以冀北退化沙荒地为研究对象,以恢复生态学为研究理论基础,对冀北沙荒地各项指标进行权重赋值,诊断沙荒地的退化程度,并通过分析封育区、未封育区及其地带植被演替顶级群落的土壤理化性质和植被数量特征,评价5年封育效果.结果表明,沙荒地封育区及未封育区均属中度退化程度,沙荒地土壤状况尚未因为5年的封育得到明显改善;植被状况虽有明显改善,但还处在演替初期的草本植被阶段,与地带植被演替预级群落仍存在很大差距,封育措施需要持续下去.%A degraded ecosystem of sandy badland in village Nanshanzui in northern Hebei Province was studied based on theories of restoration ecology, we analysed the data of soil and plants mensurated in the sandy badland with its contrast indexes assigned by weighting coefficient in combination with the characters of the sandy badland, and then the degradation degree of the ecosystem was diagnosised. The result showed that 1. Soil conditions did not become bettered even 5 years after closing the land for reforestation; 2. Plant condition became much better in the area of closing the land for reforestation, but its total conn'tion was still much worse than Ck; 3. The ecosystem of the sandy badland showed a moderate degree of degradation therefore, closing the land for reforestation should stay the course.

  7. Exploring land use change in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang

    research program LASYRE (LAnd SYstem REsilience), this thesis responds to thes calls by applying a portfolio of different perspectives to the study of Sahelian land use changes and the causal mechanisms behind them. It examines the land use changes that have taken place in Northern Burkina Faso over the...... last decades and how local people’s land use decisions are influenced by various factors such as crop prices, off-farm job opportunities and rainfall variability. This is done by applying four complementary perspectives that represent different temporal and spatial scales as well as some influential...... theoretical lines of thought within the Land Change Science community. The four perspectives are system dynamics, resilience theory, a rationality perspective, and a multifunctional agriculture perspective. The thesis shows how the previous tendency to field expansion in the Sahel has been replaced by a very...

  8. Land politics in the new state organisation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gran, Thorvald

    2009-01-01

    Article in the periodical DSA In a study of land politics carried out from 2001 to 2005 in the two western provinces of South Africa, the Northern and the Western Cape, a high degree of distrust was recorded between institutions in the provincial government. This article attempts to explain the distrust and how it affected the role of the land state in land reform in the two provinces. The analysis is developed from an institutional political science (IPS) perspective. The findings are tha...

  9. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  10. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which to...... grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part of the...... social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  11. 基于C-D生产函数模型的陕北农村土地利用生态经济分析——以延安市赵庄村为例%Eco-economic Analysis of Land Resources Use Based on Cobb-Douglas Production Function in Northern Shaanxi Province --A Case Study of Zhaozhuang Village in Yan'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春越; 王益; 谢永生; 任志远; 王万忠

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate land use patterns and soil types in Zhaozhuang, a village of Yanran City in Northern Shaanxi Province. 298 land parcels, 14 land utilization patterns and28 analysis units were analyzed according to 33 high, medium and low-income household surveys. Based on the Cobb-Douglas production function model, the plot scale and the watershed scale were combined to analyze the eco-economic suitability of suburban rural land and explore the integration of ecological and economic benefits. Results showed that most of the land ecosystem types in Zhaozhuang village are appropriate for agriculture, except part of the laterite type. However, only some are highly suitable for traditional farming, while the othersr suitability is not so high. For traditional farming such as corn and cereal, more organic fertilizers and rational fertilization are needed for an improved economic efficiency. For featured farming such as small melons and greenhouse vegetables, improving the technical level is more important. For beans and cabbage farming, labor is less important for their yields. For tuber crops and turnips, the effects of technical level can be ignored.%以陕北延安市城郊赵庄村为研究对象,以农户地块调查和土壤类型相结合,选取了高、中、低收入农户共33户进行了实地调查,其中涉及到298块地块和14种土地利用方式,28种分析单元。在C—D生产函数模型分析基础上,将地块尺度和流域尺度结合起来进行城郊农村土地生态经济适宜性分析,探索生态效益和经济效益的融合点。研究结果表明,除部分红土类型外,延安市赵庄村大多数土地的生态类型对于农业基本是适宜的。但是除部分对于比较传统的种植业高度适宜外,其他都基本适宜,适宜度并不很高。对于传统的种植作物,如玉米、谷糜,在以后的管理中,要提高经济效益,需要多施有机肥,做到合理施肥。对于小瓜、大

  12. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  14. Northern oil and gas - annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas resources on crown lands north of 60 degrees latitude are managed by the federal government under the Northern Oil and Gas Directorate of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and Northern Development. Notable activities in 1997 included the re-introduction in Parliament of the Canada-Yukon Oil and Gas Accord of 1993. The proposed legislation aims to transfer power to the Yukon government by 1998, making it responsible for administration and regulation of onshore oil and gas exploration and development in the territory. In 1997, new gas reserves were uncovered in the southern Northwest Territories. Thirteen new wells were drilled and about $45 million in exploration work was carried out. This included work by Inuvialuit Petroleum Corp., in the Ikhil gas field in the Mackenzie Delta which could end Inuvik's dependency on imported petroleum products. A statistical overview of the oil and gas activities under Northern Oil and Gas was summarized and broken down by region. 11 refs

  15. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  16. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  17. Understanding land administration systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...

  18. Global Warming Potential of Long-Term Grazing Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing lands in the northern Great Plains of North America are extensive, occupying over 50 Mha. Yet grazing land contributions to, or mitigation of, global warming potential (GWP) is largely unknown for the region. The objective of this study was to estimate GWP for three long-term (70 to 90 yr)...

  19. No Land Let Idle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China steps up efforts to combat land hoarding to alleviate housing price hikes China’s real estate developers are under pressure from land administrators taking a harder stance against idle land-land purchased for a specific project but left undeveloped for an extensive period of time. The Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) said real estate develop-

  20. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    John Pastor; George Host

    1998-01-01

    Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were an...

  1. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) towards the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than 170 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. NEESPI was endorsed by major ESSP Programs and Projects and the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Now it is the time to synthesis the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers and to re-assess its Science Questions and Objectives of the regional research within the new Future Earth Program paradigm with the focus on interdisciplinary solution-oriented approach that will allow effective policy-making in environment management and control. At the sequence of Workshops (the last of them will be in Prague one week prior to this Assembly) we formulated a major Science Question of the new Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): "What will the changes in the regional ecosystems dynamics and interactions mean for the societal well-being, activities, health, and strategic planning in Northern Eurasia?" The major NEFI challenge will be the services aimed on providing in Northern Eurasia a sustainable societal development in changing climate, ecosystems, and societies. At this presentation we shall brief the audience about the main results of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future NEFI studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we shall initiate preparation of the book which will synthesize major NEESPI achievements.

  2. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne; Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Yanogo, Isidore

    2014-01-01

    -climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including......Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized by a...... distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non...

  3. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  4. Land rush: simulating negotiations over land rights

    OpenAIRE

    Ansoms, An; Bogaerts, Okke; Claessens, Klara; Geenen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    LAND RUSH is a board game that allows participants to critically assess the ways in which different social classes face both opportunities and constraints in securing land rights and in managing the acquired land sustainably in an extremely competitive environment. The game illustrates three characteristics of contemporary land dynamics in an altering world. First, the logics of smallholder farmers are largely oriented towards risk diversification, and often contrast with those of current agr...

  5. No Land Let Idle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's real estate developers are under pressure from land administrators taking a harder stance against idle land-land purchased for a specific project but left undeveloped for an extensive period of time.

  6. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen WANG; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17μmol.m−2.s−1) and clipping (2.06μ...

  7. Water Implications of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Olalekan Williams; Benjamin Gyampoh; Fred Kizito; Regassa Namara

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the water dimensions of recent large-scale land acquisitions for biofuel production in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Using secondary sources of data complemented by individual and group interviews, the paper reveals an almost universal lack of consideration of the implications of large-scale land deals for crop water requirements, the ecological functions of freshwater ecosystems and water rights of local smallholder farmers and other users. It do...

  8. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Far-Northern Destination for Phoenix Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The planned landing site for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander lies at a latitude on Mars equivalent to northern Alaska on Earth. It is within the region designated 'D' on this global image. This is an orthographic projection with color-coded elevation contours and shaded relief based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Total vertical relief is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) from the top of the highest volcano (red) to the northern lowlands (blue). North pole is where the longitude lines converge.

  10. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  11. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... closing the gap to the more laborious nuclease protection experiments....

  12. Simulation of the influence of historical land cover changes on the global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Civil Aviation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Yan, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Beijing Normal Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE); Wang, Z. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    In order to estimate biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate during last three centuries, a set of experiments with a climate system model of intermediate complexity (MPM-2) is performed. In response to historical deforestation, the model simulates a decrease in annual mean global temperature in the range of 0.07-0.14 C based on different grassland albedos. The effect of land cover changes is most pronounced in the middle northern latitudes with maximum cooling reaching approximately 0.6 C during northern summer. The cooling reaches 0.57 C during northern spring owing to the large effects of land surface albedo. These results suggest that land cover forcing is important for study on historical climate change and that more research is necessary in the assessment of land management options for climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  13. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  14. Developing land use scenario dynamics model by the integration of system dynamics model and cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya

    2005-01-01

    Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.

  15. Modelling land cover change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a 'hot spot' of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land cover change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. In this work a time series dataset of land cover change between 1970 and 2010 is constructed for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The MODIS instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at small regional extent (CLUE-s) modelling framework. Non-spatial estimates of land cover area from national agriculture and forest statistics, available on a state-wise, annual basis, are used as a direct model input. Land cover change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. This dataset will provide an essential input to a high resolution, physically based land surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land cover change on regional climate.

  16. Uranium Stakeholder Engagement in Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium has been mined in the Northern Territory of Australia more or less continuously since 1949. Most of these mines have been located on Aboriginal land, although in many cases Native Title has only been recently established and the rights of the Traditional Owners finally acknowledged. In earlier days consultation with the Traditional Owners was generally unheard of and few sites were rehabilitated when mining ceased. However, leading practice in modern mining, including uranium mining, requires that these two issues are paid particular attention, whether it be for development and operation of current mines or the remediation of legacy sites. The paper presents two brief case studies in relation to stakeholder engagement developed in the Alligator Rivers Region uranium field of Australia’s Northern Territory. The subject of the first case study, the South Alligator valley, was subject to intensive prospecting and exploration which resulted in the development of 13 small uranium mines between 1955 and 1964. The operations were abandoned and the area returned to being a cattle ranch. In 1987 the valley lay within an area that was incorporated into the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1996 the Gunlom Land Trust, an association of traditional owners, was granted native title to the area under the Commonwealth’s Northern Territory Land Rights Act (1976). The new owners immediately leased the land back to the Commonwealth Government for continued use as a National Park. A condition of that lease was that all former mine sites and associated workings would be rehabilitated by 2015. The paper describes the comprehensive consultation process involving all stakeholders that was developed for this programme; and goes on to describe the programme of remediation works to date and the situation as of 2009. The second case history deals with the consultation process developed by one Government agency as it works with Traditional Owners and other

  17. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  18. Laws of the Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With illegal land requisition on the rise, China is attempting to clamp down at the local level with new supervisory measures The complaints about land rights violations are many, and growing. In China's central Hebei Province, a peasant told land regulators that "a person has started mining in our village before securing land use rights from the government." The peasant added that the local land resources management department, without getting permission

  19. Land land (6/4 e)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Land, land, o land! Se, Herrens hand är nu uträckt, Och hafver dig betäckt: Själ, själ, o själ! Beskåd', Hvad nåd, Hvad tröst och frid Dig sändes nid Från nådens stol, Rättfardighetens sol.

  20. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

  1. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    for commercial agricultural products in neighboring countries (including China and Vietnam) and to the government policies on agricultural development and poverty reduction. The land-use policy aims to improve rural land and resource tenure security, but in practice, it is actually used as a tool for...... industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  2. Formation of land administration system and land use as an economic function of the land ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Tretiak, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with manifestation forms of land management and land use as an economic function of the property rights to land. The need to form an integrated system of land management and land use in Ukraine as an economic function of land ownership has been grounded. A model of comprehensive multifunctional system of land management and land use has been suggested

  3. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    distance from the land cover changes. The Australian continental and regional analyses demonstrated that Australian land cover change did have statistically significant impacts on air temperature and precipitation simulated in the CSIRO GCM. While none of the statistically significant trends in annual precipitation were found to be statistically significant in the climate modelling experiments, the modelled reductions in annual precipitation for south east Queensland and eastern New South Wales corresponded with the strong drying trends in those areas for 1950 - 1999. Larger scale analysis of differences in climate suggested the local changes in surface fluxes had strong impacts on atmospheric circulation. The largest changes were in austral summer (DJF) circulation where monsoon flow into northern Australia was reduced, corresponding with increased monsoon flow into the South Pacific Convergence Zone and increased south easterly wind flow into eastern Queensland. These changes in circulation influenced DJF moisture flux into northern and eastern Australia, which intensified the direct warming and drying impact caused by the reduced transpiration from land cover change.

  4. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  5. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  6. Improvement of land information system of agricultural lands in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Bordyuzha

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature of the state land cadastre, aspects of the land cadastral system functioning. Role of the land cadastre to create an effective agricultural land management system has been presented. Value of a land information system of the agricultural land in the management sphere and sustainable agricultural land use has been described.

  7. Land evaluation by the process of agricultural land consolidation - the case of land consolidation area Berkovci

    OpenAIRE

    Knavs, Alojz

    2008-01-01

    The thesis describes the course of procedure of agricultural land consolidation in Slovenia, based on valid legislation of land consolidation of agricultural land. The main stress is given on approaches to land evaluation of agricultural land consolidation fund, which is an important step at re-distribution of land from the land consolidation fund among the land owners. The main purpose of the thesis is to point out the importance of land evaluation by the process of land consolidation and to...

  8. Institutional analysis of biofuel production in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwoyiga, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The thesis studied the nature of institutional arrangement around biofuel production and how this arrangement has shaped the production outcome of biofuel companies and community development. The study was conducted in two communities of the Yendi Municipal Assembly of the Northern Region of Ghana. In this area, a biofuel company called Biofuel Africa Limited has acquired areas of land and cultivated Jatropha plantations. A total of 32 informants were interviewed to arrive at information ne...

  9. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover. 

  10. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  11. Modelling spatial association in pattern based land use simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anputhas, Markandu; Janmaat, Johannus John A; Nichol, Craig F; Wei, Xiaohua Adam

    2016-10-01

    Pattern based land use models are widely used to forecast land use change. These models predict land use change using driving variables observed on the studied landscape. Many of these models have a limited capacity to account for interactions between neighbouring land parcels. Some modellers have used common spatial statistical measures to incorporate neighbour effects. However, these approaches were developed for continuous variables, while land use classifications are categorical. Neighbour interactions are also endogenous, changing as the land use patterns change. In this study we describe a single variable measure that captures aspects of neighbour interactions as reflected in the land use pattern. We use a stepwise updating process to demonstrate how dynamic updating of our measure impacts on model forecasts. We illustrate these results using the CLUE-S (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent) system to forecast land use change for the Deep Creek watershed in the northern Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Results establish that our measure improves model calibration and that ignoring changing spatial influences biases land use change forecasts. PMID:27420169

  12. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with...

  13. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  14. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use plannin...

  15. Competing Technologies and Economic Opportunities for Northern Logistics: The Airship Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Barry E.; Russell, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Northern Canada is constrained by the cost of transportation and logistics. The limited transportation options available increase the direct costs of shipping and add to the indirect costs of inventories. Concerns about climate change impacts, delays in environmental approvals and uncertainty regarding First Nations land claims further increase investment risk. As a result, the transportation solution offered by airships is gathering increased interest in northern Can...

  16. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  17. Martian Sunrise at Phoenix Landing Site, Sol 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This sequence of nine images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the sun rising on the morning of the lander's 101st Martian day after landing. The images were taken on Sept. 5, 2008. The local solar times at the landing site for the nine images were between 1:23 a.m. and 1:41 a.m. The landing site is on far-northern Mars, and the mission started in late northern spring. For nearly the entire first 90 Martian days of the mission, the sun never set below the horizon. As the amount of sunshine each day declined steadily after that, so has the amount of electricity available for the solar-powered spacecraft. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land in support of sustainable development. The model is designed for developed economies but allows incremental adoption of the model by countries at transitional stages of economic development. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...

  19. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity...

  20. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  1. Spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using digitized land use maps of Beijing in 1982, 1992 and 1997 and employing GIS spatial analysis techniques, this paper conducts an empirical study on the spatial differentiation and spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing in the period of 1982-1997. It is observed that urban land use growth in Beijing went beyond the control of urban planning, in terms of the extraordinary high growth rate and undesired spatial pattern. The rate of urban expansion after 1982, which was predominated by growth of industrial land, was extraordinary high compared to its historical period. While its growth centers have been actively shifting toward the northern part, rather than toward the southern and eastern parts as designated by the latest General Plan (1991-2010) of Beijing, its spatial pattern of urban land use growth in general was in distinct concentric sprawl, which seriously violated the General Plan of Beijing.

  2. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Radeloff, Volker C.; Dara, Andrey; Terekhov, Alexey; Frühauf, Maanfred

    2015-01-01

    Union in 1991 triggered widespread agricultural abandonment, and much cropland reverted to grasslands. Our goal in this study was to reconstruct and analyze agricultural land-cover change since the eve ofthe Virgin Lands Campaign,from 1953 to 2010 in Kostanay Province, a region that is representative of......During the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, approximately 23 million hectares (Mha) of Eurasian steppe grassland were converted into cropland in Northern Kazakhstan from 1954 to 1963. As a result Kazakhstan became an important breadbasket of the former Soviet Union. However, the collapse of the Soviet...... Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi...

  3. Protecting Land and Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    LAND is a resource vital to life and production. China Today recently visited Wang Dacao, head of the Liaoning Provincial Department of Land and Resources. We asked him how the province protects and utilizes its land and resources for the purposes of sustainable development and benefit of later generations.Rich ResourcesThe land and sea within the boundaries of Liaoning Province, northeastern China

  4. Land Officials' Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wang Songlin (Director of the Zhejiang Provincial Department of Land and Resources): The per-capita land of Zhejiang is only 0.033 hectares, with few backup resources. Thus, we are faced with more difficulties and pressure with regard to cultivated land conservation. Zhejiang is taking the following measures to protect cultivated land: First, we will create more standard farmland. The provincial government is

  5. Land Reform and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Stanton; Peter Rosset; James Boyce

    2005-01-01

    Land reform, equitable distribution, economic development, environmental quality, land reform strategies, Brazil, Landless Workers’ Movement, East Asia, rural poverty, land productivity, sustainable agriculture, comparative advantage, small farms.

  6. Tough Land Guardian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues facing Chinese society is the illegal expropriation of farm-land. New head of the Ministry of Land and Resources, China’s top land watchdog, Xu Shaoshi, has taken a tough stance on this issue stepping into his positio

  7. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  8. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  9. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This...... villages, and lack of good schools and other public services may cause families to split up. For some, however, resettlement in the new lands entails new social and economic possibilities. The paper concludes that while land reclamation may not be ecologically or economic sustainable, the new lands provide...

  10. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  11. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  12. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  13. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  14. Modeling the above and below ground carbon and nitrogen stocks in northern high latitude terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMasri, B.; Jain, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to cause warming in the northern high latitudes, but it is still uncertain what the respond of the northern high latitudes ecosystem will be to such warming. One of the biggest scientific questions is to determine whether northern high latitude ecosystem are or will act as a terrestrial carbon sink or source. Therefore, it is essential to understand and quantify the biogeochemical cycle of the northern high latitude ecosystems in order to predict their respond to climate change. Using a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) with its coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle, we provide a detail quantification of the carbon and nitrogen in the vegetation pools and the soil carbon for the northern high latitude ecosystems. We focus on soil carbon and vegetation carbon and nitrogen, though we provide results for gross primary production (GPP), autotrophic respiration (Ra), net primary production (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and heterotrophic respiration (Rh). In addition, we examine the effect of nitrogen limitation on the carbon fluxes and soil carbon. We present the results for several flux tower sites representative of the tundra and the boreal ecosystems as well as for the northern high latitude region. Our results provide a comprehensive assessment of below and above ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the northern high latitude and the model calibrated parameters can be used to improve the results of other land surface models.

  15. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  16. Rangeland management and fluvial geomorphology in northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Doyle, Martin W.

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have independently documented the effects of land use on rivers and threats to river management institutions, but the relationship between changes in institutional context and river condition is not well described. This study assesses the connections between resource management institutions, land use, and rivers by integrating social science, geospatial analysis, and geomorphology. In particular, we measured hydraulic geometry, sediment size distributions, and estimated sediment yield for four rivers in northern Tanzania and conducted semistructured interviews that assessed corresponding resource management institutions. Communities managed rivers through both customary (traditional, nonstate) and government institutions, but the differences in the resource management policies and practices of the study rivers themselves were fairly subtle. Clearer differences were found at broader scales; the four watersheds exhibited substantial differences in land-cover change and sediment yield associated with the location of settlements, roadways, and cultivation. Unexpectedly, these recent land-use changes did not initiate a geomorphic response in rivers. The long history of grazing by domestic and wild ungulates may have influenced water and sediment supplies such that river channel dimensions are more resistant to changes in land use than other systems or have already adjusted to predominant changes in boundary conditions. This would suggest that not all rivers will have the anticipated responses to contemporary land-use changes because of antecedent land-use patterns; over long time scales (centuries to millennia), the presence of grazers may actually increase the ability of rivers to withstand changes in land use. Our findings point to a need for further interdisciplinary study of dryland rivers and their shifts between system states, especially in areas with a long history of grazing, relatively recent changes in land use, and a dynamic social and

  17. Functions Of Land Administration System

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Sakal

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.

  18. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation at the...... crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  19. "Hot Spots" of Land Atmosphere Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Guo, Zhi-Chang; Bonan, Gordan; Chan, Edmond; Cox, Peter; Gordon, T. C.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Kowalczyk, Eva; Lawrence, David

    2004-01-01

    Previous estimates of land-atmosphere interaction (the impact of soil moisture on precipitation) have been limited by a severe paucity of relevant observational data and by the model-dependence of the various computational estimates. To counter this limitation, a dozen climate modeling groups have recently performed the same highly-controlled numerical experiment as part of a coordinated intercomparison project. This allows, for the first time ever, a superior multi-model approach to the estimation of the regions on the globe where precipitation is affected by soil moisture anomalies during Northern Hemisphere summer. Such estimation has many potential benefits; it can contribute, for example, to seasonal rainfall prediction efforts.

  20. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use planning levels and tools which might facilitate dispersal by the grizzly bear and other large mammals. The planning levels discussed include national, regional, state, county and municipal, and federal land management agency. Specific potential federal tools mentioned include zoning, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the Endangered Species Act, beyond boundary authority, land exchanges, less-than-fee acquisition and other incentives, the Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act, and federal land annexation. Besides summarizing existing recommendations, some derived observations are offered.

  1. New baseline environmental assessment of mosquito ecology in northern Haiti during increased urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Dayana M.; Archer, Reginald S.; Alimi, Temitope O.; Arheart, Kristopher K.; Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Oscar, Roland; Fuller, Douglas O.; Qualls, Whitney A

    2015-01-01

    The catastrophic 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, led to the large-scale displacement of over 2.3 million people, resulting in rapid and unplanned urbanization in northern Haiti. This study evaluated the impact of this unplanned urbanization on mosquito ecology and vector-borne diseases by assessing land use and change patterns. Land-use classification and change detection were carried out on remotely sensed images of the area for 2010 and 2013. Change detection identified areas that...

  2. Soil erosion and nitrogen leaching in northern Vietnam: expression and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh Van Mai

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:   Soil degradation, remote sensing, watershed, soil erosion model, paddy fields, terraces, water balance model, nitrogen balance model, geostatistics, rice-based systems, spatial dynamic model.Two years research has been conducted in Tam Duong district, Vinh Phuc province, upstream in the Red River Delta in northernVietnam, comprising three geographical regions, i.e. mountainous areas, terraces in hilly land and flat land. The extent of soil degradation in the district was delineate...

  3. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    intensive fertilization regimens implying intensive fertilization starting in young forests may, on the other hand, considerably increase the biomass supply and value for the industry. The economic and environmental risks of this type of fertilization may, however, be larger and more research is needed on......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied in...... combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  4. Quantifying the role of Northern Eurasia in global CO2, CH4, and water dynamics during the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Kicklighter, David; Cai, Yongxia; Tchebakova, Nadja; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John; Sokolov, Andrei; Sirin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The largest increase of surface air temperature and related climate extremes have occurred in Northern Eurasia in recent decades, and are projected to continue during the 21st century. The changing climate will affect biogeography, land cover and biogeochemical cycles in the region, which in turn, will affect how global land use evolves in the future as humans attempt to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Regional land-use changes, however, also depend on pressures imposed by the global economy and environmental changes. Feedbacks from future land-use change will further modify regional and global biogeochemistry and climate. This study uses a suite of linked biogeography, biogeochemical, economic, and climate models to explore how climate-induced vegetation shifts in Northern Eurasia will influence land-use change and carbon cycling across the globe during the 21st century. We find that, at the global scale, while more land will be allocated towards food and biofuel crops due to increasing population and associated economic development, the climate-induced vegetation shifts in Northern Eurasia also significantly affect global land use and result in a global cumulative carbon sink of about 63 Pg C under the policy scenario that limits CO2-equivelent greenhouse gas concentrations to 480 ppmv by the end of the 21st century. In comparison with the policy scenario, under a no-policy scenario where CO2-equivelent greenhouse gas concentrations reach 870 ppmv by the end of 21st century, the global cumulative carbon sink is 11 Pg C less mainly due to carbon lost from global grasslands. Cumulative evapotranspiration from global terrestrial ecosystems considering global land-use changes with vegetation shifts in northern Eurasia is 8.05 and 8.35 million km3 for the policy and no-policy scenarios, respectively. In the presentation, we will also discuss our analysis on CH4 emissions from northern Eurasia in response to the changes of land cover and climate during this

  5. Open Land Use Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mildorf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Land Use Map is an initiative that has been started by the Plan4business project and that will be extended as part of the SDI4Apps project in the future. This service aims to create an improved worldwide land use map. The initial map will be prepared using the CORINE Land Cover, Global Cover dataset and Open Street Map. Contributors, mainly volunteers, will able to change the geometry and assign up-to-date land use according to the HILUCS specification. For certain regions more detailed datasets, if available, will be used as an update of the Open Land Use Map. The product is treated as Open Data and users will be able to download the data in a specified format and for a selected area. The paper introduces the technical and business aspects of Open Land Use Map app including the integration and harmonisation tools, sustainability plan and apps that accompany the entire platform.

  6. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...

  7. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional and...... personal level.    (4) To establish appropriate institutional and organisational infrastructures to manage the integration of topographic mapping and cadastral information into a coherent land administration system for sustainable development. The paper aims to establish the basic understanding for dealing...

  8. Influence of land evapotranspiration on climate variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere with a qualified biosphere(GOALS/LASG) has been used to assess the nature of the physical mechanisms for land-atmos-phere interactions, and the impacts of the Asian/North American land-surface evapotranspirationon the regional and global climate. This sensitivity study suggests that the simulated climate wouldbe relatively sensitive to land surface evapotranspiration, especially over the Asian regions. Theremoval of evapotranspiration in Asia would create a warmer and drier climate to a certain degree.Furthermore, the surface evapotranspiration anomalies would make a substantial contribution tothe formation and variation of subtropical anticyclones through the changes in monsoon precipita-tion and the β-effect, but also make a large contribution to the variations of the atmosphericcirculation in the Northern Hemisphere and even the globe. Therefore, besides the traditionalperception that we have generally emphasized on the influence of subtropical anticyclonesactivities on the boreal summer precipitation over the regions of eastern China, the surfaceevapotranspiration anomalies, however, also have substantial impacts on the subtropicalanticyclones through the changes in monsoon precipitation. For this reason, the variation in theinternal heating sources of the atmosphere caused by the land surface evapotranspiration and thevapor phase change during the boreal summer is an important external factor forcing the weatherand climate

  9. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  10. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  11. Land use in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This book exposes the key land use and environmental problems facing Kenya today due to lack of an appropriate national land use policy. The publication details how the air is increasingly being polluted, the water systems are diminishing in quantity and deteriorating in quality. The desertification process threatens the land and its cover. The soils are being eroded leading to siltation of the ocean and lakes. The forests are being depleted with impunity thus destroying the water...

  12. Landing-gear impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flugge, W

    1952-01-01

    Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

  13. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  14. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to build a general understanding and conceptual approach to integrated land management. The conceptual understanding may take the form of a hierarchy of levels. The foundation stone is an overall national land policy. Appropriate cadastral systems support land policies by providing...... integrated land management includes some educational and professional challenges to be met at the threshold of the third millennium.    In short, it is critical that we prepare the profession as well the educational system to meet the challenges of tomorrow in achieving sustainable urban and rural...

  15. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater - all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a) the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b) the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c) the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  16. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  17. Albedo enhancement over land to counteract global warming: impacts on hydrological cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Govindasamy; Nag, Bappaditya [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-09-15

    A recent modelling study has shown that precipitation and runoff over land would increase when the reflectivity of marine clouds is increased to counter global warming. This implies that large scale albedo enhancement over land could lead to a decrease in runoff over land. In this study, we perform simulations using NCAR CAM3.1 that have implications for Solar Radiation Management geoengineering schemes that increase the albedo over land. We find that an increase in reflectivity over land that mitigates the global mean warming from a doubling of CO{sub 2} leads to a large residual warming in the southern hemisphere and cooling in the northern hemisphere since most of the land is located in northern hemisphere. Precipitation and runoff over land decrease by 13.4 and 22.3%, respectively, because of a large residual sinking motion over land triggered by albedo enhancement over land. Soil water content also declines when albedo over land is enhanced. The simulated magnitude of hydrological changes over land are much larger when compared to changes over oceans in the recent marine cloud albedo enhancement study since the radiative forcing over land needed (-8.2 W m{sup -2}) to counter global mean radiative forcing from a doubling of CO{sub 2} (3.3 W m{sup -2}) is approximately twice the forcing needed over the oceans (-4.2 W m{sup -2}). Our results imply that albedo enhancement over oceans produce climates closer to the unperturbed climate state than do albedo changes on land when the consequences on land hydrology are considered. Our study also has important implications for any intentional or unintentional large scale changes in land surface albedo such as deforestation/afforestation/reforestation, air pollution, and desert and urban albedo modification. (orig.)

  18. A multi- sensor system for land mine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review article, description and discussion are given to the methods and techniques which can be used to remove the millions of land mines that are buried in the ground of more than 60 countries worldwide. These buried land mines cause very serious social and economical problems especially in countries such as Egypt with nearly 23 millions land mine contaminating very vast areas in the northern cost of the western desert, north and west of Sinai, Suez Gulf and western cost of the Red Sea. This will challenge scientists in different related disciplines to find a specific, rapid and cost effective detection techniques to remove the millions of land mines from the ground of their countries. It is worth mentioning that the real problem in demining is not defusing the mines but locating them in the ground

  19. Mineral resources in lands owned by Australian aborigines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, P.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of British legal treatment of aboriginal natives in Australia focuses on land rights and the ownership of mineral resources. After nearly 200 years of denying the rights of aborigines, legislation began in the 1970s to grant traditional tribal lands in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and New South Wales, with similar action imminent in Victoria. The grants confer a right of exclusive occupation, but do not make the land immune from access for mining purposes by authorized persons. Aborigines have more control over access by outsiders for mining purposes than do ordinary land owners, and have the authority to exact payments as a condition of access from mining operators and royalties from the state. Neither the restraints nor the rights are uniform. Hostility on the part of the mining industry is expected to lessen as negotiations proceed.

  20. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  1. Land Rights at Last!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Norman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 the Wran Government announced an Inquiry to investigate a range of issues including Aboriginal land rights recognition, the causes of Aboriginal social and economic disadvantage, heritage protection and commonwealth and state relations. The Select Committee, chaired by state member Maurie Keane, in its ‘First Report’ that focused on land rights, not only fundamentally changed the way Government’s liaise and consult with Aboriginal people, the Committee unanimously endorsed far-reaching recommendations including the ability to recover land, compensation for cultural loss and three-tier community driven administrative structure. All of this was set in the context of Aboriginal rights to self-determination and fundamental attachment to land as a cultural relationship and historical reality. The movement for land rights was the culmination of many years of land justice activism, shifting policy at the Commonwealth level and wider international movements contesting colonial rule and racism. More specifically the land rights movement in NSW was galvanised in response to the previous Government’s renewed efforts to assimilate Aboriginal people and revoke reserve lands and the limited land rights recognition made possible through the Aboriginal Lands Trust (herein ‘the Trust’. This paper argues a more focused and pronounced campaign emerged in the mid 1970s whereby land rights ‘time had come’ as a result of Aboriginal political activism and the alliances formed with and among left social movements. This movement created the political climate for the Wran Government’s announcement of the Select Committee Inquiry in 1978.

  2. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  3. Modelling land use change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, Simon; Mijic, Ana; Buytaert, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a "hot spot" of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land use change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. This work aims to construct a monthly time series dataset of land use change for the period 1966 to 2007 for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality and availability of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) modelling framework, recoded in the R programming language to overcome limitations of the original interface. Non-spatial estimates of land use area published by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) for the study period, available on an annual, district-wise basis, are used as a direct model input. Land use change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. The dataset will provide an essential input to a high-resolution, physically-based land-surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land use change on regional climate.

  4. Graves, Ancestors and Cement in Land disputes in Acholi and Ikland, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Willerslev, Rane; Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the roles of graves, ancestors and concrete pillars in disputes over land across different land-systems, -conflicts, and territory making in northern Uganda by comparing extended cases between Acholi in Gulu district and Ik in Kaabong district . In the post-conflict Acholi region...... land can be a strategy in land disputes. In Ikland graves have traditionally not marked land claims and boundaries have been highly fluid, but the placing of the dead in valleys between the mountains has marked belonging to the larger landscape and territory. Due to inter-ethnic conflicts as well as...... ownership of land in attempts to create permanence. Both new and old authorities use material tokens and spiritual principles concerning the dead to establish evidence and trust in their authority to govern. The perceived material qualities of cement for graves and land markers as endurable and modern play...

  5. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  6. De hundrede byers land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Steen Bo

    2009-01-01

    "De hundrede byers land" var tidligere en yndet omskrivning for Italien. Længere og stærkere end noget andet europæisk land var halvøen præget af en bykultur, hvor de enkelte byers individualitet og gensidige rivalitet endnu langt oppe i 1800-tallet betragtedes som uovervindelige forhindringer for...

  7. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  8. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  9. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  10. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial......Good governance is a qualitative term or an ideal which may be difficult to achieve. Different people, organisations, and government authorities will define “good governance” according to their own experience and interests. In any case, almost all kind of government includes a spatial component. In...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...

  11. LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative precision landing sensor (LandingNav) for Mars. LandingNav supports space exploration by...

  12. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  13. LAND REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKETS IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Zvi; SHAGAIDA Natalya

    2005-01-01

    Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and land tenure since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and previous prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been removed by recent laws. The necessary preconditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions th...

  14. Forest Land Management in the Context of National land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla, A.V. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The relative scarcity of land resources to meet the growing needs of land-users has compelled land specialists to consider the need for a better system in the proper use and management of land resource. Forestlands comprise a major component of the national land and are currently the most degraded areas. In view of this, the study on hand proposes development of a framework for 1) a comprehensive land assessment 2) use of the management science approach in operationalizing a sustained multipl...

  15. Land and Law in Marijuana Country: Clean Capital, Dirty Money, and the Drug War’s Rentier Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Polson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite its ongoing federal illegality, marijuana production has become a licit, or socially accepted, feature of northern California’s real estate market. As such, marijuana is a key component of land values and the laundering of “illegal” wealth into legitimate circulation. By following land transaction practices, relations, and instruments, this article shows how formally equal property transactions become substantively unequal in light of the “il/legal” dynamics of marijuana land use. As ...

  16. Land reform and land fragmentation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    It has often been stated that land fragmentation and farm structures characterized by small agricultural holdings and farms divided in a large number of parcels have been the side-effect of land reform in Central and Eastern Europe. This article reports the findings of a study of land reform in 25...... countries in the region from 1989 and onwards and provides an overview of applied land reform approaches. With a basis in theory on land fragmentation, the linkage between land reform approaches and land fragmentation is explored. It is discussed in which situations land fragmentation is a barrier for the...

  17. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  18. Northern gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This power point presentation highlighted the gas markets and resource base of Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and described the commercialization efforts in the two regions. Graphs, figures and tables depicted the position of BP Canada Energy in terms of North American gas supply. BP is the largest gas producer and reserves holder in North America. Graphs depicting future natural gas demand show that demand is expected to continue to grow in all sectors, led by power generation. More than 90 per cent of all new generation projects are gas-fired. Supply from frontier basins will be needed to meet this growing demand. This paper also described the position of BP Canada Energy in Alaska as significant, with partners ExxonMobil, Phillips and others. There are about 35 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves on the Alaskan North Slope that are ready for development and delivery to market. Significant additional resource potential also exists. A joint study team is testing the feasibility of an Alaska Pipeline Project. BP Canada Energy holds a large land position in Canada's Mackenzie Delta where seismic exploration activities began last winter. The Mackenzie Delta reserves are estimated at 6 Tcf with additional resource potential. tabs., figs

  19. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  20. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  1. Sustainable Management of Conurbation Forestsin Northern Hesse (FRG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHULZKER; STOLLS

    2005-01-01

    Today 42% (9 000 km2) of the area of Hesse is covered with forests. The total area of forests has slightly increased since several years. But actually the forests adjacent to the conurbations of Northern Hesse in the vicinity of Kassel in particular and in the Rhein-Main Region surrounding Frankfurt are in a very difficult position. There is big demand for land to be converted into settlements, infrastructure, etc., while there is increasing need for the protective and recreational functions of the forests. Therefore maintenance of existing forests and establishment of new forests are amongst the most important responsibilities of the forest authorities on regional and district level.

  2. Reforming land rights in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaido, T.

    2004-01-01

    "Advocates of reforms in land rights and land markets frequently posit two important hypotheses: (1) African countries must grant land titles to farmers because titles increase land tenure security and facilitate access to input, land, and financial markets; and (2) land markets constitute the most efficient mechanism for allocating resources and improving access to productive resources by the poor, especially women and other marginalized groups... Research must focus on understanding the dyn...

  3. LandLanduse_BUILTUP

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1986,...

  4. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  5. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  6. KamLAND Zen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search with xenon 136 based on large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. The first phase of the experiment was operated from Oct. 12, 2011 to June 14, 2012 and we set lower limit for the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life , T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 1 . 9 ×1025 yr. The combined result of KamLAND-Zen and EXO data give T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 3 . 4 ×1025 yr. At the first phase, we found problematic background, 110mAg. Then we purified liquid scintillator and xenon gas by distillation to remove the background. The purification campaign was started just after the first phase and ended at Dec. 2013. We present current status and latest results from KamLAND-Zen second phase, and discuss the future prospects.

  7. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration LMRD sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  8. Changes in Ecosystem Service Values on the Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; REN Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province of China covers Yulin, Yan'an, and Tongchuan cities mainly. The kind of physiognomy is complicated and various, including the transitional region of the sand and wind, the hilly-gully fragile region, the pimple mound region from North to South. Large-scale land reclamation projects that are severely affecting these ecosystems have been implemented. In this paper, we reported an investigation to the changes in land use and ecosystem services on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province from 1978 to 2000. We used three LANDSAT TM and/or ETM data sets to estimate the changes in the size of five land-cover/land-use categories, and we also used previously published value coefficients to estimate the changes in the value of ecosystem services delivered by each land category. Finally, we ranked the contribution of various ecosystem functions to the overall value of the ecosystem services, we have estimated that the annual value of the ecosystem services is 56.95 billon RMB yuan in the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province in 2000. In the region, from 1978 to 2000, the economic value of the fixing carbon was higher,the economic value of water conservation was the lowest, but the economic value of the NPP, fixing carbon, and supplying oxygen accounted for above ninety percent of the total value, obviously the vegetation created the biggest ecosystem service value. We can conclude that future land-use policy formulation should give precedence to the conservation of these ecosystems over uncontrolled reclamation, and that further land reclamation should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses.

  9. Caste Discrimination, Land Reforms and Land Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Jeetendra P.; Holden, Stein T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of caste discrimination and past land reforms on the land rental market performance, land productivity and land use intensity in Nepal. The most severely discriminated group in the caste system is the Dalits, the so-called “untouchables”. Dalits faced religious, occupational and even, territorial discrimination. The study uses data from western Nepal. The low-caste households remain poorer than other households, have significantly smaller land endowments, ...

  10. Urban Land Market and Land Policy
    in France

    OpenAIRE

    Aveline, Natacha

    1997-01-01

    Paper presented at the International Symposium on Urban Land Markets and Land Policies in France, Tokyo Metropolitan University, September 13-14, 1997 International audience In France, a strong control has been traditionally exerted over land-use. However, in the early 1980s, land markets shifted progressively from an administratively controlled regime to a more market-oriented economy. A bubble emerged in the Paris region, in a new context of deregulated land-use planning and building ...

  11. Agricultural land evaluation in the process of agricultural land consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Fištravec, Polonca

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land is limited and therefore needs to be protected, preserved and adequately managed. One of the most important instruments of rural planning as well as agricultural land planning represent agricultural operations, first of all the process of land consolidation. Diploma thesis deals with the process of agricultural land consolidation as a whole, emphasizing the agricultural land evaluation during the process. This is cruicial for just and efficient dealings of the...

  12. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  13. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th

  14. El Salvador Country Land Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the alignment of land use, land tenure, and land market outcomes in El Salvador with public policy aspirations in recent decades for efficient, inclusive, and environmentally sustainable development in both urban and rural spaces. In doing so the study indirectly gauges the effectiveness of land sector institutions in facilitating such developmental outcomes in agricult...

  15. Effects of historical land cover changes on climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZhengGuo; YAN XiaoDong; YIN ChongHua; WANG ZhaoMin

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of anthropogenic land use on the climate system during the last millennium, a set of experiments is performed with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity--the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM-2). The present paper mainly focuses on biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes. A dynamic scenario of deforestation is described based on changes in cropland fraction (RF99). The model simulates a decrease in global mean annual temperature in the range of 0.09-0.16℃, especially 0.14-0.22℃ in Northern Hemisphere during the last 300 years. The responses of climate system to GHGs concentration changes are also calculated for comparisons. Now, afforestation is becoming an important choice for the enhancement of terrestrial carbon sequestration and adjustment of regional climate. The results indicate that biogeophysical effects of land cover changes cannot be neglected in the assessments of climate change.

  16. Does Land Tenure Security Promote Manure Use by Farm Households in Vietnam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing widespread poverty and land degradation, Vietnam started a land reform in 1993 as part of its renovation policy package known as “Doi Moi”. This paper examines the impacts of improved land tenure security, via this land reform, on manure use by farm households. As manure potentially improves soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil surface, it might contribute to improving soil productive capacity and reversing land degradation. Random effect regression models are applied to a panel dataset of 133 farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam collected in 1993, 1998, and 2006. The results confirm that land tenure security has positive effects on manure use, but the levels of influence differ depending on whether the land has been privatized or whether the land title has already been issued. In addition, manure use is also influenced by the number of cattle and pigs, the education level and ethnicity of household heads, farm land size and non-farm income. The findings suggest that speeding up land privatization and titling, encouraging cattle and pig rearing, and improving education would promote manure use in farm production. However, careful interpretation of our research findings is required as land privatization, together with economic growth and population pressure, might lead to overuse of farm inputs.

  17. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  18. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  19. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  20. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  1. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  2. Agriculture land use and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is agro-pastoral farming system prevalent in mountainous and sub-mountainous areas of Himalayan region including Azad Jammu and Kashmir. As such, Agriculture Sector includes Crop-husbandry, livestock farming and forestry in its ambit. There are varied forms of land uses, like crop farming, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, wildlife conservation etc. Therefore, the paper attempts to spotlight the interplay of these land uses with respect to the environment in general with specific reference to AJK and other mountainous and sub- mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. Agricultural activities have both negative and beneficial effects on the environment. The negative effects in the forms of physical degradation of the soil due to agriculture are: soil erosion, desertification, water logging and salinity and soil compaction. The land use practices such as overgrazing, deforestation and some cultivation practices, removal of vegetative cover or hedgerows, lack of proper drainage outlets, accentuate these problems. The improper management of water use and sometimes excessive mechanization and Ploughing further aggravates problem of physical degradation of the soil. The chemical degradation, as a result of agricultural practices, include acidification, Salinization, contamination caused by pesticides and insecticides and resultantly water and air pollution, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. Further negative effects emerging out of agricultural practices are greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses and lowering of humus content, which makes soil susceptible to compaction and erosion. The beneficial environmental effects emanating from the use of best agricultural management practices and integrated farming systems are protection of soil fertility and stability, prevention of excessive run offs. It also provides habitats for varied forms of flora and fauna, reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2)/ and reduce the incidence and severity of natural

  3. Scaling the land use system

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, K

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the global impact of more indirect (future) effects like greenhouse gas emissions and carbo...

  4. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  5. Sustainable Land Use in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Džatko

    2003-01-01

    Present land use planning level in Slovakia is resulting from the gradual knowledge evolution from soil survey and land evaluation to the sustainable land resources exploitation modelling. Particular attention is concentrated to the quantification of sustainable land use system parameters in different pedo-ecological conditions. The fundamental basis for the solution of these questions is detailed database not only about soils and land components properties, but about both, real and potential...

  6. Environmental aspects of Greenfield NPP site in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennovoima will build a nuclear power plant of 1200 MW at Hanhikivi headland in Pyhaejoki, Northern Finland on the shore of the Baltic Sea. According to the target schedule the plant will produce electricity in 2024. The plant supplier is Rusatom Overseas, subsidiary of the Russian Rosatom. No industrial activity is practiced in the immediate surroundings of the site area and the headland and its surroundings are sparsely populated. The area is in its natural state. This means that all the preparatory and infrastructure works needs to be done before the construction of NPP can start. The environmental and nature conservation aspects have to be taken into consideration in planning, construction and operation of the NPP. Northern location sets some challenges to the design of the power plant. The sea area is normally covered with ice almost half of the year which has to be taken into account in the design of the power plant. But there are also advantages: in winter when the cooling water is cold the efficiency of electricity production is estimated to be exceptionally good, approximately 39 %. Since 2008, Fennovoima has carried out several environmental studies and surveys in the site area and has collected information about the nature conditions on land and in the sea area. The collected environmental data has been utilized in land use planning, environmental impact assessment procedure and in applying for conventional permits. The environmental data can also be used as baseline data. The document is composed of an abstract and the presentation slides

  7. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  8. Lyme Disease in Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, Joan; Lavoie, Paul E.; Birnbaum, Neal S.; Furman, Deane P.

    1983-01-01

    Lyme disease is a recently described clinical entity with cutaneous, neurologic, articular and cardiac manifestations. Since the original description of the disease in 1977, more than 500 cases have been reported. Although the vast majority of patients have been from the area near Lyme, Connecticut, we have seen four patients from northern California with various aspects of Lyme disease.

  9. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based......Many of today’s farming systems are composed of purpose-built computerized farming devices such as spraying equipments, harvesters, fertilizer spreaders and so on. These devices produce large amounts of data. In most of the cases, it is essential to store data for longer time periods for analysis...... on the ISOBUS standard; however the standard is extended with additional requirements, such as gradual data aggregation and flexible exchange of farming data. This paper describes the conceptual and logical schemas of the proposed database based on a real-life farming case study....

  10. Land use and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 106 acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 106 additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 106 acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States

  11. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  12. Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosswald, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A considerable portion of Northern Eurasia, and particularly its continental shelf, was glaciated by inland ice during late Weichsel time. This was first inferred from such evidence as glacial striae, submarine troughs, sea-bed diamictons, boulder trains on adjacent land, and patterns of glacioisostatic crustal movements. Subsequently, the inference was confirmed by data on the occurrence and geographic position of late Weichselian end moraines and proglacial lacustrine deposits. The south-facing outer moraines in the northeastern Russian Plain, northern West Siberia, and on Taimyr Peninsula are underlain by sediments containing wood and peat, the radiocarbon dating of which yielded ages of 22,000 to 45,000 yr B.P. The youngest late-glacial moraines are of Holocene age: the double Markhida moraine in the lower Pechora River basin, presumably associated with "degradational" surges of the Barents Ice Dome, is underlain by sediments with wood and peat dated at 9000 to 9900 yr B.P.: this suggests that deglaciation of the Arctic continental shelf of Eurasia was not completed until after 9000 yr B.P. The reconstructed ice-front lines lead to the conclusion that the late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia (proposed name: the Eurasian Ice Sheet) extended without interruptions from southwestern Ireland to the northeastern end of Taimyr Peninsula, a distance of 6000 km: it covered an area of 8,370,000 km 2, half of which lay on the present-day continental shelves and a quarter on lowlands that were depressed isostatically below sea level. Hence, the ice sheet was predominantly marine-based. A contour map of the ice sheet based both on the dependence of the heights of ice domes upon their radii and on factual data concerning the impact of bedrock topography upon ice relief has been constructed. The major features of the ice sheet were the British, Scandinavian, Barents, and Kara Ice Domes that had altitudes of 1.9 to 3.3 km and were separated from one another by ice

  13. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  14. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  15. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  16. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  17. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  18. Uranium mining and stakeholder engagement in the Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium has been mined in the Northern Territory of Australia more or less continuously since 1949. Most of these mines have been located on Aboriginal land, although in many cases Native Title has only been recently established and the rights of the Traditional Owners finally acknowledged. In earlier days consultation with the Traditional Owners was generally unheard of and few sites were rehabilitated when mining ceased. However, leading practice in modern mining, including uranium mining, requires that these two issues are paid particular attention, whether it be for development and operation of current mines or the remediation of legacy sites. The paper presents two brief case studies in relation to stakeholder engagement developed in the Alligator Rivers Region uranium field of Australia's Northern Territory. The subject of the first case study, the South Alligator valley, was subject to intensive prospecting and exploration which resulted in the development of 13 small uranium mines between 1955 and 1964. The operations were abandoned and the area returned to being a cattle ranch. In 1987 the valley lay within an area that was incorporated into the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1996 the Gunlom Land Trust was granted native title to the area under the Commonwealth's Northern Territory Land Rights Act (1976). The new owners immediately leased the land back to the Commonwealth Government for continued use as a National Park. A condition of that lease was that all former mine sites and associated workings would be rehabilitated by 2015. The paper describes the comprehensive consultation process involving all stakeholders that was developed for this programme; and goes on to describe the programme of remediation works to date and the situation as of 2009. The second case history deals with the consultation process developed by one Government agency as it works with Traditional Owners and other stakeholders in maintaining surveillance

  19. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders; Enøe, Claes

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...

  20. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands...... for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...

  1. Sustainable Land Use in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Džatko

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Present land use planning level in Slovakia is resulting from the gradual knowledge evolution from soil survey and land evaluation to the sustainable land resources exploitation modelling. Particular attention is concentrated to the quantification of sustainable land use system parameters in different pedo-ecological conditions. The fundamental basis for the solution of these questions is detailed database not only about soils and land components properties, but about both, real and potential crop yields on representative set of fields, including basic economic soil management data as well. The specific aims of land use efficiency modelling are expressed in the synthesis of both the ecological and economic assessment of soil and land productivity potential. Sustainable land use and farming system models with the economic efficiency calculations are the final results. The set of presented models and maps including economic efficiency calculation enables to apply new concepts of sustainable land use in wider rate as well in agrarian landscape managing.

  2. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  3. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus–Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and

  4. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at pplanning in the region.

  5. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  6. Living off the Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

  7. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  8. Trends and regional distributions of land and ocean carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarmiento

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We show here an updated estimate of the net land carbon sink (NLS as a function of time from 1960 to 2007 calculated from the difference between fossil fuel emissions, the observed atmospheric growth rate, and the ocean uptake obtained by recent ocean model simulations forced with reanalysis wind stress and heat and water fluxes. Except for interannual variability, the net land carbon sink appears to have been relatively constant at a mean value of −0.27 Pg C yr−1 between 1960 and 1988, at which time it increased abruptly by −0.88 (−0.77 to −1.04 Pg C yr−1 to a new relatively constant mean of −1.15 Pg C yr−1 between 1989 and 2003/7 (the sign convention is negative out of the atmosphere. This result is detectable at the 99% level using a t-test. The land use source (LU is relatively constant over this entire time interval. While the LU estimate is highly uncertain, this does imply that most of the change in the net land carbon sink must be due to an abrupt increase in the land sink, LS = NLS – LU, in response to some as yet unknown combination of biogeochemical and climate forcing. A regional synthesis and assessment of the land carbon sources and sinks over the post 1988/1989 period reveals broad agreement that the Northern Hemisphere land is a major sink of atmospheric CO2, but there remain major discrepancies with regard to the sign and magnitude of the net flux to and from tropical land.

  9. Impact of Land Use Changes on Surface Warming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; WU Lingyun; WEI Jiangfeng; CHEN Peiyan; Dong-Kyou LEE

    2005-01-01

    Land use changes such as urbanization, agriculture, pasturing, deforestation, desertification and irrigation can change the land surface heat flux directly, and also change the atmospheric circulation indirectly, and therefore affect the local temperature. But it is difficult to separate their effects from climate trends such as greenhouse-gas effects. Comparing the decadal trends of the observation station data with those of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) data provides a good method to separate the effects because the NNR is insensitive to land surface changes. The effects of urbanization and other land use changes over China are estimated by using the difference between the station and the NNR surface temperature trends. Our results show that urbanization and other land use changes may contribute to the observed 0.12℃ (10 yr)- 1 increase for daily mean surface temperature, and the 0.20℃ (10 yr)- 1 and 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 increases for the daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures, respectively. The urban heat island effect and the effects of other land-use changes mayalso play an important role in the diurnal temperature range change. The spatial pattern of the differences in trends shows a marked heterogeneity.The land surface degradation such as deforestation and desertification due to human activities over northern China, and rapidly-developed urbanization over southern China, may have mostly contributed to the increases at stations north of about 38°N and in Southeast China, respectively. Furthermore, the vegetation cover increase due to irrigation and fertilization may have contributed to the decreasing trend of surface temperature over the lower Yellow River Basin. The study illustrates the possible impacts of land use changes on surface temperature over China.

  10. Northern Reef becomes a full cycle oil and gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern Reef Exploration Ltd. of Calgary, Alberta became a full-cycle exploration company in 1994 with the acquisition of property that included over 440,000 net undeveloped acres, ca 94 million bbl of proven oil and gas liquids reserves, and 91.3 billion ft3 of proven gas reserves. Five core properties have been identified for further development in 1994, by the end of which Northern Reef expects to have 6,000 bbl/d of oil and 52 million ft3/d of gas in production. At Luseland, Saskatchewan, the company holds 100% interest in over 83 sections of partially developed lands underlain by gas-bearing sand. In 1994, the company plans to drill 41 test wells, tie in 24 shut-in gas zones, and install a $3.2 million gas plant. The plant will be a very simple design with minimal automation, no separators on feeder wells, and a simple rotary screw compressor. The plant was constructed on a modular basis so that it can be moved elsewhere when needed; ultimate capacity will be 11 million ft3/d. A second plant is planned by the end of 1994. The Horsham property on the Alberta-Saskatchewan border provdes 14% of Northern Reef production, and planned activity includes drilling of 175 wells and recompletion of 56 existing wells. The Atmore/Tweedie property, accounting for 5.8% of total production, will receive attention in 1995. At its original property of Little Bow, Northern Reef drilled two oil wells (one horizontal) and added 190 bbl/d to production. Total 1994 capital expenditures are expected to be $2.2 billion. Total current production is about evenly split between oil and gas, but future production is expected to be two-thirds gas. 8 figs

  11. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  12. Land Use and Land Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  13. The impacts of local farming system development trajectories on greenhouse gas emissions in the northern mountains of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisz, S.J.; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Olesen, J.E.;

    2007-01-01

    The northern mountain region of Vietnam (NMR) is dominated by swidden/fallow farming systems. The fallow land of these systems is populated by small trees and bushes. Since the 1960s the government of Vietnam has tried to limit or stop swiddening and replace it with permanent upland agricultural...

  14. Sweet and bitter: trajectories of sugar cane investments in Northern Luzon, the Philippines, and Aceh, Indonesia, 2006-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Shohibuddin; M.L. Alano; G. Nooteboom

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the complex process of investment and land deal making through the in-depth study of three cases of sugar cane investment in the Philippines and Indonesia. It focuses on three different trajectories of sugar cane schemes—one in northern Luzon, the Philippines, and two

  15. Mining royalties and the implications of the Northern Territory Green Paper for the Australian mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1981 Green Paper on Mining Royalty Policy for the Northern Territory is a significant landmark in the evolution of fiscal policy in relation to mining in Australia. However, as with mining on Aboriginal land, the Green Paper and the new Royalties Bill have not settled fiscal policy in relation to uranium mining. The Commonwealth still, although presumably temporarily, retains the power to set and to collect royalties on uranium mining. The coincidence that places the most valuable known uranium deposits on Aboriginal land further increases uncertainty about fiscal policy

  16. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  17. Carboniferous geology of Northern England

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Colin N.

    2009-01-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) has produced a wholesale rationalisation of Carboniferous lithostratigraphical nomenclature. This presentation describes the Carboniferous stratigraphy of northern England, illustrated with research carried out as part of recent BGS mapping projects. During the Tournaisian and Visean a phase of north–south rifting resulted in the development of grabens and half-grabens, separated by platforms and tilt-block highs. Visean marine transgressions re...

  18. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...

  19. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  20. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape. PMID:25345850

  1. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪远; 刘明亮; 庄大方; 张增祥; 邓祥征

    2003-01-01

    It is more and more acknowledged that land-use/cover dynamic change has become a key subject urgently to be dealt with in the study of global environmental change. Supported by the Landsat TM digital images, spatial patterns and temporal variation of land-use change during 1995-2000 are studied in the paper. According to the land-use dynamic degree model, supported by the 1km GRID data of land-use change and the comprehensive characters of physical, economic and social features, a dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed to disclose the spatial pattern of land-use change processes. Generally speaking, in the traditional agricultural zones, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas occupy a great proportion of arable land, and in the interlock area of farming and pasturing of northern China and the oases agricultural zones, the reclamation of arable land is conspicuously driven by changes of production conditions, economic benefits and climatic conditions. The implementation of "returning arable land into woodland or grassland" policies has won initial success in some areas, but it is too early to say that the trend of deforestation has been effectively reversed across China. In this paper, the division of dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed, for the sake of revealing the temporal and spatial features of land-use change and laying the foundation for the study of regional scale land-use changes. Moreover, an integrated study, including studies of spatial pattern and temporal process of land-use change, is carried out in this paper, which is an interesting try on the comparative studies of spatial pattern on change process and the change process of spatial pattern of land-use change.

  2. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the...

  3. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  4. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...

  5. LandLandcov_LCLULCB92

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the 2001 LCB LULC...

  6. LandLandcov_LULCLCB01

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of NLCD 2001 using...

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  8. LandLandcov_NLCD2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced through a...

  9. LandLandcov_IMPERV2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The LandLandcov_IMPERV2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 for mapping zone 65 was produced through a cooperative...

  10. Global Land Data Assimilation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface...

  11. Synergistic Analysis of Coarse Resolution Vegetation and Land Cover Data for Permafrost Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, M.; Herold, M.; Hese, S.; Pocking, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2010-12-01

    The boreal-tundra ecosystems in the northern hemisphere are highly affected by global climate change including a measureable impact on the permafrost dynamics. Coarse-scale vegetation data sets from Earth observations are suitable for the analysis of land cover and vegetation dynamics with respect to changing climatic pattern affecting the land surface and permafrost. This study represents preliminary results on the parameter land cover and disturbances for the contribution to the ESA Data User Element Permafrost. Based on requirements defined by the user community (1) global land cover products are synergetic combined to extract cover percentage information for vegetation physiognomy and barren areas and (2) burned area products are analyzed according similarities and inconsistencies. Future work will concentrate on the expansion of the synergy land cover product and the fire affected area database to the pan-arctic region as it is only available for Russia.

  12. Temporal and spatial changes in land use patterns and biodiversity in relation to farm productivity at multiple scales in Tigray, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hadgu Meles, K.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of biodiversity, including agro-biodiversity affects smallholders in dry-land regions by decreasing the buffering capacity of the agro-ecosystem and increasing proneness to yield variability including crop failure due to weather extremes. Loss of biodiversity is associated with land use/land cover (LULC) changes that are related to a range of biophysical and socio-economic drivers. This thesis is focused on the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia which has experienced severe loss of biodi...

  13. Artificial radioactivity on the coasts of Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Northern Ireland, measurements of artificial radioactivity have been made in inshore seawater, beach sand and mud, sea spray, the air and material deposited from the air, and in coastal soil. The objective was to determine the levels in the coastal environment and also to assess the magnitude of transport of radioactivity from sea to land in sea spray. The results would provide a basis for the development of a model describing sea to land transfer, and allowing the resulting population exposure to be assessed. The results showed the presence of plutonium isotopes, 241Am and 137Cs in some samples of each of the media measured, but concentrations were low in all cases. Large variation in the concentrations in seawater and beach sediment were attributed to variations in dispersion and in the characteristics of the sediment. Sea to land transfer of actinides was detected in samples of sea spray and in air and deposition measurements. Only at some sites on the east coast could the resulting accumulation in soil close to the beach be distinguished from fallout. Following May 1986 137Cs from Chernobyl could be detected in air and in atmospheric deposition. A preliminary assessment of the exposure of the population to the actinides and 137Cs in all the media showed that the resulting dose is a small fraction of the recognised limit. (author)

  14. Vegetation response to climate change : implications for Canada's conservation lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Biological assessment for the transfer of the DP land tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer to the County of Los Alamos up to 10-ha (25-ac) of federal land located in Technical Area-21 to be developed for commercial uses. Previous studies for the proposed land transfer area indicate that potential habitat for four threatened, endangered, and sensitive species occurs in or adjacent to the proposed land transfer area. These include the northern goshawk (federal species of concern), Mexican spotted owl (federal threatened), the spotted bat (federal species of concern, state threatened), die peregrine falcon (federal endangered, state endangered), and the. In order to determine the possible influences of the land transfer on these organisms, information from species-specific surveys was collected. These surveys were used to confirm the presence of these species or to infer their absence in or near the project area. It was concluded that none of die above mentioned species occur in the project area. Stretches of the stream channel within Los Alamos Canyon have been identified as palustrine and riverine, temporarily flooded wetlands. The proposed land transfer should not affect these wetlands.

  17. Land and water for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsch, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Land und Wasser gehören zu den wichtigsten Voraussetzungen für menschliches Wohlergehen und landbasiertes Leben. Daher braucht es nachhaltige Strategien zur Land- und Wassernutzung, um eine wachsende Weltbevölkerung zu versorgen und wichtige natürliche Ökosysteme zu erhalten. Landwirtschaftliche Nahrungsmittel-, Material- und Energieproduktion stellt den tiefgreifendsten menschlichen Einfluss auf globale Land- und Wasserressourcen dar. Landwirtschaftliche Land- und Wassernutzung ist daher ein...

  18. Land Reforms and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Siemers, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that there is a nexus between land transfers and human capital formation. A sequence of land redistributions enables the beneficiaries to educate their children and thus to escape from poverty and to overcome child labour. We find that open access to land markets should be prohibited for beneficiaries for some time. Moreover, a temporary state of inequality among the poor is unavoidable. Finally, a successful land reform allows for the transition of a society from an agricultur...

  19. Climate change affects populations of northern birds in boreal protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Rajasärkkä,Ari

    2010-01-01

    Human land-use effects on species populations are minimized in protected areas and population changes can thus be more directly linked with changes in climate. In this study, bird population changes in 96 protected areas in Finland were compared using quantitative bird census data, between two time slices, 1981–1999 and 2000–2009, with the mean time span being 14 years. Bird species were categorized by distribution pattern and migratory strategy. Our results showed that northern bird species ...

  20. Conflict between Water Buffalo and Market-Oriented Agriculture: A Case Study from Northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAI, Yasuhiro; SIBOUNHEUANG, Thanongsone

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a case study of the decline of water buffalo husbandry under the pressure ofland use change in contemporary northern Laos. Since 2000, with the spread of marketorientedagriculture and the implementation of land use zoning, fallow areas suitable forgrazing have been squeezed leading to a conflict between grazers and cultivators. Localgovernment has prohibited the former from allowing their livestock to graze freely in theareas designated for commercial agriculture, encouraging th...

  1. Assessing the Sensitivity of Mountain Forests to Site Degradation in the Northern Limestone Alps, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Reger; Axel Göttlein; Klaus Katzensteiner; Jörg Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Because of some land-use practices (such as overstocking with wild ungulates, historical clear-cuts for mining, and locally persisting forest pasture), protective forests in the montane vegetation belt of the Northern Limestone Alps are now frequently overaged and poorly structured over large areas. Windthrow and bark beetle infestations have generated disturbance areas in which forests have lost their protective functions. Where unfavorable site conditions hamper regeneration for decades, se...

  2. Stable isotope dynamics in a seasonally changing snow cover on Samoylov Island, Northern Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    While climate change takes place world-wide, the Artic regions are very sensitive to these changes while influencing the biodiversity of the whole world. Therefore, climate archives are considered to better understand the climate of the past. In permafrost regions, covering about 24% of the northern hemisphere land surface, established climate archives such as ice caps, deep lake sediments or tree rings are rarely found. On the other hand, the ground ice contained in permafrost soils is ex...

  3. Sea level rise projections for Northern Europe under RCP8.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Riva, Riccardo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2015-04-01

    We calculate regional projections of 21st century sea level rise in Northern Europe, focusing on the British Isles, the Baltic, and the North Sea. The input to the regional sea level projection is a probabilistic projection of the major components global sea level budget. Local sea level rise is partly compensated by vertical land movement from glacial isostatic adjustment. We explore the uncertainties beyond the likely range provided by IPCC, including the risk and potential rate of marine ice sheet collapse.

  4. A thin-sheet model of electromagnetic induction in northern England and southern Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Jozwiak, W.; Beamish, D.

    1986-01-01

    Electric currents induced in the seas surrounding the British Isles influence the electromagnetic fields observed on land. Observational data suggest that , at certain periods, anomalous currents concentrate in a thin­ sheet comprising the shallow seas and onshore sedimentary sequences. The block and basin structure of northern England and southern Scotland provides a physical basis for the implementation of a thin-sheet approximation in quantitative electromagnetic modelling studies o...

  5. Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Gayatri; Edward B. Barbier

    2000-01-01

    This study applies a production function approach to value the groundwater recharge function of the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in northern Nigeria. The groundwater recharge function supports dry season agricultural production which is dependent on groundwater abstraction for irrigation. Using survey data this paper first carries out an economic valuation of agricultural production, per hectare of irrigated land. We then value the recharge function as an environmental input into the dry season agr...

  6. KamLAND experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-energy and low-background neutrino experiment, 'KamLAND' started data acquisition in January 2002, to search for a long base-line neutrino oscillation using the nuclear reactors as sources. With good detector performance very close to the design values, the data analysis is progressing rapidly, in order to test the LMA solution of the solar neutrino problem, by an experiment with artificial sources for the first time

  7. Transportation and Land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Gordon; Harry W. Richardson

    2000-01-01

    While several reports (e.g. Lebergott, 1993; Moore and Simon, 1999; Cox and Alm, 1999) document stunning advances in health, longevity and material well being and while it is no longer disreputable to credit the market economy, most current discussions of cities and land use see only market failures. A representative example is a recent magazine article by Katz and Bradley (1999), ominously named "Divided We Sprawl." It blames most U.S. social ills on how cities are growing (especially suburb...

  8. The great land theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Leckie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami has reminded us of the need for a rights-based approach to post-disaster reconstruction. If housing, land and property rights are put at the heart of a post-disaster plan – rather than cast aside as too complicated or expensive – the chances are that it will succeed. If these rights are ignored or, more ominously, systematically violated, not only will rights be abused but also reconstruction will fail.

  9. The great land theft

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Leckie

    2005-01-01

    The tsunami has reminded us of the need for a rights-based approach to post-disaster reconstruction. If housing, land and property rights are put at the heart of a post-disaster plan – rather than cast aside as too complicated or expensive – the chances are that it will succeed. If these rights are ignored or, more ominously, systematically violated, not only will rights be abused but also reconstruction will fail.

  10. Landing quality in artistic gymnastics is related to landing symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, I; Marinšek, M

    2013-03-01

    In gymnastics every exercise finishes with a landing. The quality of landing depends on subjective (e.g. biomechanical) and objective (e.g. mechanical characteristics of landing area) factors. The aim of our research was to determine which biomechanical (temporal, kinematic and dynamic) characteristics of landing best predict the quality of landing. Twelve male gymnasts performed a stretched forward and backward salto; also with 1/2, 1/1 and 3/2 turns. Stepwise multiple regression extracted five predictors which explained 51.5% of landing quality variance. All predictors were defining asymmetries between legs (velocities, angles). To avoid asymmetric landings, gymnasts need to develop enough height; they need higher angular momentum around the transverse and longitudinal axis and they need to better control angular velocity in the longitudinal axis. PMID:24744462

  11. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona; Muchapondwa, Edwin

    2011-04-01

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  12. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  13. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Land Use 2000 (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land cover and land use in the St. Johns River Water Management District based on 1999 and 2000 color infrared aerial photography. * Data in this layer may change...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Future Land Use (FLU) 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County Future Land Use 2010. This is the original land use map for 2010. It was drafted for the comprehensive plan in 1990 and contains adopted amendments.

  16. Trends and regional distributions of land and ocean carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarmiento

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We show here a new estimate of the variability and long-term trends in the net land carbon sink from 1960 onwards calculated from the difference between fossil fuel emissions, the observed atmospheric growth rate, and the ocean uptake obtained by recent ocean model simulations forced with reanalysis wind stress and heat and water fluxes. The net land carbon sink appears to have increased by −0.88 (−0.77 to −1.04 Pg C yr−1 after ~1988/1989 from a relatively constant mean of −0.27 Pg C yr−1 before then to −1.15 Pg C yr−1 thereafter (the sign convention is negative out of the atmosphere. This result is significant at the 1% critical level. The increase in net land uptake is partially compensated by a reduction in the expected oceanic uptake, which we estimate from model simulations as about 0.35 (0.26 to 0.49 Pg C yr−1. This implies that the atmospheric growth rate must have decreased by about −0.53 (−0.51 to −0.55 Pg C yr−1 (equivalent to −0.25 ppm yr−1 below what would have been projected if the ocean uptake had continued to grow at the rate expected from a constant climate model and if the net land uptake had continued at its pre-1988/1989 level. A regional synthesis and assessment of the land carbon sources and sinks over the post 1988/1989 period reveals broad agreement that the northern hemisphere land is a major sink of atmospheric CO2, but there remain major discrepancies with regard to the sign and magnitude of the net flux to and from tropical land.

  17. Land use effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josep; G.; Canadell

    2002-01-01

    Current and past land use practices are critical in determining the distribution and size of global terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks. Althoughfossil fuel emissions dominate the anthropogenic perturbation of the global C cycle, land use still drives the largest portion of anthropogenic emissions in a number of tropical regions of Asia. The size of the emission flux owing to land use change is still the biggest uncertainty in the global C budget. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported a flux term of 1.7 PgC@a-1 for 1990-1995 but more recent estimates suggest the magnitude of this source may be only of 0.96 PgC@a-1 for the 1990s. In addition, current and past land use practices are now thought to contribute to a large degree to the northern hemisphere terrestrial sink, and are the dominant driver for some regional sinks. However, mechanisms other than land use change need to be invoked in order to explain the inferred C sink in the tropics. Potential candidates are the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization and climate change; fertilization due to nitrogen (N) deposition is believed to be small or nil. Although the potential for managing C sinks is limited, improved land use management and new land uses such as reforestation and biomass fuel cropping, can further enhance current terrestrial C sinks. Best management practices in agriculture alone could sequester 0.4-0.8 PgC per year in soils if implemented globally. New methodologies to ensure verification and permanency of C sequestration need to be developed.

  18. Effective radiative forcing from historical land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy; Betts, Richard A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Jones, Chris D.; Jones, Gareth S.

    2016-08-01

    The effective radiative forcing (ERF) from the biogeophysical effects of historical land use change is quantified using the atmospheric component of the Met Office Hadley Centre Earth System model HadGEM2-ES. The global ERF at 2005 relative to 1860 (1700) is -0.4 (-0.5) Wm-2, making it the fourth most important anthropogenic driver of climate change over the historical period (1860-2005) in this model and larger than most other published values. The land use ERF is found to be dominated by increases in the land surface albedo, particularly in North America and Eurasia, and occurs most strongly in the northern hemisphere winter and spring when the effect of unmasking underlying snow, as well as increasing the amount of snow, is at its largest. Increased bare soil fraction enhances the seasonal cycle of atmospheric dust and further enhances the ERF. Clouds are shown to substantially mask the radiative effect of changes in the underlying surface albedo. Coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations forced only with time-varying historical land use change shows substantial global cooling (dT = -0.35 K by 2005) and the climate resistance (ERF/dT = 1.2 Wm-2 K-1) is consistent with the response of the model to increases in CO2 alone. The regional variation in land surface temperature change, in both fixed-SST and coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations, is found to be well correlated with the spatial pattern of the forced change in surface albedo. The forcing-response concept is found to work well for historical land use forcing—at least in our model and when the forcing is quantified by ERF. Our results suggest that land-use changes over the past century may represent a more important driver of historical climate change then previously recognised and an underappreciated source of uncertainty in global forcings and temperature trends over the historical period.

  19. Scaling behavior in land markets

    OpenAIRE

    Taisei Kaizoji

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of power law statistics on land markets. There have been no other studies that have analyzed power law statistics on land markets up to now. We analyzed a database of the assessed value of land, which is officially monitored and made available to the public by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport Government of Japan. This is the largest database of Japan's land prices, and consists of approximately 30,000 points for each year of a 6-year per...

  20. Prehistoric land use in southern Loess Plateau reconstructed from archeological data by a new developed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Wu, H.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of land use during the Holocene is crucial to understand impacts of human activity on climate change in preindustrial period. Until now it is still a key issue to reconstruct amount and spatial distribution of prehistoric land use due to lack of data. Most reconstructions are simply extrapolations of population, cleared land amount per person and land suitability for agriculture. In this study, a new quantitative prehistoric land use model (PLUM) is developed based on semi-quantitative predictive models of archeological sites. The PLUM is driven by environmental and social parameters of archeological sites, which are objective evidences of prehistoric human activity, and produces realistic patterns of land use. After successful validations of the model with modern observed data, the PLUM was applied to reconstruct land use from 8 to 4 ka B.P. in Yiluo and Wei valleys, southern Loess Plateau. Both of them are the most important agriculture origin centers in northern China. Results reveal that about 9% of land areas in both valleys have been used by human activity from 8 to 4 ka B.P., expanding from gentle slopes along the river to hinterlands of the valleys. The land cover was affected by increasing agricultural land use during the middle Holocene. The extensive spreads of land use since 7 ka B.P. in both valleys were driven by the combined impacts of population increase and agriculture development, which was further favored by wet and warm climate conditions during middle Holocene; while the decreasing rates of land use expansions after 5 ka B.P. were mainly induced by improved agriculture technology. With the scaling up of PLUM to larger regional or global levels by a greater use of archeological data, the impact of human land use on global change can be studied more accurately.

  1. GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Optimal Allocation in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jie-Yong; GUO Li-Ying

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based method was used to assess land suitability in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province of China through simultaneous consideration of physical features and current land use. Through interpretation of Landsat TM images and extensive field visits the area was modeled into 40 land types in five altitudinal zones (valleys and gullies, hillsides and terraces, foothills, mid-mountain, and sub-alpine mountain). Then, a suitability score was assigned to five physical factors (climate, hydrology, topography, soil, and vegetation). Next, their integrated overall suitability value scores were compared with the observed land cover to determine whether it should be reallocated a new use. Results showed that the five suitability classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, farmland-woodland, and scrub-pasture had altitudinal stratification and a total of 1 151 km2 (8.89%) of lands on the northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains had to be reallocated. To achieve this reallocation, 657 km2 of arable land should be reduced, and forest, grassland and scrub-pasture increased by 615 km2, 131 km2 and 405 km2, respectively. Implementation of these recommended land reallocations should help achieve suitable use of land resources and prevent land degradation.

  2. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  3. Northern communities sustainable energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltman, Ursula; Widmeyer, Scott; Moen, Harlan

    2010-09-15

    The Circumpolar North may provide the solution to the world's most urgent problems. Combining new technologies with the resources, opportunities and needs of the north, the Arctic region may become instrumental in promoting nature's ability to sequester natural carbons while supplying future energy demands to the world. With the technologies for efficiencies and CCS, the abundant supply of natural gas exists for an efficient northern network of electrical generating facilities in the circumpolar region. A symbiotic relationship between facilities can ensure dependable clean electricity and support East-West distribution of power across international time zones strategically connected to southern grids.

  4. Reconnoitering the effect of shallow groundwater on land surface temperature and surface energy balance using MODIS and SEBS

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhaier, F.; Su, Z; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of observing shallow groundwater depth and areal extent using satellite measurements can support groundwater models and vast irrigation systems management. Besides, these measurements help bringing groundwater effect on surface energy balance within land surface models and climate studies. To inspect the MODIS capacity of detecting shallow groundwater effect on land surface temperature and surface energy balance in an area within Al-Balikh River basin in northern Syria, we inv...

  5. Impacts of land use and land cover change on regional climate: a case study in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Han, Zhe; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the impacts of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on regional climate is essential for understanding land-atmosphere interactions and for designing climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model, we examined how different land use and land cover patterns affect regional climate in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China, whose environmental and socioeconomic conditions are sensitive to climate change. We parameterized WRF using land use and land cover maps corresponding to 2001 and 2010 conditions, which differ in the representation of four land surface biophysical parameters: vegetation fraction, leaf area index (LAI), albedo, and emissivity. From 2001 to 2010, vegetation fraction and LAI increased in summer, emissivity increased and albedo decreased in winter. Our WRF simulations show that differences in land use and land cover patterns led to widespread reduction in summer temperature with local cooling on the order of 1 °C, and extensive increase in winter temperature with local warming exceeding 0.8 °C. By contrast, simulations using the default landscape representation, provided by WRF itself, show only minor and random changes in temperature. Model evaluation further reveals that our simulations with appropriate land surface properties improve the performance of the WRF model. Our findings demonstrate that LUCC in Northern China has altered the regional climate over the past decade. The magnitude and spatial patterns of temperature changes quantified by our simulations provide useful information for understanding the impacts of LUCC on climate and for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies in arid and semiarid regions.

  6. Asset Bubbles, Inflation, and Agricultural Land Values

    OpenAIRE

    Schurle, Bryan; Wilson, Christine; Featherstone, Allen; Remaury, Hugo; Harmon, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses asset bubbles, the Kansas and Illinois land markets, estimates land values, and develops a land price/earnings ratio. Current land sales data are also examined. Finally, we examine relationships between land values and interest rates, inflation rates, and cash rents. Results show that real land values increase substantially when inflation increases. Recent land values are explored for both Kansas and Illinois with somewhat differing results. Development of land price bu...

  7. The Relationship between Landless Farmers and Land Adjustment, Land Transfer,Land Inheritance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunrong; SHANG; Lan; YE

    2013-01-01

    Based on the household survey of nine villages in Guangdong Province and Hunan Province,we research the relationship between landless farmers and land adjustment,land transfer in the context of rural land contract rights on a long term basis.We demonstrate that the existence of landless farmers does not pose a serious problem for the current rural community.We also explain the reason why the land is no longer readjusted:the expected return of land adjustment is low and the organizational costs are high.

  8. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  9. Bildungsreform auf dem Lande

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Im Fokus der Arbeit stehen die Bildungsreformen auf dem Lande in der Zeitspanne von 1949 bis zum Ende der 1960er Jahre. Die Entwicklung der Volksschule in Nordhessen, genauer im südlichen Ringgau nahe der thüringischen Grenze, wird genauer betrachtet. Dafür wurden Schulchroniken aus dem Südringgau beschrieben und analysiert. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Entstehung der Mittelpunktschule Herleshausen/Nesselröden und den damit verbundenen Schließungen der einklassigen Volksschulen in den einzel...

  10. Expecting a Soft Landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the uncertainties of the global economy, China’s e conomic slowdown this year has triggered worries that the country’s growth engine is losing steam. Some even anticipate a hard landing. Lu Zhongyuan, Vice President of the Development Research Center of the State Council, dismissed the worries at a recent briefing in Beijing,saying the slowdown is the result of the government’s macro-control and is still within the normal fluctuation range. Edited excerpts of his views follow:

  11. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  12. Waterfowl production survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan River Delta: July 10-22, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1973. The...

  13. Northern Alaska Landscape/Permafrost GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This update includes permafrost mapping to include the following new layers:...

  14. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  15. Natural contributions to particulate matter and ozone concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions play an important role in determining ambient levels of harmful atmospheric pollutants, especially tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM). Natural sources have also become more important with the ongoing reductions of anthropogenic emissions and will be even more significant in the future in connection with planning of abatement strategies. Although efforts have been carried out to investigate and quantify natural emissions, the uncertainties and gaps with regard to these emissions are still quite large. Therefore, improvement of our understanding of natural emissions and quantifying their contribution to present and future air pollution levels have been defined as an important field of research in air pollution modeling. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. The relative contributions are calculated for the domain covering more than the Northern Hemisphere (the DEHM mother domain) as well as for the six continental regions: North America, Northern part of South America, Asia, Europe, Middle East and northern and central part of Africa. Our simulations indicate that at the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone concentrations over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, biogenic VOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation. Our results show that biogenic VOCs enhance the average ozone concentration with around 11% over land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest

  16. Does multiple land use work - the Ranger example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory is on Aboriginal land and is surrounded by Kakadu National Park. The Ranger Mine is owned and operated by Energy Resources of Australia Limited (ERA). The issues of environmental performance and impact on traditional Aboriginal have always been key concerns in the planning and operation of the Ranger mine. It is shown that adoption of these priorities, along with efficient mining, have been a large part of ERA's success to date. The Ranger project, its infrastructure and residential community, represents a substantial investment and is a substantial export earner for Australia, as well as a source of revenue for traditional Aboriginals whose land is affected by the development. 1 tab., 2 figs

  17. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  18. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identify an unauthorized landing as either an emergency landing, an inadvertent landing, or an intentional... emergency landing: (i) Is not charged a landing fee. (ii) Pays all costs for labor, material, parts, use of... OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized...

  19. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  20. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.

    2009-02-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).

  1. Development opportunities for northern aboriginal communities from Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Richards, a public relations specialist from Cogema Resources Inc., discussed the programmes for human resource and community development in northern Saskatchewan. This region has the world's largest known high-grade deposits of uranium as well as a high level of provincial, public and northern community support. A mainly Aboriginal population of around 35 000 with a very high proportion of young persons entering the work force, lives in small, dispersed communities in a landscape of forest and lakes. All of the uranium mines are in remote locations with 'local impact' communities often several hundred kilometres away. In the late 1970's a public board of inquiry set none operating conditions that included maximizing opportunities for northern business and employment. Dozens of joint initiatives have since been developed and resulted in innovative hiring, training and transportation programmes, as well as support programmes to improve health, education, professional and business development and quality of life in the communities. Residents of northern Saskatchewan, like all other Canadians, are not prepared to accept environmental risks in return for economic opportunities. Three regional Environmental Quality Committees, with representatives froth all of the northern communities, work with Provincial agencies and the uranium mining industry to ensure community concerns are included in decisions. Northern hunters and fishermen, whose close links with the land are respected, provide relevant data to the Environmental Monitoring Program. Mutual trust is developed through constant interaction and dialogue in one-to-one relationships. Traditional activities like trapping are given their full importance. A Community Vitality Project jointly monitors social well being as defined by northern interests and culture. Compensations and company donations in some cases provide resources for community activities. (author)

  2. Land Confiscations and land reform in Natural-Order States

    OpenAIRE

    Sumner La Croix

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists argue that post-World War II land reforms in East Asia were critical ingredients in the region’s strong economic growth, but pay little attention to how large-scale land confiscations might affect the security of property rights in each country. A review of the history of large-scale land confiscations in early modern Europe, the United States and Hawai‘i provides a foundation for understanding the nature of modern land reform policies. The key insight is to recognize th...

  3. Land Access, Land Rental and Food Security: Evidence from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Muraoka, Rie; Jin, Songqing; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Constrained access to land is increasingly recognized as a problem impeding rural household welfare in densely populated areas of Africa. This study utilizes household and plot level data from rural Kenya to explore the linkage between land access and food security. We find that a 10% increase in operated land size would increase total cereal consumption and home produced food consumption by 0.8% and 2.0%, respectively. We also find that land rental is the dominant mechanism that poor rural f...

  4. Trophic interactions in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem, year 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E Barros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A food web model is constructed to describe predator-prey interactions, community structure and trophic flows in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem (18°20'S, 24°S, for the year 1997. The model is built using the Ecopath with Ecosim software version 6.4, and encompasses 21 functional groups, ranging from primary producers (phytoplankton to top predators (birds and marine mammals, the principal fishing resources and the fishery. Input parameters required to build the model were gathered from specialized literature, grey literature and our own estimates. The results indicated that the total biomass (B T was estimated at 624.7 ton km-2. The combined biomass of small pelagic fish represented 26% of B T, while the combined biomass of demersal fish represented only 0.1% of B T. These results highlight the importance of pelagic fish in this system. Predation mortality resulted to be the main source of mortality. Nevertheless, fishing mortality was important in anchovy, mackerel, common dolphinfish and jack mackerel. The mean trophic level of the fishery was estimated as 3.7, with landings sustained mainly by anchovy. Primary production required to sustain the landings (PPR was estimated at 7.5% of calculated total net primary production, which is lower than PPR estimates in other upwelling ecosystems. The average trophic transfer efficiency was 18%, which is in the range (10-20% informed for marine ecosystems. Results indicate that in 1997 the northern Chile marine ecosystem was characterized for being a system far from maturity, dominated in terms of biomass and flows by the pelagic realm.

  5. Geologic setting and concepts on the origin of uranium deposits in the East Alligator River region, N.T., Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Alligator River region lies approximately 220 kilometers east of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Uranium exploration in the region commenced in 1967, and in 1969 the surface expressions of the Koongarra and Ranger deposits were detected by airborne radiometric surveys. In 1970 similar surveys were conducted over the Nabarlek and Jabiluka areas with the former deposit exhibiting a high priority uranium anomaly. To date, approximately 350,000 metric tons of contained U;sub 3;O;sub 8; have been indicated as reasonably assured reserves and estimated additional resources in the East Alligator River region. Topography in the region consists of low-lying flood plains to the west while a deeply incided sandstone sequence forming the Arnhem Land Plateau rises abruptly to the east. The main uranium mineralizing events are dated at approximately 900 and 500 m.y. 10 refs

  6. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  7. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  8. Regulation of land attitudes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land relations play an important role in the life of any state. The article is devoted to the questions of the land relations development in Kazakhstan. Tasks, stages and results of land reform are considered in it. The analysis has shown that land reform has not affected on a condition of land fund in a good way: the huge areas have been transmitted into stock lands, arable land has sharply decreased, fallow lands that have negatively affected on a quality of the lands and economy of republic was formed. In addition, the problems and ways of land relations perfection in republic were considered

  9. Analysis on mechanism of land resource security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the relationship among individual benefits, benefits of the country, common benefits of all humans in land use and land resource security. The following balanced land use model is proposed: the harmonious and interactive relationship between man and nature, two main bodies of land ecological system, constitutes the mechanism of land resources security. The feedback relationship between man and nature is the basis for the land resources security and the core is the relationship among people established for the benefit equilibrium in land use. The conflicts, in land use stem from the rarity of land resource and the solution to those conflicts in harmony helps land resource security.

  10. LAND MEASUREMENT IN HOLY BOOKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Nelu Leu

    2012-01-01

    Data and facts presented here will show measurement methods for time, land, buildings and first map designs of Israel County used during time. There are also described the instruments and measurement units used to perform these types of measurements, like the plot of land, the cubit, the mason string, the cane and the pole. Like any scientific approach, the land measurement domain begins with training specialists to elaborate all projects needed. This can be done “with the help of the H...

  11. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within a...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  12. Deforestation, Land Taxes and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkuhl, Matthias; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines neoclassical growth theory with the von Th nen approach of land conversion to model deforestation and land allocation decisions in an intertemporal general equilibrium context suitable for developing countries. Analyzing the impact of several forest conservation policies, including international transfers under a REDD+ scheme, emphasized the role of taxes on non-forest land as effective and powerful policy that has been largely neglected so far.The findings of our equilibr...

  13. The economics of land degradation

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim; Gerber, Nicolas; Mirzabaev, Alisher; Nkonya, Ephraim

    2013-01-01

    Healthy soils are essential for sustaining economies and human livelihoods. In spite of this, the key ecosystem services provided by soils have usually been taken for granted and their true value – beyond market value – is being underrated. This pattern of undervaluation of soils is about to change in view of rapidly raising land prices, which is the result of increased shortage of land and raising output prices that drive implicit prices of land (with access to water) upward. Moreover, the v...

  14. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  15. Responsible Use of Public Lands

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are your ‘Public Lands?’ How are they used and how does local leadership fit into the administration of these lands? Who is responsible for impacts and what are the mitigation measures necessary for responsible use of our Public Lands? Mark Raymond, County Commissioner, Uintah County, 152 E 100 N, Vernal, UT, 84078, mraymond@uintah. utah.gov Mark Raymond is currently serving as a County Commissioner in Uintah County. He is very passionate about multiple land use issues and is very aggres...

  16. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  17. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  18. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  19. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  20. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)