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Sample records for arnhem land northern

  1. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene-Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penelope L; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Jones, Tristen

    2017-02-01

    This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the "Northern Running Figures" for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017) [1]). This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  2. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene‐Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope L. King

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the “Northern Running Figures” for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017 [1]. This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  3. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  4. Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes in sediments from Cooper Creek, Western Arnhem Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostick, A. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia); ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia)], E-mail: alison.frostick@cdu.edu.au; Bollhoefer, A. [ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia); Parry, D.; Munksgaard, N. [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia); Evans, K. [ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Protection of the environment post-mining is a key objective of rehabilitation, especially where runoff and erosion from rehabilitated mine sites could potentially lead to contamination of the surrounding land and watercourses. As part of an overall assessment of the success of rehabilitation at the former Nabarlek uranium (U) mine, an appraisal of stable lead (Pb) isotopes, radionuclides and trace metals within sediments and soils was conducted to determine the off site impacts from a spatial and temporal perspective. The study found localised areas on and adjacent to the site where soils had elevated levels of trace metals and radionuclides. Lead isotope ratios are highly radiogenic in some samples, indicating the presence of U-rich material. There is some indication that erosion products with more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios have deposited in sediments downstream of the former ore body. However, there is no indication that the radiogenic erosion products found on the mine site at present have significantly contaminated sediments further downstream of Cooper Creek.

  5. The Population Ecology of Two Tropical Trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), Harvested by Indigenous Woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year-1 for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year-1 for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  6. The population ecology of two tropical trees, Brachychiton diversifolius (Malvaceae) and Bombax ceiba (Bombaceae), harvested by Indigenous woodcarvers in Arnhem Land, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-10-01

    We describe the population ecology of two tropical deciduous trees, Bombax ceiba leiocarpum A. Robyns and Brachychiton diversifolius R. Br., which are in high demand for Indigenous sculpture production in Arnhem Land, Australia. We monitored tagged populations of both species at two locations for 2 years to examine their reproduction, growth, and survival rates and their response to harvest. Both species have similar life histories: they reproduce during the dry season (June-November) producing a high seed load, seed predation was high, seeds did not survive in the soil past the following wet season to form a seed bank, and germination rates were low and variable for both species. Average annual circumference growth rates were 1.07 cm year(-1) for B. ceiba and 0.98 cm year(-1) for B. diversifolius, with most of the growth occurring during the early wet season. Most (65-88 %) of the harvested B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems coppiced. Coppice and stem size class were the main factors influencing tree growth rates with coppice stems growing up to six times faster than similar sized non-coppice stems. The survival of B. ceiba and B. diversifolius stems was size class dependent and affected by local site factors (e.g. fire and other disturbances) so that the smaller size classes had a low probability of survival. Given the resprouting potential of both species, their wild harvest is likely to have only minimal local impact on wild populations. However, further population modelling is required to determine whether the small and disjunct B. ceiba populations can sustain harvesting at current levels.

  7. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Yimyam; Sithichai Lordkaew; Benjavan Rerkasem

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interview...

  8. Rapportage resultaten luchtonderzoek Amsterdamseweg 38 e.o. te Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliest JJG; van Ammers H; Fortezza F; Bos HP; IEM; LLO; gemeente Arnhem/Dienst Milieu en Openbare Werken

    1994-01-01

    In een aantal woningen rond een terrein dat gelegen is tussen de Amsterdamseweg, de Brantsenstraat, de Bouriciusstraat en de Sweerts de Landasstraat te Arnhem komt een relatief hoge concentratie van met name perchlooretheen (per) en in mindere mate trichlooretheen (tri) voor. Oorzaak van de verontr

  9. Fashion District Arnhem: creative entrepreneurs upgrading a deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.; Lentjes, E.; Ruiten, E.; Marques, L.; Richard, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Arnhem Fashion District, which started in 2005, offers workspaces, shops and places to live for fashion designers. More than fifty fashion designers and other creative entrepreneurs have located their business in this neighbourhood. For a few years most of the fashion chain has been present: des

  10. Digital technology impacts on the Arnhem transfer hall structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Straat, R.; Hofman, S.; Coenders, J.L.; Paul, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The new Transfer Hall in Arnhem is one of the key projects to prepare the Dutch railways for the increased future demands for capacity. UNStudio developed a master plan in 1996 for the station area of which the completion of the Transfer Hall in 2015 will be a final milestone. The Transfer Hall is a

  11. Rapportage resultaten luchtonderzoek Amsterdamseweg 38 e.o. te Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliest JJG; Ammers H van; Fortezza F; Bos HP; IEM; LLO; gemeente Arnhem/Dienst Milieu en Openbare

    1994-01-01

    In a number of dwellings in a residential area in Arnhem, close to a site with heavy industrial pollution, high concentrations of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene were found in indoor air. It was assumed that the pollutants entered the dwellings through the crawl spaces, located underneath. I

  12. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  13. Arable land increase in northern China: facts and findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on investigations between 1986 and 1996 in the four provinces of northern China, major problems on land reclamation were discovered. The increase of arable land was mainly low quality fields from barren land and was susceptible to disertification and water-induced soil erosion. In the meantime, large area of grassland and forestland was lost or degraded, and original fertile arable land was occupied for residential and industrial use. As a result the environment deteriorated. This change was mainly caused by economic development, population growth, inferior natural conditions, and irrational management strategies. Finally some positive measures were suggested to stop this negative cycle.

  14. Strangers, spirits, and land reforms : conflicts about land in Dande, northern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, Marja J.

    2004-01-01

    This book describes efforts by the Zimbabwean government to enforce land reforms on African farmers in northern Zimbabwe. These efforts compounded rather than alleviated the problem of land scarcity for black small-scale farmers, a problem government now allegedly seeks to redress through invasions

  15. Geological map of land and seaareas of northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway, in cooperation with the Geological Surveys of 22 other countries and under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), has compiled a geological map of northern Europe at the 1:4 million scale.For the first time the geology of both land and sea areas of this large region is displayed in a single document. The area covered extends

  16. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Yimyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interviews, field verification, and mapping. Biomass carbon in trees was determined nondestructively, and carbon in ground cover, litter, and soil organic matter was determined by chemical analysis of replicated samples. The 3 villages, with access to land ranging from 1.3 to 6.3 ha per capita, managed largely pristine headwater forests for security of water supply and made a living from crop production supplemented by harvests of timber, firewood, and other forest products from managed community forests. Cultivated land varied in composition and management among the villages, from shifting cultivation with fallow periods of different lengths to permanent cultivation of food and commercial crops. Per capita carbon storage in the villages well exceeded average per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Thailand, with most of the carbon stored in the forests. This has important implications for programs that offer incentives to mountain villages to maintain or enhance their carbon storage, such as the United Nations’ REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program.

  17. Puente sobre el Rin en Arnhem – Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this bridge was to carry the dense traffic across the Rhein existing in the Arnhem area. Its central stretch has a width of 37.40 m with two roadways: — the westbound roadway with two lanes for motor traffic, and ��� the eastbound roadway with two lanes for motor traffic and another for bicycles and motorbykes. The decking for the central and lateral sections was built using the method of successive cantilevers, while the oval-shaped access ramp was built using conventional forming and scaffolding. The aesthetics of the bridge was very much taken into account both in the design and in the finishing touches.

    Este puente se proyectó para hacer frente al denso tráfico sobre el Rin existente en esa zona de Arnhem. Tiene una anchura, en el tramo central, de 37,40 m con dos calzadas: — la occidental, con dos carriles en cada sentido para el tráfico automovilístico, y — la oriental, con dos carriles para el transporte público, y una pista para ciclistas y usuarios de ciclomotores. El tablero para el tramo central y los laterales se construyó por el método de voladizos sucesivos, mientras que la rampa de planta ovalada se realizó sobre cimbras convencionales. En el acabado y construcción de la obra se tuvo muy en cuenta el aspecto estético.

  18. Agrarian Land Use Transformation in Northern Laos: from Swidden to Rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2009-01-01

    Land use and farmers’ livelihoods in mountainous regions of northern Laos are rapidly moving away from subsistence to market based agricultural systems, changing farmers’ relationship with land and naturalresources. The current study examines patterns of land use change in northern Laos, especial...

  19. Rijden onder invloed in het ressort Arnhem : Verslag van het registratieproject rijden onder invloed in het ressort Arnhem tussen 1 januari en 31 maart 1982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, J.J.A.; Kommer, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ten vervolge op de computerverwerking door het WODC van in het arrondissement Almelo verzamelde gegevens over strafzaken terzake van rijden onder invloed, is in de maanden januari t/m maart 1982 een speciale registratie van dergelijke zaken bijgehouden in het gehele ressort Arnhem. Hierbij zijn gege

  20. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  1. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Host

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  2. Human-induced greening of the northern extratropical land surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ribes, Aurélien; Yan, Binyan; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Séférian, Roland; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B.; Douville, Hervé; Piao, Shilong; Zhu, Zaichun; Dickinson, Robert E.; Dai, Yongjiu; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Jin, Mingzhou; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Wang, Bin; Huang, Mengtian; Lian, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Significant land greening in the northern extratropical latitudes (NEL) has been documented through satellite observations during the past three decades. This enhanced vegetation growth has broad implications for surface energy, water and carbon budgets, and ecosystem services across multiple scales. Discernible human impacts on the Earth's climate system have been revealed by using statistical frameworks of detection-attribution. These impacts, however, were not previously identified on the NEL greening signal, owing to the lack of long-term observational records, possible bias of satellite data, different algorithms used to calculate vegetation greenness, and the lack of suitable simulations from coupled Earth system models (ESMs). Here we have overcome these challenges to attribute recent changes in NEL vegetation activity. We used two 30-year-long remote-sensing-based leaf area index (LAI) data sets, simulations from 19 coupled ESMs with interactive vegetation, and a formal detection and attribution algorithm. Our findings reveal that the observed greening record is consistent with an assumption of anthropogenic forcings, where greenhouse gases play a dominant role, but is not consistent with simulations that include only natural forcings and internal climate variability. These results provide the first clear evidence of a discernible human fingerprint on physiological vegetation changes other than phenology and range shifts.

  3. Satellite monitoring of land-use and land-cover changes in northern Togo protected areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fousseni Folega; Chun-yu Zhang; Xiu-hai Zhao; Kperkouma Wala; Komlan Batawila; Hua-guo Huang; Marra Dourma; Koffi Akpagana

    2014-01-01

    Remote-sensing data for protected areas in northern Togo, obtained in three different years (2007, 2000, and 1987), were used to assess and map changes in land cover and land use for this drought prone zone. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was applied to the images to map changes in vegetation. An unsupervised classification, followed by classes recoding, filtering, identifications, area computing and post-classification process were applied to the composite of the three years of NDVI images. Maximum likelihood classification was applied to the 2007 image (ETM+2007) using a supervised classification process. Seven vegetation classes were defined from training data sets. The seven classes included the following biomes:riparian forest, dry forest, flooded vegetation, wooded savanna, fallows, parkland, and water. For these classes, the overall accuracy and the overall kappa statistic for the classi-fied map were 72.5% and 0.67, respectively. Data analyses indicated a great change in land resources;especially between 1987 and 2000 proba-bly due to the impact of democratization process social, economic, and political disorder from 1990. Wide-scale loss of vegetation occurred during this period. However, areas of vegetation clearing and regrowth were more visible between 2000 and 2007. The main source of confusion in the contingency matrix was due to heterogeneity within certain classes. It could also be due to spectral homogeneity among the classes. This research provides a baseline for future ecological landscape research and for the next management program in the area.

  4. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  5. The driving forces of land change in the Northern Piedmont of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger F.; Napton, Darrell E.; Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces facilitate or inhibit land-use/land-cover change. Human driving forces include political, economic, cultural, and social attributes that often change across time and space. Remotely sensed imagery provides regional land-change data for the Northern Piedmont, an ecoregion of the United States that continued to urbanize after 1970 through conversion of agricultural and forest land covers to developed uses. Eight major driving forces facilitated most of the land conversion; other drivers inhibited or slowed change. A synergistic web of drivers may be more important in understanding land change than individual drivers by themselves.

  6. Widespread land surface wind decline in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, R.; Cattiaux, J.; Yiou, P.; Thépaut, J.-N.; Ciais, P.

    2010-09-01

    The decline of surface wind observed in many regions of the world is a potential source of concern for wind power electricity generation. It is also suggested as the main cause of decreasing pan evaporation. In China, a persistent and significant decrease of monsoon winds was observed in all seasons. Surface wind declines were also evidenced in several regions of the world (U.S., Australia, several European countries). Except over China, no clear explanation was given for the wind decrease in the regions studied. Whether surface winds decrease is due to changes in the global atmospheric circulation or its variability, in surface processes or to observational trends has therefore not been elucidated. The identification of the drivers of such a decline requires a global investigation of available surface and upper-air wind data, which has not been conducted so far. Here we use global datasets of in-situ wind measurements that contain surface weather stations wind data (hourly or three-hourly data acquisition time step) and rawinsonde vertical wind data profiles (monthly time step) prepared by the NCAR. A set of 822 worldwide surface stations with continuous wind records was selected after a careful elimination of stations with obvious breaks and large gaps. This dataset mostly covers the Northern mid latitudes over the period 1979-2008. Using this data set, we found that annual mean wind speeds have declined at 73% of the surface stations over the past 30 years. In the Northern Hemisphere, positive wind trends are found only in a few places. In Europe, Central Asia, Eastern Asia and in North America the annual mean surface wind speed has decreased on average at a rate of -2.9, -5.9, -4.2, and -1.8 %/decade respectively, i.e. a decrease of about 10% in 30 years and up to about 20% in Central Asia. These results are robust to changes in the station selection method and parameters. By contrast, upper-air winds observed from rawinsondes, geostrophic winds deduced from

  7. Land use pattern evolution and optimization in the Farming-Pastoral Zone of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yunhao; SU; Wei; WU; Yongfeng; YU; Xiaomin; ZHANG; Jinshui

    2006-01-01

    Using information about the land cover of the Farming-Pastoral Zone of Northern China retrieved from multi-temporal NOAA/AVHRR and SPOT VEGETAN images obtained in 1989, 1994 and 1999, the authors analyzed land-use pattern evolution over this 10-year period and built a land-use pattern simulation model, based on which land-use pattern evolution and optimization modeling in this region were studied. Results showed that the proposed model can effectively simulate regional land-use patterns and help improve regional ecological environments.

  8. Wonen en werken aan het water door de eeuwen heen : landschapsgenese en bodemontwikkeling van de Schuytgraaf (VINEX locatie Arnhem-Zuid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.R.; Kooistra, M.J.; Verbauwen, E.C.; Harig, R.M.K.; Makaske, B.

    2001-01-01

    Historisch bodemkundig onderzoek in de buurschap De Laar (vroeger Elst, momenteel Arnhem), in werkputten bij stadsuitbreiding (vinex). Dit als toelichting op de relatie tussen bodemlagen en archeologische vondsten

  9. Land Reform and Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TRUNG THANH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the abstract of my doctoral dissertation entitled “The Impactof Land Reform on Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam” at theJustus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany under the supervision of Prof. Dr.Siegfried Bauer. The study examined the impact of the recent land reform inVietnam on the economy of rural households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam.It was found that the land reform has positive impact on three important aspects ofrural household’s economy, namely crop production, land market participation, andafforestation. However, further improvement in terms of private land rights isneeded for a more sustainable development in the region.

  10. Land Reform and Farm Land Rental Market Operation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Trung THANH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting the participation of farmhouseholds in farm land rental markets with particular focus on the impact ofthe land reform. The operational outcomes of such market participation are alsoanalysed. The study used a panel dataset of farm households surveyed beforeand after the land reform with Random Effect Tobit model. The analysisshowed that the land reform have contributed to increased land rentalparticipation. The operation of the market has both efficiency and equityoutcomes. Therefore, constraints to functioning of land rental market aredifficult to justify. In other words, farm land rental should be promoted to bringsuch desirable outcomes.

  11. Scenario simulation and forecast of land use/cover in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YueChen; HE ChunYang

    2008-01-01

    Modeling land use/cover scenario changes and its potential impacts on structure and functions of ecosystem in typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use/cover system and ecosystem. Based on the analysis of the existing land use/cover simulation and forecast models, a land use/cover scenario dynamics model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model, Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use/cover scenario changes in northern China in the next 30 years and simulated in this paper. The model is to simulate the land use/cover scenario demands by using a SD model at first, and then allocating the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use/cover suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using BPNN-CA model to satisfy the balance between land use/cover scenario demands and supplies. It integrates the advantages of SD, BPNN and CA. Macro-driving factors and the micro-spatial pattern are also fully taken into account. The BPNN simplifies the identification of the factors' weights used in CA model and improves the reliability of the simulation results. The simulation accuracy of the model developed in this paper was found to be about 74%. It suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complexity of land use/cover system at different scales to some extent and it is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecosystem. The simulated results also indicate that the urban land, water area and forest will increase significantly, and farmland and unable land will decrease gradually. Obvious land use/cover changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone and the southeast area of northern China.

  12. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher K.WRIGHT; Kirsten M.de BEURS; Geoffrey M.HENEBRY

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1).NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05)positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface.LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes;cropland,grassland,and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic.Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC,we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant (p≤0.05)negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought.In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case,represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland,and also associated with statistically significant (p≤0.05) negative NDVI trends.Relatively small clusters of statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region.Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe,Russia,and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets.Here,we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt,involving both broader climatic forcing,and narrower anthropogenic impacts,than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  13. Combined analysis of land cover change and NDVI trends in the Northern Eurasian grain belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher K.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2012-06-01

    We present an approach to regional environmental monitoring in the Northern Eurasian grain belt combining time series analysis of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data over the period 2001-2008 and land cover change (LCC) analysis of the 2001 and 2008 MODIS Global Land Cover product (MCD12Q1). NDVI trends were overwhelmingly negative across the grain belt with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive trends covering only 1% of the land surface. LCC was dominated by transitions between three classes; cropland, grassland, and a mixed cropland/natural vegetation mosaic. Combining our analyses of NDVI trends and LCC, we found a pattern of agricultural abandonment (cropland to grassland) in the southern range of the grain belt coinciding with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends and likely driven by regional drought. In the northern range of the grain belt we found an opposite tendency toward agricultural intensification; in this case, represented by LCC from cropland mosaic to pure cropland, and also associated with statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) negative NDVI trends. Relatively small clusters of statistically significant ( p⩽0.05) positive NDVI trends corresponding with both localized land abandonment and localized agricultural intensification show that land use decision making is not uniform across the region. Land surface change in the Northern Eurasian grain belt is part of a larger pattern of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in Eastern Europe, Russia, and former territories of the Soviet Union following realignment of socialist land tenure and agricultural markets. Here, we show that a combined analysis of LCC and NDVI trends provides a more complete picture of the complexities of LCLUC in the Northern Eurasian grain belt, involving both broader climatic forcing, and narrower anthropogenic impacts, than might be obtained from either analysis alone.

  14. Land Cover of Northern Eurasia: Comparison and Assessment of Coarse Resolution Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankina, O. N.; Pflugmacher, D.; Cohen, W.; Kennedy, R.; Nelson, P.; Loboda, T.

    2007-12-01

    Consistent measurements of land cover are critical for addressing a range of important science questions, from quantifying the effects of vegetation on the carbon, energy, and water cycles, to understanding the social and economic causes and consequences of land-use and land-cover change. While multiple moderate and coarse- resolution land-cover products have been developed, they disagree significantly. Resolving discrepancies among maps is particularly challenging for boreal and temperate Northern Eurasia, where validation sites are sparse and processes of ecosystem disturbance and land-cover change are widespread. To identify specific needs and possibilities for improved mapping of land cover across boreal and temperate Northern Eurasia, we compared the performance of three recent land-cover products based on different sensors: MODIS (Global Land Cover Collection 4), AVHRR (DISCover v. 2.0), and SPOT VEGETATION (GLC2000 for Northern Eurasia v. 4.0). First, we examined the level of agreement among these data sets across the entire region. On a qualitative level, the assessment of general patterns indicates the highest degree of disagreement in transitional zones at the northern and southern fringes of boreal forest, in mountainous regions, and in areas of extensive wetlands, agricultural development, and urban land use. The quantitative analysis measured the level of disagreement between land-cover classes aggregated according to dominant type of vegetation (trees, shrubs, herbaceous, bare land, permanent snow/ice). Secondly, validation of these products was performed at two test sites where Landsat-based classifications were developed based on FAO Land Cover Classification System. Fractional land cover was calculated for each 1x1 km pixel and used to construct fractional error matrices. Most errors were associated with "mixed" coarse-resolution pixels (i.e. those having nearly equal percentage of multiple class types), while errors in "pure" (single class) pixels

  15. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  16. Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, T.N.; Pielke Sr., R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science; Kittel, T.G.F. [Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Nemani, R.R.; Running, S.W. [School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    This ten-year general circulation model experiment compared a simulation where land surface boundary conditions were represented by observed, present day land cover to a simulation where the surface was represented by natural, potential land cover conditions. As a result of these estimated changes in historical land cover, significant temperature and hydrology changes affected tropical land surfaces, where some of the largest historical disruptions in total vegetation biomass have occurred. Also of considerable interest because of their broad scope and magnitude were changes in high-latitude Northern Hemisphere winter climate which resulted from changes in tropical convection, upper-level tropical outflow, and the generation of low-frequency tropical waves which propagated to the extratropics. These effects combined to move the Northern Hemisphere zonally averaged westerly jet to higher latitudes, broaden it, and reduce its maximum intensity. Low-level easterlies were also reduced over much of the tropical Pacific basin while positive anomalies in convective precipitation occurred in the central Pacific. Globally averaged changes were small. Comparisons of recent, observed trends in tropical and Northern Hemisphere, midlatitude climate with these simulations suggests an interaction between the climatic effects of historical land cover changes and other modes of climate variability. (orig.)

  17. Spatially differentiated trends in urbanization, agricultural land abandonment and reclamation, and woodland recovery in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Gao, Qiong; Wang, Xian; Yu, Mei

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering magnitude, trend, and spatial pattern of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) is crucial for understanding mechanisms of LCLUC and assisting land use planning and conservation. China has been undergoing unprecedented economic growth, massive rural-to-urban migration, and large-scale policy-driven ecological restoration, and therefore encountering enormous LCLUC in recent decades. However, comprehensive understandings of spatiotemporal LCLUC dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Based on classification of annual LCLU maps from MODIS satellite imagery, we proposed a land change detection method to capture significant land change hotspots over Northern China during 2001–2013, and further analyzed temporal trends and spatial patterns of LCLUC. We found rapid decline of agricultural land near urban was predominantly caused by urban expansion. The process was especially strong in North China Plain with 14,057 km2 of urban gain and ‑21,017 km2 of agricultural land loss. To offset the loss of agricultural land, Northeast China Plain and Xinjiang were reclaimed. Substantial recovery of forests (49,908 km2) and closed shrubland (60,854 km2) occurred in mountainous regions due to abandoned infertile farmland, secondary succession, and governmental conservation policies. The spatial patterns and trends of LCLUC in Northern China provide information to support effective environmental policies towards sustainable development.

  18. Land Use and Land Cover Change, and Woody Vegetation Diversity in Human Driven Landscape of Gilgel Tekeze Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuale Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC change through inappropriate agricultural practices and high human and livestock population pressure have led to severe land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands. This has led to further degradation such as biodiversity loss, deforestation, and soil erosion. The study examined woody vegetation diversity status and the impact of drivers of change across different LULC types and agroecological zones in Gilgel Tekeze catchment, northern Ethiopian highlands. LULC dynamics were assessed using GIS techniques on 1976, 1986, and 2008 satellite images. Vegetation data were collected from 135 sample plots (20 m × 20 m from five LULC types, namely, forest, shrub-bush, grazing, settlement, and cultivated land, in the three agroecological zones; Kolla, Weyna-Dega, and Dega. Differences in vegetation structure and composition and their relationship to agroecological zones were tested using two-way ANOVA and PCA technique. The results show that vegetation structure and composition significantly differed across all LULC types in different agroecological zones particularly in sapling density, tree height, and shrub height and in each agroecological zone between forest land, shrub-bush land, and settlement area. Overall, Weyna-Dega agroecological zone and the shrub-bush land had more structural and compositional diversity than the other agroecological zones and LULC types.

  19. Widespread land surface wind decline in the Northern Hemisphere partly attributed to land surface changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaut, J.; Vautard, R.; Cattiaux, J.; Yiou, P.; Ciais, P.

    2010-12-01

    The decline of surface wind observed in many regions of the world is a potential source of concern for wind power electricity generation. It is also suggested as the main cause of decreasing pan evaporation. In China, a persistent and significant decrease of monsoon winds was observed in all seasons. Surface wind declines were also evidenced in several regions of the world (U.S., Australia, several European countries). Except over China, no clear explanation was given for the wind decrease in the regions studied. Whether surface winds decrease is due to changes in the global atmospheric circulation or its variability, in surface processes or to observational trends has therefore not been elucidated. The identification of the drivers of such a decline requires a global investigation of available surface and upper-air wind data, which has not been conducted so far. Here we use global datasets of in-situ wind measurements that contain surface weather stations wind data (hourly or three-hourly data acquisition time step) and rawinsonde vertical wind data profiles (monthly time step) prepared by the NCAR. A set of 822 worldwide surface stations with continuous wind records was selected after a careful elimination of stations with obvious breaks and large gaps. This dataset mostly covers the Northern mid latitudes over the period 1979-2008. Using this data set, we found that annual mean wind speeds have declined at 73% of the surface stations over the past 30 years. In the Northern Hemisphere, positive wind trends are found only in a few places. In Europe, Central Asia, Eastern Asia and in North America the annual mean surface wind speed has decreased on average at a rate of -2.9, -5.9, -4.2, and -1.8 %/decade respectively, i.e. a decrease of about 10% in 30 years and up to about 20% in Central Asia. These results are robust to changes in the station selection method and parameters. By contrast, upper-air winds observed from rawinsondes, geostrophic winds deduced from

  20. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  1. Modelling scenarios of land use change in northern China in the next 50 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEChunyang; LIJinggang; SHIPeijun; CHENJin; PANYaozhong; LIXiaobing

    2005-01-01

    Modelling scenarios of land use change and their impacts in typical regions are helpful to investigate the mechanism between land use and ecological systems and process the land use allocation under the ecological security. A system dynamics (SD) model with the aim to modelling scenarios of land use change and assessing ecological impact in northern China in the next 50 years is developed here. The accuracy assessment with the historic data from 1990 to 2001 indicated the SD model is robust. After the different """"what-if' scenarios controlled by GDP, population, market, and technology advancement were built, the different scenarios of land use change in northern China from 2000 to 2050 were simulated with their ecological impact assessed. The result suggested that such factors as GDP, population, market and technology have a strong relationship with land use structural change innorthern China. It also indicated that such measures as strict controlling of population increase,importing some food to keep the supply-demand balance in the region, and improving agricultural technology will be the guarantee of regional sustainable development with fast economic growth and the obvious land use structural improvement at the same time.

  2. Franz Josef Land: extreme northern outpost for Arctic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, Natalia V; Friedlander, Alan M; Turchik, Alan; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The remote Franz Josef Land (FJL) Archipelago is the most northerly land in Eurasia and its fish fauna, particularly in nearshore habitats, has been poorly studied. An interdisciplinary expedition to FJL in summer 2013 used scuba, seines, and plankton nets to comprehensively study the nearshore fish fauna of the archipelago. We present some of the first underwater images for many of these species in their natural habitats. In addition, deep water drop cameras were deployed between 32 and 392 m to document the fish fauna and their associated habitats at deeper depths. Due to its high latitude (79°-82°N), extensive ice cover, and low water temperatures (littoral zone of Kuhn Island, 17 fish species are now known from FJL's nearshore waters. Species endemic to the Arctic accounted for 75% of the nearshore species observed, followed by species with wider ranges. A total of 43 species from 15 families are known from FJL with the majority of the records from offshore trawl surveys between 110 and 620 m. Resident species have mainly high Arctic distributions, while transient species visit the archipelago to feed (e.g., Greenland shark), and others are brought by currents as larvae and later migrate to spawn grounds in the south (e.g., Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Capelin Mallotus villosus, Beaked redfish Sebastes mentella). Another species group includes warmer-water fishes that are rare waifs (e.g., Glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale, White barracudina Arctozenus rissoi). The rapid warming of the Arctic will likely result in significant changes to the entire ecosystem and this study therefore serves as an important baseline for the nearshore fish assemblages in this unique and fragile region.

  3. Franz Josef Land: extreme northern outpost for Arctic fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Chernova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The remote Franz Josef Land (FJL Archipelago is the most northerly land in Eurasia and its fish fauna, particularly in nearshore habitats, has been poorly studied. An interdisciplinary expedition to FJL in summer 2013 used scuba, seines, and plankton nets to comprehensively study the nearshore fish fauna of the archipelago. We present some of the first underwater images for many of these species in their natural habitats. In addition, deep water drop cameras were deployed between 32 and 392 m to document the fish fauna and their associated habitats at deeper depths. Due to its high latitude (79°–82°N, extensive ice cover, and low water temperatures (<0 °C much of the year, the fish diversity at FJL is low compared to other areas of the Barents Sea. Sixteen species of fishes from seven families were documented on the expedition, including two species previously unknown to the region. One Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus (Somniosidae, ca. 2 m in length, was recorded by drop camera near Hayes Island at 211 m, and Esipov’s pout, Gymnelus esipovi (Zoarcidae, was collected at Wilton Island at 15 m in a kelp forest. Including the tape-body pout, Gymnelus taeniatus, described earlier from the sub-littoral zone of Kuhn Island, 17 fish species are now known from FJL’s nearshore waters. Species endemic to the Arctic accounted for 75% of the nearshore species observed, followed by species with wider ranges. A total of 43 species from 15 families are known from FJL with the majority of the records from offshore trawl surveys between 110 and 620 m. Resident species have mainly high Arctic distributions, while transient species visit the archipelago to feed (e.g., Greenland shark, and others are brought by currents as larvae and later migrate to spawn grounds in the south (e.g., Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Capelin Mallotus villosus, Beaked redfish Sebastes mentella. Another species group includes warmer-water fishes that are rare waifs (e

  4. Assessing Land Use Change and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunsanee Arunyawat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are highly vulnerable to a number of impacts due to the complex effects of human use of natural resources and subsequent land use change. Assessment of the impact of change in land use with respect to ecosystem services is necessary in order to implement appropriate land uses that enhance ecosystem services. This study analysed the impact of change in land use on ecosystem services using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST model to map and quantify a set of ecosystem services, namely sediment retention, water yield, carbon stock, and habitat quality, in northern Thailand, which has experienced substantial policy induced land use change. The study also assessed the changes in land use from 1989 to 2013 and their impact on overall ecosystem services using GIS. Increased rubber plantation cultivation and built-up areas resulting in reduced forest cover were the major changes found in land use in the area. The results of the study show a general decrease in ecosystem services for the study period in the watershed, in particular, a negative impact on ecosystem services was observed in agricultural areas. The study findings on spatial and temporal distribution of ecosystem services can help guide the development of appropriate land use options to enhance ecosystem services.

  5. Sustainability in Land Management: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perceptions in Rural Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lange

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful sustainable land management efforts rely on stakeholder support and integration of stakeholder knowledge. This study explored the views of sustainable land management expressed by land use stakeholders and how these views contribute to land users’ self-perceptions. We examined stakeholder perceptions in four case study areas in rural northern Germany. The target groups consisted of representatives from (i agriculture; (ii forestry; (iii water management and (iv rural planning and development (“cross-sector” representatives. The data were gathered using 60 semi-structured interviews and were analyzed qualitatively. The results indicate that differences in perceptions are greater between stakeholder groups than between regions; regional land management issues shape the framework of negotiations and the redefinition of concepts, whereas stakeholder group affiliations shape mindsets. The economic dimension of sustainability was emphasized, particularly by land managers; however, the social dimension was underrepresented in the statements. Furthermore, there are considerable differences between stakeholder groups in terms of the ways in which the spatial and temporal scales of sustainable land use are perceived. This study underscores the importance of examining stakeholder knowledge and understanding the complexity of land management and its benefits such that consensual management strategies may be developed.

  6. Biomassa voor energie in de stadsregio Arnhem-Nijmegen : ontwikkelingen van een strategie voor biomassa uit bos, natuur en landschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.H.; Vries, de E.A.; Derksen, J.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    De Stadsregio Arnhem-Nijmegen heeft behoefte aan een strategie voor de optimale inzet van biomassa uit natuur en landschap voor energie-opwekking. In dit rapport wordt inleidend het huidige aandeel duurzame energie in Nederland en de beleidsopgave uiteengezet. Daarna wordt aangegeven dat er legio ka

  7. Effects of Happiness on All-Cause Mortality During 15 Years of Follow-Up: The Arnhem Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, T.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Giltay, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychological characteristics may be beneficial for physical health. However, prospective data on the effects of happiness on survival is scarce. In a population-based cohort study, the Arnhem Elderly Study, happiness was measured by two items, being: "I have many moments of happiness" and

  8. Implications of land use change in tropical Northern Africa under global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brücher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major link between climate and humans in Northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. Here we assess possible feedbacks between the type of land use and harvest intensity and climate by analyzing a series of idealized GCM experiments using the MPI-ESM. The base line for these experiments is a simulation forced by the RCP8.5 scenario which includes strong greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic land cover changes. The anthropogenic land cover changes in the RCP8.5 scenario include a mixture of pasture and agriculture. In subsequent simulations, we replace the entire area affected by anthropogenic land cover change in the region between the Sahara in the North and the Guinean Coast in the South (4 to 20° N by either pasture or agriculture, respectively. In a second setup we vary the amount of harvest in case of agriculture. The RCP8.5 base line simulation reveals strong changes in mean agriculture and monsoon rainfall. In comparison with these changes, any variation of the type of land use in the study area leads to very small, mostly insignificantly small, additional differences in mean temperature and annual precipitation change in this region. Within the uncertainty of the representation of land use in current ESMs, our study suggests marginal feedback between land use changes and climate changes triggered by strong greenhouse gas emissions. Hence as a good approximation, climate change can be considered as external driver in models of land-use – conflict dynamics when seasonal or mean values are used as external driver.

  9. An off-line simulation of land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinHong Song; YaoMing Ma; Yu Zhang; WeiQiang Ma; SiQiong Luo

    2014-01-01

    In order to further understand the land surface processes over the northern Tibetan Plateau, this study produced an off-line simulated examination at the Bujiao site on the northern Tibetan Plateau from June 2002 to April 2004, using the Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM) and observed data from the CAMP/Tibet experiment. The observed data were neces-sarily corrected and the number of soil layers in the Noah LSM was changed from 4 to 10 to enable this off-line simulation and analysis. The main conclusions are as follows:the Noah LSM performed well on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The simulated net radiation, upward longwave radiation, and upward shortwave radiation demonstrated the same remarkable annual and seasonal variation as the observed data, especially the upward longwave radiation. The simulated soil tem-peratures were acceptably close to the observed temperatures, especially in the shallow soil layers. The simulated freezing and melting processes were shown to start from the surface soil layer and spread down to the deep soil layers, but they took longer than the observed processes. However, Noah LSM did not adequately simulate the soil moisture. Therefore, addi-tional high-quality, long-term observations of land surface-atmosphere processes over the Tibetan Plateau will be a key factor in proper adjustments of the model parameters in the future.

  10. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  11. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  12. Pastoralists seasonal land rights in land administration : a study of Northern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengoiboni, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that incorporating pastoral land rights into the formal system requires identifying and securing pastoralists’ rights on migration corridors and dry season pastures in a manner that, first, reflects their customary practices about ‘where’ and ‘when&rsquo

  13. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.; Kim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000 – 2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time was determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990 ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121 ha have likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and- gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, injection wells, etc.), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  14. Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Kim, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    The Williston Basin in the Northern Great Plains has experienced rapid energy development since 2000. To evaluate the land cover changes resulting from recent (2000-2015) development, the area and previous land cover of all well pads (pads) constructed during this time were determined, the amount of disturbed and reclaimed land adjacent to pads was estimated, land cover changes were analyzed over time for three different well types, and the effects from future development were predicted. The previous land cover of the 12,990ha converted to pads was predominately agricultural (49.5%) or prairie (47.4%) with lesser amounts of developed (2.3%), aquatic (0.5%), and forest (0.4%). Additionally, 12,121ha has likely been disturbed and reclaimed. The area required per gas well remained constant through time while the land required per oil well increased initially and then decreased as development first shifted from conventional to unconventional drilling and then to multi-bore pads. For non-oil-and-gas wells (i.e. stratigraphic test wells, water wells, and injection wells), the area per well increased through time likely due to increased produced water disposal requirements. Future land cover change is expected to be 2.7 times greater than recent development with much of the development occurring in five counties in the core Bakken development area. Direct land cover change and disturbance from recent and expected development are predicted to affect 0.4% of the landscape across the basin; however, in the core Bakken development area, 2.3% of the landscape will be affected including 2.1% of the remaining grassland. Although future development will result in significant land cover change, evolving industry practices and proactive siting decisions, such as development along energy corridors and placing pads in areas previously altered by human activity, have the potential to reduce the ecological effects of future energy development in the Williston Basin.

  15. Conflicts between agricultural policy and sustainable land use: The case of northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murua Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline of agriculture, observable mainly in industrialized countries, shows itself not only in a gradual decrease in the economic weight of the primary sector, but also in the abandonment of land devoted to agricultural and livestock activities. The phenomenon of agricultural land abandonment is complex and, in order to explain the causes, it is necessary to consider not only the physical and productive features of the land but also the social and economic characteristics of the area. It also appears to be conditioned by production specialization, since traditional livestock-raising areas show a higher risk of abandonment. The process, which is gradual, starts with a reduction in production intensity followed by increasing marginalization and, finally, the total abandonment of land use. Focusing on a representative area on the Cantabrian Coast of northern Spain, this study tests the hypothesis that a large portion of agricultural land in livestock-oriented regions is underused. It also evaluates the viability of forestry as an alternative use for abandoned lands and the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform.

  16. Implications of land use change in tropical northern Africa under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, T.; Claussen, M.; Raddatz, T.

    2015-12-01

    A major link between climate and humans in tropical northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. Here we assess possible feedbacks between the type of land use and harvest intensity and climate by analysing a series of idealized GCM experiments using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The baseline for these experiments is a simulation forced by the RCP8.5 (radiation concentration pathway) scenario, which includes strong greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic land cover changes. The anthropogenic land cover changes in the RCP8.5 scenario include a mixture of pasture and agriculture. In subsequent simulations, we replace the entire area affected by anthropogenic land cover change in the region between the Sahara in the north and the Guinean Coast in the south (4 to 20° N) with either pasture or agriculture. In a second set-up we vary the amount of harvest in the case of agriculture. The RCP8.5 baseline simulation reveals strong changes in the area mean agriculture and monsoon rainfall. In comparison with these changes, any variation of the type of land use in the study area leads to very small, mostly insignificantly small, additional differences in mean temperature and annual precipitation change in this region. These findings are only based on the specific set-up of our experiments, which only focuses on variations in the kind of land use, and not the increase in land use, over the 21st century, nor whether land use is considered at all. Within the uncertainty of the representation of land use in current ESMs, our study suggests marginal feedback between land use changes and climate changes triggered by strong greenhouse gas emissions. Hence as a good approximation, climate can be considered as an external forcing: models investigating land-use-conflict dynamics can run offline by prescribing seasonal or mean values of climate as a boundary condition

  17. Soil Quality Indices for Evaluating Smallholder Agricultural Land Uses in Northern Ethiopia

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    Aweke M. Gelaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF; agroforestry (AF and irrigated crop production (IR. Each land use was replicated five times within a semi-arid watershed in eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Using the framework suggested by Karlen and Stott (1994; four soil functions regarding soil’s ability to: (1 accommodate water entry (WE; (2 facilitate water movement and availability (WMA; (3 resist degradation (RD; and (4 supply nutrients for plant growth (PNS were estimated for each land use. The result revealed that AF affected all soil quality functions positively more than the other land uses. Furthermore, the four soil quality functions were integrated into an overall SQI; and the values for the three land uses were in the order: 0.58 (AF > 0.51 (IR > 0.47 (RF. The dominant soil properties influencing the integrated SQI values were soil organic carbon (26.4%; water stable aggregation (20.0%; total porosity (16.0%; total nitrogen (11.2%; microbial biomass carbon (6.4%; and cation exchange capacity (6.4%. Collectively, those six indicators accounted for more than 80% of the overall SQI values.

  18. Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in Southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-Hui; FAN Zhi-Ping; D.K.LEE

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, large areas of the Horqin sandy land were afforested to prevent desertification. Although the afforestation policy appears successful, many people now doubt whether it is suitable to plant trees with high density on the poor soils in semiarid regions. Little is known about the impacts of afforestation on the sandy soil properties, although the evaluation of these impacts is fundamental to judge the rationality of afforestation policy. Soil phosphorus (P) fractions, acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and other soil chemical properties were compared among five adjoining typical ecosystems on poor sandy soils in southeastern Horqin sandy land. The ecosystems studied are natural elm savanna, degraded grassland, Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica) plantation, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation, and mixed plantation of Mongolian pine and poplar (Populus simonii). The results showed that organic P dominated soil P (47%-65%) was the principal source of available P. The degradation of elm savanna to grassland significantly reduced soil pH and resulted in an overall reduction in soil fertility, although slightly increased labile inorganic P. Grassland afforestation had no significant influence on soil pH, organic carbon, and total N but significantly reduced total P. Impacts of grassland afforestation on soil P fractions depended on tree species. Natural elm savanna had higher soil P conserving ability than artificial plantations. Therefore, with the aim of developing a sustainable ecosystem, we suggested that vegetations with low nutrient demand (particularly P) and efficient nutrient cycling would be more suitable for ecosystem restoration in the semiarid region.

  19. Mapping of land cover in Northern California with simulated HyspIRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (i.e., full range) of the spectrum have shown improved capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a full-range hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA (hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov). A hyperspectral satellite, such as HyspIRI, will provide detailed spectral and temporal information at global scales that could greatly improve our ability to map land cover with greater class detail and spatial and temporal accuracy than possible with conventional multispectral satellites. The broad goal of our research is to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping across a range of environmental and anthropogenic gradients in California. In this study, we mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 30,000 km2 in Northern California using multi-temporal HyspIRI imagery simulated from the AVIRIS airborne sensor. The Random Forests classification was applied to predictor variables derived from the multi-temporal hyperspectral data and accuracies were compared to that from Landsat 8 OLI. Results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different forest life-form types, such as mixed conifer and broadleaf forests and open- and closed-canopy forests.

  20. MAPPING OF THE LAND COVER SPATIOTEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS IN NORTHERN RUSSIA CAUSED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

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    E. Panidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the investigation of regional climate change in Northern Russia. Due to sparseness of the meteorological observation network in northern regions, we investigate the application capabilities of remotely sensed vegetation cover as indicator of climate change at the regional scale. In previous studies, we identified statistically significant relationship between the increase of surface air temperature and increase of the shrub vegetation productivity. We verified this relationship using ground observation data collected at the meteorological stations and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data produced from Terra/MODIS satellite imagery. Additionally, we designed the technique of growing seasons separation for detailed investigation of the land cover (shrub cover dynamics. Growing seasons are the periods when the temperature exceeds +5°C and +10°C. These periods determine the vegetation productivity conditions (i.e., conditions that allow growth of the phytomass. We have discovered that the trend signs for the surface air temperature and NDVI coincide on planes and river floodplains. On the current stage of the study, we are working on the automated mapping technique, which allows to estimate the direction and magnitude of the climate change in Northern Russia. This technique will make it possible to extrapolate identified relationship between land cover and climate onto territories with sparse network of meteorological stations. We have produced the gridded maps of NDVI and NDWI for the test area in European part of Northern Russia covered with the shrub vegetation. Basing on these maps, we may determine the frames of growing seasons for each grid cell. It will help us to obtain gridded maps of the NDVI linear trend for growing seasons on cell-by-cell basis. The trend maps can be used as indicative maps for estimation of the climate change on the studied areas.

  1. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  2. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  3. Understanding Land System Change Through Scenario-Based Simulations: A Case Study from the Drylands in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Jianguo; He, Chunyang

    2017-03-01

    The drylands in northern China are expected to face dramatic land system change in the context of socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. Recent studies have addressed changes of land cover with socioeconomic development in the drylands in northern China. However, the changes in land use intensity and the potential role of environmental conservation measures have yet to be adequately examined. Given the importance of land management intensity to the ecological conditions and regional sustainability, our study projected land system change in Hohhot city in the drylands in northern China from 2013 to 2030. Here, land systems are defined as combinations of land cover and land use intensity. Using the CLUMondo model, we simulated land system change in Hohhot under three scenarios: a scenario following historical trends, a scenario with strong socioeconomic and land use planning, and a scenario focused on achieving environmental conservation targets. Our results showed that Hohhot is likely to experience agricultural intensification and urban growth under all three scenarios. The agricultural intensity and the urban growth rate were much higher under the historical trend scenario compared to those with more planning interventions. The dynamics of grasslands depend strongly on projections of livestock and other claims on land resources. In the historical trend scenario, intensively grazed grasslands increase whereas a large amount of the current area of grasslands with livestock converts to forest under the scenario with strong planning. Strong conversion from grasslands with livestock and extensive cropland to semi-natural grasslands was estimated under the conservation scenario. The findings provide an input into discussions about environmental management, planning and sustainable land system design for Hohhot.

  4. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  5. Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; Okonkwo, Churchill; Bolten, John; Policelli, Frederick S.; Habib, Shahid

    2016-09-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25% of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (>75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7%/yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28%/yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18%/yr) coming from savanna. During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5°-10° latitude), where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm d-1. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback mechanism.

  6. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

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    X. Shi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog, the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE. Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal

  7. Improving Indigenous Technologies for Sustainable Land Use in Northern Mountainous Areas of Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Quoc Doanh; Ha Dinh Tuan

    2004-01-01

    More than 30 ethnic groups are now living in northern mountainous regions, Vietnam, mainly relying on shifting cultivation with the fallow period being shortened from time to time. Naturally, soil fertility reduces from cycle to cycle, entailing the reduction of productivity. Large areas of moderately sloping lands suitable for upland agriculture have become bare after many cultivation-fallow cycles. The soils there have been severely degraded with more toxicity, low porosity, low water retention capacity and poor floral diversity. Normally, these lands cannot be used for food crop cultivation. So farmers in uplands have to rely on slash-and-burn practices for their livelihood. As there is no more forest with good soil in medium slopes, farmers go to cut forests in watershed, high slope lands and old forests up to the mountains' top. There are ecologically and environmentally very sensitive areas, so their destruction will inevitably cause hazardous consequences in the whole basin. Meanwhile, cultivation in these areas has low economic efficiency and sustainability because the crop yield may decrease very fast due to severe erosion as the higher the slope, the more serious erosion. Consequently living standards of highland farmers remain low and unstable.Sustainable farming on these lands in the perspective of a seriously deteriorated ecology and environmental is not an easy task. There have beenmany projects trying to help mountainous farmers get out of their vicious circle. However, due to different reasons, the results gained are low, and in some cases, things ceased to move after the projects phased out.During past few years, based on the farmer experiences, the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute has cooperated with local and international partners to implement different projects in order to solve the problems by developing simple, easy and cheap cultivation technologies, which can be accepted and applied by local poor farmers for sustainable agricultural

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  9. Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover change on green water and blue water in northern part of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of land use and land cover changes on hydrological process in northern parts of China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. The direct evaporation from the intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model, which would be regarded as input to the distributed hydrological model for the computation of actual evaportranspiration. Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff and the Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. The land cover data were available for 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1999. Daily streamflow measurements were available from 1964 to 2005 and were divided into 4 periods: 1964–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005, based on the land cover scenarios. The distributed hydrological model was coupled with a two-source potential evaportranspiration model for simulating daily runoff. The result of runoff simulation showed that the saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. Model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data corresponding to the same period. Streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these four land cover scenarios. The results showed that the change of land use and land cover had a significant influence on evapotranspiration and runoff. The land cover data showed that forest land and water body had decreased from 1980 through 1999 and farm land and grass land had increased. This change caused the vegetation interception evaporation and vegetation transpiration to decrease, whereas the soil evaporation tended to increase. Thus the green water decreased but the blue water increased over the Laohahe catchment. This result was inconsistent with the fact that runoff ratio had a

  10. Projecting land-use change and its consequences for biodiversity in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The

  11. Traditional Mechanisms of Resolving Conflicts over Land Resource: A Case of Gorowa Community in Northern Tanzania

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    Maria Emanuel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mechanisms for conflicts resolutions in Tanzania have been playing a major role to bring harmony and peace among members of the society. These mechanisms are created within a social-political structure of every community. They have been shaped by the realities that are happening in every community, making them unique to each community. Among Gorowa of Babati in Northern Tanzania conflict and conflict resolution mechanisms have never been static. They have been changing gradually over time as influenced by the nature and dynamics of the socio-political and economic activities. However, despite the fact that, traditional mechanisms contributes much to peace and security in promoting development, no through study have been done to underscore the nature of conflicts and their mechanisms for resolution among Gorowa community. Therefore, this paper tried to fill this gap by analyzing the nature of land conflict and the mechanisms for their resolutions. The study applied qualitative approach in exploring the causes, nature of land conflict and the mechanisms of resolving them. Qualitative approach was mostly used to gather views and opinions of respondents about the nature of land conflict and their mechanism of resolving. Also, quantitative approach was used to supplement the information whereby numerical and statistical data were gathered. The instruments used to collect data were interview, focus group discussions and observation. The study population included experts for conflicts resolution and other members of the community with sample size of 140 respondents. The analysis of the data was done through Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSSx computer programmes. The main findings of the study showed that, over 75% of the respondent agreed that, land shortage for pasture and cultivation, water scarcity, livestock and family relationships were the main causes of conflicts in Gorowa community. About 60% of respondents had the

  12. Identification and prioritization of subwatersheds for land and water management in Tekeze dam watershed, Northern Ethiopia

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    Kidane Welde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation and/or soil erosion are huge problems that have threatened many reservoirs in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, particularly in the Tekeze dam watershed. This study has been conducted to identify and prioritize the most sensitive subwatersheds with the help of a semi-distributed watershed model (SWAT 2009 for improved management of reservoir sedimentation mitigating strategies at the watershed level. SWAT 2009 was chosen for this study due to its ability to produce routed sediment yield and identify principal sediment source areas at the selected point of interest. Based on a digital elevation model (DEM the catchment was divided in to 47 subwatersheds using the dam axis as the main outlet. By overlaying land use, soil and slope of the study area, the subwatersheds were further divided in to 690 hydrological response units (HRUs. Model calibration (for the period of January 1996 to December 2002 and validation (for the period of January 2003 to December 2006 were carried out for stream flow rate and sediment yield data observed at Emba madre gage station. The results of model performance evaluation statistics for both stream flow and sediment yield shows that the model has a high potential in estimation of stream flow and sediment yield. Tekeze dam watershed has mean annual stream flow of 137.74 m3/s and annual sediment yield of 15.17 t/ha/year. Out of the 47 subwatersheds, 13 subwatersheds (mostly located in the north eastern and north western part of the catchment were prioritized. The maximum sediment outflow of these 13 subwatersheds, ranges from 18.49 to 32.57 t/ha/year and are characterized dominantly by cultivated land, shrub land & bare land with average land slope ranging from 7.9 to15.2% and with the dominant soil type of Eutric cambisols. These results can help to formulate and implement effective, appropriate and sustainable watershed management which in turn can help in sustaining the reservoir storage capacity of

  13. Geomorphic and Land Management Effects on Channel Altering Events in the Klamath Mountain, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A.; Mikulovsky, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Channel altering events have many impacts on stream channels and can be the result of debris flows, hyper-concentrated flows or severe flooding. They play a major role in coarse woody debris delivery to fish bearing streams and provide a mix of sediment to the higher order streams. Channel altering events can reduce or even temporarily eliminate riparian vegetation along the stream channel and create changes in the stream bed such as aggradation and degradation. These processes are a natural part of steep, rugged landscapes such as that of the Klamath Mountains and have long-term benefits to the stream systems. The process can be accelerated however, by land management activities or severe wildfire events. Previous investigations have focused on the impacts to landsliding rates as a result of timber harvest, wildfire and forest roads. These studies are limited in spatial extent and have not combined timber harvest, wildfire, forest roads, storm intensity and geomorphic characteristics in the same investigation. In addition, previous studies have not included areas where landslides did not occur for comparison. This study investigates the relationships between landform, timber harvest, forest roads, wildfire, and storm intensity over the Klamath Mountains in Northern California. The study investigates the initiation points of channel altering events that occurred in the flood of December 1996/January 1997. Channel altering event initiation points are the uppermost point of an altered channel segment (highest elevation) as apparent on aerial photos. The initiation points are compared to stratified random points in and near channels where no channel altering event occurred. The initiation points and random points were attributed with information such as aspect, hillslope gradient, elevation, bedrock type, landform, storm intensity and land management practices. A logistic regression analysis will determine if there is a suite of characteristics that separated the

  14. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J. C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-07-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960-2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m-2 yr-2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960-1969 vs. 2000-2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model elements

  15. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, M.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Kimball, J.S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J.C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-01-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m−2 yr−2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model

  16. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss

  17. Land Use and Water Quality Along a Mekong Tributary in Northern Lao P.D.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Cuny, Juliette; Sengsoulichanh, Phonexay; Mousquès, Claire; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Pierret, Alain; Huon, Sylvain; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2011-02-01

    Improving access to clean water has the potential to make a major contribution toward poverty reduction in rural communities of Lao P.D.R. This study focuses on stream water quality along a Mekong basin tributary, the Houay Xon that flows within a mountainous, mosaic land-use catchment of northern Lao P.D.R. To compare direct water quality measurements to the perception of water quality within the riparian population, our survey included interviews of villagers. Water quality was found to vary greatly depending on the location along the stream. Overall, it reflected the balance between the stream self-cleaning potential and human pressure on the riparian zone: (i) high bacteria and suspended load levels occurred where livestock are left to free-range within the riparian zone; (ii) very low oxygen content and high bacteriological contamination prevailed downstream from villages; (iii) high concentrations of bacteria were consistently observed along urbanized banks; (iv) low oxygen content were associated with the discharge of organic-rich wastewater from a small industrial plant; (v) very high suspended load and bacteria levels occurred during flood events due to soil erosion from steep cultivated hill slopes. Besides these human induced pollutions we also noted spontaneous enrichments in metals in wetland areas fed by dysoxic groundwater. These biophysical measurements were in agreement with the opinions expressed by the majority of the interviewees who reported poor and decreasing water quality in the Houay Xon catchment. Based on our survey, we propose recommendations to improve or maintain stream water quality in the uplands of northern Lao P.D.R.

  18. A global climate model based, Bayesian climate projection for northern extra-tropical land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2012-04-01

    Projections with contemporary global climate models (GCMs) still markedly deviate from each other on magnitude of climate changes, in particular, in middle to subpolar latitudes. In this work, a climate projection based on the ensemble of 18 CMIP3 GCM models forced by SRES A1B scenario is performed for the northern extra-tropical land. To assess the change of soil state, off-line simulations are performed with the Deep Soil Simulator (DSS) developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). This model is forced by output of the above-mentioned GCM simulations. Ensemble mean and ensemble standard deviation for any variable are calculated by using Bayesian averaging which allows to enhance a contribution from more realistic models and diminish that from less realistic models. As a result, uncertainty for soil and permafrost variables become substantially narrower. The Bayesian weights for each model are calculated based on their performance for the present-day surface air temperature (SAT) and permafrost distributions, and for SAT trend during the 20th century. The results, except for intra-ensemble standard deviations, are not very sensitive to particular choice of Bayesian traits. Averaged over the northern extra-tropical land, annual mean surface air temperature in the ensemble increases by 3.1 ± 1.4 K (ensemble mean±intra-ensemble standard deviation) during the 21st century. Precipitation robustly increases in the pan-Arctic and decreases in the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. The models agree on near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. The area underlain by near-surface permafrost decreases from the contemporary value 20 ± 3 mln sq. km to 14 ± 3 mln sq. km in the late 21st century. This leads to risk for geocryological hazard due to soil subsidence. This risk is classified as moderate to high in the southern and western parts of Siberia and Tibet in Eurasia, and in the region from Alaska

  19. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia) from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N) to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N), crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and general pattern of

  20. Unimodal latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across northern Eurasian lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Horsák

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of species richness and their causes are still poorly understood for most terrestrial invertebrates, although invertebrates can add important insights into the mechanisms that generate regional and global biodiversity patterns. Here we explore the general plausibility of the climate-based "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis using the latitudinal pattern of land-snail species richness across extensive topographically homogeneous lowlands of northern Eurasia. We established a 1480-km long latitudinal transect across the Western Siberian Plain (Russia from the Russia-Kazakhstan border (54.5°N to the Arctic Ocean (67.5°N, crossing eight latitudinal vegetation zones: steppe, forest-steppe, subtaiga, southern, middle and northern taiga, forest-tundra, and tundra. We sampled snails in forests and open habitats each half-degree of latitude and used generalized linear models to relate snail species richness to climatic variables and soil calcium content measured in situ. Contrary to the classical prediction of latitudinal biodiversity decrease, we found a striking unimodal pattern of snail species richness peaking in the subtaiga and southern-taiga zones between 57 and 59°N. The main south-to-north interchange of the two principal diversity constraints, i.e. drought stress vs. cold stress, explained most of the variance in the latitudinal diversity pattern. Water balance, calculated as annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, was a single variable that could explain 81.7% of the variance in species richness. Our data suggest that the "water-energy dynamics" hypothesis can apply not only at the global scale but also at subcontinental scales of higher latitudes, as water availability was found to be the primary limiting factor also in this extratropical region with summer-warm and dry climate. A narrow zone with a sharp south-to-north switch in the two main diversity constraints seems to constitute the dominant and

  1. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Granitic rocks within Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, T.; KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Woo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The study areas, Lichen Hills and Outback Nunatak are located in the Northern Victoria Land which is close to Pacific Ocean side of Transantarctic Mountain (TAM), Antarctica. According to the study of Zeller and Dreschoff (1990), the radioactivity values of Lichen hills and Frontier Mt. area in the Victoria Land were very high. To identify the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks in these areas, 13 samples of Lichen Hills rocks and 4 samples of Outback Nunatak rocks are analyzed. For mineralogical study, samples were observed in macroscale as well as microscale including microscope electron probe analysis. Rock samples of Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak are mainly leucogranite and granitic pegmatite. These rock samples are composed of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline like granite. In SEM-EDS analysis, the observed light colored minerals show relatively high Th, U, Dy, Ce, Nb concentration. This suggests that rock samples may contain minerals such as fergusonite, monazite, thorite, allanite, karnasurtite which are considered to be REE-bearing minerals. Samples of related rocks have been analyzed in terms of major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). As concentration of SiO2 increase, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5 concentration decrease and Na2O, K2O, MnO concentration increase. Analyzed trace elements and REE are normalized using CI Chondrite, Primitive mantle. The normalized data show that LREE are enriched compared to HREE. The distinct negative anomalies of Eu, Sr are observed, indicating that rock-forming melts are fairly processed state of fractional crystallization. It means that Th, U, Nb, Ta are much enriched in the melts.

  2. Land use changes and its climatic implications in Northern Italy during the Dark Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Oeggl-Wahlmüller, Notburga; Festi, Daniela; Zagermann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Here we present an interdisciplinary study on land use changes in Northern Italy at the transition from the Roman Empire to the Early Middle Ages. The combination of archaeological data and high-resolution pollen analyses carried out in the Fiavè basin (Trentino) provide a detailed insight in socio-economic changes and its implications with climate in the Dark Ages. The vegetation in this area is dominated up to 1000 m by submediterranian trees like Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, superseded by a mixed Fagus and Abies forest with variable amounts of Picea abies. Since 2008 archaeological surveys in the Fiavè basin as well as excavations conducted on a fortified hill-top settlement (castrum) in 985m register the settlement development of this settlement cluster and reveal an almost continuous occupation from Roman to Early Medieval Times. In addition a high-resolution pollen record from a 1.30 m thick peat sequence of the bog "Palude di Fiave" discloses four main phases: (1) in the Late Iron Age high amounts of arboreal pollen and the spread of Abies demonstrate a decrease in settlement activity suggested by wetter climate conditions. (2) During the Roman Empire a phase with arable farming in the basin starts. Olea, Juglans and Castanea sativa are introduced and document the onset of horticulture in this region. (3) After 300 AD - during the Migration Period - the wet and cool conditions have had poor impact on settlement activity. Agricultural (Cerealia) and nitrophilous indicators (Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae) are continuously proved. However a change within the cultivated crops in relation to the climate conditions is observed. Subsequently a progressive recovery of Pinus followed by Abies and Fagus marks the climatic improvement at the beginning of the Early Medieval Times. (4) The time from 600 to 800 AD is characterized by increasing frequency and diversity of anthropogenic-related indicators. The implications of these land use changes with

  3. Surveillance van HIV-infecties in de regio Arnhem. Deel 2: Monitoring van laboratoriumdiagnostiek naar HIV-infecties, april 1989-juni 1991

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lierop GS; Houweling H; Wiessing LG; Katchaki JN

    1992-01-01

    In collaboration with the Regional Public Health Laboratory (RPHL), the Rijnstate Hospital and the Monucipal Health Service, a comprehensive program for surveillance of HIV infections in the Arnhem area is carried out. This program consists of three parts: (1) monitoring of laboratory tests for HIV

  4. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihwagi, Festus W; Wang, Tiejun; Wittemyer, George; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Ngene, Shadrack; King, Juliet; Worden, Jeffrey; Omondi, Patrick; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached) elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem). Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  5. Using Poaching Levels and Elephant Distribution to Assess the Conservation Efficacy of Private, Communal and Government Land in Northern Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus W Ihwagi

    Full Text Available Efforts to curb elephant poaching have focused on reducing demand, confiscating ivory and boosting security patrols in elephant range. Where land is under multiple uses and ownership, determining the local poaching dynamics is important for identifying successful conservation models. Using 2,403 verified elephant, Loxodonta africana, mortality records collected from 2002 to 2012 and the results of aerial total counts of elephants conducted in 2002, 2008 and 2012 for the Laikipia-Samburu ecosystem of northern Kenya, we sought to determine the influence of land ownership and use on diurnal elephant distribution and on poaching levels. We show that the annual proportions of illegally killed (i.e., poached elephants increased over the 11 years of the study, peaking at 70% of all recorded deaths in 2012. The type of land use was more strongly related to levels of poaching than was the type of ownership. Private ranches, comprising only 13% of land area, hosted almost half of the elephant population and had significantly lower levels of poaching than other land use types except for the officially designated national reserves (covering only 1.6% of elephant range in the ecosystem. Communal grazing lands hosted significantly fewer elephants than expected, but community areas set aside for wildlife demonstrated significantly higher numbers of elephants and lower illegal killing levels relative to non-designated community lands. While private lands had lower illegal killing levels than community conservancies, the success of the latter relative to other community-held lands shows the importance of this model of land use for conservation. This work highlights the relationship between illegal killing and various land ownership and use models, which can help focus anti-poaching activities.

  6. New narrow-range endemic land snails from the sky islands of northern South Africa (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae and Urocyclidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and five new species of land snails are described from high altitude, insular, Afrotemperate forest habitats in northern South Africa. The distribution of these species is discussed in relation to other narrowly endemic land snails occurring in this and neighbouring regions. The new genus is Ptilototheca gen. nov.; the five new species are: Gulella davisae sp. nov., G. hadroglossa sp. nov., Ptilototheca soutpansbergensis gen. et sp. nov., Sheldonia monsmaripi sp. nov. and S. wolkbergensis sp. nov.

  7. Soil organic carbon and land use in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Renzi, Gianluca; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The Italian Ministry of Agricultural Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF) has set up a statistical survey aimed to provide the national forecast of yields and areas related to the main Italian agricultural crops (AGRIT). The methodology is based on field surveys and remote-sensed data, covers yearly the whole national territory, and is based on 100,000 observations which are statistically selected from a predefined grid made up of about 1,200,000 georeferenced points. In 2011-2012 we determined the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of 1,160 sampling points situated in Northern Italy in the plains and hills of Veneto (VEN) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), for which the land use in the period 2008-2010 was known. Samples have been subdivided in three main classes: arable crops, orchards and fodder crops. SOC was higher in FVG samples (2.48%, n=266) than in VEN samples (1.90%, n=894). The average value (2.03%) is clearly affected by the higher number of VEN samples. FVG data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean, wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean wheat, maize-soybean), 3-yr rotations, vineyards (totally, partially and no-grassed), alfalfa, and permanent fodder crops. No significant differences were detected among the land uses due to the low number of samples in some classes, but some important findings do exist from the agronomic point of view. Fodder crops (5.65%), alfalfa (3.41%) and vineyards (2.72%) showed the higher SOC content. SOC was 2.94% and 1.39 % in the grassed and no-grassed vineyards respectively. In the arable crops the average SOC was 2.18%, ranging from 2.32% (soybean-wheat rotation) to 2.03% (continuous soybean). SOC was 2.19% in the continuous maize, with 2.23% in corn and 1.87% in silage maize. The lower values were in the maize-wheat rotation (1.53%) and the continuous wheat (1.47%). VEN data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean and wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean-wheat, maize

  8. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R V; Roth, Cali L; Carlson, Benjamin L; Smart, Matthew D

    2016-09-13

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  9. Land-use change reduces habitat suitability for supporting managed honey bee colonies in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R.; Roth, Cali; Carlson, Benjamin; Smart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Human reliance on insect pollination services continues to increase even as pollinator populations exhibit global declines. Increased commodity crop prices and federal subsidies for biofuel crops, such as corn and soybeans, have contributed to rapid land-use change in the US Northern Great Plains (NGP), changes that may jeopardize habitat for honey bees in a part of the country that supports >40% of the US colony stock. We investigated changes in biofuel crop production and grassland land covers surrounding ∼18,000 registered commercial apiaries in North and South Dakota from 2006 to 2014. We then developed habitat selection models to identify remotely sensed land-cover and land-use features that influence apiary site selection by Dakota beekeepers. Our study demonstrates a continual increase in biofuel crops, totaling 1.2 Mha, around registered apiary locations in North and South Dakota. Such crops were avoided by commercial beekeepers when selecting apiary sites in this region. Furthermore, our analysis reveals how grasslands that beekeepers target when selecting commercial apiary locations are becoming less common in eastern North and South Dakota, changes that may have lasting impact on pollinator conservation efforts. Our study highlights how land-use change in the NGP is altering the landscape in ways that are seemingly less conducive to beekeeping. Our models can be used to guide future conservation efforts highlighted in the US national pollinator health strategy by identifying areas that support high densities of commercial apiaries and that have exhibited significant land-use changes.

  10. Temporal and spatial changes of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province in recent 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangsheng YI; Yanyu YIN; Yaojie YUE

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to understand the temporal and spatial changes of residential land for the improvement of human settlement environment.Based on the three TM images of 1986,1996 and 2005 and other assistant maps,the temporal and spatial characteristics of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province of China were analyzed by using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology.Some important conclusions were obtained,which mainly contained four aspects as follows.1) The area of residential land in the Yuyang desert region increased 956.07 hm2 in total,and the changes of residential land among the townships were different with four various change trends.The expansion speeds in the Yuyang Township and Qinhe Township were the biggest from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2005,respectively.The expansion intensifies in other townships were below 0.1%,except the Yuyang Township.2) The number of residential land patches increased 2847,while the average area and perimeter of residential land patches decreased 0.304 hm2 and 60.78 m during 1986-2005,respectively.The residential land patches also displayed four different changes from 1986 to 2005 among the townships.3) The residential land mainly distributed in the middle of Yuyang Township and Mahe Township,and the interface of Jinjitan Township and Mengjiawan Township.The total spatial pattern of residential land was relative stability,but the significant changes of residential land were found in the Yuyang Township and its vicinities during 1986-2005.4) Three distribution patterns of residential land at the micro scale were categorized from the 100 typical villages in the study area.The number of villages in the pattern 1 increased,while the pattern 2 and pattern 3 decreased in recent 20 years,which implicated the adaptation of humans to the habitation environment.This research would provide scientific references for harmonizing the human-land relationship

  11. State Recognition or State Appropriation? Land Rights and Land Disputes among the Bugkalot/Ilongot of Northern Luzon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yuan Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bugkalot/Ilongot were awarded the Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT issued by the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples in a joyful celebration on February 24, 2006. The CADT is a contemporary assertion of indigenous peoples’ ability to negotiate claims to land, livelihood, and autonomy within the nation-state. So far, however, the acquisition of the Bugkalot/Ilongot CADT has not made any substantial difference in the everyday lives of the people of Ġingin, a settlement located at the heartland of the Bugkalot area. Not only does the trend of in-migration of lowland settlers and other indigenous groups continue, there are heightening social tensions caused by growing numbers of land-grabbing incidents among the Bugkalot themselves. This issue is examined in the context of state-promoted settlement projects, the advance of capitalism, and the process of commodification, which have given rise to a new notion of exclusive landownership. State provision of land rights and capitalist market forces have combined to shape land relations in new and often surprising ways. By exposing some of the diverse and changing forms of dispossession, as well as the failure of barangay officials and government agencies in mediating and resolving land disputes, this article questions whether the seemingly novel avenues that the Philippine state has taken to “legitimate” indigenous peoples’ rights, in practice, actually extend state control.

  12. “Nothing Is Like It Was Before”: The Dynamics between Land-Use and Land-Cover, and Livelihood Strategies in the Northern Vietnam Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Turner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land uses are changing rapidly in Vietnam’s upland northern borderlands. Regional development platforms such as the Greater Mekong Subregion, state-propelled market integration and reforestation programs, and lowland entrepreneurs and migrants are all impacting this frontier landscape. Drawing on a mixed methods approach using remote sensing data from 2000 to 2009 and ethnographic fieldwork, we examine how land-use and land-cover change (LULCC has occurred across three borderland provinces—Lai Châu, Lào Cai and Hà Giang—with high proportions of ethnic minority semi-subsistence farmers. After a broad examination of regional land-use changes, we select three case studies to further analyze the underlying relationships between specific LULCC and local livelihood diversification strategies. These include specific patterns of urban growth due to a range of political decisions in Lai Châu and Lào Cai Provinces; reforestation due to non-timber forest (NTFP product cultivation in the west of Lào Cai Province; and a stable landscape that restricts government attempts at refashioning upland livelihoods in the east of Hà Giang. Our findings point to the difficulties of completing LULCC maps for this highly heterogeneous region and the complexity of LULCC and livelihood interactions and relationships examined on the ground.

  13. Importance of soil thermal dynamics on land carbon sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, David; Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Recent modeling studies have suggested that carbon sinks in pan-arctic ecosystems may be weakening partially as a result of warming-induced increases in soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the exposure of previously frozen SOM to decomposition. This weakening of carbon sinks is likely to continue in the future as vast amount of carbon in permafrost soils is vulnerable to thaw. Here, we examine the importance of considering soil thermal dynamics when determining the effects of climate change and land-use change on carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century. This importance is assessed by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider soil thermal dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In this scenario, which is similar to the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 scenario, the net area covered by food crops and pastures in Northern Eurasia is assumed to remain relatively constant over the 21st century, but the area covered by secondary forests is projected to double as a result of timber harvest and the abandonment of land associated with displacement of agricultural land. Enhanced decomposition from the newly exposed SOM from permafrost thaw also increases nitrogen availability for plant production so that the loss of carbon from the enhanced decomposition is partially compensated by enhanced uptake and storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in vegetation. Our results indicate that consideration of soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated terrestrial carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia respond to changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry (e.g., carbon dioxide fertilization, ozone pollution, nitrogen deposition) and disturbances.

  14. Outreach Plan for Opening Additional Land to Hunting on Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outreach plan for Northern Tallgrass Prairie NWR will expand hunting opportunities on the Refuge in 2011 in accordance with the approved Refuge Hunt Plan.

  15. Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge Land Status [Sheet 940 of 1370

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  16. Impacts of Sloping Land Conversion Program on the vegetation in loess hilly and gully area of northern Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Junfei; Lu Changhe; Yu Bohua

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at alleviating the serious soil erosion,the Chinese government initiated the Sloping Land Con.version Program (SLCP) in 1999.Now,after 8 years of project implementation,the ecological recovery effects of the SLCP have become the hot issue of academic circle.This paper,taking the loess hdl and gully area of northern Shaanxi as an example,presents a methodology for assessing the vegetation restoration effect of SLCP with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI).The key components include calculation of the Growing Season NDVI (GSNDVI),and estimation of the NVDI change induced by climate and SLCP,re,wectively.Based on the method,the NDVI change between 2000 and 2006 was obtained using the GSNDVI that excluded the noise from snow and ice.Afier the part of total NDVI change caused by climate variation was estimated using empiric formulae,we obtained the part induced by human factors,i.e.the SLCP.The human induced part of NDVI change was considered as an approximation indicating the effect of the SLCP on the vegetation.Finally,we analyzed the NDVI change characters of the whole study area,different slope lands and different land use types by spatial statistics method Results show that the vegetation condition is significantly improved by the SLCP,particularly land types that directly involved in the SLCP,such as steeply slope farmlands,degraded grasslands,etc.

  17. Tree tenure and its implications for sustainable land management: The case of Parkia biglobosa in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther E. Amoako

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species found in Savannah agroforestry parklands of West Africa. The species is important as it prevents against land degradation while providing food and other products. This study focuses on how land and tree tenure arrangements affect tree populations in three traditional areas in the Northern Region of Ghana (Dagomba, Gonja and Mamprusi and the implications that these arrangements have for sustainable land management. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were held in the three communities to provide information on the tenural arrangements of Parkia biglobosa. A tree census was conducted to estimate the densities of Parkia biglobosa in crop and fallow fields. The study shows that differences in tenure systems in the three traditional areas have implications for Parkia biglobosa populations and also for sustainable land management. It is concluded that traditional tenure systems along with regulation protect the trees from destruction as observed in the Dagomba and Gonja areas compared to the open access system identified in Kperiga in the Mamprusi area.

  18. The role of eclogite in the metasomatism and Cenozoic magmatism of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Bonadiman, C.; Faccini, B.; Griffin, W.; Melchiorre, M.; O'Reilly, S.; Pearson, N.

    2009-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from two localities of Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Baker Rocks (BR) and Greene Point (GP), less than 100 km apart, were investigated. Amphibole-bearing and anhydrous lherzolites, minor harzburgites and pyroxenites are present at BR, while only anhydrous lherzolites and harzburgites are found at GP. Previous petrological studies evidenced two different metasomatizing agents which percolated heterogeneous lithospheric mantle domains under the Ross Sea region. At BR a TiO2-rich nephelinite reacted mainly with primary clinopyroxene transforming it in amphibole. At GP metasomatism is caused by a K-rich, Ti-poor, melt reacting mainly with opx resulting in secondary cpx and a SiO2-rich glass. These glasses are also characterized by very low Nb and high Zr contents. Further constraints on the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath NVL derive from Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systematics carried out on separated cpx and from in situ Re-Os data for single sulphides. Psuedo-isochrons were calculated using all samples within each locality. A Ross age (620-517Ma) was reported for both BR and GP, whereas a younger, Cretaceous age (110Ma) was recorded only in BR. Re-Os in situ analyses provide spatially resolved data, thus allowing a better understanding of the temporal evolution of the lithospheric mantle. Although the very limited number of Os-rich sulphides within GP suite does not allow a statistically meaningful results for this locality, Re/Os age determinations for both BR and GP largely overlap. Thus a unique TRD (Time of Rhenium Depletion) histogram is proposed, where six age peaks at 3.0-3.3Ga, 2.3Ga, 1.3-1.4Ga, 0.9-1.1Ga, 580-620Ma and 120Ma are present, this latter value being recorded only at BR. A good agreement exist between these data and those obtained from the pseudo-isochrons. On 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os diagram the data plot in four sectors with respect to PUM. Sector IV is represented by Os less radiogenic and Re

  19. Looking Forward: Using Scenario Modeling to Support Regional Land Use Planning in Northern Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional land use planning provides opportunities for governments, land users, and stakeholders to consider multiple land and resource interests over large geographic areas and meaningful time periods. The broad and integrative nature of regional planning is therefore well suited to assessing the potential cumulative effects of current and future land use activity. For this reason, cumulative effects assessment models and management concepts are playing an increasingly important role in regional planning. We describe how the ALCES® landscape cumulative effects simulation model was used to explore possible outcomes of an oil and gas scenario in the Eagle Plain basin of the North Yukon Planning Region of Yukon Territory, Canada. Scenario modeling was conducted to facilitate informed discussion about key land use issues and practices, potential levels of landscape change, and possible socioeconomic benefits and environmental impacts. Modeling results supported the sustainable development and cumulative effects management recommendations of the North Yukon Regional Land Use Plan. Land use scenario modeling, as applied in this project, was found to be an effective approach for establishing sustainable development guidelines through a regional planning process.

  20. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  1. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Farallon de Pajaros, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  2. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Aguijan, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  3. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Saipan 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from scanned black and white aerial photographs and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)...

  4. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  5. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Ozaki, Akinori; Nguyen Tho, Hoang; Nguyen Duc, Anh; Tran Thi, Yen; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-05

    Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg(-1). Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g(-1) and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment.

  6. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils under Different Land Use in an Estuary in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Nguyen Van

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in estuaries warrants study because a healthy estuarine environment, including healthy soil, is important in order to achieve ecological balance and good aquaculture production. The Ba Lat estuary of the Red River is the largest estuary in northern Vietnam and is employed in various land uses. However, the heavy metal contamination of its soil has not yet been reported. The following research was conducted to clarify contamination levels, supply sources, and the effect of land use on heavy metal concentrations in the estuary. Soil samples were collected from the top soil layer of the estuary, and their arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn concentrations were analyzed, as were other soil properties. Most soils in the estuary were loam, silt loam, or sandy loam. The pH was neutral, and the cation exchange capacity ranged from 3.8 to 20 cmol·kg−1. Manganese and iron concentrations averaged 811 µg·g−1 and 1.79%, respectively. The magnitude of the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > As > Cd. The concentrations were higher in the riverbed and mangrove forest than in other land-use areas. Except for As, the mean heavy metal concentrations were lower than the permissible levels for agricultural soils in Vietnam. The principal component analyses suggested that soil As, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin, whereas Cr was of non-anthropogenic origin. The spatial distribution of concentration with land use indicated that mangrove forests play an important role in preventing the spread of heavy metals to other land uses and in maintaining the estuarine environment.

  7. Toward sustainable desertification reversion:A case study in Horqin Sandy Land of northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueYong Zhao; ShaoKun Wang; YaYong Luo; WenDa Huang; Hao Qu; Jie Lian

    2015-01-01

    Desertification reversion is an interactive process involving climate, land use change, and water processes. In order to reveal the relationship between desertification reversion and these factors, we analyzed historical data on precipitation, air temperature, desertified land changes, underground water tables, and water body changes in Naiman County in the central part of Horqin Sandy Land. Our analysis showed that during 1961−2010 the annual precipitation fluctuated dramatically and has decreased fairly consistently in recent years. The air temperature increased by 0.50−1.25 °C, and the minimum temperature increased more obviously. The desertified land area increased from 42,300 km2 in 1959 to 62,000 km2 in 1985, and then declined to about 50,000 km2 in 2010. The underground water tables have been lowered by about 10 m in the past 30 years, and declined more rapidly in recent years. Desertified land is significantly related to the amount of total cropland, and underground water tables are significantly correlated with annual precipitation and the amount of irrigated cropland. Therefore, it is necessary to pursue sustainable desertification reversion without compromising the capacity for local de-velopment and restoration of degraded land, through application of appropriate management measures for improving water availability in this region.

  8. Complex land use and cover trajectories in the northern Choco bioregion of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina

    The Choco bioregion in Northwestern Colombia is a lowland rain forest and hotspot of biodiversity. Significant land use and cover change (LUCC) is occurring throughout the region driven by global markets, illicit drug production, and civil unrest. The dominant land cover conversion is from primary forest to African Palm plantations, mediated and modified by complex combinations of social and biophysical drivers. This research combined a remote sensing based methodology to monitor LUCC in the region with an analytical approach for evaluating the possible trajectories of LUCC in a complex biological, socio-economical, and political environment. Synoptic LUCC models were developed using textural classification derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for the period 1995 to 2010. LUCC models along with empirical social and spatial biophysical drivers were used to project historical land use trajectories. DINAMICA EGO a complex systems based spatial analytical framework was adopted as the platform to model land use change. The RADAR backscatter was able to capture areas were forest has been converted to African Oil Palm Plantations. However, an in depth characterization of the LUC dynamics was problematic given the spectral and spatial limitations of the sensor combined with the lack of ground data. The results of the LUC model suggest that under the current socio-political conditions African oil palm plantations will continue to expand toward forested areas into the territories traditionally inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Indigenous populations. Insecure land tenure appears as a main driver of the transformation in close association with the conditions created by the armed conflict, and the drug traffic. The rate of the transformation appears to slow down in the period after 2007. However, according to the model by 2020 most of the area inhabited by ethnic groups will be transform to AOP. This study contributes towards the understanding of land use change

  9. Profiles of carbon stocks in forest, reforestation and agricultural land, Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Pibumrung; N. Gajaseni; A. Popan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess carbon stocks in various forms and land-use types and reliably estimate the impact of land use on C stocks in the Nam Yao sub-watershed (19°05'10"N, 100°37'02"E), Thailand. The carbon stocks of aboveground, soil organic and fine root within primary forest, reforestation and agricultural land were estimated through field data collection. Results revealed that the amount of total carbon stock of forests (357.62 ± 28.51 Mg·ha-1, simplified expression of Mg (carbon)·ha-1) was significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (195.25 ±14.38 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (103.10±18.24 Mg·ha-1). Soil organic carbon in the forests (196.24 ±22.81 Mg·ha-1) was also significantly greater (P< 0.05) than the reforestation (146.83± 7.22 Mg·ha-1) and the agricultural land (95.09 ± 14.18 Mg·ha-1). The differences in carbon stocks across land-use types are the primary consequence of variations in the vegetation biomass and the soil organic matter. Fine root carbon was a small fraction of carbon stocks in all land-use types. Most of the soil organic carbon and fine root carbon content was found in the upper 40-cm layer and decreased with soil depth. The aboveground carbon(soil organic carbon: fine root carbon ratios (ABGC: SOC: FRC), was 5:8:1, 2:8:1, and 3:50:1 for the forest, reforestation and agricultural land, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively large proportion of the C loss is due to forest conversion to agricultural land. However, the C can be effectively recaptured through reforestation where high levels of C are stored in biomass as carbon sinks, facilitating carbon dioxide mitigation.

  10. Bioavailability and radiocarbon age of fluvial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peatland-dominated catchment: effect of land-use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulatt, C.J.; Kaartokallio, H.; Asmala, E.

    2014-01-01

    The radiocarbon age and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peat-dominated river system was studied and the effects of land-use were compared. Samples were obtained from streams and ditches comprising sub-catchments of the Kiiminki River, Northern Finland. Sample...... sites included areas of natural mire, areas subjected to moderate disturbance (ditching to enhance forestry), and areas subjected to serious land use change (agriculture and peat excavation). The study employed a 55 day bioassay that measured the biodegradation potential of surface-water DOM. We...

  11. Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples in Australia are disadvantaged on all markers of health and social status across the life course. Psychosocial factors are implicated in the aetiology of chronic diseases and in pathways underpinning social health disparities. Minimal research has investigated psychosocial factors and health in Indigenous peoples. This study evaluated associations between mastery, perceived stress, and health-related behaviour for a remote Indigenous population in Australia. Methods Complete data on mastery (the degree to which individuals feel in control of their lives, perceived stress, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained for 177 participants in a community-based chronic disease risk factor survey. Psychosocial questionnaires were completed as an option during community screening (response rate = 61.9%. Extensive consultation facilitated the cross-cultural adaptation of measures. Results Mastery was inversely correlated with perceived stress measures (p r = -0.47; chronic stress, r = -0.41; and youth stress, r = -0.30. Relationships between mastery and behaviour varied according to age group (p = 0.001 and vegetable consumption (p = 0.005. Individuals aged ≥25 years engaging in ≤2 bouts of physical activity/week had lower mastery than individuals engaging in ≥3 bouts/week, with means (95% CI of 14.8 (13.7–15.8 and 17.1 (15.3–19.0, respectively (p = 0.026. Individuals aged ≥25 years eating vegetables ≤3 times/week had lower mastery than those eating vegetables ≥4 times/week (p = 0.009 [means 14.7 (13.8–15.5 and 17.3 (15.5–19.1, respectively]. Individuals p = 0.022 [means 17.2 (15.2–19.2 and 13.8 (11.9–15.7, respectively]. For men ≥25 years and women ≥15 years, mastery was inversely related to age (p p = 0.001 [means 13.4 (12.1–14.7 and 17.5 (15.3–19.8, respectively]. Conclusion Consistent with previous research, this study provides additional support for a link between mastery and health-related behaviour, and extends evidence of this association to a remote Indigenous population. Mastery's association with perceived stress, its age-specific association with health behaviour, and findings of low mastery amongst young men, highlights a need for life course research accounting for contextual factors affecting Indigenous peoples.

  12. N and P resorption in a pioneer shrub (Artemisia halodendron) inhabiting severely desertified lands of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLin LI; Chen JING; Wei MAO; Duo CUI; XinYuan WANG; XueYong ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient resorption is an important conservation mechanism for plants to overcome nutrient limitation in the less fertile area of desertified land. In the semi-arid Horqin Sandy Land of Northern China, the shrub Artemisia halodendron usually colonizes into the bare ground of severely desertified land as a pioneer species. It is, therefore, expected that A. halodendron will be less dependent on current nutrient uptake through efficient and proficient re-sorption of nutrients. In this study, we found that averaged nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in se-nesced leaves significantly varied from 12.3 and 1.2 mg/g in the shifting sand dune to 15.9 and 1.9 mg/g in the fixed sand dune, respectively, suggesting that foliar N and P resorption of A. halodendron were more proficient in the shifting sand dune. In particular, positive relationships between nutrient concentrations in senesced leaves and soil nutrient availability indicate that A. halodendron in infertile habitats is more likely to manage with a low level of nu-trients in senesced leaves, giving this species an advantage in infertile soil. Moreover, foliar N- and P-resorption efficiencies and proficiencies showed limited inter-annual variability although annual precipitation varied greatly among 2007-2009. However, N and P resorption of A. halodendron were not more efficient and proficient than those previously reported for other shrubs, indicating that the pioneer shrub in sand dune environments does not rely more heavily than other plants on the process of resorption to conserve nutrients. Incomplete resorption of nutrients in A. halodendron suggests that senesced-leaf fall would return litter with high quality to the soil, and thereby would indirectly improve soil nutrient availability. The restoration of desertified land, therefore, may be ac-celerated after A. halodendron pioneers into shifting sand dunes.

  13. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-11-01

    The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs); however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha-1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to provide a total GHG emission from

  14. Land and fresh water decapod crustacea from the Leeward Group and northern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chace, Fenner A.; Holthuis, Lipke B.

    1948-01-01

    This small paper consists only of an enumeration of the specimens collected by Dr. HUMMELINCK in 1936 and 1937, together with the records of land and fresh water decapods from the articles by RATHBUN (1936) and SCHMITT (1936) on the collections made in 1930. Identifications of many of the brachyuran

  15. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.M.; Crissman, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff

  16. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of land cover maps that have been derived from satellite data over the Arctic require higher thematic detail than available in current global maps. A range of application studies has been reviewed, including up-scaling of carbon fluxes and pools, permafrost feature mapping and transition monitoring. Early land cover mapping studies were driven by the demand to characterize wildlife habitats. Later, in the 1990s, up-scaling of in situ measurements became central to the discipline of land cover mapping on local to regional scales at several sites across the Arctic. This includes the Kuparuk basin in Alaska, the Usa basin and the Lena Delta in Russia. All of these multi-purpose land cover maps have been derived from Landsat data. High resolution maps (from optical satellite data serve frequently as input for the characterization of periglacial features and also flux tower footprints in recent studies. The most used map to address circumpolar issues is the CAVM (Circum Arctic Vegetation Map based on AVHRR (1 km and has been manually derived. It provides the required thematic detail for many applications, but is confined to areas north of the treeline, and it is limited in spatial detail. A higher spatial resolution circumpolar land cover map with sufficient thematic content would be beneficial for a range of applications. Such a land cover classification should be compatible with existing global maps and applicable for multiple purposes. The thematic content of existing global maps has been assessed by comparison to the CAVM and regional maps. None of the maps provides the required thematic detail. Spatial resolution has been compared to used classes for local to regional applications. The required thematic detail increases with spatial resolution since coarser datasets are usually applied over larger areas covering more relevant landscape units. This is especially of concern when the entire Arctic is addressed. A spatial

  17. Impacts of snow and organic soils parameterization on northern Eurasian soil temperature profiles simulated by the ISBA land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharme, Bertrand; Brun, Eric; Boone, Aaron; Delire, Christine; Le Moigne, Patrick; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyzed how an improved representation of snowpack processes and soil properties in the multilayer snow and soil schemes of the Interaction Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model impacts the simulation of soil temperature profiles over northern Eurasian regions. For this purpose, we refine ISBA's snow layering algorithm and propose a parameterization of snow albedo and snow compaction/densification adapted from the detailed Crocus snowpack model. We also include a dependency on soil organic carbon content for ISBA's hydraulic and thermal soil properties. First, changes in the snowpack parameterization are evaluated against snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface albedo, and soil temperature at a 10 cm depth observed at the Col de Porte field site in the French Alps. Next, the new model version including all of the changes is used over northern Eurasia to evaluate the model's ability to simulate the snow depth, the soil temperature profile, and the permafrost characteristics. The results confirm that an adequate simulation of snow layering and snow compaction/densification significantly impacts the snowpack characteristics and the soil temperature profile during winter, while the impact of the more accurate snow albedo computation is dominant during the spring. In summer, the accounting for the effect of soil organic carbon on hydraulic and thermal soil properties improves the simulation of the soil temperature profile. Finally, the results confirm that this last process strongly influences the simulation of the permafrost active layer thickness and its spatial distribution.

  18. Mapping of land cover in northern California with simulated hyperspectral satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew L.; Kilham, Nina E.

    2016-09-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Analysis of hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery has shown an impressive capacity to map a wide range of natural and anthropogenic land cover. Applications have been mostly with single-date imagery from relatively small spatial extents. Future hyperspectral satellites will provide imagery at greater spatial and temporal scales, and there is a need to assess techniques for mapping land cover with these data. Here we used simulated multi-temporal HyspIRI satellite imagery over a 30,000 km2 area in the San Francisco Bay Area, California to assess its capabilities for mapping classes defined by the international Land Cover Classification System (LCCS). We employed a mapping methodology and analysis framework that is applicable to regional and global scales. We used the Random Forests classifier with three sets of predictor variables (reflectance, MNF, hyperspectral metrics), two temporal resolutions (summer, spring-summer-fall), two sample scales (pixel, polygon) and two levels of classification complexity (12, 20 classes). Hyperspectral metrics provided a 16.4-21.8% and 3.1-6.7% increase in overall accuracy relative to MNF and reflectance bands, respectively, depending on pixel or polygon scales of analysis. Multi-temporal metrics improved overall accuracy by 0.9-3.1% over summer metrics, yet increases were only significant at the pixel scale of analysis. Overall accuracy at pixel scales was 72.2% (Kappa 0.70) with three seasons of metrics. Anthropogenic and homogenous natural vegetation classes had relatively high confidence and producer and user accuracies were over 70%; in comparison, woodland and forest classes had considerable confusion. We next focused on plant functional types with relatively pure spectra by removing open-canopy shrublands

  19. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Mincheol Kim; Ahnna Cho; Hyoun Soo Lim; Soon Gyu Hong; Ji Hee Kim; Joohan Lee; Taejin Choi; Tae Seok Ahn; Ok-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environm...

  20. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  1. Coherence among the Northern Hemisphere land, cryosphere, and ocean responses to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing during the satellite era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Shindell, Drew T.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-08-01

    A lack of long-term measurements across Earth's biological and physical systems has made observation-based detection and attribution of climate change impacts to anthropogenic forcing and natural variability difficult. Here we explore coherence among land, cryosphere and ocean responses to recent climate change using 3 decades (1980-2012) of observational satellite and field data throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Our results show coherent interannual variability among snow cover, spring phenology, solar radiation, Scandinavian Pattern, and North Atlantic Oscillation. The interannual variability of the atmospheric peak-to-trough CO2 amplitude is mostly impacted by temperature-mediated effects of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA), whereas CO2 concentration is affected by Polar Pattern control on sea ice extent dynamics. This is assuming the trend in anthropogenic CO2 emission remains constant, or the interannual changes in the trends are negligible. Our analysis suggests that sea ice decline-related CO2 release may outweigh increased CO2 uptake through longer growing seasons and higher temperatures. The direct effects of variation in solar radiation and leading teleconnections, at least in part via their impacts on temperature, dominate the interannual variability of land, cryosphere and ocean indicators. Our results reveal a coherent long-term changes in multiple physical and biological systems that are consistent with anthropogenic forcing of Earth's climate and inconsistent with natural drivers.

  2. Changes in soil and vegetation on moving sand dunes after exclosure in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the semiarid Horqin Sandy Land of northern China, land desertification is the main causation in vegetation degradation and formation of moving dunes. A study was conducted from 1996 to 2005 to monitor the changes of vegetation characteristics and soil properties after moving dunes were fenced. The changes were compared between moving sand dunes with exclosure and without exclosure to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetation and soil restoration after exclosure establishment. The results show that exlosure establishment facilitated the colonization and development of plant species by ameliorating stressful environmental conditions. Species diversity, average coverage, and plant density significantly increased after exclosure of moving sand dunes along sequence compared with sand dunes without exclosure. Vegetation recovery on moving sand dunes accelerated by exclosure resulted in significant changes in soil properties including increased silt and clay contents, organic C and total N and decreased sand content, especially at the 0-5 cm depth. The results implied that moving sand dunes can be rapidly fixed by construction of exclosure.

  3. The structure and diversity of freshwater diatom assemblages from Franz Josef Land Archipelago: a northern outpost for freshwater diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Pla-Rabés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined diatom assemblages from 18 stream and pond samples in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (FJL, the most northern land of Eurasia. More than 216 taxa were observed, revealing a rich circumpolar diatom flora, including many undescribed taxa. Widely distributed taxa were the most abundant by cell densities, while circumpolar taxa were the most species rich. Stream and pond habitats hosted different assemblages, and varied along a pH gradient. Diatoma tenuis was the most abundant and ubiquitous taxon. However, several circumpolar taxa such as Chamaepinnularia gandrupii, Cymbella botellus, Psammothidium sp. and Humidophila laevissima were also found in relatively high abundances. Aerophilic taxa were an important component of FJL diatom assemblages (Humidophila spp., Caloneis spp. and Pinnularia spp., reflecting the large and extreme seasonal changes in Arctic conditions. We predict a decrease in the abundance of circumpolar taxa, an increase in local (α- freshwater diatom diversity, but a decrease in regional diversity (circumpolar homogenization as a result of current warming trends and to a lesser extent the increasing human footprint in the region.

  4. Satellite observations of changes in snow-covered land surface albedo during spring in the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Atlaskina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen years of MODIS surface albedo data for the Northern Hemisphere during the spring months (March–May were analysed to determine temporal and spatial changes over snow-covered land surfaces. Tendencies in land surface albedo change north of 50° N were analysed using data on snow cover fraction, air temperature, vegetation index and precipitation. To this end, the study domain was divided into six smaller areas, based on their geographical position and climate similarity. Strong differences were observed between these areas. As expected, snow cover fraction (SCF has a strong influence on the albedo in the study area and can explain 56% of variation of albedo in March, 76% in April and 92% in May. Therefore the effects of other parameters were investigated only for areas with 100% SCF. The second largest driver for snow-covered land surface albedo changes is the air temperature when it exceeds −15 °C. At monthly mean air temperatures below this value no albedo changes are observed. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI and precipitation amount and frequency were independently examined as possible candidates to explain observed changes in albedo for areas with 100% SCF. Amount and frequency of precipitation were identified to influence the albedo over some areas in Eurasia and North America, but no clear effects were observed in other areas. EVI is positively correlated with albedo in Chukotka Peninsula and negatively in Eastern Siberia. For other regions the spatial variability of the correlation fields is too high to reach any conclusions.

  5. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern prairie wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, Richard A; Johnson, W Carter; Gilmanov, Tagir; Guntenspergen, Glenn R; Millett, Bruce V

    2007-03-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  6. A land cover change study in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia using a flight of aerial photographs dating back to the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Lanckriet, Sil; Demissie, Biadgilgn; Zenebe, Gebreyohanis; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia, land degradation is claimed to have occurred over a long time mainly due agricultural practices and lack of land management. However, quantitative information on the long term land use, cover and management change is rare. The knowledge of such historical changes is essential for the present and future land management for sustainable development, especially in an agriculture-based economy. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the changes of land use, cover and management around Hagere Selam, Northern Ethiopia, over the last 80 years (1935 - 2014). We recovered a flight of ten aerial photographs at an approximate scale of 1:11,500, realized by the Italian Military Geographical Institute in 1935, along a mountain ridge between 13.6490°N, 39.1848°E and 13.6785°N, 39.2658°E. Jointly with Google Earth images (2014), the historical aerial photographs were used to compare changes over the long time. The point-count technique was used by overlaying a grid of 18 x 15 points (small squares) on 20 cm x 15 cm aerial photographs and on Google Earth images representing the same area. Occurrence of major land cover types (cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, bare land, built-up areas and water body) was counted to compute their proportion in 1935 and 2014. In 1935, cropland, shrubland and built-up areas were predominant while other land cover types were not observed. On the Google Earth images, all categories were observed except forest. The results show that in both times cropland was the dominant land cover followed by shrubland. The proportion of cropland at present (70.5%) is approximately the same as in the 1930s (72%), but shrubland decreased and bare land, grassland and built-up areas have increased. Hence, the large share of cropland was maintained over the past long period without allowing for woody vegetation to expand its area, while some cropland was abandoned and converted to grassland and bare land. The increased

  7. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  8. The Effectiveness of Conservation Reserves: Land Tenure Impacts upon Biodiversity across Extensive Natural Landscapes in the Tropical Savannahs of the Northern Territory, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C.Z. Woinarski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether there is a biodiversity benefit (“dividend” associated with the existence and management of conservation reserves in the extensive and largely natural landscape of northern Australia. Species richness and abundance of vertebrate fauna and the intensity of a range of disturbance factors were compared across a set of 967 sampled quadrats, located either in pastoral lands, Indigenous lands or conservation reserves, with all sampled quadrats within a single vegetation type (open forests and savannah woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus miniata and/or E. tetrodonta. The relationships with land tenure varied between major taxonomic groups, but generally (and particularly for threatened species values were highest for conservation reserves. This “biodiversity dividend” associated with conservation reserves is considered to be due to the effects of management rather than because conservation reserves were established on lands supporting atypically high conservation values. The impact of weeds and (unsurprisingly livestock was greatest on pastoral lands, and pig impact was greatest in conservation reserves. Although pastoral and Indigenous lands supported lower biodiversity tallies than reserved lands, the conservation values of reserved lands in this region are probably substantially supported by the maintenance of relatively intact ecological systems across all lands.

  9. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  11. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) under other geophysical constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Caneva, G.; Caneva, A. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse

    2000-04-01

    The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica) has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV) have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. The possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  12. Planetary-scale variability in the northern winter and the impact of land-sea thermal contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Franco; King, Martin P.; Kucharski, Fred; Straus, David M.

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of land-sea thermal contrast on large-scale modes of variability during the northern-hemisphere winter, with specific attention to those modes which explain a large proportion of the observed inter-decadal changes in the late 20th century. Two possible mechanisms are considered, where the land-sea contrast plays either a `passive' or an `active' role: namely, the introduction of zonal asymmetries in an (eddy-driven) annular mode, and variations in the thermal balance of a planetary wave pattern with zonal-wavenumber 2. In addition to diagnostics based on re-analysis data, two long perpetual-winter simulations of an intermediate-complexity AGCM are performed, imposing surface boundary conditions with either realistic or artificially reduced land-sea thermal contrast. On the basis of previous studies, indices derived from surface fields are defined to represent the two mechanisms outlined above. Atmospheric patterns co-varying with these indices are first computed from NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, and compared with traditional definitions of dominant modes of variability, such as EOFs and the Cold-Ocean/Warm-Land (COWL) pattern. Subsequently, the indices are applied to fields from the simulations with realistic and reduced land-sea contrast, in order to highlight the impact of thermal asymmetries on the structure of annular and planetary-wave modes. Our results show that the zonal thermal contrast on the western border of the North Atlantic is responsible for the localization of a dipolar structure in sea-level pressure and height fields, which bears a strong resemblance to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this region, the response to thermal land-sea contrast is evident on both annular and planetary-wave patterns, with a NAO-like dipole being the dominant regional feature. In the North Pacific, on the other hand, diabatic forcing is balanced primarily by meridional temperature advection, because here (contrarily to the north

  13. Sedimentation of the basal Kombolgie Formation (Upper Precambrian-Carpentarian) Northern Territory, Australia: possible significance in the genesis of the underlying Alligator Rivers unconformity-type uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojakangas, R.W.

    1979-10-01

    The 1400 to 1500 My old Kombolgie Formation of the MacArthur Basin of the Northern Territory overlies or has overlain unconformity-type uranium deposits including Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek and the small deposits of the South Alligator River Valley. A brief study of the basal portion of the formation showed it to consist entirely of mature conglomerates and quartzose sandstones. Analysis of the bedding types (planar cross beds, trough cross beds and parallel beds) and other sedimentary structures (mainly ripple marks and parting lineation) fit a braided alluvial plain model. A paleocurrent study utilizing about 400 measurements from nine localities located along the westward-facing 250 kilometer-long erosional escarpment of the Arnhem Land Plateau showed the dominant paleocurrent trend to be from west and northwest towards the east and southeast, with local divergence. The data and interpretation presented are relevant to the supergene model of uranium deposition at the unconformity, for they add to the suggestion that additional uranium deposits similar to Jabiluka Two may underlie the Kombolgie Formation eastward from the present escarpment.

  14. Shared Knowledge for Addressing Impacts of Land Use Transitions on Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N.; Yurchak, B.; Sleptsov, Y.; Turi, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Northern Russia is an economic activity with a special cultural dimension of utmost importance to the indigenous peoples. Climate changes with warmer temperatures are creating significant problems now in the Arctic for the reindeer herds. These climate factors, industrial development, and the recent transition of Russia to a market economy have resulted in a nearly complete disruption of any system of supply of goods and services and health care to indigenous peoples. In turn, this has caused rapidly deteriorating health and living conditions in the indigenous reindeer herder communities. To try to address some of these issues, a NASA-reindeer herder partnership, called Reindeer Mapper, has been initiated which is establishing a system to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to create a more powerful information base for addressing these environmental, climate, industrial, political, and business problems. Preliminary results from the Reindeer Mapper pilot project will be presented including a special information-sharing communications system for the Reindeer Mapper project (a private intranet system), several NASA data sets useful to the herders including SAR and Landsat imagery, local knowledge of herd distributions, ground-based data, and weather observations. Results will also be presented from the first NASA-reindeer herder science and indigenous knowledge summer camp for children of reindeer herders from the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  15. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  16. Magnetic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Eleonora; Lurcock, Pontus Conrad; Palmeri, Rosaria; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the integration between rock magnetism and metamorphic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites, variably metamorphosed under UHP, eclogite or HP amphibolite facies peak conditions, and cropping out along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) in three different areas: the Lanterman Range, the Salamander Range and the Dessent Ridge. The outcrops along the Lanterman-Mariner suture provide a unique opportunity to define the relationships between magnetic properties and metamorphic evolution, in a wide P-T range, of ultramafic rocks and metabasites in the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana, an area which is well-studied from a petrological and structural point of view but lacking a rock magnetic study. To characterize the magnetic properties of these rocks, we performed a set of rock magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, natural remanence, thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis loops). We then characterized the minero-petrographical and compositional features of opaque minerals on selected samples using both the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples display a remarkable heterogeneity in the studied magnetic properties depending on both type and abundance of the carriers of magnetization (Fe-Ti oxides and sulphides). Independently of the degree of retrogression and lithology (eclogites, retrogressed eclogites, pirossenites and amphibolites), several samples contain variable amounts of both magnetite and pyrrhotite, while others show only magnetite as the main ferromagnetic mineral. The remaining samples mainly consist of paramagnetic minerals and may display small amounts of magnetite. Based on the microstructural evidence, more than one generation of ferromagnetic minerals may occur in retrogressed UHP ultramafic rocks and eclogites. These new data and interpretations are essential 1) to characterize and to verify primary and secondary oxide and sulphide

  17. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Highly heterogeneous soil bacterial communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincheol Kim

    Full Text Available Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment.

  1. Agricultural land contamination by heavy metals around the former mining site of Bechateur (northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, G.; Soussi, R.; Soussi, F.; Boularbah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity of the former Pb-Zn mine of Jebel Ghozlen (Béchateur. extreme northern Tunisia) generated during the last century large quantities of tailings (extraction, flotation, gravimetry) deposited as three heap between the mine site and the shoreline located 700 m away. Areas surrounding the mine site are agricultural and are crossed by two rivers, one of which crosses the main heap. The minerals that make up these wastes are calcite, dolomite, quartz, gypsum, pyrite, barite, smithsonite, cerussite and galena. The amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the wastes vary between 1.3 and 9.3%, 1.1% and 5.7 and 185 and 410 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils in the study area are carbonated and are characterized by a silt-sand texture. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite. The chemical analysis of thirty samples collected over an area of 3 km2 shows that the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur vary from 0.7 % to 2.5 % and 0.08 % to 0.96 %, respectively, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 300 to 22 000 mg kg-1, 85 to 3000 mg kg-1 and 2 to 47 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of metals were found in flood plains at 500 m downstream of the mine site. Extraction tests using deionized water and a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution were performed to assess the mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd in contaminated and reference soil samples collected within the study area. The results of extraction with deionized water showed that the leached amounts of Zn and Cd range between 0.2 and 4 mg kg-1 and 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; while that of Pb is quite near the detection limit. During the extraction with CaCl2 the leached amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 0.3 to 86 mg kg-1, 2 to 6 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 0.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Thus, the mobility of Cd, Zn and Pb in CaCl2 solution (0.8 %, 0.4 % and 0.3 %, respectively) is higher compared with the extraction with deionized water (0.2%, 0.1% and 0.02 %, respectively). Toxicity tests were conducted on these soils

  2. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land-use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolia grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land-use. The total of sixteen soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG, native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG, groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG. Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were −24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, −24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, −25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and −26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxylalkanoic acids and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60–70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10–20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolia grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot vs. root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for global carbon cycle since root derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  3. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Xu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolian grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land use. A total of 16 soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were -24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, -24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, -25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and -26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxyalkanoic acids) and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60-70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10-20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolian grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot- versus root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for the global carbon cycle since root-derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  4. Soil organic matter dynamics under different land-use in grasslands in Inner Mongolia (northern China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Wu, W.; Xu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We examined bulk soil properties and molecular biomarker distributions in surface soils from Inner Mongolia grasslands in order to understand the responses of soil organic matter to different land-use. The total of sixteen soils were collected from severely degraded grassland by overgrazing (DG), native grassland without apparent anthropogenic disturbance (NG), groundwater-sustaining grassland (GG) and restored grassland from previous potato cropland (RG). Compared to NG, soil organic carbon content was lower by 50% in DG, but higher by six-fold in GG and one-fold in RG. The δ13C values of soil organic carbon were -24.2 ± 0.6‰ in DG, -24.9 ± 0.6‰ in NG, -25.1 ± 0.1‰ in RG and -26.2 ± 0.6‰ in GG, reflecting different degradation degrees of soil organic matter or different water use efficiencies. The soils in DG contained the lowest abundance of aliphatic lipids (n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids and α-hydroxylalkanoic acids) and lignin-phenols, suggesting selective removal of these biochemically recalcitrant biomarkers with grassland degradation by microbial respiration or wind erosion. Compared to NG, the soils in GG and RG increased ω-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 60-70%, a biomarker for suberin from roots, and increased α-hydroxylalkanoic acids by 10-20%, a biomarker for both cutin and suberin. Our results demonstrate that the groundwater supply and cultivation-restoration practices in Inner Mongolia grasslands not only enhance soil organic carbon sequestration, but also change the proportions of shoot vs. root-derived carbon in soils. This finding has important implications for global carbon cycle since root derived aliphatic carbon has a longer residence time than the aboveground tissue-derived carbon in soils.

  5. Vegetation pattern variation, soil degradation and their relationship along a grassland desertification gradient in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Guo, Yirui; Yun, Jianying; Wang, Shaokun; Miyasaka, Takafumi

    2009-09-01

    The Horqin Sandy Land is one of the most severely desertified regions in northern China. Plant communities and soil conditions at five stages of grassland desertification (potential, light, moderate, severe and very severe) were selected for the study of vegetation pattern variation relating to soil degradation. The results showed that vegetation cover, species richness and diversity, aboveground biomass (AGB), underground biomass, litter, soil organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), electrical conductivity, very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) content and silt (0.05-0.002 mm) content decreased with the desertification development. Plant community succession presented that the palatable herbaceous plants gave place to the shrub species with asexual reproduction and sand pioneer plants. The decline of vegetation cover and AGB was positively related to the loss of soil organic C and total N with progressive desertification ( P < 0.01). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that plant community distribution, species diversity and ecological dominance had the close relationship with the gradient of soil nutrients in the processes of grassland desertification. These results suggest that grassland desertification results in the variation of vegetation pattern which presents the different composition and structure of plant community highly influenced by the soil properties.

  6. Insecticide residues in bats along a land use-gradient dominated by cotton cultivation in northern Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechert, Christin; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit; Djossa, Bruno A; Fahr, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Many regions in Africa are currently being converted from subsistence to cash crop farming such as cotton. Agricultural intensification is usually accompanied by increased use of pesticides, which can have an impact on non-target organisms. Bats are particularly sensitive to insecticide loads while providing substantial ecosystem services as predators of herbivorous insects. In this study, pesticide residues in bats in a landscape in northern Benin were investigated, which spanned a land use gradient from an agricultural zone dominated by cotton farms, through a buffer zone, and into a national park. Insecticides used in cotton cultivation, such as endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, flubendiamide, and spirotetramat, as well as persistent insecticides such as bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and aldrine, were analysed. Insecticide residues detected in bats comprised DDT, endosulfan, and their corresponding transformation products. Maximum concentrations in the sampled bats were 11.2 mg/kg lipid of p,p'-DDE (median: 0.0136 mg/kg lipid) and 0.797 mg/kg lipid of β-endosulfan (median: below detection limit [DL]). While insecticide concentrations were below lethal concentrations our data suggest that DDT had probably been recently used in the study region, and larger scale use would pose an increased risk for bat populations due to the high biomagnification of DDT.

  7. Coldest Temperature Extreme Monotonically Increased and Hottest Extreme Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-05-01

    Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface temperature, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum temperature anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum temperature anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest temperature extremes since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas, 1891-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In cooperation with the Harris–Galveston Subsidence District, Fort Bend Subsidence District, and Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and calibrated the Houston Area Groundwater Model (HAGM), which simulates groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2009. Withdrawal of groundwater since development of the aquifer system has resulted in potentiometric surface (hydraulic head, or head) declines in the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments.

  9. Agricultural Mechanization and Its Impacts on Land Use and the Food Basket in the Northern Savannah of Ghana: Insights from Navrongo in the Upper Easta Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kansanga, Moses Mosonsieyiri

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder agriculture in the northern savannah of Ghana is largely rain-fed, with limited facilities for irrigation. The difficulty with the use of crude hand-held farm inputs (e.g. cutlass, axe, hoe, etc.) to cultivate vast farmlands expeditiously have meant that farmers are compelled to prepare their fields timely and plant in a strategic manner with the onset of rainfall to minimize crop failure. Land preparation and crop cultivation at specific periods in relation to the observed rainfa...

  10. Effects of dune stabilization on vegetation characteristics and soil properties at multiple scales in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAn Zuo; XueYong Zhao; ShaoKun Wang; Xin Zhou; Peng Lv; Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological patterns and processes in dune ecosystems have been a research focus in recent years, however information on how dune stabilization influences vegetation and soil at different spatial scales is still lacking. In this study, we measured vegetation characteristics and soil properties across three spatial scales (10, 100 and 1,000 m2) along gradient dune stabi-lization stages (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune and fixed dune) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. Vegetation cover over all scales significantly increased with degree of dune stabilization, as well as species richness and C/N ratio at 10 m2 scale. Species richness significantly increased with the increase in measured scales at each stage of dune stabilization and was higher in fixed dune than that in mobile dune and semi-fixed dune at 100 and 1,000 m2 scales. Over all scales, aboveground biomass was lower in mobile dune than that in semi-fixed dune and fixed dune, and soil organic C, total N, EC, very fine sand and silt+clay contents were higher in fixed dune than those in mobile dune and semi-fixed dune. These results suggest that along the gradient dune stabilization, species richness has strong spatial scale-dependence, but vege-tation cover, aboveground biomass and soil properties is generally scale independent (i.e., the pattern of response is con-sistent across all scales). Effect of dune stabilization on vegetation and soil over all spatial scales results in the positive correlation among vegetation cover, species richness, biomass, soil organic C, total N, C/N, EC, very fine sand and silt+clay along the gradient dune stabilization. In addition, species richness at the smallest scale (10 m2) has more sensitive response to dune stabilization. Thus, the monitoring strategies at small scales are essential to detect changes of species diversity in semiarid dune ecosystems.

  11. Integrated approaches to restore gullies in land prone to soil piping: innovations from the drylands of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Moulaert, Lys; Van Damme, Alexander; Haile, Mitiku; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Multiple on-site and off-site effects of gully erosion threaten sustainable development, which is especially evident in dryland environments. To control soil erosion by gullying, various soil and water conservation measures have been developed, of which check dams are the most common. Where soil piping occurs, soil and water conservation measures have limited effect on gully stabilization, and check dams easily collapse. Therefore, new integrated approaches are needed to control gully erosion induced by soil piping. Here, a subsurface geomembrane dam is proposed as an innovative measure to reduce subsurface flow in soil pipes near gullies. Application of such a dam in Northern Ethiopia, resulted in a decrease of gully erosion rates in Vertisols, and a rising water table in the intergully areas near the gully channel. The consequence of this effect for agriculture near gully channels is the reduction of soil desiccation and hence, increased crop yields in the intergully areas near the gully channels. With the gully filling and stabilizing, runoff water could be diverted into adjacent land, offering additional benefits to the local communities. Here, the runoff diversion was done into a vegetation protection site, in order to enhances biomass production, especially tree growth. Moreover, a water collection pound was created to make water available in the prolonged dry season. These interventions support additional economical activities such as beekeeping and the establishment of a tree nursery. With the multiple on-site and off-site benefits of the integrated approach, local communities have a better guarantee of investment return and livelihood improvement, increasing their support to gully rehabilitation schemes. Keywords: Crop, Subsurface dam, Soil and water conservation, Tree growth, Vertisol, Dryland.

  12. Daily snow cover estimation from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Polar Pathfinder data over Northern Hemisphere land surfaces during 1982-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxu; Fernandes, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The Global Climate Observing System has identified the need for systematic global daily snow cover data sets over land. Current in situ snow cover data sets have limited spatial coverage while satellite-based snow cover records have either limited historical extent or limited temporal and spatial resolution because of cloud cover or specific sensor availability. NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data offers nearly complete daily global coverage of the Northern Hemisphere, extending back to the early 1980s with successors slated to continue into the next decade. In this paper, we apply a new algorithm, Snowcover, to estimate daily snow cover, including periods of cloudy conditions, from AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) data over Northern Hemisphere land surfaces. This new snow cover product is compared to snow cover estimates derived from long-term in situ snow depth measurements over Canada and the northern Eurasia. The APP snow cover maps showed an 80% agreement rate or better at 95% of the in situ sites. This performance was comparable to the agreement of MODIS 0.05 degree snow cover products over the same sites; although the MODIS product was only retrieved ˜20% of the time corresponding to clear sky conditions in contrast to over 95% of the time with the APP snow product. The almost continuously temporal and spatial coverage for the past 23 years from 1982 to 2004 over Northern Hemisphere makes the new daily snow cover product especially suitable for analysis of large-scale patterns of spring snowmelt in association with variability of circumpolar climate and ecological parameters.

  13. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...... to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  14. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1946-era and 2005-era classifications of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This data...

  15. Climate change is the primary driver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) range expansion at the northern extent of its range; land use is secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, Kimberly L; Boutin, Stan

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the relative influence of multiple mechanisms driving recent range expansion of non-native species is essential for predicting future changes and for informing adaptation and management plans to protect native species. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been expanding their range into the North American boreal forest over the last half of the 20th century. This has already altered predator-prey dynamics in Alberta, Canada, where the distribution likely reaches the northern extent of its continuous range. Although current white-tailed deer distribution is explained by both climate and human land use, the influence each factor had on the observed range expansion would depend on the spatial and temporal pattern of these changes. Our objective was to quantify the relative importance of land use and climate change as drivers of white-tailed deer range expansion and to predict decadal changes in white-tailed deer distribution in northern Alberta for the first half of the 21st century. An existing species distribution model was used to predict past decadal distributions of white-tailed deer which were validated using independent data. The effects of climate and land use change were isolated by comparing predictions under theoretical "no-change between decades" scenarios, for each factor, to predictions under observed climate and land use change. Climate changes led to more than 88%, by area, of the increases in probability of white-tailed deer presence across all decades. The distribution is predicted to extend 100 km further north across the northeastern Alberta boreal forest as climate continues to change over the first half of the 21st century.

  16. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  17. Mapping Land Subsidence Related to Underground Coal Fires in the Wuda Coalfield (Northern China Using a Small Stack of ALOS PALSAR Differential Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu Pan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires have been found to be a serious problem worldwide in coal mining reserves. Coal fires burn valuable coal reserves and lead to severe environmental degradation of the region. Moreover, coal fires can result in massive surface displacements due to the reduction in volume of the burning coal and can cause thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass particularly cracks and fissures. The Wuda coalfield in Northern China is known for being an exclusive storehouse of prime coking coal as well as for being the site of occurrence of the maximum number of known coal fires among all the coalfields in China and worldwide, and is chosen as our study area. In this study, we have investigated the capabilities and limitations of ALOS PALSAR data for monitoring the land subsidence that accompanies coal fires by means of satellite differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR observations. An approach to map the large and highly non-linear subsidence based on a small number of SAR images was applied to the Wuda coalfield to reveal the spatial and temporal signals of land subsidence in areas affected by coal fires. The DInSAR results agree well with coal fire data obtained from field investigations and thermal anomaly information, which demonstrates that the capability of ALOS PALSAR data and the proposed approach have remarkable potential to detect this land subsidence of interest. In addition, our results also provide a spatial extent and temporal evolution of the land subsidence behavior accompanying the coal fires, which indicated that several coal fire zones suffer accelerated ongoing land subsidence, whilst other coal fire zones are newly subsiding areas arising from coal fires in the period of development.

  18. 中国北方未来50年土地利用变化模拟%Modelling scenarios of land use change in northern China in the next 50 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春阳; 李景刚; 史培军

    2005-01-01

    Modelling scenarios of land use change and their impacts in typical regions are helpful to investigate the mechanism between land use and ecological systems and process the land use allocation under the ecological security. A system dynamics (SD) model with the aim to modelling scenarios of land use change and assessing ecological impact in northern China in the next 50 years is developed here. The accuracy assessment with the historic data from 1990 to 2001 indicated the SD model is robust. After the different "what-if' scenarios controlled by GDP, population, market, and technology advancement were built, the different scenarios of land use change in northern China from 2000 to 2050 were simulated with their ecological impact assessed. The result suggested that such factors as GDP, population, market and technology have a strong relationship with land use structural change in northern China. It also indicated that such measures as strict controlling of population increase, importing some food to keep the supply-demand balance in the region, and improving agricultural technology will be the guarantee of regional sustainable development with fast economic growth and the obvious land use structural improvement at the same time.

  19. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  20. Increased terrestrial to ocean sediment and carbon fluxes in the northern Chesapeake Bay associated with twentieth century land alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, C.; Cronin, T. M.; Willard, D.; Halka, J.; Kerhin, R.

    2008-01-01

    We calculated Chesapeake Bay (CB) sediment and carbon fluxes before and after major anthropogenic land clearance using robust monitoring, modeling and sedimentary data. Four distinct fluxes in the estuarine system were considered including (1) the flux of eroded material from the watershed to streams, (2) the flux of suspended sediment at river fall lines, (3) the burial flux in tributary sediments, and (4) the burial flux in main CB sediments. The sedimentary maximum in Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen marked peak land clearance (~1900 a.d.). Rivers feeding CB had a total organic carbon (TOC)/total suspended solids of 0.24??0.12, and we used this observation to calculate TOC fluxes from sediment fluxes. Sediment and carbon fluxes increased by 138-269% across all four regions after land clearance. Our results demonstrate that sediment delivery to CB is subject to significant lags and that excess post-land clearance sediment loads have not reached the ocean. Post-land clearance increases in erosional flux from watersheds, and burial in estuaries are important processes that must be considered to calculate accurate global sediment and carbon budgets. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  1. 1983-2001年中国北方的耕地变化与驱动力%Understanding cultivated land dynamics and its driving forces in northern China during 1983-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春阳; 李景刚; 王圆圆

    2005-01-01

    Based on the long-term serial NOAA/NDVI dataset during 1983-1999 and SPOT/VGT dataset in 2001, the land use/cover change information in the 13 provinces of northern China was extracted based on the analysis of the cultivated landscape characteristics at first, then the effects of human activities on cultivated land process were explored by GIS and the driving forces of cultivated land change were investigated. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The constant increase of weak ecological function land as desert and cultivated land and the decrease of the ecological function land of forest and shrub were the main characteristics of the land use/cover change in the 13 provinces from 1983 to 1999, which showed the effects on the ecological adjustment function. However, such situations were changed to some extent in the 2000s because of the eco-construction policy of the government. (2) From 1983 to 2001, the Barycenter of cultivated land tended to move from northeast to southwest with the topography and transportation situations being the main influences on the cultivated land distribution. It is found that the cultivated land use intensity decreased noticably with the increase of distance from the main communication arteries. (3) The improvement of the people's living standard is closely related with the cultivated land change. The structural adjustment in the agricultural land caused by economic development and the improvement of the people's living standard is an important factor affecting the cultivated land change in northern China from 1983 to 2001.

  2. Property rights and social uses of land in the Portuguese Northern Province in India (1534-1739)

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Susana Münch

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the regulation of land rights in Bassein and Daman during the 200 years these territories were under Portuguese rule. Based on primary and secondary sources, I argue that local elites played a significant role in shaping the prazos system, a topic yet insufficiently explored by the literature. The paper is organized as follows. The first section outlines the pre-existent land tenure system, which was largely based on the iqtāʿ, a wide-spread institution in the ...

  3. 76 FR 64376 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal land management agencies to conduct long-range transportation planning in a manner that is consistent with metropolitan planning organizations and state departments of transportation planning. With...: http://www.fws.gov/pacific/planning/ . We also have a limited number of printed and CD-ROM copies...

  4. Global sea-level rise is recognised, but flooding from anthropogenic land subsidence is ignored around northern Manila Bay, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S; Siringan, Fernando P

    2006-03-01

    Land subsidence resulting from excessive extraction of groundwater is particularly acute in East Asian countries. Some Philippine government sectors have begun to recognise that the sea-level rise of one to three millimetres per year due to global warming is a cause of worsening floods around Manila Bay, but are oblivious to, or ignore, the principal reason: excessive groundwater extraction is lowering the land surface by several centimetres to more than a decimetre per year. Such ignorance allows the government to treat flooding as a lesser problem that can be mitigated through large infrastructural projects that are both ineffective and vulnerable to corruption. Money would be better spent on preventing the subsidence by reducing groundwater pumping and moderating population growth and land use, but these approaches are politically and psychologically unacceptable. Even if groundwater use is greatly reduced and enlightened land-use practices are initiated, natural deltaic subsidence and global sea-level rise will continue to aggravate flooding, although at substantially lower rates.

  5. Identification of land surface temperature and albedo trends in AVHRR Pathfinder data from 1982 to 2005 for northern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, M.; Forkel, M.; Schmullius, C.; Hese, S.; Hüttich, C.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    The arctic regions are highly vulnerable to climate change. Climate models predict an increase in global mean temperatures for the upcoming century. The arctic environment is subject to significant changes of the land surface. Especially the changes of vegetation pattern and the phenological cycle i

  6. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  7. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  8. Cumulate xenoliths from Mt. Overlord, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: A window into high pressure storage and differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Cristina; Gaeta, Mario; Armienti, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The alkaline basaltic magmas at Mt. Overlord (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) entrained abundant ultramafic xenoliths (wehrlites, clinopyroxenites and hornblendites). Textures, bulk rock compositions, mineral chemistry and thermobarometric calculations indicate that the xenoliths represent cumulates that crystallised at the mantle-crust boundary. In particular, the major and trace element compositions of the bulk rocks and minerals indicate that the Mt. Overlord cumulates were formed through processes of crystal fractionation that affected hydrous basanitic magmas. Some of the xenoliths have textural features that suggest a lengthy (> 13 Myr) post-emplacement history at relatively low temperatures (1050-1100 °C) and high pressures (0.8 to 1.4 GPa) and that their primary parental melts were therefore related to the earliest phases of Cenozoic magmatism. These processes produced a "wet and hot deep zone" that had a strong influence on the thermochemical evolution of the lower crust beneath Mt. Overlord.

  9. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land-atmosphere-ocean-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kurten, Theo; Baklanov, Aleksander; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Bäck, Jaana; Vihma, Timo; Alekseychik, Pavel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Arnold, Stephen R.; Arshinov, Mikhail; Asmi, Eija; Belan, Boris; Bobylev, Leonid; Chalov, Sergey; Cheng, Yafang; Chubarova, Natalia; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ding, Aijun; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Dubtsov, Sergei; Dyukarev, Egor; Elansky, Nikolai; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Esau, Igor; Filatov, Nikolay; Flint, Mikhail; Fu, Congbin; Glezer, Olga; Gliko, Aleksander; Heimann, Martin; Holtslag, Albert A. M.; Hõrrak, Urmas; Janhunen, Juha; Juhola, Sirkku; Järvi, Leena; Järvinen, Heikki; Kanukhina, Anna; Konstantinov, Pavel; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Komarov, Alexander S.; Kujansuu, Joni; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Laaksonen, Ari; Laurila, Tuomas; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lisitzin, Alexander; Mahura, Alexsander; Makshtas, Alexander; Mareev, Evgeny; Mazon, Stephany; Matishov, Dmitry; Melnikov, Vladimir; Mikhailov, Eugene; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nigmatulin, Robert; Noe, Steffen M.; Ojala, Anne; Pihlatie, Mari; Popovicheva, Olga; Pumpanen, Jukka; Regerand, Tatjana; Repina, Irina; Shcherbinin, Aleksei; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Sipilä, Mikko; Skorokhod, Andrey; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Su, Hang; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Sun, Junying; Terzhevik, Arkady Y.; Timofeyev, Yuri; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Zaytseva, Nina; Zhang, Jiahua; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo; Hari, Pertti; Christen Hansson, Hans; Matvienko, Gennady G.; Kasimov, Nikolai S.; Guo, Huadong; Bondur, Valery; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-11-01

    The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX), a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/" target="_blank">https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/). PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land-atmosphere-aquatic-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  10. Good for a national cemetery: questions of land use and an 1888 Botanical Expedition across Northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, lumbermen logged the virgin pine forests of northern Michigan. The assumption was that the "plow would follow the axe," and agriculture would dominate the region as it did in the southern half of the state. When farming did not quickly take root, William James Beal and Liberty Hyde Bailey led an expedition of scientists and journalists on a trip across northern Michigan in June 1888 to collect botanical samples, to find a site for a state forest reserve, and to recommend appropriate farming enterprises. This essay contends that without a key reforestation advocate in charles Garfield the explorers focused too much on the questions related to botany and agriculture.While agriculture would ultimately thrive in some parts of the cutover, much of the region was unsuitable for intensive farming. The failure of the scientists to convey these limits adequately in newspaper articles and subsequent reports allowed for their work to be used by agricultural boosters throughout the region. The result was a cycle of erosion, fire, and farm abandonment that proved to be a political problem in Michigan for the first three decades of the twentieth century.

  11. Subsoil Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability to Land Use Change Across a Network of Seven Experimental Sites in the US Northern Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, S.; Rothstein, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report the depth distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at experimental sites in the Northern Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota) spanning a range of textural and geochemical environments. We also determined the vulnerability of SOC and SIC to the disturbance caused land-use change (conversion of old fields to short-rotation woody crop plantations). The experimental network consists of seven bioenergy plantations established in 2009-2010 in idled grass fields using herbicide and tillage. These study sites exhibit differences in soil texture (controlled largely by the type of glacial overlay) and geochemistry (controlled by the regional lithology including shale, basalt, limestone, sandstone and calcareous sandstone), providing the opportunity to gain insight into regional physical and chemical determinants of soil C storage. We conducted intensive soil sampling campaigns to a depth of 1 m prior to land conversion and at 4 years post-disturbance, to determine the depth profile and response of soil C storage as a function of land use and regional edaphic attributes. The proportion of subsoil SOC (stored at a depth greater than 25 cm) ranged from 33 to 50% of whole-profile SOC (to 1 m) prior to land conversion. Soils developed from calcareous parent materials also had significant SIC stocks despite the humid climate promoting carbonate weathering. The SIC stocks made up to half of the total soil C to a depth of 1 m. Measurable carbonates occurred throughout the profile, possibly due to upwards biological translocation mechanisms, but were most abundant at depths greater than 50 cm. Preliminary analyses indicate that SOC decreased in the topsoil following land-use change. These topsoil losses were offset by subsoil gains at sites with reactive mineralogy. The SIC stocks showed re-distribution following disturbance and were likely subject to accelerated weathering. Taken together, these results indicate

  12. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  13. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Nkumbaan, Samuel N; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds' association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved 'fame' possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites.

  14. Uso das terras da parte norte da bacia do Rio Descoberto, Distrito Federal, Brasil Land use in the northern region of the descoberto river watershed, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Alves Amaral Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o uso das terras da porção norte da Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Descoberto, englobando as microbacias dos Córregos Barrocão, Bucanhão e Capão da Onça, com auxílio de técnicas de geoprocessamento. Elaborou-se o mapa de uso das terras a partir de processamentos da imagem de satélite SPOT 4, obtida em 2003, por meio do software ENVI 3.6. Posteriormente, verificou-se a adequabilidade do uso das terras, com base em técnicas de cruzamento e operações de tabulação cruzada entre os mapas de uso e aptidão agrícola das terras, utilizando-se o software ArcView 8.3, permitindo a geração do mapa de adequabilidade de uso das terras. Pelos resultados, constatou-se que a maior parte da área estudada a utilização das terras está abaixo do seu potencial agrícola, caracterizando sustentabilidade da utilização dos recursos naturais, particularmente solos.This work had the objective to evaluate the land use in the northern region of the Environmental Protection Area of Descoberto River, which encompasses the watersheds of the streams Barrocão, Bucanhão and Capão da Onça, accomplished with the support of geoprocessing techniques. A land use map of the area was produced through analysis and treatment of SPOT 4 satellite images, obtained in 2003, using the software ENVI 3.6. Then, the adequation of land use was checked using cross-tabulation between the maps of present and potential use for agriculture, with the software ArcView 8.3, allowing development of a map of land use suitability. The results showed that most of the area has been used under its agricultural potential, characterizing sustainability in the use of the natural resources, particularly of the soils.

  15. 1989-2003年中国北方土地覆被变化%Land cover dynamic changes in northern China:1989-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月臣

    2008-01-01

    The 13 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in northern China are located in latitude 31°-54°N and longitude 73°-136°E including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei,Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Xinjiang, where environments are fragile. In recent years, the eco-environmental problems such as vegetation destruction, desertification and soil erosion etc. become serious because of climate change and unreasonable human activities. In this paper, landscape pattern and its evolution in northern China from 1989 to 2003 was investigated by the combined use of RS and GIS based on the basic theory and method of landscape ecology. Land use/cover maps of the study area in 1989, 1999 and 2003 were produced by using 1 km monthly NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and SPOTNGT Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset from national climate bureau of China which were geo-registered to Lambert azimuthal equal-area map projection and were used in the paper.Landscape evolution in the area over the study period was investigated by two methods: (a)the changes of various landscape metrics were analyzed using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS; (b) the transition matrix of landscape patch types was calculated with the help of the RS and GIS software. The results showed that from 1989 to 2003,the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition. The diversity index and evenness index increased during the period, which means that the landscape pattern tended to be diversified and even. The fragmentation index of grassland, forestland and water areas also increased significantly. This showed that the distribution and structure of forestland, grassland and water areas had been changed greatly during the period, especially grassland which became more and more fragmentized, and its fragmentation index increased from 19

  16. Conservation of northern bobwhite on private lands in Georgia, USA under uncertainty about landscape-level habitat effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J.E.; Moore, C.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Hamrick, R.G.; Cooper, R.J.; Thackston, R.E.; Carroll, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale habitat enhancement programs for birds are becoming more widespread, however, most lack monitoring to resolve uncertainties and enhance program impact over time. Georgia?s Bobwhite Quail Initiative (BQI) is a competitive, proposal-based system that provides incentives to landowners to establish habitat for northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Using data from monitoring conducted in the program?s first years (1999?2001), we developed alternative hierarchical models to predict bobwhite abundance in response to program habitat modifications on local and regional scales. Effects of habitat and habitat management on bobwhite population response varied among geographical scales, but high measurement variability rendered the specific nature of these scaled effects equivocal. Under some models, BQI had positive impact at both local farm scales (1, 9 km2), particularly when practice acres were clustered, whereas other credible models indicated that bird response did not depend on spatial arrangement of practices. Thus, uncertainty about landscape-level effects of management presents a challenge to program managers who must decide which proposals to accept. We demonstrate that optimal selection decisions can be made despite this uncertainty and that uncertainty can be reduced over time, with consequent improvement in management efficacy. However, such an adaptive approach to BQI program implementation would require the reestablishment of monitoring of bobwhite abundance, an effort for which funding was discontinued in 2002. For landscape-level conservation programs generally, our approach demonstrates the value in assessing multiple scales of impact of habitat modification programs, and it reveals the utility of addressing management uncertainty through multiple decision models and system monitoring.

  17. Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (pplanting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience

  18. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  19. Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based on δ13C of speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2011-05-01

    The surface temperature changes for the last 4000 years in northern inland Iberia (an area particularly sensitive to climate change) are determined by a high resolution study of carbon stable isotope records of stalagmites from three caves (Kaite, Cueva del Cobre, and Cueva Mayor) separated several tens of kilometers away in N Spain. Despite the local conditions of each cave, the isotopic series show a good overall coherence, and resulted to be strongly sensitive to surface temperature changes. The record reflects alternating warmer and colder intervals, always within a temperature range of 1.6 °C. The timing and duration of the intervals were provided by 43 230Th- 234U (ICP-MS) ages. Main climatic recognized periods are: (1) 3950-3000 yr BP: warm period punctuated by cool events around ~ 3950, 3550 and 3250 yr BP; (2) 2850-2500 yr BP cold interval (Iron Age Cold Period); (3) 2500-1650 yr BP moderate warm period (Roman Warm Period), with maximum temperatures between 2150 and 1750 yr BP; (4) 1650-1350 yr BP cold interval (Dark Ages Cold Period), with a thermal minimum at ~ 1500 yr BP; (5) 1350-750 yr BP warm period (Medieval Warm Period) punctuated by two cooler events at ~ 1250 and ~ 850 yr BP; (6) 750-100 yr BP cold period (Little Ice Age) with extremes occurring at 600-500 yr BP, 350-300 yr BP, and 150-100 yr BP; and (7) the last 150 years, characterized by rapid but no linear warming (Modern Warming). Remarkably, the presented records allow direct comparison of recent warming with former warm intervals such as the Roman or the Medieval periods. That comparison reveals the 20th century as the time with highest surface temperatures of the last 4000 years for the studied area. Spectral analysis of the time series shows consistent climatic cycles of ~ 400, ~ 900 and ~ 1300 yr, comparable with those recognized in the North Atlantic marine record, the Greenland ice cores, and other terrestrial records for the middle-late Holocene, suggesting common climate forcing

  20. Factors affecting distribution of microbiotic crusts in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China,from July to August of 2005 to provide a scientific evaluation of the grain-for-green project,including its soil and water conservation and other ecological benefits for the region.The distribution of microbiotic crusts were studied,while human disturbance,aspect,topography,vegetation structure and other factors affecting it were obtained from the analysis of survey data from 78 sample plots.Results show that crust coverage is larger on lessdisturbed plots than on highly-disturbed ones,on northfacing plots than on south-facing ones and on gully-slopes than on ridge-slopes.Coverage increases with herbal coverage and trees can provide better conditions for distribution of crusts than shrubs.Therefore,crust coverage is larger in herb-dominated plots than in tree-dominated ones and crusts in shrub-dominated plots are smaller.However,we made no progress in our study on deciding how slope degrees and herb species affect the distribution of crusts.We believe that more studies are necessary for a further exploration of the relationship between them.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  2. Actual Evapotranspiration in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin (Northern Iraq Using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL and Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jassas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing dependence on groundwater requires a detailed determination of the different outputs and inputs of a basin for better water management. Determination of spatial and temporal actual evapotranspiration (ETa, in this regard, is of vital importance as there is significant water loss from drainage basins. This research paper uses the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL, as well as the water balance, to estimate the spatial and temporal ETa in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, Northern Iraq. To compensate for the shortage in rainfall, and to irrigate summer crops, farmers in this basin have been depending, to a large extent, on groundwater extracted from the underlying unconfined aquifer, which is considered the major source for both domestic and agricultural uses in this basin. Rainfed farming of wheat and barley is one of the most important activities in the basin in the winter season, while in the summer season, agricultural activity is limited to small rice fields and narrow strips of vegetable cultivation along the Al-Khazir River. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images (TM5 acquired on 21 November 2006, 9 March 2007, 5 May 2007, 21 July 2007, and 23 September 2007 were used, along with a digital elevation model (DEM and ground-based meteorological data, measured within the area of interest. Estimation of seasonal ETa from periods between satellite overpasses was computed using the evaporative fraction (Ʌ. The water balance approach was utilized, using meteorological data and river hydrograph analysis, to estimate the ETa as the only missing input in the predefined water balance equation. The results of the two applied methods were comparable. SEBAL results were compared with the land use land cover (LULC map. The river showed the highest ETa, as evaporation from the free-water surface. Rice fields, irrigated in the summer season, have a high ETa in the images, as these fields are immersed in water during June, July and August

  3. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  4. Transforming Tourists and "Culturalising Commerce": Indigenous Tourism at Bawaka in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lloyd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increasing interest in Indigenous tourism in Australia. Policies in Australia often use the rhetoric of sustainability, but position Indigenous tourism as a means for economic growth and development (Whitford & Ruhanen, 2010. This study shows that interpersonal relationships, cultural and social interactions, and learning are key to achieving the goals of Indigenous tourism providers or “hosts,” and to the experiences of tourists. This article explores tourist experiences of activities run by the Indigenous-owned tour company Bawaka Cultural Enterprises (hereafter BCE in North East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. BCE is an example of an Indigenous tourism business that aims to achieve social change by sharing of Indigenous ways of being, knowledges, and practices with non-Indigenous people during tours, whilst also ensuring that the business is sustainable and manageable for the family who runs it. In this sense, BCE’s tourism activities can be understood as an attempt to “culturalise commerce,” rather than commercialising culture (Bunten, 2010. In this article, we contribute to growing literature on transformative learning theory and tourism by considering tourists’ narratives of their experiences with BCE. We focus on the way in which tourists are transformed by an increased connection to their hosts and their country. We argue that BCE’s activities consciously introduce different ways of being to tourists and visitors. A growing awareness, understanding, and respect for these ways of being can inspire a sense of collective purpose and identity, and a deep emotional response to tours. Connection, however, is not always smooth and easy. Central to the process outlined in Mezirow’s (1978 transformative learning theory are encounters and engagements with other people and different and unfamiliar contexts, which may lead to disorienting feelings and experiences. We argue that the practical aspects of being at

  5. On spatial and temporal variation of land surface moisture in Northern Tibetan%藏北高原土壤湿度时空变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅新; 宋春桥; 钟新科

    2012-01-01

    使用2009年DOY(Day of Year)145~288时段与2001~2010年夏季(DOY 161~240时段)的Terra/MODIS 16d合成的植被指数产品数据MOD13 A2和8d合成的地表温度(Land Surface Temperature,TLs)产品数据MOD11 A2,构建TLs~Iev( Enhanced Vegetation Index,Iev)特征空间,从而得到了条件温度植被干旱指数(Temperature Vegetation Drought Index,ITVD)反映的藏北土壤湿度空间分布.对藏北高原2009年植被生长季内土壤湿度的季节性变化及2001~2010年夏季土壤湿度的年际变化特征进行分析,研究结论表明:随着植被盖度的增大,干、湿边斜率逐渐变小,植被对环境温度的变化具有缓冲效应;藏北高原土壤湿度的季节性变化明显,主要受温度、降水、植被覆盖和冻土过程等季节性变化的影响;近10年研究区内土壤湿度有轻微的旱化趋势,但不同气候区内的年际变化表现不一致;气温表现不同程度的显著升温趋势,部分站点的降水有不显著减少趋势,其它站点降水表现为年际波动,而区域统计的ITVD值年际波动与站点气温的变化大体一致.%Using the enhanced vegetation index (IEV) and land surface temperature (TLS) dataset derived from the TERRA/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) synthetic products MOD13 A2 (16-day composite, in DOY (Day of Year) 161 -240 between 2001 and 2010, and DOY 145 -288 in 2009) and M0D11 A2 (8-day composite, the same items of products with MODI3 A2), the TLS-IEV two-dimensional characteristic space can be constructed. The ITVD (temperature-vegetation drought index) is then extracted to indicate the top-soil moisture of northern Tibet. The intra-annual and inter-annual variations of soil moisture on the northern Tibetan Plateau are respectively analyzed for the 2009 growing season and the summer seasons (2001 —2010). The results show that the intra-annual variation of TLS-Iev slope and the slopes of dry-edge and wet-edge will be smaller with the

  6. Individual and social optima of rural land allocation by stakeholders: a case study on eco-fragile areas of northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.L.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Zhu, X.; Dries, L.K.E.; Huang, Jikun

    2016-01-01

    Divergences in preferences over the allocation of rural land among stakeholders are getting stronger with the decrease of rural land area. This paper analyses the degree of divergences among different stakeholders over the allocation of four types of land: cultivated land, grassland, forest and othe

  7. The Northern Territory Intervention: The Symbolic Value of ‘Authentic’ Indigeneity and Impoverishment, and the Interests of the (Progressive Liberal Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Rolls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In August 2007 the federal Howard government announced The Northern Territory National Emergency Response, known more prosaically as ‘The Intervention’. This initiative was hurriedly implemented to address a broad range of issues highlighted in ‘The Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse’. The report bore a title expressing a traditional Yolngu belief (north east Arnhem Land that for some unexplained reason had been translated into a language from the central desert. This was paraphrased in the emotive and cloying English subtitle ‘Little Children are Sacred,’ and it is the latter by which the report is widely known. This paper does not canvass the ‘Intervention’ itself, but a specific albeit long standing issue it brought to the fore. Implicitly if not explicitly, many critics find in the ostensibly classical Aboriginal cultures of remote and impoverished communities an authentic indigeneity. For a range of interests arising most often external to the communities concerned, there is a reluctance to countenance any prospective change that could stem the replenishing of these supposed wellsprings of originary authenticity. In this respect both settler and Aboriginal critics have found common ground in arguing that they represent the interests of the communities on whose behalf they supposedly speak. In elaborating these issues the following paper discusses the divisions between opponents and supporters of the ‘emergency response’, the tension between those with investments in the issues of rights, racism, and identity, and the interests of those experiencing the impoverished conditions of so many remote and regional communities. Central to these debates is the fraught issue of who can speak for whom, with an Aboriginal elite finding their authority as spokespeople challenged by those whose interests they presume to represent. These issues help explain why

  8. The Role of Deforestation in the Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization: Lessons for the Current Land Use Management in Northern Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Oglesby, R. J.; Pielke, R. A.; Sever, T. A.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    143.3mm compared to 142.7 mm for current conditions (a negligible decrease of 0.4% over the forested scenario). However, domain averaged dry season rainfall in the Maya lowlands decreases to 128.9mm for the deforested scenario, a decrease in 9.7% over current conditions. The model simulations suggest that to-date deforestation has played an insignificant role in creating drier conditions in the Mayan lowlands, except in the regions in northern Guatemala and adjacent Mexico. However, continued deforestation that would be representative of those prior to the collapse of the Maya civilization in the region can be expected to lead to additional decreases in dry season precipitation throughout the entire region by about 10mm to 100mm. Improper land use management in this region could lead to futures catastrophes for the modern humans similar

  9. Oxo-amphiboles in mantle xenoliths: evidence for H2O-rich melt interacting with the lithospheric mantle of Harrow Peaks (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, S.; Bonadiman, C.; Biagioni, C.; Comodi, P.; Coltorti, M.; Zucchini, A.; Ottolini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Amphiboles are the most widespread hydrous metasomatic phases in spinel-bearing mantle peridotites from Harrow Peaks (HP), Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica). They occur both in veinlets and disseminated in the peridotite matrix (preferentially associated with clinopyroxene and spinel grains). Four amphibole crystals were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and micro-Mössbauer spectroscopy; these crystal-chemical data allow to constrain upper mantle conditions during growth of these amphiboles and the role of volatile circulation during metasomatic processes in the Antarctic region. The HP amphiboles have low Mg# values (69.3-84.1), high TiO2 (2.74-5.30 wt%) and FeOtot contents (3.40 to 6.90 wt%). The Fe3+/Fetot ratios are significantly high (0.53-0.66). The W-site is mainly occupied by O2- (0.984-1.187 apfu) plus OH (H2O: 0.70-1.01 wt%) and minor F (0.04-0.24 wt%) and Cl (0.03-0.08 wt%). Consequently, HP amphiboles are actually characterized by a significant oxo component. The aH2O values were calculated at 1.5 GPa by dehydration equilibrium equations written as H2O-buffering equilibria among end-member components of amphibole and coexisting peridotite phases. Three out of four HP amphibole-bearing peridotites have values of aH2O ranging from 0.122 to 0.335; whereas one sample has aH2O remarkably higher (0.782) approaching an ideal H2O basalt solubility. The HP fO2 values, determined by the olivine-spinel-orthopyroxene oxygeobarometer (ΔQFM = -1.77 : +0.01), are remarkably different from those calculated on the basis of the amphibole dehydration equilibrium and the application of the dissociation reaction (ΔQFM = -2.60 : +6.8). The high aH2O and the extremely high fO2 values, determined by the oxy-amphibole equilibrium with respect to the redox conditions recorded by the co-existing anhydrous minerals (close to QFM buffer), revealed that: i) the amphibole

  10. Use of synthetic aperture radar for recognition of Coastal Geomorphological Features, land-use assessment and shoreline changes in Bragança coast, Pará, Northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza-Filho Pedro W. M.; Paradella Waldir R.

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are being used more extensively than ever before for geoscience applications in the moist tropics. In this investigation, a RADARSAT1-1 C-HH SAR image acquired in 1998 was used for coastal mapping and land-cover assessment in the Bragança area, in the northern Brazil. The airborne GEMS 1000 X-HH radar image acquired in 1972 during the RADAM Project was also used for evaluating coastal changes occurring over the last three decades. The research has confirm...

  11. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... hand, the government is also working to increase national economic growth by promoting private-sector investment in both agriculture and forest resources – two sectors that compete for the same areas intended for protection. This thesis explores how these contradictory drivers of land-use changes...... are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...

  12. Use of synthetic aperture radar for recognition of Coastal Geomorphological Features, land-use assessment and shoreline changes in Bragança coast, Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Filho Pedro W. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images are being used more extensively than ever before for geoscience applications in the moist tropics. In this investigation, a RADARSAT1-1 C-HH SAR image acquired in 1998 was used for coastal mapping and land-cover assessment in the Bragança area, in the northern Brazil. The airborne GEMS 1000 X-HH radar image acquired in 1972 during the RADAM Project was also used for evaluating coastal changes occurring over the last three decades. The research has confirmed the usefulness of RADARSAT-1 image for geomorphological mapping and land-cover assessment, particularly in macrotidal mangrove coasts. It was possible to map mangroves, salt marshes, chenier sand ridges, dunes, barrier-beach ridges, shallow water morphologies and different forms of land-use. Furthermore, a new method to estimate shoreline changes based on the superimposition of vectors extracted from both sources of SAR data has indicated that the shoreline has been subjected to severe coastal erosion responsible for retreat of 32 km² and accretion of 20 km², resulting in a mangrove land loss of almost 12 km². In an application perspective, orbital and airborne SAR data proved to be a fundamental source of information for both geomorphological mapping and monitoring coastal changes in moist tropical environments.

  13. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  14. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): Towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land?atmosphere?ocean?society continuum in the Northern Eurasian region

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lappalainen; Kerminen, V.; Pet?j?, T.; T. Kurten; Baklanov, A.; Shvidenko, A.; B?ck, J.; Vihma, T.; P. Alekseychik; Arnold, S.; M. Arshinov; E. Asmi; Belan, B.; Bobylev, L.; Chalov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via the albedo change, carbon sources and sinks, as well as atmospheric aerosol production via biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that the global trade activities, demographic movement and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a ne...

  15. Burning crop residues under no-till in semi-arid land, Northern Spain - effects on soil organic matter, aggregation, and earthwor populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virto, I.; Imaz, M.J.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Bescansa, P.

    2007-01-01

    Stubble burning has traditionally been used in semi-arid land for pest and weed control, and to remove the excess of crop residues before seeding in no-tillage systems. We compared differences in soil properties in a long-term (10 years) tillage trial on a carbonated soil in semi-arid north-east Spa

  16. Landscape transformations in savannas of northern South America: Land use/cover changes since 1987 in the Llanos Orientales of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Ruiz, M.H.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Tansey, K.; Berrio, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the land use/cover changes (LUCC) in the savanna region of Llanos Orientales in Colombia. LUCC was determined from multitemporal satellite imagery (Landsat and CBERS) from 1987 to 2007. Systematic landscape transitions were identifie

  17. Participatory Simulation of Land-Use Changes in the Northern Mountains of Vietnam: the Combined Use of an Agent-Based Model, a Role-Playing Game, and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Castella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the remarkable economic growth that resulted from the doi moi (renovation reforms was based largely on the rural households that had become the new basic unit of agricultural production in the early 1990s. The technical, economic, and social changes that accompanied the decollectivization process transformed agricultural production, resource management, land use, and the institutions that defined access to resources and their distribution. Combined with the extreme biophysical, technical, and social heterogeneity encountered in the northern mountains, these rapid changes led to the extreme complexity of the agrarian dynamics that today challenges traditional diagnostic approaches. Since 1999, a participatory simulation method has been developed to disentangle the cause-and-effect relationships between the different driving forces and changes in land use observed at different scales. Several tools were combined to understand the interactions between human and natural systems, including a narrative conceptual model, an agent-based spatial computational model (ABM, a role-playing game, and a multiscale geographic information system (GIS. We synthesized into an ABM named SAMBA-GIS the knowledge generated from the above tools applied to a representative sample of research sites. The model takes explicitly into account the dynamic interactions among: (1 farmers' strategies, i.e., the individual decision-making process as a function of the farm's resource profile; (2 the institutions that define resource access and usage; and (3 changes in the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. The next step consisted of coupling the ABM with the GIS to extrapolate the application of local management rules to a whole landscape. Simulations are initialized using the layers of the GIS, e.g., land use in 1990, accessibility, soil characteristics, etc., and statistics available at the village level, e.g., population, ethnicity, livestock, etc. At each

  18. LAND USE AND ITS DRIVING FORCES AT VILLAGE SCALE IN NUJIANG RIVER WATERSHED OF NORTHERN YUNNAN%怒江云南北段的村域土地利用及驱动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉莉; 杨文忠; 孟广涛; 范勋承

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces analysis is imperative in the study of land-use/cover changes (LUCC). We carried out a study on LUCC and its driving forces at village scale. Study pilots were 4 communities adjacent to the Gaoligongshan Nature Reserve in Nujiang River watershed of Northern Yunnan. SPOT-5 remote sensing images combining with field investigation were used to classify land use types and create classification system. Land use patterns and characteristics at village scale were analyzed by using Fragstats 3. 3. Meanwhile, socioeconomic data were obtained through household survey, semi-structure interviewing, and questionnaires. Relationship between land use pattern and socioeconomic status was built to analyze driving forces of LUCC. Results showed that land use was driven mainly by natural conditions,villagers' education level, and social customs. At the same time, households' cash incomes depended strongly upon extensive land uses. Study results provide quantified information for land resource management and village economic development in Nujiang River Watershed of Northern Yunnan. Methods we adopt can be used as a reference for LUCC studies at local scale.%驱动力分析是土地利用研究的重要内容。选择怒江流域北段高黎贡山自然保护区周边4个自然村为研究对象,应用高分辨率SPOT-5遥感影像数据,结合实地逐块核实,对土地利用/覆被进行分类,并建立土地利用类型分类系统,用Fragstats 3.3分析得到村域土地利用格局和特征;同时,采用入户调查、半结构访谈和问卷调查等方法,获得的村域详细社会经济数据,建立土地利用与社会经济之间的关联,分析村域土地利用的驱动力。结果显示:村域土地利用主要受自然条件、受教育程度、生活习俗等因子的驱动,且经济收入主要依赖于粗放的土地利用。研究结果能为怒江云南北段的土地资源合理利用和村域经济发展提供数据支持;研究方法

  19. Collective rights in a modernizing North - on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sandberg

    2008-07-01

    and constitutional changes in the modern world. The way such changes take place is nowadays more often through the incorporation of various forms of treaties and international charters into national legislation rather than direct negotiations between sovereign states and indigenous ‘tribes’, ‘clans’ or ethnic minority groups. However, when it comes to acknowledging the rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the lands which they traditionally occupy, these seem to be among the most difficult constitutional processes modern states can undertake. Thus they not only take much longer time than the granting of civil and political rights, but they also involve complex analytical exercises in order to understand the processes connected to the settling of indigenous land claims. This article analyses one such process in a nested and multi-tier system with parallel initiatives for institutional change.

  20. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation...... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...

  1. The pedological heritage of the Dolomites (Northern Italy): Features, distribution and evolution of the soils, with some implications for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Diana Maria; Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2011-12-01

    Since 1997, the Department of Environmental Sciences of Ca' Foscari University of Venice has undertaken numerous research projects aimed at deepening understanding of pedogenic processes in the Dolomites, and at highlighting the fundamental contribution that soil science can give to the conservation of natural resources and achieve sustainable management of mountain ecosystems. A total of several hundred profiles have been described, analyzed and mapped. This paper reports the results from the analysis of pedo-environmental characters of profiles developed from different parent materials, at altitudes between 1300 m and 2900 m and in different conditions of slope, exposure and vegetation cover. Soil forming factors, landforms and land surfaces have been interpreted to understand the soil-landscape in the mapped areas and to develop a qualitative model of soil geography into the Dolomites scenery. The application of land evaluation methods in some of the investigated territories that are subjected to intensive tourist fluxes revealed some criticisms. Collected results also highlighted the high environmental heterogeneity of soils of the Dolomites.

  2. The use of LIDAR as a potential data source for the creation of digital elevation models and estimation of wetness in northern peat lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abdulghani; Pilesjö, Petter; Person, Andreas; Roulet, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using high resolution LIDAR data for the creation of accurate digital elevation models covering peat lands. The secondary aim is to get an indication of the possibility to use these digital elevation models for estimations of wetness in peat lands areas. The scale problem, i.e. the spatial resolution of the DEM, will be discussed for both objectives. Our hypothesis is that very accurate digital elevation models can be created, that these, by applying an appropriate algorithm reflect wetness in a good way, and that the estimated wetness values are highly dependant on resolution. In DEMs creation, three different interpolation methods are used with four different search radius and six selected cell resolution. We create new MATLAB code program to have full control on the interpolation process. One of the big challenges is how to deal with the huge number of data points. Processing such with computational complexity On2 was very slow. Adding a spatial index key (morton value) speed up the searching process and makes the search in nlog2n time. The new code was successful to deal with the huge number of data with a reasonable time. An important outcome from this study is the statistical comparison between different DEMs.

  3. An integrated assessment of Porcupine caribou seasonal distribution, movements, and habitat preferences for regional land use planning in northern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Ryder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to improve understanding of Porcupine caribou herd distribution, movements, and habitat preferences to assist with developing a regional land use plan for the North Yukon Planning Region, Yukon Territory. Three different methods were used to identify current and historical patterns of caribou distribution and habitat preferences within the region to prioritize conservation areas. Two of the approaches focused on incorporating information on caribou distribution and migrations from scientific and local knowledge, while the third focused on identifying and mapping habitats suitable for supporting caribou. Local knowledge dating back to the 1930s and two decades of satellite telemetry data confirmed that most of the planning region is used by the Porcupine caribou herd and highlighted areas of concentrated use. Maps of suitable winter habitat derived from expert opinion ratings of habitat use did not agree with the other information sources. The local knowledge and satellite telemetry analyses were used to identify spatially explicit priority areas for caribou conservation and the results were applied to develop conservation recommendations for a draft regional land use plan. The plan will be submitted to government approval bodies for review in the spring of 2007. The success in implementing conservation strategies for the Porcupine caribou herd will be reviewed and evaluated following adoption of a final approved plan.

  4. Atmospheric distribution and seasonality of airborne polyfluorinated compounds. Spatial and temporal concentration variations from ship- and land-based measurements in Northern Germany, the Atlantic Ocean, and Polar Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin

    2010-07-01

    In order to assess the distribution of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) in ambient air on temporal as well as spatial scales, air samples were taken during several sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Permanent air monitoring stations close to Hamburg (Germany) as well as several research vessels operating in the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Baltic Sea were used as sampling platforms. Airborne PFC were sampled using glass fibre filters (particlebound PFC) and a sandwich polyurethane foam and the polymer resin XAD-2 (gaseous PFC). Samples were extracted by acetone: methyl-tert-butyl ether (1:1) or methanol and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Airborne PFC were detected in all of the collected air samples, even in Antarctica, with southern hemispheric concentrations being lower than those of the northern hemisphere which provides further evidence that this emerging group of contaminants is subject to atmospheric long-range transport from mainly northern hemispheric source regions towards remote areas. While the persistent perfluorinated acids (PFCA, PFSA) were only determined at concentrations below 1 pg m{sup -3} in the particulate phase, their neutral volatile precursors (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE)) occurred predominantly in the gas phase at concentrations that were usually two orders of magnitude higher and ranged from 4.5 pg m{sup -3} in the Southern Ocean to 335 pg m{sup -3} in source regions in ship-based samples and from 17 to 972 pg m{sup -3} in land-based samples. Furthermore, PFC in ambient air varied strongly over time as observed during a 14 months lasting sampling campaign close to Hamburg. Emissions from nearby local sources as well as long-range transport of PFC emitted from diffuse sources west and southwest of the sampling sites were considered as explanation for the observed pattern. (orig.)

  5. Simulations of Hydrologic Response to Land Cover Change in the Laohahe Watershed in Northern China%老哈河流域土地覆被变化水文响应模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 任立良; 刘晓帆; 袁飞

    2011-01-01

    Over the recent 30 years, durative drought has been threatening the environment in northern China, resulting in water resources scarcity, environmental degradation, and desertification. To make an attempt to investigate the effects of land use and land cover changes on hydrological processes in northern China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. Direct evaporation from intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration, and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration (PET) model, which constituted input to the distributed hydrological model for computation of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff. The Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. Land cover maps of 1980 and 1996 were used for characterizing vegetation cover over the area controlled by the Taipingzhuang hydrologic station in the Laohahe watershed during the periods of 1964-1979 and 1990-1999, respectively.Results of the runoff simulation show that saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. The model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data of the corresponding period. The streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these two land cover scenarios. Effects of land use/cover change on "green water" and "blue water" were quantified by comparing calculated PET, AET, and runoff under different land cover scenarios. Blue water is referred to as visible liquid water moving above and below the ground as surface or groundwater runoff, respectively. Blue water can thus be in the form of surface runoff in rills, gullies and rivers, or water stored in reservoirs and lakes, or water flowing underground,recharging water tables and aquifers. Green water is defined as the invisible vapor moving to the atmosphere, including

  6. Comparing results of high-resolution palaeoecological analyses with oral histories of land-use of a Sami reindeer herding pen in northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerling, Ilse M.; Edwards, Kevin J.; Schofield, James E.; Aronsson, Kjell-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer herding is a key component of Sami culture, but much is still unknown about its development both in the recent and more distant past due to the limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence. Pollen analysis provides a potential tool to supplement this lack of evidence through the detection and evaluation of landscape responses to the impact of reindeer pastoralism. In the boreal forests of northern Fennoscandia, localised forest clearance to create space for dwellings and livestock is presented in the palynological record as a decline in arboreal taxa and an increase in herbaceous taxa favoured by the increased light levels, resistance to soil trampling, and/or the increased soil nutrient levels provided by reindeer dung, domestic waste and ash from smudge fires. Oral histories of 20th century forest Sami reindeer herding at an abandoned reindeer herding pen (renvall) at Akkajävi, northern Sweden (66.9° N, 21.1° E), are integrated here with high-resolution palaeoecological reconstructions of the local vegetation to: (i) assess the sensitivity and value of various palynomorphs to the impacts of reindeer pastoralism; (ii) investigate whether the patterns seen in the palaeoecological record match the timing of activity at and abandonment of the site as understood from these oral histories. A peat monolith collected from within an annexe of the renvall was pollen analysed at a high resolution, supplemented with coprophilous fungal spore (livestock grazing/gathering), microscopic charcoal ([anthropogenic] burning) and sedimentological (loss-on-ignition; soil erosion) records. For the first time, this has allowed for the identification of multi-decadal cycles of use and abandonment of a renvall in the pollen record, but more obviously so in its coprophilous fungal spore archive, with the pattern and timing of changes at the site confirming events previously known only from oral histories. A second, paired profile was collected from the fen

  7. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  8. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  9. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  10. Effectiveness of soil and water conservation structures in reducing runoff and soil loss for different land use and slope gradients: Case study from northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanwesemael, Bas; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Teka, Daniel; Deckers, Jozef; Goosse, Tom; Maetens, Willem; Nyssen, Jan; Hallet, Vincent; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and recurrent drought are the major threats to rain-fed agriculture in the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands. To mitigate drought and to ensure food security in the Tigray region, water harvesting using reservoirs for irrigation development has become a priority since 1990. However, the success of water harvesting in reservoirs is limited due to the reduced inflow. As a result, less area is irrigated than originally planned. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of soil and water conservation (SWC) structures in reducing runoff and soil loss under different land use types and slope gradients. Six runoff measuring sites, corresponding to three slope gradients (5%, 12% and 16%) were established for cropland and rangeland in the Mayleba catchment (Tigray). In total, 21 large runoff plots (with lengths of 60 to 100 m and widths of 10 m) were monitored daily for runoff production and soil loss during the main rainy season (July-September) in 2010. For each site in cropland, three plots were installed and treated with stone bunds and stone bunds with trenches in addition to a control plot. At each site in rangeland four runoff plots were installed: a plot treated with stone bunds, a plot treated with trenches, a plot treated with stone bunds and trenches as well as a control plot. Overall uncertainties on the runoff and soil loss measurements were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results show that the seasonal runoff coefficient (RCs) was much higher for rangeland (0.38 < RCs < 0.50) compared to RCs-values for cropland (0.11 < RCS < 0.15). Seasonal soil loss (SLs) values were five to six times larger on rangeland (28.6 < SLs < 50.0 ton ha-1) compared to that for cropland (4.6 < SLs < 11.4 ton ha-1). All tested SWC structures are effective in reducing runoff and soil loss compared to control plots. However, reduction in RCs were relatively much smaller than reductions in SLs. Trenches and stone bunds with

  11. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to

  12. Experimental Research on Suitable Sand Thickness in Coal Gangue Waste Land in Sandy Area of Northern Shaanxi Province%陕北沙区煤矸石山适宜的覆沙厚度试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国平; 毕银丽; 李莹; 李军保; 张继平

    2016-01-01

    [目的]解决陕北沙区煤矸石废弃地占地面积大,植被恢复困难和治理造价高的问题。[方法]利用野外试验,设计半隐蔽沙蒿沙障(2 m ×2 m)下的3种覆沙厚度(30,50和70 cm)共3种类型的处理。4种乡土灌木树种沙地柏(Sabina chinensis )、长柄扁桃(A mygdalus pedunculata)、紫穗槐(A morpha f ruti‐cosa)和蒙古莸(Caryopteris mongholica)进行对比试验。[结果]成活率、保存率、新稍生长量和地径变化随着覆沙厚度的增加,其指标均有所提高;多因素方差分析表明种间存在极显著差异,在0.05的显著水平下,紫穗槐与其它植物种均存在显著差异,蒙古莸与沙地柏间存在显著差异;在0.01显著水平下,蒙古莸、长柄扁桃和沙地柏间差异性不显著;覆沙30 cm 与覆沙50 cm ,覆沙70 cm 间均存在显著差异,覆沙50 cm和覆沙70 cm 间差异性均达不到显著水平。[结论]综合因素条件下,覆沙50 cm是该区域煤矸石山土地复垦及生态恢复植被需要基质的最佳选择。%[Objective] To solve the issues of large coal gangue waste land area and high cost in vegetation res‐toration in sandy area of Northern Shaanxi Province .[Methods] Three sand thickness (30 ,50 and 70 cm) and a semi‐covered A rtemisia sand barrier(2 m × 2 m) were set .Four different kinds of native shrub species including Sabina chinensis ,A mygdalus pedunculata ,A morpha f ruticosa and Caryopteris mongholica were selected for the experiments .[Results] The survival rate ,saving rate ,the amount of new growth and diameter had improved due to the increase of sand thickness .Multi‐factor variance analysis showed that there were significant differences among different species .Significant differences were found between A . f ruticosa Linn and other types ,and between C .mongholica Bunge and S .vulgaris(p < 0 .05 ) .There were no significant difference between C .mongholicaBunge ,A

  13. Foundational sources and purposes of authority in Madayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Kelly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Madayin system that continues to be maintained by the Aboriginal Yolngu people of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory is a holistic system of legal, religious and political authority. A recent increase in publically available information has enabled a broader audience to learn about the Madayin system. This article analyses the foundational sources of authority and purpose in the Madayin system.

  14. A regional initiative to reduce skin infections amongst aboriginal children living in remote communities of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross M Andrews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linked to extreme rates of chronic heart and kidney disease, pyoderma is endemic amongst Aboriginal children in Australia's Northern Territory (NT. Many of those with pyoderma will also have scabies. We report the results of a community-based collaboration within the East Arnhem Region, which aimed to reduce the prevalence of both skin infections in Aboriginal children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Commencing September 2004, we conducted an ecological study that included active surveillance for skin infections amongst children aged <15 years in five remote East Arnhem communities over a three year period. Screening was undertaken by trained local community workers, usually accompanied by another project team member, using a standard data collection form. Skin infections were diagnosed clinically with the aid of a pictorial flip chart developed for the purpose. Topical 5% permethrin was provided for age-eligible children and all household contacts whenever scabies was diagnosed, whilst those with pyoderma were referred to the clinic for treatment in accordance with current guidelines. In addition, annual mass scabies treatment (5% permethrin cream was offered to all community residents in accordance with current guidelines but was not directly observed. Pyoderma and scabies prevalence per month was determined from 6038 skin assessments conducted on 2329 children. Pyoderma prevalence dropped from 46.7% at baseline to a median of 32.4% (IQR 28.9%-41.0% during the follow-up period - an absolute reduction of 14.7% (IQR 4.7%-16.8%. Compared to the first 18 months of observation, there was an absolute reduction in pyoderma prevalence of 18 cases per 100 children (95%CI -21.0, -16.1, p

  15. Roots of Resistance: Land Tenure in New Mexico, 1680-1980. Monograph Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar

    Focusing on land tenure patterns from 1860 to 1980, this study is a chronological socioeconomic interpretation of the history of northern New Mexico. Chapter One describes the development of the Pueblo Indian land use system prior to colonization. Chapter Two deals with the first colonial period (1598-1693) of land tenure in northern New Mexico.…

  16. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  17. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  18. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  19. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  20. Combining top-down and bottom-up modelling approaches of land use/cover change to support public policies: Application to sustainable management of natural resources in northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castella, J.C.; Suan Pheng Kam,; Dang Dinh Quang,; Verburg, P.H.; Chu Thai Hoanh,

    2007-01-01

    Over recent years, the scientific community has developed different modelling methodologies of land use/cover change (LUCC) depending on their intended use, and also on the scale of investigation, disciplinary background and scientific tradition of the research teams. Consequently, each LUCC model h

  1. Modelling of the effect of a sea-level rise and land subsidence on the evolution of the groundwater density in the subsoil of the northern part of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, J.L. van der; Minnema, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Province of Friesland is conducting a study on possible future changes in the surface water and groundwater systems of Friesland. The aim of the study is to assess what changes might be caused by land subsidence and a rise in sea level - focusing in particular on the salinization of the surface

  2. Exploring land use change in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang

    perceptions of land use changes became apparent, however, already in the beginning of 2000, when researchers within the Land Change Science community raised their concerns about general narratives of field expansions that were assumed to progress linearly and be solely driven by population growth. Calls...... for more research on Sahelian land use changes have thus multiplied as the complexity and sometimes intricate processes of land change became apparent, and especially, the need for novel approaches that combine different perspectives has continuously been highlighted. As part of the interdisciplinary...... research program LASYRE (LAnd SYstem REsilience), this thesis responds to thes calls by applying a portfolio of different perspectives to the study of Sahelian land use changes and the causal mechanisms behind them. It examines the land use changes that have taken place in Northern Burkina Faso over...

  3. Petroleum exploration developments in the Northern Territory during 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Petroleum exploration areas under Northern Territory Administration to the end of 1982, can be split into three separate zones. Onshore exploration is administered under the Petroleum (Prospecting and Mining) Act; exploration in waters adjacent to the Northern Territory is administered by joint arrangement with the Commonwealth under the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act; offshore exploration in the Ashmore and Cartier Islands area is administered on behalf of the Commonwealth under the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act. Of course, on declaration of the amended Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act, the Territorial Sea will become a fourth discrete area.

  4. Land and Forest Management by Land Use/ Land Cover Analysis and Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS are the most effective tools in spatial data analysis. Natural resources like land, forest and water, these techniques have proved a valuable source of information generation as well as in the management and planning purposes. This study aims to suggest possible land and forest management strategies in Chakia tahsil based on land use and land cover analysis and the changing pattern observed during the last ten years. The population of Chakia tahsil is mainly rural in nature. The study has revealed that the northern part of the region, which offers for the settlement and all the agricultural practices constitutes nearly 23.48% and is a dead level plain, whereas the southern part, which constitute nearly 76.6% of the region is characterized by plateau and is covered with forest. The southern plateau rises abruptly from the northern alluvial plain with a number of escarpments. The contour line of 100 m mainly demarcates the boundary between plateau and plain. The plateau zone is deeply dissected and highly rugged terrain. The resultant topography comprises of a number of mesas and isolated hillocks showing elevation differences from 150 m to 385 m above mean sea level. Being rugged terrain in the southern part, nowadays human encroachment are taking place for more land for the cultivation. The changes were well observed in the land use and land cover in the study region. A large part of fallow land and open forest were converted into cultivated land.

  5. Analysis on the geostrategic value of the grand Northern China from the perspective of the struggle between Asian land powers%亚洲陆权博弈视角下中国北方地缘战略价值论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜哲元

    2016-01-01

    古代东亚大陆往往会形成农耕民族(中原王朝)与游牧渔猎民族(北方陆权力量)相并立的二元格局,在两者对抗与博弈的数千年历史中,中国北方地区为保持“中华文明有机体”的生存和发展发挥了不可替代的作用。目前中国北方地区仍然具有重要的地缘战略价值。根据“国家有机体”理论的基本内核,借鉴亚洲陆权博弈的历史经验,结合新形势和新条件来研究中国北方地缘形势,可以将它划分为五个相互交叉和包含的部分———核心地带、上游地带、四个走廊地带、七大要区和两大枢区。这五个部分有着不同的特点和战略价值,就目前的形势而言,东北要区和新疆要区在安全和发展上与中国的外向地缘政治和地缘经济形势存在着重大关联,它们的战略意义更为突出。%There often formed a bipolar structure that the farming people ( Central Plains) VS the hunting and fishing tribes and nomads (northern land power) in ancient east Asia. During this period, the Northern China plays an irreplaceable role in sustaining the survival and development of the“Chinese civilization organism”and it is still crucial under current condition. Ac-cording the basic theory of “national organism”, drawing on the history of struggle between land powers in east Asia, based on the new condition and sit-uation, the Northern China can be divided into five parts: a core region, an upstream belt, four corridor belts, seven significant regions and two pivot regions. The character and function of them are different and the geostrategic value of the northeast region and Xinjiang is becoming more and more important in this age.

  6. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  7. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  8. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  9. 北非地区海-陆热力差异与夏季江淮流域旱涝的关系%Relationships between the anomalies of sea-land thermal contrast in the northern Africa areas and the flood and drought in the Changjiang and Huaihe river areas in summer.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 钱永甫

    2008-01-01

    基于NCEP/NCAR月均再分析资料和中国743站降水资料,根据夏季江淮流域51 a(1954-2004年)区域旱涝指数的年代际变化特征,确定北非地区作为研究的关键区.分析发现,关键区的地表温度异常在冬季具有较好的持续性,冬季北大西洋涛动是导致这种异常持续性的重要原因之一.通过对前冬北非地区地表温度和夏季江淮流域降水的SVD分析发现:当北非大陆地区偏冷,其西北侧的海区偏暖时,江淮流域夏季的降水将整体偏多;反之,江淮流域夏季的降水整体偏少.进一步研究发现,北非地区海陆地表温度异常的对比,要比其中单一海洋或陆地区域的异常对夏季江淮流域的旱涝有更好的指示能力.文中定义了一个海陆热力差异指数来表征这种地表温度异常的对比程度,该指数和夏季江淮流域旱涝指数呈较好的正相关关系,并且对夏季江淮流域极端旱涝年份也有较好的指示,认为该指数可以作为一个指示江淮流域整体旱涝事件的预报因子.%The flood and drought in Changjiang and Huaihe river (Jianghuai) areas are frequent in summer, especially in July and June, so forecasting the summer flood and drought in Jianghuai areas is always one of key points investigated by meteorologists in China. The previous studies more focused on the skin temperature anomalies in a single area, and paid less attention to the connections between the anomalies of sea-land thermal contrast in northern Africa areas and the flood and drought in Jianghuai areas in summer. In this paper, we investigate such relationships and obtain some preliminary results.By use of the NCEP/NCAR monthly mean re-analysis data and the rainfall data at 743 stations in China, the Northern Africa areas are selected as the key regions according to the interdecadal variability characteristics of the flood and drought index (FDI) during 51 years(1954-2004) in Jianghuai areas in summer. Correlation

  10. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... of the social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  11. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  13. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  14. Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) and Eco-Environment Response to LUCC in Farming-Pastoral Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hui-mei; REN Zhi-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand land use/land cover changes (LUCC) and the eco-environment response to LUCC in farming-pastoral zone of the northern China during the recent twenty years, Baotou prefecture was selected as a case study area for investigation and quantitative evaluation. Technologies of remote sensing (RS), global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), and other statistical methods were employed to implement. Results showed that: (1) During the recent twenty years, the areas of forest lands, grasslands and water were reduced, whereas the areas of other types were enlarged. Parts of forest lands, grasslands, and waters had become farmlands, and about 31.5% of the changed grasslands transferred into unused lands. The newly increased farmlands mainly came from grasslands and unused lands. And the newly increased construction lands mainly came from grasslands and farmlands. (2) Regional eco-environmental quality decreased by 12.6%, for which the land degradation (especially the meadow degeneration) and the developing of the cultivated land were mainly responsible, and their contributions to the regional eco-environment changes were 51.84 and 23.63% respectively. (3) The tendency of LUCC and the coo-environment response to LUCC displayed spatial heterogeneity. It can be concluded that the present agricultural production mode was not sustainable in farming-pastoral zone of northern China. Land degradation, especially meadow degradation induced by over-trarnpling and overgrazing, and developing of cultivated land were mainly responsible for regional eco-environment deterioration. Changing the cultivated land to forest or grass, however, can relieve deterioration of local coo-environment to some extents. And in the farming-pastoral zone in the northern China, evaluating regional coo-environment responses to LUCC was very necessary due to its fragile coo-environments.

  15. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  16. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to build a general understanding and conceptual approach to integrated land management. The conceptual understanding may take the form of a hierarchy of levels. The foundation stone is an overall national land policy. Appropriate cadastral systems support land policies by providing...... for integrated land management includes some educational and professional challenges to be met at the threshold of the third millennium.    In short, it is critical that we prepare the profession as well the educational system to meet the challenges of tomorrow in achieving sustainable urban and rural...... identification of the land parcels and a framework for security of tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate cadastral systems support a wider land administration infrastructure within the areas of land tenure, land value and land use. Appropriate land administration systems then form the basic for sound land...

  17. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  18. Phoenix Landing Site Indicated on Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission landed at 68.2 degrees north latitude, 234.2 degrees east longitude. The far-northern location of the site is indicated on this global view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  20. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  1. Developing land use scenario dynamics model by the integration of system dynamics model and cellular automata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Chunyang; SHI; Peijun; CHEN; Jin; Li; Xiaobing; PAN; Ya

    2005-01-01

    Modeling land use scenario changes and its potential impacts on the structure and function of the ecosystem in the typical regions are helpful to understanding the interactive mechanism between land use system and ecological system. A Land Use Scenario Dynamics (LUSD) model by the integration of System Dynamics (SD) model and Cellular Automata (CA) model is developed with land use scenario changes in northern China in the next 20 years simulated in this paper. The basic idea of LUSD model is to simulate the land use scenario demands by using SD model at first, then allocate the land use scenario patterns at the local scale with the considerations of land use suitability, inheritance ability and neighborhood effect by using CA model to satisfy the balance between land use scenario demands and supply. The application of LUSD model in northern China suggests that the model has the ability to reflect the complex behavior of land use system at different scales to some extent and is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of land use system on ecological system. In addition, the simulated results also indicate that obvious land use changes will take place in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China in the next 20 years with cultivated land and urban land being the most active land use types.

  2. Simulation of the influence of historical land cover changes on the global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Civil Aviation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Yan, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Beijing Normal Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE); Wang, Z. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    In order to estimate biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate during last three centuries, a set of experiments with a climate system model of intermediate complexity (MPM-2) is performed. In response to historical deforestation, the model simulates a decrease in annual mean global temperature in the range of 0.07-0.14 C based on different grassland albedos. The effect of land cover changes is most pronounced in the middle northern latitudes with maximum cooling reaching approximately 0.6 C during northern summer. The cooling reaches 0.57 C during northern spring owing to the large effects of land surface albedo. These results suggest that land cover forcing is important for study on historical climate change and that more research is necessary in the assessment of land management options for climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  3. Modelling land cover change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a 'hot spot' of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land cover change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. In this work a time series dataset of land cover change between 1970 and 2010 is constructed for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The MODIS instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at small regional extent (CLUE-s) modelling framework. Non-spatial estimates of land cover area from national agriculture and forest statistics, available on a state-wise, annual basis, are used as a direct model input. Land cover change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. This dataset will provide an essential input to a high resolution, physically based land surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land cover change on regional climate.

  4. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  5. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  6. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  7. Impacts of changes in climate, land use and land cover on atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Holmes, C. D.; Wu, S.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury is an important pollutant that can be transported globally due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-surface exchange is a major process affecting the cycling of mercury in the global environment and its impacts on food webs. We investigate the sensitivities of the air-surface exchange, atmospheric transport, and budget of mercury to projected 2000-2050 changes in climate and land use/land cover with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We find that annual mean Hg(0) dry deposition flux over land could increase by up to 20% in northern mid-latitudes by 2050 due to increased vegetation and foliage density. Climate change can significantly affect both the wet deposition and atmospheric chemistry of mercury. In response to the projected climate change, the annual mean wet deposition flux increases over most continental regions and decreases over most of the mid-latitude and tropical oceans. The annual mean mercury wet deposition flux over northern and southern high latitudes increases by 7% and 8% respectively, largely driven by increases in precipitation there. Surface Hg(0) is predicted to increase generally, because high temperatures decrease Hg(0) oxidation by bromine and high moisture increases aqueous Hg(II) photo reduction. The combined effects of projected changes in climate, land use and land cover increase mercury deposition to the continental biosphere and decrease mercury deposition to the marine biosphere.

  8. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  9. Production of a combined land surface data set and its use to assess land-atmosphere coupling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxing; Ma, Zhuguo; Gu, Hongping; Yang, Qing; Zheng, Ziyan

    2017-01-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role in shaping regional climate and its variability. In land-atmosphere coupling study, a fundamental challenge is data limitation, such as the sparsity of long-term land observations and uncertainty in individual model simulations. This study produces a multisource combined land surface data set using a Bayesian model averaging method, for the assessment of land-atmosphere coupling across China. We employ the newly produced soil moisture and evapotranspiration, together with satellite-derived soil moisture and observation-based evapotranspiration to assess spatiotemporal characteristics of the coupling with observed precipitation and temperature. We also define a coupling index to identify region-specific regimes. The results have shown that strong coupling occurs over northern China, particularly in the transition zone between dry and wet climate. Here summer coupling is dominated by land evaporative water storage. Over the southern humid regions and regions at high altitudes, land-atmosphere coupling in summer is characterized by an energy-limited regime. Estimated coupling strengths vary with season and variable used. Precipitation-related couplings are generally stronger in summer; temperature-related couplings are stronger in summer in dry areas but stronger in winter in humid areas. These findings provide a multisource combined representation and cross validation of spatial and temporal characteristics of land-atmosphere coupling across China. The implications are that northern China is a critical region for climate change/variability impact and adaptation assessment.

  10. Aeolian desertification and its control in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian desertification is a kind of land degradation through wind erosion resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in Northern China. To compare the results of remote sensing data in the late 1950s, 1975, 1987, 2000 and 2010, we can summarize that the expansion of aeolian desertified land in Northern China has been accelerated for 5 decades, as its annual expanded rate was 1,560 km2 during the late 1950s and 1975, 2,100 km2 between 1975 and 1988, 3,600 km2 from 1988 to 2000, and -1,375 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The desertified land kept expanding before 2000 and began to get rehabilitated since 2000. The impact of human activity on the aeolian desertification process is much more active than that from natural process which mainly incarnates on land use change (from rangeland to farmland and increased land use intensity (over-cultivation, over-grassing, and over-fuelwood collection. The natural vegetation cover destroyed by the human activities has accelerated the development of aeolian desertification. China has made great progresses in understanding and combating aeolian desertification through decades of effort and there were many projects carried out for the prevention and control purpose. The National Project of Grain for Green Program is the most important one with 1060 counties of 22 provinces involved. The objective is to withdraw 3.67 million ha of dry land farming and degraded steppe, and 5.13 million ha of aeolian desertified land suited to reforestation and re-vegetation will be rehabilitated. There are about 8 million ha of lands suffering from aeolian desertification will be brought under control in the next ten years and 26.67 million ha of windbreaks will be planted. The total investment from the central government is estimated to be 75 billion RMB (11 billion USD.

  11. The global land Cryosphere Radiative Effect during the MODIS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M. G.; Perket, J.

    2015-07-01

    Cryosphere Radiative Effect (CrRE) is the instantaneous influence of snow- and ice-cover on Earth's top of atmosphere (TOA) solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from 4 different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001-2013. We estimate global annual mean land CrRE during this period of -2.6 W m-2, with variations from -2.2 to -3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels, and variations of -2.4 to -2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the Northern Hemisphere effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE peaks at -6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the Southern Hemisphere effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about -0.037 W m-2 (1.4 %) of the global effect, with the majority (94 %) of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Inter-annual trends in the global annual mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative) over large areas of Northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001-2008, our MODIS estimates of the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative) than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though inter-annual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78), indicating that these data are useful in determining longer term trends in land CrRE.

  12. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  13. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society.

  14. Graves, Ancestors and Cement in Land disputes in Acholi and Ikland, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Willerslev, Rane; Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the roles of graves, ancestors and concrete pillars in disputes over land across different land-systems, -conflicts, and territory making in northern Uganda by comparing extended cases between Acholi in Gulu district and Ik in Kaabong district . In the post-conflict Acholi region...

  15. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  16. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  17. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  18. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  19. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  20. Use of Satellite Data to Study the Impact of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change in Madison County Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ayala-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of land/use land cover changes along the northern part of Madison County Alabama are essential for the developers, planners, policy makers and management of government, public and private organizations. Remote sensing was used to analyze and study land-use/land-cover use changes impact on the environment of Madison County Alabama. This study area was selected because it is one of the fastest growing areas in the state of Alabama. The study used data sets obtained from several sources. Remote sensing images, land-use/land-cover use maps, global positioning data. The remote sensing images were LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM images acquired during April 1987 and May 1997. The data was processed and analyzed using MAP-X/RS and ERDAS. Six classes or categories of land-use/land-cover were analyzed to determine changes and the relationship to suburban sprawl. Each method used was assessed and checked in field. Six land use/land cover classes are produced. The overall accuracy for the 1987 image is (78.92% and for the 1997 image is (85.44% Analysis of the images for 1987 and 1997 showed a (26 and 15% increase in the urbanization and industrial development respectively and a decrease in all other classes. The most significant decrease (25% was in the pastures class, however, less significant changes were observed for the water resources and forest. The results from this study could be beneficial to state/county planners, researchers and policy makers.

  1. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes...... and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area...... and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps...

  2. Spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using digitized land use maps of Beijing in 1982, 1992 and 1997 and employing GIS spatial analysis techniques, this paper conducts an empirical study on the spatial differentiation and spatial patterns of urban land use growth in Beijing in the period of 1982-1997. It is observed that urban land use growth in Beijing went beyond the control of urban planning, in terms of the extraordinary high growth rate and undesired spatial pattern. The rate of urban expansion after 1982, which was predominated by growth of industrial land, was extraordinary high compared to its historical period. While its growth centers have been actively shifting toward the northern part, rather than toward the southern and eastern parts as designated by the latest General Plan (1991-2010) of Beijing, its spatial pattern of urban land use growth in general was in distinct concentric sprawl, which seriously violated the General Plan of Beijing.

  3. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  4. Land Type Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the number of acres of various land types found at Kenai National Moose Range. Forestlands are the predominant land type, followed by tundra,...

  5. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  6. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  7. The land management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    paradigm. In many countries, and especially developing countries and countries in transition, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...

  8. Modeling Land Surface Phenology Using Earthlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2005-12-01

    Microwave radiometers have long been used in earth observation, but the coarse spatial resolution of the data has discouraged its use in investigations of the vegetated land surface. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the Aqua satellite acquires multifrequency observations twice daily (1:30 and 13:30). From these brightness temperatures come two data products relevant to land surface phenology: soil moisture and vegetation water content. Although the nominal spatial resolution of these products is coarse (25 km), the fine temporal sampling allows characterization of the diel variation in surface moisture as contained in the uppermost soil layer and bound in the vegetation canopy. The ephermal dynamics of surficial soil moisture are difficult to validate due to the scale discrepancy between the 625 sq km coverage of a single pixel and the sparse network of weather stations. In contrast, canopy dynamics are more readily validated using finer spatial resolution data products and/or ecoregionalizations. For sites in the North American Great Plains and Northern Eurasia dominated by herbaceous vegetation, I will present land surface phenologies modeled using emitted earthlight and compare them with land surface phenologies modeled using reflected sunlight. I will also explore whether some key climate modes have a significant effect on the microwave-retrieved land surface phenologies.

  9. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...... role of ownership and the role of land markets. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  10. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  11. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  12. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  13. Bureau of Land Management Land Grant Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data has been collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at the New Mexico State Office. The initial data source is the statewide...

  14. International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the State Legislature per recommendation...

  15. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  16. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  17. Land use planning: A potential force for retaining habitat connectivity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Shafer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE is perceived to have been isolated from the population in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem for a century. Better land use planning is needed to thwart progressive intra- and inter-ecosystem habitat fragmentation, especially due to private land development. The dilemma of private lands being intermixed in large landscapes is addressed. This review attempts to identify some land use planning levels and tools which might facilitate dispersal by the grizzly bear and other large mammals. The planning levels discussed include national, regional, state, county and municipal, and federal land management agency. Specific potential federal tools mentioned include zoning, Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the Endangered Species Act, beyond boundary authority, land exchanges, less-than-fee acquisition and other incentives, the Northern Rockies Ecosystem Protection Act, and federal land annexation. Besides summarizing existing recommendations, some derived observations are offered.

  18. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  19. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  20. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  1. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  2. Influence of land evapotranspiration on climate variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere with a qualified biosphere(GOALS/LASG) has been used to assess the nature of the physical mechanisms for land-atmos-phere interactions, and the impacts of the Asian/North American land-surface evapotranspirationon the regional and global climate. This sensitivity study suggests that the simulated climate wouldbe relatively sensitive to land surface evapotranspiration, especially over the Asian regions. Theremoval of evapotranspiration in Asia would create a warmer and drier climate to a certain degree.Furthermore, the surface evapotranspiration anomalies would make a substantial contribution tothe formation and variation of subtropical anticyclones through the changes in monsoon precipita-tion and the β-effect, but also make a large contribution to the variations of the atmosphericcirculation in the Northern Hemisphere and even the globe. Therefore, besides the traditionalperception that we have generally emphasized on the influence of subtropical anticyclonesactivities on the boreal summer precipitation over the regions of eastern China, the surfaceevapotranspiration anomalies, however, also have substantial impacts on the subtropicalanticyclones through the changes in monsoon precipitation. For this reason, the variation in theinternal heating sources of the atmosphere caused by the land surface evapotranspiration and thevapor phase change during the boreal summer is an important external factor forcing the weatherand climate

  3. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  4. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  5. Albedo enhancement over land to counteract global warming: impacts on hydrological cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Govindasamy; Nag, Bappaditya [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-09-15

    A recent modelling study has shown that precipitation and runoff over land would increase when the reflectivity of marine clouds is increased to counter global warming. This implies that large scale albedo enhancement over land could lead to a decrease in runoff over land. In this study, we perform simulations using NCAR CAM3.1 that have implications for Solar Radiation Management geoengineering schemes that increase the albedo over land. We find that an increase in reflectivity over land that mitigates the global mean warming from a doubling of CO{sub 2} leads to a large residual warming in the southern hemisphere and cooling in the northern hemisphere since most of the land is located in northern hemisphere. Precipitation and runoff over land decrease by 13.4 and 22.3%, respectively, because of a large residual sinking motion over land triggered by albedo enhancement over land. Soil water content also declines when albedo over land is enhanced. The simulated magnitude of hydrological changes over land are much larger when compared to changes over oceans in the recent marine cloud albedo enhancement study since the radiative forcing over land needed (-8.2 W m{sup -2}) to counter global mean radiative forcing from a doubling of CO{sub 2} (3.3 W m{sup -2}) is approximately twice the forcing needed over the oceans (-4.2 W m{sup -2}). Our results imply that albedo enhancement over oceans produce climates closer to the unperturbed climate state than do albedo changes on land when the consequences on land hydrology are considered. Our study also has important implications for any intentional or unintentional large scale changes in land surface albedo such as deforestation/afforestation/reforestation, air pollution, and desert and urban albedo modification. (orig.)

  6. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater - all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a) the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b) the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c) the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  7. Land surface temperature shaped by urban fractions in megacity region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Fan, Yanguo; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhu, Yuxiang

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of cropland and natural vegetation have been replaced by impervious surfaces during the recent rapid urbanization in China, which has resulted in intensified urban heat island effects and modified local or regional warming trends. However, it is unclear how urban expansion contributes to local temperature change. In this study, we investigated the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) change and the increase of urban land signals. The megacity of Tianjin was chosen for the case study because it is representative of the urbanization process in northern China. A combined analysis of LST and urban land information was conducted based on an urban-rural transect derived from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and QuickBird images. The results indicated that the density of urban land signals has intensified within a 1-km2 grid in the urban center with an impervious land fraction >60 %. However, the construction on urban land is quite different with low-/mid-rise buildings outnumbering high-rise buildings in the urban-rural transect. Based on a statistical moving window analysis, positive correlation ( R 2 > 0.9) is found between LST and urban land signals. Surface temperature change (ΔLST) increases by 0.062 °C, which was probably caused by the 1 % increase of urbanized land (ΔIF) in this case region.

  8. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  9. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa......For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution...

  10. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  11. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  12. Settlement Dynamics In The Northern Fringes Of Port Harcourt Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth in Port Harcourt has been experienced in terms of population and space. However while some settlements in the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis are growing rapidly some are almost stagnant if not shrinking. This work has identified reasons why Port Harcourt is growing towards the north factors for changes in population land-use and infrastructure the magnitude of the changes in population and infrastructure have been identified the role of both the public and private sector in addressing the issue of rapid growth of settlements that are immerging as the bigger settlements in an unplanned and uncontrollable way have been discussed. Questionnaires were administered oral interviews were conducted and personal observations helped in gathering information about the study area. Findings indicates that there is correlation between population and infrastructural development some settlements are densely populated while others are sparsely populated some settlements need facilities that will cause multipliers effect while others need facilities that will serve their basic needs. People are moving to the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis because land is available less expensive and the topography encourages infrastructural development. This work has assessed the dynamics of settlements in the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis by looking at changes in population and infrastructure.

  13. Land Rights at Last!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Norman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 the Wran Government announced an Inquiry to investigate a range of issues including Aboriginal land rights recognition, the causes of Aboriginal social and economic disadvantage, heritage protection and commonwealth and state relations. The Select Committee, chaired by state member Maurie Keane, in its ‘First Report’ that focused on land rights, not only fundamentally changed the way Government’s liaise and consult with Aboriginal people, the Committee unanimously endorsed far-reaching recommendations including the ability to recover land, compensation for cultural loss and three-tier community driven administrative structure. All of this was set in the context of Aboriginal rights to self-determination and fundamental attachment to land as a cultural relationship and historical reality. The movement for land rights was the culmination of many years of land justice activism, shifting policy at the Commonwealth level and wider international movements contesting colonial rule and racism. More specifically the land rights movement in NSW was galvanised in response to the previous Government’s renewed efforts to assimilate Aboriginal people and revoke reserve lands and the limited land rights recognition made possible through the Aboriginal Lands Trust (herein ‘the Trust’. This paper argues a more focused and pronounced campaign emerged in the mid 1970s whereby land rights ‘time had come’ as a result of Aboriginal political activism and the alliances formed with and among left social movements. This movement created the political climate for the Wran Government’s announcement of the Select Committee Inquiry in 1978.

  14. Modelling land use change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, Simon; Mijic, Ana; Buytaert, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a "hot spot" of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land use change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. This work aims to construct a monthly time series dataset of land use change for the period 1966 to 2007 for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality and availability of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) modelling framework, recoded in the R programming language to overcome limitations of the original interface. Non-spatial estimates of land use area published by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) for the study period, available on an annual, district-wise basis, are used as a direct model input. Land use change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. The dataset will provide an essential input to a high-resolution, physically-based land-surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land use change on regional climate.

  15. USDA Northern Plains Regional Climate Hub assessment of climate change variability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers, farmers and forest land owners in the Northern Plains have experienced warmer temperatures (1 to 1.5 degrees F), longer growing seasons (about a week and a half) and generally more precipitation (5 to >15% increases over the eastern 2/3 of this region) over the past twenty years compared t...

  16. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  17. Coming into Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experts say economic restructuring is essential to avoid a possible hard landing IN economic terms,the "lost decade" refers to Japan’s economic stagnation throughout the 1990s after its strong growth in the 1980s. Against the backdrop of a shaky global recovery, concerns have recently grown over a possible hard landing for the Chinese economy,caused by monetary tightening

  18. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    . In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  19. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  20. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  1. LandingNav: Terrain Guided Automated Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to provide a novel and innovative precision landing sensor (LandingNav) for Mars. LandingNav supports space exploration by...

  2. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  3. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  4. From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Steeg, van de J.; Veldkamp, A.; Willemen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and l

  5. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  6. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  7. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  8. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    are the rights inherent to all human beings without discrimination. The “constitution” of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948) stating the universal rights of human beings based on the principle of respect for the individual – rights that can be enjoyed by everyone simple because...... and that every country and jurisdiction needs to ensure that efficient and effective land administration mechanisms are in place to pursue this interaction. Land administration systems should embed a human rights perspective when managing rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. This, in turn, imposes...

  9. Saving Our Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    If the amount of cultivated land continues to shrink, food security and social stability may be at stake, experts say Latest statistics released by the Ministry of Land and Resources show that in the last five years, due to rapid economic development and the frequent adjustment of the agricultural structure, cultivated land declined by 6 million hectares on the Chinese mainland, from 128.27 million hectares in October 2000 to 122.08 million hectares in October 2005, a net annual decrease of 1.23 million ...

  10. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Many of today’s farming systems are composed of purpose-built computerized farming devices such as spraying equipments, harvesters, fertilizer spreaders and so on. These devices produce large amounts of data. In most of the cases, it is essential to store data for longer time periods for analysis...... and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...

  11. New Insights into the Geology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site from Spectral and Morphologic Analysis of the 12-Color Superpan Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, S.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Barnouin-Jha, K.; Bishop, J.; Johnson, J.; McSween, H.; Morris, R.

    2003-07-01

    The Pathfinder landing site contains a second lithology in addition to gray rock, consistent with highlands excavated from beneath a veneer of northern plains. Many rocks have cemented coatings that formed during an early, probably wetter climate.

  12. Sustainable Management of Conurbation Forestsin Northern Hesse (FRG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHULZKER; STOLLS

    2005-01-01

    Today 42% (9 000 km2) of the area of Hesse is covered with forests. The total area of forests has slightly increased since several years. But actually the forests adjacent to the conurbations of Northern Hesse in the vicinity of Kassel in particular and in the Rhein-Main Region surrounding Frankfurt are in a very difficult position. There is big demand for land to be converted into settlements, infrastructure, etc., while there is increasing need for the protective and recreational functions of the forests. Therefore maintenance of existing forests and establishment of new forests are amongst the most important responsibilities of the forest authorities on regional and district level.

  13. The global land Cryosphere Radiative Effect during the MODIS era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryosphere Radiative Effect (CrRE is the instantaneous influence of snow- and ice-cover on Earth's top of atmosphere (TOA solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS, combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from 4 different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001–2013. We estimate global annual mean land CrRE during this period of −2.6 W m-2, with variations from −2.2 to −3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels, and variations of −2.4 to −2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the Northern Hemisphere effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE peaks at −6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the Southern Hemisphere effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about −0.037 W m-2 (1.4 % of the global effect, with the majority (94 % of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Inter-annual trends in the global annual mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative over large areas of Northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001–2008, our MODIS estimates of the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though inter-annual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78, indicating that these data are useful in determining longer term trends in land CrRE.

  14. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  15. Land Use Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses the main types of land use at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Information about geology and water, groundwater, climatic conditions,...

  16. Landings_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Landings data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  17. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  18. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  19. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  20. Mozambique - Urban Land Regularization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This baseline survey was developed for the impact evaluation of activities related to 'improving land access in urban hotspot areas.' The site-specific interventions...

  1. Land evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews non-computerised and computerised land evaluation methods or methodologies, and realises the difficulties to incorporate biophysical and socioeconomic factors from different levels. Therefore, this paper theorises an alternative land evaluation approach, which is tested and elaborated in an agricultural community in the North of Chile. The basis of the approach relies on holistic thinking and attempts to evaluate the potential for improving assumed unsustainable goat manage...

  2. Human Causes of Aeolian Desertification in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian desertification has rapidly developed in the past 50 years in Northern China,covered an area of 0.386 million km2 by 2000,affected nearly 170 million population,and caused the direct and indirect economic loss of about $6.75(U.S.dollar) billion per year.Here we present several lines of evidence to demonstrate that human activities guided by policy shifts have been a major force to drive aeolian desertification via changes in land-use patterns and intensity.It is suggested that the desertification can be curbed or even reversed by adopting prevention and control measures with ecologically sound land-use practices in China.

  3. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  4. Changes in Ecosystem Service Values on the Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; REN Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    The Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province of China covers Yulin, Yan'an, and Tongchuan cities mainly. The kind of physiognomy is complicated and various, including the transitional region of the sand and wind, the hilly-gully fragile region, the pimple mound region from North to South. Large-scale land reclamation projects that are severely affecting these ecosystems have been implemented. In this paper, we reported an investigation to the changes in land use and ecosystem services on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province from 1978 to 2000. We used three LANDSAT TM and/or ETM data sets to estimate the changes in the size of five land-cover/land-use categories, and we also used previously published value coefficients to estimate the changes in the value of ecosystem services delivered by each land category. Finally, we ranked the contribution of various ecosystem functions to the overall value of the ecosystem services, we have estimated that the annual value of the ecosystem services is 56.95 billon RMB yuan in the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province in 2000. In the region, from 1978 to 2000, the economic value of the fixing carbon was higher,the economic value of water conservation was the lowest, but the economic value of the NPP, fixing carbon, and supplying oxygen accounted for above ninety percent of the total value, obviously the vegetation created the biggest ecosystem service value. We can conclude that future land-use policy formulation should give precedence to the conservation of these ecosystems over uncontrolled reclamation, and that further land reclamation should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses.

  5. Rubber Plantation Expansion Related Land Use Change along the Laos-China Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal changes of land use and land cover in Luang Namtha Province in northern part of Laos was analyzed using Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper/ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper images from 1990 to 2010 since the opening of the Boten border adjacent to China. The results showed that: (1 “forest land—cultivated land—grassland” was the primary landscape structure. Woodland was the major land cover type, while paddy field was the dominant land use type replaced by rubber plantation in 2010; (2 since the opening of the border crossings in 1994, the rate and intensity of land use change were accelerated and enhanced gradually, especially in the recent decade. Woodland decreased significantly, while shrubland, rubber plantation and swidden land increased obviously. Rubber plantation and swidden land showed the fastest growth derived from woodland and shrubland, indicating continuous human activities and slash-and-burn farming; and (3 during 1990–2010, swidden land was mainly located in northern mountainous areas with frequently increased changing spatial distribution in the recent decade. Rubber plantation was mainly distributed in the border region of China and Laos with the expansion from the border region into the non-frontier of Laos with Luang Namtha City as the center. Woodland reduction was so obvious along the Kunming-Bangkok highway.

  6. Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

    2012-09-01

    Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

  7. Scaling the land use system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity th

  8. The fertility incentive of land tenure in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon-ferrer, H; Whittington, L A

    1993-12-01

    Ejidos are communal holding groups of redistributed land expropriated (generally without compensation) from large private landowners during Mexico's post-1910 land reform. The model in this study of the "ejidal" system's influence on fertility differs from DeVany and Sanchez in providing more current data and including the following more detailed variables: the land area of ejidos and the number of ejidos, the need for children, male income, female income share, and social security coverage. The data pertains to states rather than municipalities. DeVany and Sanchez found that the ejidal system encouraged fertility, because having more children helped an ejido family retain land rights, increased its chances of gaining additional productive land, and gave it increased political power. Children also provided a means of intergenerational transfer of resources. The estimation results of this study revealed that the total proportion of land held as ejidos had a positive, significant effect on fertility. The ratio of ejidos to total number of farms was negative and significant. There was support for the hypothesis that the impact of ejidos land holdings and area was diminished when ejidos were dominant in the state. Fertility declined with the increase in unpaid workers per hectare of land. Elasticity functions were small: 0.075 on ejidal land, -0.222 on ejidal farms, and -0.045 on workers. A positive significant demographic effect on fertility was illiteracy. Infant mortality and female income share each had a negative, significant effect on fertility. Insignificant variables were male income, social security coverage, and the dummy for northern states. There have been changes in the Mexican ejidal system. These changes and the availability of farm labor are expected to reduce urban and rural fertility differentials.

  9. Does Land Tenure Security Promote Manure Use by Farm Households in Vietnam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing widespread poverty and land degradation, Vietnam started a land reform in 1993 as part of its renovation policy package known as “Doi Moi”. This paper examines the impacts of improved land tenure security, via this land reform, on manure use by farm households. As manure potentially improves soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil surface, it might contribute to improving soil productive capacity and reversing land degradation. Random effect regression models are applied to a panel dataset of 133 farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam collected in 1993, 1998, and 2006. The results confirm that land tenure security has positive effects on manure use, but the levels of influence differ depending on whether the land has been privatized or whether the land title has already been issued. In addition, manure use is also influenced by the number of cattle and pigs, the education level and ethnicity of household heads, farm land size and non-farm income. The findings suggest that speeding up land privatization and titling, encouraging cattle and pig rearing, and improving education would promote manure use in farm production. However, careful interpretation of our research findings is required as land privatization, together with economic growth and population pressure, might lead to overuse of farm inputs.

  10. Effects of historical land cover changes on climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZhengGuo; YAN XiaoDong; YIN ChongHua; WANG ZhaoMin

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of anthropogenic land use on the climate system during the last millennium, a set of experiments is performed with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity--the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM-2). The present paper mainly focuses on biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes. A dynamic scenario of deforestation is described based on changes in cropland fraction (RF99). The model simulates a decrease in global mean annual temperature in the range of 0.09-0.16℃, especially 0.14-0.22℃ in Northern Hemisphere during the last 300 years. The responses of climate system to GHGs concentration changes are also calculated for comparisons. Now, afforestation is becoming an important choice for the enhancement of terrestrial carbon sequestration and adjustment of regional climate. The results indicate that biogeophysical effects of land cover changes cannot be neglected in the assessments of climate change.

  11. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  12. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  13. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  14. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  15. Application and impacts of the GlobeLand30 land cover dataset on the Beijing Climate Center Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Nie, S.; Ju, W.; Yu, L.

    2016-04-01

    Land cover (LC) is a necessary and important input variable of the land surface and climate model, and has significant impacts on climate and climate changes. In this paper, the new higher-resolution global LC dataset, GlobeLand30, was employed in the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM) to investigate LC impacts on the land surface and climate via simulation experiments. The strategy for connecting the new LC dataset and model was to merge the GlobeLand30 data with other satellite remote sensing datasets to enlarge the plant function types (PFT) fitted for the BCC_CSM. The area-weighted up-scaling approach was used to aggregate the 30m-resolution GlobeLand30 data onto the coarser model grids and derive PFT as well as percentage information. The LC datasets of GlobeLand30 and the original BCC_CSM had generally consistent spatial features but with significant differences. Numerical simulations with these two LC datasets were conducted and compared to present the effects of the new GlobeLand30 data on the climate. Results show that with the new LC data products, several model biases between simulations and observations in the BCC climate model with original LC datasets were effectively reduced, including the positive bias of precipitation in the mid-high latitude of the northern hemisphere and the negative bias in the Amazon, as well as the negative bias of air temperature in part of the southern hemisphere. Therefore, the GlobeLand30 data are suitable for use in the BCC_CSM component models and can improve the performance of climate simulations.

  16. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    The environmental history of New Zealand is one of the clearest and most recent examples of the way humans make a home for themselves in newly explored territory. New Zealand was the last major land area in the world to be colonised by people and, given its extraordinary natural history, the first...... as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  17. Connectivity and distant drivers of land change: A case study of land use, land cover, and livelihood changes in Quang Tri, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Eric

    The urban lowland areas of Vietnam have been at the forefront of economic liberalization over the last 30 years, while the more remote mountainous areas of the country have lagged behind. Upland areas in the Northern and Central portions of Vietnam in particular remain largely impoverished and disconnected from broader national and regional markets. To address this economic inequality in the uplands, recent economic development efforts such as the East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) have aimed at expanding road infrastructure to remote areas in Central Vietnam. This study examines the impact of road expansion in the EWEC on a single village in Quang Tri, Vietnam. It draws from social economic data gathered during fieldwork and a historical land cover analysis to address how land use, land cover, and livelihoods have changed in recent decades. Moreover, the paper discusses the distal and proximate drivers of these changes. Findings show that the improved road connectivity provided by new roads has facilitated the transmission of distant market-related drivers into the study area, and that these drivers have fostered significant changes in land use, land cover, and livelihoods.

  18. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  19. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  20. Land Use and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  1. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  2. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  3. A Journey To Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A tourism promotion launched by Northern European countries was held in Shanghai on February 24. Representatives from the tourism authorities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden introduced their special tourism resources to their Chinese counterparts, expressing their strong desire to expand tourism business in the Chinese market.According to the memorandum of understanding signed

  4. Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: First results from the LUCID intercomparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Noblet-Ducoudré, de N.; Cruz, F.T.; Davin, E.L.; Bonan, G.B.; Brovkin, V.; Claussen, M.; Delire, C.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Gayler, V.; Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.; Lawrence, P.J.; Molen, van der M.K.; Müller, C.; Reick, C.H.; Senevirantne, S.I.; Strengers, B.J.; Voldoire, A.

    2009-01-01

    Seven climate models were used to explore the biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change (LCC) at regional and global scales. The imposed LCC led to statistically significant decreases in the northern hemisphere summer latent heat flux in three models, and increases in three models. F

  5. Sustainable Land Use in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Džatko

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Present land use planning level in Slovakia is resulting from the gradual knowledge evolution from soil survey and land evaluation to the sustainable land resources exploitation modelling. Particular attention is concentrated to the quantification of sustainable land use system parameters in different pedo-ecological conditions. The fundamental basis for the solution of these questions is detailed database not only about soils and land components properties, but about both, real and potential crop yields on representative set of fields, including basic economic soil management data as well. The specific aims of land use efficiency modelling are expressed in the synthesis of both the ecological and economic assessment of soil and land productivity potential. Sustainable land use and farming system models with the economic efficiency calculations are the final results. The set of presented models and maps including economic efficiency calculation enables to apply new concepts of sustainable land use in wider rate as well in agrarian landscape managing.

  6. Urban land teleconnections and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

    2012-05-15

    This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural-urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental "grand challenges" and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

  7. Land cover change or land-use intensification: simulating land system change with a global-scale land change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.

  8. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  9. Expecting a Soft Landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the uncertainties of the global economy,China's economic slowdown this year has triggered worries that the country's growth engine is losing steam.Some even anticipate a hard landing.Lu Zhongyuan,Vice President of the Development Research Center of the State Council,dismissed the worries at a recent briefing in Beijing.Edited excerpts of his views follow:

  10. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  11. Land, Structure & Depreciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Francke; A. van de Minne

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a hedonic price model which enables us to disentangle the value of a residential property into the value of land and the value of structure, while controlling for depreciation and vintage effects. For given reconstruction costs we are able to estimate the impact of physical depreciation

  12. OPAL Land Condition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    endangered species, invasive species, or species responses to climate change . 1.5 Mode of technology transfer It is anticipated that the NetLogo model...training schedules, haying and burn- ing schedules, and weather affects the quality of the lands vegetation, which provides training realism and erosion ...training areas ............................................................................................................ 23 14 Soils data layer

  13. Geodiversity and land form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  14. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  15. Underpinning Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Further, the paper presents the role of FIG with regard to building the capacity in this area and responding...

  16. Impact of Land Use Changes on Surface Warming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; WU Lingyun; WEI Jiangfeng; CHEN Peiyan; Dong-Kyou LEE

    2005-01-01

    Land use changes such as urbanization, agriculture, pasturing, deforestation, desertification and irrigation can change the land surface heat flux directly, and also change the atmospheric circulation indirectly, and therefore affect the local temperature. But it is difficult to separate their effects from climate trends such as greenhouse-gas effects. Comparing the decadal trends of the observation station data with those of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) data provides a good method to separate the effects because the NNR is insensitive to land surface changes. The effects of urbanization and other land use changes over China are estimated by using the difference between the station and the NNR surface temperature trends. Our results show that urbanization and other land use changes may contribute to the observed 0.12℃ (10 yr)- 1 increase for daily mean surface temperature, and the 0.20℃ (10 yr)- 1 and 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 increases for the daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures, respectively. The urban heat island effect and the effects of other land-use changes mayalso play an important role in the diurnal temperature range change. The spatial pattern of the differences in trends shows a marked heterogeneity.The land surface degradation such as deforestation and desertification due to human activities over northern China, and rapidly-developed urbanization over southern China, may have mostly contributed to the increases at stations north of about 38°N and in Southeast China, respectively. Furthermore, the vegetation cover increase due to irrigation and fertilization may have contributed to the decreasing trend of surface temperature over the lower Yellow River Basin. The study illustrates the possible impacts of land use changes on surface temperature over China.

  17. Experiences with Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.; Gorgan, Maxim; Palmer, David

    2012-01-01

    percent) participated in the project through land transactions. The scheme was completely voluntary. During 2009-2010, the activity was scaled up with 40 new projects. A total of 7 520 hectares changed ownership, and around 2 600 hectares were transferred through long-term leases. About 25 percent (12 795......Land privatization in the Republic of Moldova was made feasible through the adoption of the Land Code in 1991. The land reform and post-land reform development has resulted in a polarized agricultural structure with an average land holding of 1.56 hectares, typically distributed in 3-4 parcels....... In many cases the fragmentation of land parcels has prevented the land market from developing. As a result of increasing political awareness of the problems, in 2004 the Government of Moldova requested assistance from the World Bank to address the situation. This led to a feasibility study and ultimately...

  18. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  19. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  20. [Regional difference of land use/cover change in farming-pasturing zone of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Ping; Chang, Xue-Li; Li, Jian-Ying; Cai, Ming-Yu

    2008-03-01

    Based on the four TM images of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia in 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2005, the extent and relative rate of land use change were used as the indices to analyze the regional difference of land use/cover change in the farming-pasturing zone of Naiman Banner, and the indices abundance and importance value were adopted to analyze the spatial distribution features of land use/cover change in the study area. The results showed that from 1975 to 2005, the types of land use/cover became diversified. The annual change rate was high, and the regional difference was significant. In the northern alluvial plain sub-area, woodland area increased rapidly and largely, while sandy land area decreased obviously. The changing speed of the areas of meadow and sandy land was the fastest, while that of residential area was the slowest. The main forms of land conversion were the conversion from sandy land to cropland and woodland. In the middle sandy land sub-area, sandy land had a wide distribution. The changes of other land use types were comparatively small, and the main form of land conversion was the inter-conversion between cropland and sandy land. In southern loess sub-area, cropland was the dominant land use type and had the smallest change, meadow and sandy land changed most quickly, and the conversion from meadow to cropland and woodland was the most important land conversion form. Natural factors determined the principal characteristics of land use structure in each sub-area of the study area, and artificial factors determined the changing trends of each land use type in each sub-area.

  1. SAND FLUX IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT, NEW MEXICO, USA, AND THE INFLUENCE OF MESQUITE-DOMINATED LANDSCAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) that land dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is the most important area for active sand movement at the Jornada Experimental Range, located in the northern part of the Chihuahuan desert, and (2) that the most active san...

  2. Nest and nest site characterisitcs of some ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We summarized biological and ecologic characteristics of 2490 nests of 16 species of upland-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands found during 1963 through 1991. Nest initiation and hatch dates, clutch sizes, nest fates, causes of failure, success rates of nests among major habitat types and land uses, and vegetation measurements at nest sites are analyzed.

  3. A three-component hydrograph separation based on geochemical tracers in a tropical mountainous headwater catchment in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Ingwersen, J.; Sangchan, W.; Sukvanachaikul, Y.; Duffner, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Streck, T.

    2014-01-01

    Land-use change in the mountainous parts of northern Thailand is reflected by an increased application of agrochemicals, which may be lost to surface and groundwater. The close relation between flow paths and contaminant transport within hydrological systems requires recognizing and understanding th

  4. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes on Soil Macro-faunal Community in Agro-pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China%北方农牧交错区土地利用覆盖变化对大型土壤动物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘任涛; 朱凡; 赵哈林

    2013-01-01

    在北方农牧交错区东段科尔沁沙地选择草地、沙地、农田和林地4种土地利用覆盖类型,采用手拣法调查不同类型样地大型土壤动物群落特征,分析土地利用覆盖变化对大型土壤动物群落的作用及其影响因素.结果表明:4种土地类型生境共获得10目27科43个类群,其中拟步甲科(Tenebrionidae)、鳃金龟科(Melolonthidae)幼虫和蚁科(Formicidae)为优势类群,个体数占总个体数的41.79%.草地开垦为农田或过度放牧沙化后土壤容重增加且碱性增强,土壤养分损失,而流动沙地种植人工灌木林后可在一定程度上降低土壤容重并增加土壤水分,增强生境的异质性.草地沙化后直接影响优势类群鳃金龟科幼虫和蚁科的个体数分布,显著降低了大型土壤动物多样性;大型土壤动物个体数、类群数和Shannon指数在沙地生境显著低于草地生境;流动沙地人工种植灌木林后可增加拟步甲科个体数的分布并提高大型土壤动物群落的多样性;但草地开垦为农田对大型土壤动物多样性的影响相对较低.因此,对草地进行围栏封育、防治土壤沙化以及流动沙地人工种植灌木林等退耕还林还草措施均可改善土壤环境,保护和维持大型土壤动物多样性,有利于农牧交错区生态系统的有效恢复和保护.%In order to discuss the effects of land use/cover changes on soil faunal communities in agro-pasto-ral transitional zone,grasslands,sandy land,croplands,and shrublands were selected as objects in Horqin sandy land.The soil macro-faunal communities were investigated,together with the ground herbaceous vegetation and soil properties.Results were showed that there were 27 families and 43 groups captured,belonging to 10 orders of soil animals.Tenebrionidae,Melolonthidae larvae and Formicidae dominated the soil macro-faunal communities,and the number of these three groups was 41.79% of total individuals

  5. From forest to farmland: pollen-inferred land cover change across Europe using the pseudobiomization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ralph M; Woodbridge, Jessie; Roberts, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Maps of continental-scale land cover are utilized by a range of diverse users but whilst a range of products exist that describe present and recent land cover in Europe, there are currently no datasets that describe past variations over long time-scales. User groups with an interest in past land cover include the climate modelling community, socio-ecological historians and earth system scientists. Europe is one of the continents with the longest histories of land conversion from forest to farmland, thus understanding land cover change in this area is globally significant. This study applies the pseudobiomization method (PBM) to 982 pollen records from across Europe, taken from the European Pollen Database (EPD) to produce a first synthesis of pan-European land cover change for the period 9000 bp to present, in contiguous 200 year time intervals. The PBM transforms pollen proportions from each site to one of eight land cover classes (LCCs) that are directly comparable to the CORINE land cover classification. The proportion of LCCs represented in each time window provides a spatially aggregated record of land cover change for temperate and northern Europe, and for a series of case study regions (western France, the western Alps, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia). At the European scale, the impact of Neolithic food producing economies appear to be detectable from 6000 bp through reduction in broad-leaf forests resulting from human land use activities such as forest clearance. Total forest cover at a pan-European scale moved outside the range of previous background variability from 4000 bp onwards. From 2200 bp land cover change intensified, and the broad pattern of land cover for preindustrial Europe was established by 1000 bp. Recognizing the timing of anthropogenic land cover change in Europe will further the understanding of land cover-climate interactions, and the origins of the modern cultural landscape.

  6. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪远; 刘明亮; 庄大方; 张增祥; 邓祥征

    2003-01-01

    It is more and more acknowledged that land-use/cover dynamic change has become a key subject urgently to be dealt with in the study of global environmental change. Supported by the Landsat TM digital images, spatial patterns and temporal variation of land-use change during 1995-2000 are studied in the paper. According to the land-use dynamic degree model, supported by the 1km GRID data of land-use change and the comprehensive characters of physical, economic and social features, a dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed to disclose the spatial pattern of land-use change processes. Generally speaking, in the traditional agricultural zones, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas occupy a great proportion of arable land, and in the interlock area of farming and pasturing of northern China and the oases agricultural zones, the reclamation of arable land is conspicuously driven by changes of production conditions, economic benefits and climatic conditions. The implementation of "returning arable land into woodland or grassland" policies has won initial success in some areas, but it is too early to say that the trend of deforestation has been effectively reversed across China. In this paper, the division of dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed, for the sake of revealing the temporal and spatial features of land-use change and laying the foundation for the study of regional scale land-use changes. Moreover, an integrated study, including studies of spatial pattern and temporal process of land-use change, is carried out in this paper, which is an interesting try on the comparative studies of spatial pattern on change process and the change process of spatial pattern of land-use change.

  7. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  8. Land concentration and land grabbing in Europe: a preliminary analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.; Franco, J.; Saturnino, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers three insights. First, the renewed global land rush is indeed global: it occurs in the Global North too. Second, the ongoing trend of (generic) land concentration is just as problematic as land grabbing. Third, political processes involving actors at various sites and levels of t

  9. Oligarchs, megafarms and land reserves: understanding land grabbing in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to unravel the political economy of large-scale land acquisitions in post-Soviet Russia. Russia falls neither in the normal category of ‘investor’ countries, nor in the category of ‘target’ countries. Russia has large ‘land reserves’, since in the 1990s much fertile land

  10. West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  11. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  12. LandLandcov_IMPERV2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The LandLandcov_IMPERV2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 for mapping zone 65 was produced through a cooperative...

  13. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  14. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  15. LandLandcov_LCLU2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The National Land Cover Database products are created through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The...

  16. Global Land Data Assimilation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface...

  17. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the Moon...

  18. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  19. LandLandcov_LULCLCB01

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of NLCD 2001 using...

  20. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  1. LandLandcov_LCLULCB92

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the 2001 LCB LULC...

  2. Comparative evaluation of the effects of climate and land-cover changes on hydrologic responses of the Muskeg River, Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Il Eum; Yonas Dibike; Terry Prowse

    2016-01-01

    Study region: The Muskeg River Basin located in the Oil-Sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Study focus: An integrated modelling framework, which combines a process-based distributed hydrologic model with a dynamic land-cover simulation model is used to evaluate the effects of climate and land-cover changes on the hydrological regime in the basin. Land-cover types corresponding to three hypothetical levels of future industrial expansion are synthesized based on the current lease hold...

  3. Biological assessment for the transfer of the DP land tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer to the County of Los Alamos up to 10-ha (25-ac) of federal land located in Technical Area-21 to be developed for commercial uses. Previous studies for the proposed land transfer area indicate that potential habitat for four threatened, endangered, and sensitive species occurs in or adjacent to the proposed land transfer area. These include the northern goshawk (federal species of concern), Mexican spotted owl (federal threatened), the spotted bat (federal species of concern, state threatened), die peregrine falcon (federal endangered, state endangered), and the. In order to determine the possible influences of the land transfer on these organisms, information from species-specific surveys was collected. These surveys were used to confirm the presence of these species or to infer their absence in or near the project area. It was concluded that none of die above mentioned species occur in the project area. Stretches of the stream channel within Los Alamos Canyon have been identified as palustrine and riverine, temporarily flooded wetlands. The proposed land transfer should not affect these wetlands.

  4. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseth, S. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  5. Complex land surface phenologies of moisture status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.; Doubkova, M.

    2006-12-01

    from which to evaluate moisture stress? How does this baseline differ by ecoregions, land cover and land use? We provide a survey of what temporally-dense microwave image time series can (and cannot) reveal about the seasonality of land surface moisture using data from 2003-2006 at selected herbaceous sites in North America and Northern Eurasia.

  6. Cryosphere-atmosphere interaction related to variability and change of northern hemisphere annular mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojariu, Roxana; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Gimeno, Luis; Zhang, Tingjun; Frauenfeld, Oliver W

    2008-12-01

    The Northern Hemisphere annular mode, also known as the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO) is a dominant atmospheric mode in the Northern Hemisphere winter that influences climate fluctuations from the eastern seaboard of the United States to Siberia and from the Arctic to the subtropical Atlantic. After almost a century of scientific investigation, the fundamental mechanisms determining the evolution of the AO/NAO are not yet completely understood. The ocean is favored as the most likely forcing of atmospheric variability, given the time scales of oceanic circulation and its large heat capacity. Our analyses of snow cover, soil temperatures, zonal winds, and geopotential heights identify the effect of land-atmosphere interaction over Eurasia on Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, explaining the predictive signal that links fluctuations of April-October snow cover with the following winter AO/NAO phases.

  7. Puente Öland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanska Cementgjüteriet, Empresa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The Öland bridge spans across the Kalmar strait, reaching from Möllstorpslage, on the island of Öland, to the island of N. Skallö; from here to the island of Svinö and then to Jutnabben, on the Swedish peninsula. It has 155 spans out of which 147 are small spans, two medium and six central, each one of them 130 m, with a total length of 6.070 m. The high arches have been constructed by the system of successive corbels and the low ones with a launching of big beams of reinforced concrete. Foundations on columns or poured on site in pneumatic emptied boxes, depending on the cases and piers of reinforced concrete, constructed by means of sliding formwork. The Construction Firm has been Skanska Cementgjuteriet, on account of the Government Administration.El puente de Öland salva el estrecho de Kalmar, partiendo de Möllstorpslage, en la isla de Öland, hasta la isla de N. Skallö; de aquí a la de Svinö y desde ésta hasta Jutnabben, en la península sueca. Tiene 155 vanos: 147 de luces pequeñas, 2 de luces medianas y 6 centrales, de 130 m cada una, con una longitud total de 6.070 m. Los arcos denominados altos se han realizado por el sistema de voladizos sucesivos, y los bajos, mediante lanzamiento de grandes vigas de hormigón armado. Cimientos sobre pilotes o vertidos in situ, en cajones vaciados neumáticamente, según los casos, y pilas de hormigón armado, construidas con auxilio de encofrados deslizantes. La Empresa constructora ha sido Skanska Cementgjuteriet, por cuenta de la Administración del Estado.

  8. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona; Muchapondwa, Edwin

    2011-04-01

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  9. Land Use and Land Cover - Volusia County Land Use 2000 (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land cover and land use in the St. Johns River Water Management District based on 1999 and 2000 color infrared aerial photography. * Data in this layer may change...

  10. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  11. This Land is Your Land: Property rights and land use in Mexico and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kutzman, Daley Catherine

    2016-01-01

    When 70 percent of the world’s poor are rural with agriculture as their main source of income, the intersection between land rights and land use becomes increasingly important to global poverty reduction. I explore the ways by which dimensions of land rights shape and distort land use away from its optimal allocation. Using a wide range of data, including satellite imagery, censuses, and household surveys, I present empirical evidence that demonstrates the effect of ill-defined and limited pr...

  12. Land use effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josep; G.; Canadell

    2002-01-01

    Current and past land use practices are critical in determining the distribution and size of global terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks. Althoughfossil fuel emissions dominate the anthropogenic perturbation of the global C cycle, land use still drives the largest portion of anthropogenic emissions in a number of tropical regions of Asia. The size of the emission flux owing to land use change is still the biggest uncertainty in the global C budget. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported a flux term of 1.7 PgC@a-1 for 1990-1995 but more recent estimates suggest the magnitude of this source may be only of 0.96 PgC@a-1 for the 1990s. In addition, current and past land use practices are now thought to contribute to a large degree to the northern hemisphere terrestrial sink, and are the dominant driver for some regional sinks. However, mechanisms other than land use change need to be invoked in order to explain the inferred C sink in the tropics. Potential candidates are the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization and climate change; fertilization due to nitrogen (N) deposition is believed to be small or nil. Although the potential for managing C sinks is limited, improved land use management and new land uses such as reforestation and biomass fuel cropping, can further enhance current terrestrial C sinks. Best management practices in agriculture alone could sequester 0.4-0.8 PgC per year in soils if implemented globally. New methodologies to ensure verification and permanency of C sequestration need to be developed.

  13. Distribution of Nitrogen in Water, Soil and Sediment in Water/Land Ecotone of Returning Fishpond to Lake Area of Northern Gonghu Bay%贡湖湾北部退渔还湖区水、沉积物和土壤中氮的时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少勇; 曲洁婷; 许秋瑾; 胡小贞; 汪祖茂; 赵维电

    2014-01-01

    太湖贡湖湾北部退渔还湖区(2.18 km2)的水陆交错带,虽已进行了基底改造和小部分植物种植,但仍需开展大规模种植,故迫切需要了解其生境特性的状况,为此开展了该区域的水陆交错带水、沉积物、土壤中氮的时空分布特征调查,以便为后续示范工程的设计提供基本参数。选择南部和北部两处交错带(面积分别为6700、8300 m2)及其周边陆域、水域,分别在2012年11月和2013年5月采集17个点位的水、沉积物和土壤样品,分析了其氮的时空分布。结果表明:水、沉积物和土壤样品中的氮存在明显的季节变化,春季水、沉积物和土壤中的总氮和氨氮均低于秋季,而春季沉积物和土壤中硝氮含量较高。人为栽种植物有利于氮的去除,温度和微生物的活动对此也有一定的贡献。在春季,水陆交错区的硝化作用更强烈;氨氮的空间分布与总氮基本一致,水中氮的主要存在形式是氨氮,而沉积物和土壤中的氮以有机氮为主。%Returning fishpond to lake is one of approaches to restore regional ecosystems. Understanding transformation and cycling of nutri-ents in the restored area is critical to implementation of such practice. Here, a water-land ecotone(2.18 km2)in returning fishpond to lake area of north Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu was selected to examine the temporal and spatial variations of nitrogen in water, sediment, and soil. Seventeen sampling locations were chosen at the north and south zones. Water, sediment and soil samples were collected in November 2012 and May 2013. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen in water, soil and sediment samples were lower in Spring than in Autumn, but nitrate ni-trogen in soils was higher in Spring than in Autumn, showing a significant seasonal variation. Growing plants artificially had a great contribu-tion to the removal of nitrogen. In addition, temperature and microbial activity would

  14. GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Optimal Allocation in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jie-Yong; GUO Li-Ying

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based method was used to assess land suitability in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province of China through simultaneous consideration of physical features and current land use. Through interpretation of Landsat TM images and extensive field visits the area was modeled into 40 land types in five altitudinal zones (valleys and gullies, hillsides and terraces, foothills, mid-mountain, and sub-alpine mountain). Then, a suitability score was assigned to five physical factors (climate, hydrology, topography, soil, and vegetation). Next, their integrated overall suitability value scores were compared with the observed land cover to determine whether it should be reallocated a new use. Results showed that the five suitability classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, farmland-woodland, and scrub-pasture had altitudinal stratification and a total of 1 151 km2 (8.89%) of lands on the northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains had to be reallocated. To achieve this reallocation, 657 km2 of arable land should be reduced, and forest, grassland and scrub-pasture increased by 615 km2, 131 km2 and 405 km2, respectively. Implementation of these recommended land reallocations should help achieve suitable use of land resources and prevent land degradation.

  15. The Impacts of Land Degradation on the Summer Climate over East Asia and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Xue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There were serious land degradations over East Asia during the past several decades and have identified Tibet Plateau (TP), Northwest China (NWC) and Inner Mogonial (IM) were among areas with severe land degradation. The GCMs with a natural vegetation map and a land degradation map were used to assess the possible impact of land cover change on the summer circulation over the East Asia. In the IM land degradation study, it shows the land degradation caused dry conditions in North China and wet conditions in southern China. Because in the desertification area the reduction in evaporation dominants the changes in the local surface energy budget, and the reduction in convective latent heating above the surface layer enhanced sinking motion. In the TP and NWC study, it shows that land cover change from vegetated land to bare ground over TP and NWC decreased radiation absorbed by the surface and leads to weaker surface thermal effects, which lead to lower atmospheric temperature over, as well as weaker vertical ascending motion, low-layer cyclonic, upper level anticyclonic over TP. These changes in circulation cause a decrease in the precipitation in the southeastern TP. In NWC, especially in northern Xinjiang and surrounding areas, less latent heating causes stronger anomalous lower-level anticyclonic circulation and upper-level cyclonic circulation, leading to less summer precipitation and higher surface temperature. Coincidentally, the East Asia summer monsoon circulation was weakened and the precipitation is reduced due to the land degradation over three areas.

  16. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  17. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  18. Mutual Incomprehension: The Cross Cultural Domain of Work in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Gerritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is set within the context of concerns about Indigenous workforce participation disadvantage. It discusses conflicting life-worlds relating to work of both Aboriginal and non- Indigenous residents in Ngukurr, a remote community in South East Arnhem Land in Australia’s Northern Territory. It contrasts an Indigenous social culture of kinship and relatedness to a Western one where employment is central to identity and its formal rules shape behaviour. We investigate how these different social ideologies affect cross-cultural relationships and shape the formal employment domain in Ngukurr. Given that governments have moved to more assimilationist policies in recent years, there are important policy implications following from this mutual cultural incomprehension.

  19. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.

  20. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  1. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander; Müller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    During the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, approximately 23 million hectares (Mha) of Eurasian steppe grassland were converted into cropland in Northern Kazakhstan from 1954 to 1963. As a result Kazakhstan became an important breadbasket of the former Soviet Union. However, the collapse of the Soviet...... agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are much lower than commonly believed, and further cropland expansion is only possible at the expense of marginal lands. Our results...

  2. Expecting a Soft Landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the uncertainties of the global economy, China’s e conomic slowdown this year has triggered worries that the country’s growth engine is losing steam. Some even anticipate a hard landing. Lu Zhongyuan, Vice President of the Development Research Center of the State Council, dismissed the worries at a recent briefing in Beijing,saying the slowdown is the result of the government’s macro-control and is still within the normal fluctuation range. Edited excerpts of his views follow:

  3. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  4. Arid Lands Biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  5. Impact of Labor Transfer on Agricultural Land Use Conversion at Rural Household Level Based on Logit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Taiyang; ZHANG Xiuying; HUANG Xianjin

    2008-01-01

    Since land and labor force are primary resources to be used and controlled by rural households, the alloca-tion of labor forces will influence land uses, and further lead to land use conversion. The present study used the Binary Logit model to investigate the influence of labor force transfer, characteristics of rural households, location, and land market on agricultural land use conversion at rural household level. This study was conducted based on 329 valid questionnaires, which were obtained in Changshu, Rudong, and Tongshan counties, respectively representing the southern, middle and northern areas of Jiangsu Province. The results showed that land market participation, location, zonal difference and labor transfer had strong influences on agricultural land use conversion. The participation of land market had a strong positive effect on land use conversion, especially for the farmland converted to the fishpond. The nearer to the county seat, the more conversion of land use occurred. Particularly, the labor force transfer caused by wage employment decreased this conversion probability, while the labor transfer caused by self-employment led to more conversion; and the increasing of income from labor transfer increased the conversion. Moreover, land use con-versions demonstrated zonal difference, which were more in Rudong and Changshu counties than in Tongshan County, and the factors influencing this conversion were different in the three regions.

  6. Moving from pixels to parcels: Modeling agricultural scenarios in the northern Great Plains using a hybrid raster- and vector-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T.; Wika, S.; Dornbierer, J.; Sayler, K. L.; Quenzer, R.

    2015-12-01

    Policy and economic driving forces have resulted in a higher demand for biofuel feedstocks in recent years, resulting in substantial increases in cultivated cropland in the northern Great Plains. A cellulosic-based biofuel industry could potentially further impact the region, with grassland and marginal agricultural land converted to perennial grasses or other feedstocks. Scenarios of projected land-use change are needed to enable regional stakeholders to plan for the potential consequences of expanded agricultural activity. Land-use models used to produce spatially explicit scenarios are typically raster-based and are poor at representing ownership units on which land-use change is based. This work describes a hybrid raster/vector-based modeling approach for modeling scenarios of agricultural change in the northern Great Plains. Regional scenarios of agricultural change from 2012 to 2050 were constructed, based partly on the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion Ton Update. Land-use data built from the 2012 Cropland Data Layer and the 2011 National Land Cover Database was used to establish initial conditions. Field boundaries from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Common Land Unit dataset were used to establish ownership units. A modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey's Forecasting Scenarios of land-use (FORE-SCE) model was used to ingest vector-based field boundaries to facilitate the modeling of a farmer's choice of land use for a given year, while patch-based raster methodologies were used to represent expansion of urban/developed lands and other land use conversions. All modeled data were merged to a common raster dataset representing annual land use from 2012 to 2050. The hybrid modeling approach enabled the use of traditional, raster-based methods while integrating vector-based data to represent agricultural fields and other ownership-based units upon which land-use decisions are typically made.

  7. Solar Cycle Length and Northern Hemisphere mean temperature revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, P.

    2009-04-01

    The statistical relationship between the smoothed curve for solar cycle length and northern hemisphere land mean temperature has been a source of investigation in the question of whether and how much the Sun influences climate variations. The relationship was widely discussed following the 1991 paper by Friis-Christensen and Lassen and was updated in 2000 by Thejll and Lassen. Data for one more solar cycle has now accumulated, and the relationship is again reviewed and discussed. We derive and show the updated SCL and mean temperature curves. The relationship between the two is analysed using standard statistical methods. Additional climate forcing factors are introduced to improve the fit. Changes in the historical part of the mean temperature curve has occurred which modifies the previously seen relationship, and this is discussed.

  8. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Bent Vad

    1994-01-01

    Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland....... The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site......, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response...

  9. Hydrologic response of northern wetlands to silvicultural water management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of water management systems are used to ameliorate saturated soil conditions which limit silvicultural operations and site productivity in northern wetlands. The pattern ditch system is an intensive drainage network designed to regulate water table depth in peat soils. The prescription drainage system is a low-intensity drainage system that is used to develop apparent drainage patterns in mineral and histic-mineral soils. These water management systems may either increase or decrease peak flow, base flow, and the duration of peak flow events, depending on drainage system design, climate, season, site characteristics, and land use. The most common hydrologic response to drainage is an increase in peak flow and base flow, and an increase in annual runoff. The effect of wetland drainage on watershed hydrology depends on the proportion of the watershed drained. Drainage may also affect water quality, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition and structure.

  10. Toward Transfer Functions for Land Surface Phenologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    A key problem in projecting future landscapes is simulating the associated land surface phenologies (or LSPs). A recent study of land surface models concluded that the representations of crop phenologies among the models diverged sufficiently to impede a useful intercomparison of simulation results from their associated climate models. Grassland phenologies are far more complicated than cropland phenologies due to multiple forcing factors, photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs C4), and spatial heterogeneities in both resource availabilities and land management practices. Furthermore, many tallgrass species (such as switchgrass) are widely distributed across temperature, but not moisture, gradients, resulting in significant ecotypic variation across the species' geographic range. Thus, how feasible is "transplanting" tallgrass LSPs across isotherms—but along isohyets—to simulate a shift in cultivation from maize-soy to switchgrass? Prior work has shown a quadratic model can provide a parsimonious link between a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (or NDVI) time series and thermal time, measured in terms of accumulated growing degree-days (or AGDD). Moreover, the thermal time to peak NDVI (or TTP) is a simple function of the parameter coefficients of fitted model. I fitted quadratic models to MODIS NDVI and weather station data at multiple sites across the Northern Great Plains over ten growing seasons, 2000-2009. There is a strong latitudinal gradient in TTP that results in part from a quasi-linear gradient in accumulated daylight hours (or ADH) between 30 and 50 degrees north. However, AGDD improves upon ADH by providing sensitivity to the variability of growing season weather. In the quadratic parameter coefficients there is a geographic pattern apparent as a function of TTP, although it is more variable at shorter TTPs. Using these patterns, an LSP transfer function was implemented along a latitudinal transect to simulate switchgrass cultivation in areas now

  11. Precipitation over Northern South America and Its Seasonal Variability as Simulated by the CMIP5 Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have induced socioeconomic impacts of wide proportions. Hence, the evaluation of rainfall simulations at seasonal and interannual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required. Here, we evaluated the ability of seven CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its interannual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land. This is probably due to the fact that during these seasons, incoming radiation and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere, as suggested by previous studies. Models exhibit the worse simulations during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America.

  12. Evaluation of precipitation variability over northern South America based on CMIP5 historical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S. C.; Sierra, J. P.; Arias, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have caused diverse socio-economic consequences. Hence, the evaluation of the representation of local climate of rainfall simulations at intra-annual seasonal and inter-annual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required, in order to identify and analyze projections of regional and local climate under a global climate change scenario. Here, we evaluate the ability of seven of the CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review) to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its inter-annual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land, since during these seasons, not only incoming radiation, but also ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans, locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, models exhibit the worse simulations of the seasonal mean precipitation during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America.

  13. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  14. Northern Alaska Landscape/Permafrost GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This update includes permafrost mapping to include the following new layers:...

  15. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 2000. The...

  16. Waterfowl production survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan River Delta: July 10-22, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1973. The...

  17. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1993. The...

  18. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba and western Ontario: May-June 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and western Ontario during 1959. The...

  19. The Response of Ecosystem Services Value to Land Use Change in Keriya Oasis, Northern Slope of Kulun Mountain%昆仑山北麓克里雅绿洲生态服务价值对土地利用变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦麦提吐尔逊·艾则孜; 海米提·依米提; 迪拉娜·尼加提; 魏彬

    2012-01-01

    The effects of land use change on ecosystem services values and functions of Keriya Oasis in 1991-2008 were analyzed based on TM image data in 1991, 2002 and 2008, and using the evaluation methods of terrestrial ecosystem services value of China. Results showed that: 1) The total value of ecosystem services decreased from 1 442.248 million Yuan in 1991 to 1 287.163 million Yuan in 2008, the loss of total ecosystem service value was 10.8%, and net loss of yearly ecosystem service value was about 24.2 Yuan per hectare. The main causes of the decline of total ecosystem service value were the decrease of the total area of wetland and water body; 2) The overall rank order for each ecosystem function based on their contributions to overall val- ue of ecosystem services was that the contribution of waste treatment function is the highest, then the soil for- mation, biodiversity protection, water supply, climate regulation, gas regulation, food production, the contribu- tion of recreation and culture and raw material is the lowest; 3) The total ecosystem services value was relative- ly inelastic to the value coefficients, therefore, the estimation in this study area was robust in spite of uncertain- ties on the value coefficients.%基于1991、2002与2008年卫星遥感资料,采用中国陆地生态系统的服务价值测算方法,分析克里雅绿洲土地利用变化对生态系统服务价值与结构的影响。研究表明:①研究区生态服务价值从1991年的144 224.8万元降到2008年的128 716.3万元,生态服务价值损失10.8%,每年净损失生态服务价值达24.2元/hm2。生态服务总价值的减少主要是由湿地、水域总面积的减少而导致的;②研究区各生态服务功能对区域总生态服务价值贡献率由高到低依次为:废物处理、土壤形成、生物多样性保护、水源涵养、气候调价、气体调价、食物生产、娱乐休闲和原材料;③研究区生态服务价值对生态服务功能指数缺乏弹性。

  20. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  1. Trophic interactions in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem, year 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E Barros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A food web model is constructed to describe predator-prey interactions, community structure and trophic flows in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem (18°20'S, 24°S, for the year 1997. The model is built using the Ecopath with Ecosim software version 6.4, and encompasses 21 functional groups, ranging from primary producers (phytoplankton to top predators (birds and marine mammals, the principal fishing resources and the fishery. Input parameters required to build the model were gathered from specialized literature, grey literature and our own estimates. The results indicated that the total biomass (B T was estimated at 624.7 ton km-2. The combined biomass of small pelagic fish represented 26% of B T, while the combined biomass of demersal fish represented only 0.1% of B T. These results highlight the importance of pelagic fish in this system. Predation mortality resulted to be the main source of mortality. Nevertheless, fishing mortality was important in anchovy, mackerel, common dolphinfish and jack mackerel. The mean trophic level of the fishery was estimated as 3.7, with landings sustained mainly by anchovy. Primary production required to sustain the landings (PPR was estimated at 7.5% of calculated total net primary production, which is lower than PPR estimates in other upwelling ecosystems. The average trophic transfer efficiency was 18%, which is in the range (10-20% informed for marine ecosystems. Results indicate that in 1997 the northern Chile marine ecosystem was characterized for being a system far from maturity, dominated in terms of biomass and flows by the pelagic realm.

  2. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  3. Analysis on mechanism of land resource security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes into the relationship among individual benefits, benefits of the country, common benefits of all humans in land use and land resource security. The following balanced land use model is proposed: the harmonious and interactive relationship between man and nature, two main bodies of land ecological system, constitutes the mechanism of land resources security. The feedback relationship between man and nature is the basis for the land resources security and the core is the relationship among people established for the benefit equilibrium in land use. The conflicts, in land use stem from the rarity of land resource and the solution to those conflicts in harmony helps land resource security.

  4. Integrated Water Supply and Land Resource Management in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Croke, B. F.; Croke, B. F.; Dietrich, C. R.; Letcher, R. A.; Merritt, W.; Perez, P.

    2001-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural development has led to water supply conflicts and exacerbation of environmental problems in many developing countries. In Thailand, for example, issues of water access between upstream and downstream users and on-site erosion and off-site water quality are common in the Northern Highlands. The authors report on a framework which has been developed to assist improved land use planning and water allocation. It can be used to assess the water supply, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use, climate and government policy. This framework utilises the integration of catchment supply models, crop, water allocation and erosion models, as well as models of household decision making. For the Mae Chaem catchment in Thailand, the authors present details of the particular method of integration of these models and results for the individual model components. The effects of changes in land use and climate variations on the distribution of water supply, crop yields and erosion illustrate the types of tradeoffs that have to be made. Crucial to the effectiveness of such integrated tools is an understanding of the reliability of the integrated model's predictions of different outcomes. The authors present a relevant framework for analysing model uncertainty in order to appreciate the degree to which one can confidently differentiate among different model outcomes resulting from different land use changes.

  5. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ( {≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  6. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  7. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  8. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  9. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  10. Protecting women's rights to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoko, J

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the efficacy of the 1998 Land Act in protecting women's right to land in Uganda. The Land Act introduced individual ownership to encourage a more productive use of land, based on the principles of economic liberalization. It converted customary ownership through the creation of written deeds. Traditionally, women's land use was protected under customary law, in which elders assumed the role of protectors, however, the passage of the Land Act changed this. It did not recognize the role of elders as protectors. To this effect, men automatically assumed that role because of the presumption that women did not own the land making them individual owners of the land. Therefore, because of the law's limitations, women have lost ownership, and are more disadvantaged by the higher incidences of divorce and the fact that wives rarely inherit. It is for this reason that the Oxfam worked with the Uganda Land Alliance to lobby the government to ensure that the Act protected women's right as much as possible.

  11. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  12. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  13. What Drives Indirect Land Use Change? How Brazil's Agriculture Sector Influences Frontier Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter

    2015-09-01

    From 2000-2005 high returns to soybeans set off an unprecedented expansion of agricultural production across Brazil. The expansion occurred concurrently to a sharp rise in deforestation, leading academics and policy makers to question the extent and means by which the growing agricultural sector was driving regional forest loss. In this article we consider and question the underlying drivers of indirect land use change, namely the potential impact of soybean expansion on beef prices and of land use displacement, via migration. We then present field level results documenting the displacement process in northern Mato Grosso and western Pará States of the Amazon. Our results question the extent to which tropical Amazon deforestation is attributable to land use displacement; however, we argue that the agricultural sector may drive deforestation through other channels, namely through regional land markets.

  14. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling; LIU; Wei; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Result shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north,while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation,moisture and landform,the attenuation amplitude of land potential productivity in northern counties ( districts) is greater than that in southern counties ( districts) . In the whole city,the population carrying capacity of 9 counties reaches well-off living level,and 1 district still does not reach the level of adequate food and clothing. These results can provide reference for land resource use,agricultural production distribution and population growth control.

  15. 18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount must be charged to the appropriate tax account. (c) The net profit from the sale of timber, cord wood, sand, gravel, other resources or other property acquired with the rights-of-way or other lands... considerable period of time and timber and other natural resources on the land at the time of...

  16. Impact of Land Tenure Change on Land Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITiehua; XIANGWenhua; XUGuozhen; ZENGGuangzheng

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of land tenure change on the land use after the Responsibility System was carried out after the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11 th CPC Central Committee, 147 households in 6 villages, belonging Xiangtan County and Zhuzhou County in Hunan Province, were selected as research samples, and the methods of interviewing and questionnaire surveying and secondary data analyzing were used. The results show that after having got the tenure of paddies, the farmers could determine the management projects according to the market demands, which caused the diversity of cultivated crop species and improved the efficient of land use. For the forestland, after having gotten the tenure of forestland, the farmers could adjust the structure of forest types and managed bamboo and orchards to get more earnings or they gave up managing forests and changed them into other projects. But that made the stability of agricultural ecological system unsteady because the forests were damaged seriously. After the tenure of land was separated from the ownership of land, the farmers who had the tenure of land could deal with the tenure of land according to laws and policies, and that caused the tenure of land to be rented-in and rented-out.

  17. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  18. Land tenure security and land investments in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.; Ierland, van E.C.; Berg, van den M.; Shi, X.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of perceived land tenure security in China on farmers' decisions to invest in relatively long-term land quality improvement measures, taking into account the potential endogeneity of tenure security. Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  19. 1997 Land Cover/Land Use Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The land cover/land use database was developed from color infrared aerial photography flown on August 26, 1997 at a scale of 1:15,840. Photographs were flown with...

  20. The land management paradigm for institutional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  1. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    to imperfect model forecasts. It remains a crucial challenge to account for system uncertainty, so as to provide model outputs accompanied by a quantified confidence interval. Properly characterizing and reducing uncertainty opens-up the opportunity for risk-based decision-making and more effective emergency...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...

  2. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  3. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  4. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  5. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  6. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Ra 226 is proved and measured by radiom emanation-method in waters and food products of North , North West and North – East of Iran. A total of 126 water, 249 food and 22 air samples have been examined. The concertration of Ra 226 in waters found to be 0.01 to 1.104 Pci/1 and in food products from 0.01 to Pci/gr. Ash.The amount found in due ranges from 0.003 to 0.227 Pci/m 3.It is concluded that the presence of higher than normal activity in some parts of Northern Iran is due to radiationanomalies in subsurface strata, where these mineral waters pass. Further investigattions are recommended.

  8. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  9. Succulent Euphorbias or northern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh, Werner

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey is given or the Euphorbia species occurring in northern Madagascar. The systematic groups which shaw no affinities with African-Indian Euphorbia species. are discussed. One new combination: Euphorbia aureo-vindiflora (Rauh Rauh is proposed.

    Es presenta una revisió de les espècies suculentes del gènere Euphorbia L del nord de Madagascar. Es discuteixen els grups sistemàtics que no mostren afinitat amb les espècies indo-africanes d'Euphorbia. Es proposa una nova combinació: Euphorbia aureo-vitidiftora (Rauh Rauh.

  10. Spatial assessment of land surface temperature and land use/land cover in Langkawi Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Suzana Binti; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Salihu Lay, Usman; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Langkawi Island by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build-Up Index (NDBI) and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) qualitatively by using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) over the period 2002 and 2015. Pixel-based classifiers Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), has been performed to prepare the Land Use/ Land Cover map (LU/LC) and the result shows that Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved maximum accuracy with 90% and 90.46% compared to Maximum Likelihood (MLC) classifier with 86.62% and 86.98% respectively. The result revealed that as the impervious surface (built-up /roads) increases, the surface temperature of the area increased. However, land surface temperature decreased in the vegetated areas. Based from the linear regression between LST and NDVI, NDBI and MNDWI, these indices can be used as an indicator to monitor the impact of Land Use/Land Cover on Land Surface Temperature.

  11. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2).s(-1)) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  12. Global land and water grabbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land).

  13. Land Paddling: Making Fitness Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzing, Robyn; Barney, David

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that secondary physical education (6-12) is full of team sport activities (football, basketball, volleyball, etc.). These activities are not bad, yet secondary-age students want a greater variety of activities to participate in. One activity that secondary physical educators can implement is Land paddling. Land paddling is…

  14. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper...

  15. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  16. Space platform albedo measurements as indicators of change in arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The change in albedo of arid lands is an indicator of changes in their condition and quality, including density of vegetative cover, erosion, deposition, surficial soil moisture, and man-made change. In general, darkening of an arid land surface indicates an increase in land quality while brightening indicates a decrease in quality, primarily owing to changes in vegetation. Landsat multiband images taken on different dates can be converted to black-and-white albedo images. Subtraction of one image from another, pixel by pixel, results in an albedo change map that can be density sliced to show areas that have brightened or darkened by selected percentages. These maps are then checked in the field to determine the reasons for the changes and to evaluate the changes in land condition and quality. The albedo change mapping technique has been successfully used in the arid lands of western Utah and northern Arizona and has recently been used for detection of coal strip mining activities in northern Alabama. ?? 1983.

  17. New Frontiers of Land Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee Peluso, Nancy; Lund, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Land questions have invigorated agrarian studies and economic history, with particular emphases on its control, since Marx. Words such as ‘exclusion’, ‘alienation’, ‘expropriation’, ‘dispossession’, and ‘violence’ describe processes that animate land histories and those of resources, property...... rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have all been associated with mechanisms for land control. Agrarian environments have been transformed by processes of de......-agrarianization, protected area establishment, urbanization, migration, land reform, resettlement, and re-peasantization. Even the classic agrarian question of how agriculture is influenced by capitalism has been reformulated multiple times at transformative conjunctures in the historical trajectories of these processes...

  18. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  19. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  20. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  1. A domain model for land administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    75% or the “people to land relationships” worldwide are not documented. This concerns about 4.5 billion cases. With a growing population this situation results in land disputes, land grabbing and neglecting of rights of local people. Land Administration provides documentation on people to land relat

  2. Carbon implications of Virgin Lands Campaign cropland expansion and post-Soviet agricultural land abandonment in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, A. V.; Kurganova, I.; Schierhorn, F.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Müller, D.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Political economy and institutional changes regarding land use play crucial role in shaping land cover worldwide. Among such events was the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, when 45.2 million ha of virgin steppes were ploughed up from 1954 to 1963 in northern Eurasia. We took opportunity to evaluate carbon (C) costs of this Campaign, particularly with the account of massive cropland abandonment in the former Campaign area after demise of the Soviet Union in 1991. Within cropland mask produced with remotely sensed data, we spatially disaggregated historical annual sown area statistics at the provincial level for Russia and Kazakhstan based on cropland suitability assessment. We also adjusted our cropland allocation model with the use of 1:3,000,000 map depicting cropland expansion in Northern Kazakhstan. We used C bookkeeping approach to assess C dynamics based on soil stratification and C field measurements. The Campaign resulted in huge C losses from soils, which accounted for 611±47 Mt C in Russia and 241±11 Mt C in Kazakhstan for upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation. Such C losses could be compared with C losses due to plowing up the prairies in the mid-1930s in USA. Despite the huge C losses from soils during the Campaign, the total C budget in soils of both countries at national level was positive after 1991 due to sequestered C on abandoned lands, albeit the patterns of C loss during the Campaign and C sink in post-Soviet period differed. The C sink from 1991 to 2010 on abandoned croplands in Russia (45.5Mha) comprised 976±108Mt C and Kazakhstan (12.9Mha) comprised 240±34Mt C. However, already ongoing recultivation of abandoned cropland in Kazakhstan and already planned such activities in Russia, can release stored C on abandoned lands. Our study highlights the importance of environmental evaluation of such governmental programs and their alternatives, particularly, since such programs are not rare events in modern land

  3. Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

  4. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  5. Comparative modeling of Bronze Age land use in the Malatya Plain (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıkan, Bülent; Restelli, Francesca Balossi; Masi, Alessia

    2016-03-01

    Computational modeling in archeology has proven to be a useful tool in quantifying changes in the paleoenvironment. This especially useful method combines data from diverse disciplines to answer questions focusing on the complex and non-linear aspects of human-environment interactions. The research presented here uses various proxy records to compare the changes in climate during the Bronze Age in the Malatya Plain in eastern Anatolia, which is situated at the northern extremity of northern Mesopotamia. Extensive agropastoral land use modeling was applied to three sites of different size and function in the Malatya Plain during the Early Bronze Age I period to simulate the varying scale and intensity of human impacts in relation to changes in the level of social organization, demography, and temporal length. The results suggest that even in land use types subjected to a light footprint, the scale and intensity of anthropogenic impacts change significantly in relation to the level of social organization.

  6. Wind Erosion Induced Soil Degradation in Northern China: Status, Measures and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongling Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is one of the most serious ecological problems in the world. In arid and semi-arid northern China, soil degradation predominantly arises from wind erosion. Trends in soil degradation caused by wind erosion in northern China frequently change with human activities and climatic change. To decrease soil loss by wind erosion and enhance local ecosystems, the Chinese government has been encouraging residents to reduce wind-induced soil degradation through a series of national policies and several ecological projects, such as the Natural Forest Protection Program, the National Action Program to Combat Desertification, the “Three Norths” Shelter Forest System, the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Engineering Project, and the Grain for Green Project. All these were implemented a number of decades ago, and have thus created many land management practices and control techniques across different landscapes. These measures include conservation tillage, windbreak networks, checkerboard barriers, the Non-Watering and Tube-Protecting Planting Technique, afforestation, grassland enclosures, etc. As a result, the aeolian degradation of land has been controlled in many regions of arid and semiarid northern China. However, the challenge of mitigating and further reversing soil degradation caused by wind erosion still remains.

  7. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DEGRADED LAND UTILIZATION AS FODDER LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voloshuk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider theoretical and practical prospects of creating biofitocenozes on degraded lands. The problems of soil erosion in Ukraine are discussed. The division of lands into 5 groups is given in view of a degree eroded of a soil cover, exposing by their erosion, the parameters of a relief, etc. Show prospect of creation biofitocenozes on these lands, to select the greatest productive grass associations. The technological operations before crop and entering of various dozes of organic and mineral fertilizers are specified.

  8. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L; Euliss, Ned H; Browning, Zac

    2014-01-01

    Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1) an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2) a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  9. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L Gallant

    Full Text Available Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1 an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2 a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  10. Moon Landing Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mustafa MEHEDI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory optimization is a crucial process during the planning phase of a spacecraft landing mission. Once a trajectory is determined, guidance algorithms are created to guide the vehicle along the given trajectory. Because fuel mass is a major driver of the total vehicle mass, and thus mission cost, the objective of most guidance algorithms is to minimize the required fuel consumption. Most of the existing algorithms are termed as “near-optimal” regarding fuel expenditure. The question arises as to how close to optimal are these guidance algorithms. To answer this question, numerical trajectory optimization techniques are often required. With the emergence of improved processing power and the application of new methods, more direct approaches may be employed to achieve high accuracy without the associated difficulties in computation or pre-existing knowledge of the solution. An example of such an approach is DIDO optimization. This technique is applied in the current research to find these minimum fuel optimal trajectories.

  11. Water en Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.E.M. van Dam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and Dry LandWater management has always been a major concern. Dutch pragmatism certainly has roots in water management, but it is also rooted in the culture of meetings of the Dutch cities and in the attitude of the peasant who produced for the market very early on. Water control reached its height when we introduced reinforced concrete for hydraulic engineering. Around 1970, the ecological turning point caused a change in focus. Water managers became concerned about the quality of water, the creation of ‘new nature’ and the adaptation to water. In this way, we did not discard the assets of the Industrial Revolution, but rather put them into a new framework: more green in the blue. Water is by definition international. The Netherlands co-parented the international cooperation of the Rhine countries. Is this history part of our national consciousness? Can the water history of the South- and Eastern Netherlands also join in the national water history of the twentieth century?

  12. 退耕还林还草工程对中国北方农牧交错区土地利用/覆被变化的影响——以科尔沁左翼后旗为例%The Impact of the Grain for Green Project on the Land Use/Cover Change in the Northern Farming-pastoral Ecotone, China —A Case Study of Kezuohouqi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德成; 赵淑清; 朱超

    2012-01-01

    以北方农牧交错区-科尔沁左翼后旗为例,利用卫星遥感技术获取1980~2010年土地利用/覆被信息,通过统计模型重建土地利用/覆被及景观格局变化过程,综合评价二者动态及退耕还林还草等生态恢复工程的影响。研究区土地整体处于准平衡态势,各地类双向转换较频繁;耕地与草地的变化对区域土地利用/覆被及景观格局变化起支配作用;退耕还林还草等生态恢复工程逆转了天然植被(包括草地与林地)整体减少及耕地与未利用地增加的局面,使各景观破碎化程度有所缓解,这可能有利于生态环境的改善。%Based on remote sensing techniques,the land use/cover information between 1980 and 2010 was obtained and the change processes of land use/cover and landscape pattern of Kezuohouqi County in the loess plateau,China were characterized,using the statistical models to analyze the impacts of the Grain for Green Project(GGP) on both of them.The land was generally in quasi-balanced status with a slight difference between the loss and the gain of the area for most land use types,indicating that the land conversion direction was dominated by two-way transition.Transition between cropland and grassland dominated the processes of the land use/cover change and landscape pattern dynamics.The GGP together with other eco-restoration projects reversed the decline trend of natural vegetation(i.e.,the woodland and grassland) and the increase trend of cropland and unused land,and reduced the fragmentation of landscape.These changes may be beneficial to the local eco-restoration.

  13. Analysis on Farmers’ Land Right Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Land is the fundamental income sources of farmers. However, farmers stay at disadvantaged statge in the political, economic and social aspects. Their land is exploited and occupied, which facilitates the rapid development of economy, as well as brings the gap between the poor and the rich and the inharmonious disputes. The necessity for protecting the land right of farmers under the new situation is expounded, covering the necessity of carrying out the relevant agricultural policies; the necessity of improving rural economic status and narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas; the necessity of reducing land disputes and constructing harmonious society. The violation of farmers’ land rights is analyzed from two aspects. The first one is the violation of farmers’ land right in land tenure section, which includes the lack of ecological compensation system the lack of contract operation right; the second one is the violation of farmers’ land right in land transfer section, including the absence of land requisition system, substandard land contract and land transfer and the limitation of house stead circulation; the third one is the vacant of land development right affects farmers’ share of enjoying the added value of land. The countermeasures for protecting farmers’ land rights are put forward. The first one is clarify land property; the second one is normalize and perfect land requisition system; the third one is appropriately loosen rural land transfer policies; the fourth one is establish ecological compensation and land development right compensation system.

  14. Assessing the cocmpatibility of fuel treatments, wildfire risk, and conservation of Northern Spotted Owl habitats and populations in the eastern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land managers are faced with conundrum when tasked with maintaining populations of threatened Northern Spotted Owl (NSO; Strix occidentalis caurina) while reducing wildfire risk in dry, fire-prone forests of the inland northwest. The USDI Fish and Wildlife Service Final Recovery...

  15. Coordinative Development Between Land Use Change and Regional Population-Resources-Environment-Development System——A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Land use change has significant influence on the operation of the Population-Resources-Environment-Development (PRED) System. Moderate land use is the key factor to ensure the coordinative and sustainable development between land use and PRED system. Based on the internal relationship between land use and PRED system, a PRED evaluation index system and a Press-Status-Response (PSR) model were established in this study. According to the expounding on the mechanism of the PSR model, we investigated the coordinative development between the changes of regional land use and PRED system taking Jiangsu Province as an example. The results showed that the orders of the Synthetic Index of Land Use (SILU) and the Variation of PRED Index (VPI) in Jiangsu are both the southern Jiangsu>the central Jiangsu>the northern Jiangsu. A cubic curve model was used to fit the relationship between the VPI and SILU. The inflection point of VPI was situated in 5.0 of SILU. When SILU was below 5.0, VPI increased with SILU, which will be helpful to the coordinative development between land use and PRED system. Based on those results, it is suggested that the land use degree of the southern Jiangsu, especially that of Nanjing City, should be moderately controlled at present, while land resources of the central Jiangsu and the northern Jiangsu should be further exploited.

  16. Object-based Dimensionality Reduction in Land Surface Phenology Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Bunker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised classification or clustering of multi-decadal land surface phenology provides a spatio-temporal synopsis of natural and agricultural vegetation response to environmental variability and anthropogenic activities. Notwithstanding the detailed temporal information available in calibrated bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and comparable time series, typical pre-classification workflows average a pixel’s bi-monthly index within the larger multi-decadal time series. While this process is one practical way to reduce the dimensionality of time series with many hundreds of image epochs, it effectively dampens temporal variation from both intra and inter-annual observations related to land surface phenology. Through a novel application of object-based segmentation aimed at spatial (not temporal dimensionality reduction, all 294 image epochs from a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS bi-monthly NDVI time series covering the northern Fertile Crescent were retained (in homogenous landscape units as unsupervised classification inputs. Given the inherent challenges of in situ or manual image interpretation of land surface phenology classes, a cluster validation approach based on transformed divergence enabled comparison between traditional and novel techniques. Improved intra-annual contrast was clearly manifest in rain-fed agriculture and inter-annual trajectories showed increased cluster cohesion, reducing the overall number of classes identified in the Fertile Crescent study area from 24 to 10. Given careful segmentation parameters, this spatial dimensionality reduction technique augments the value of unsupervised learning to generate homogeneous land surface phenology units. By combining recent scalable computational approaches to image segmentation, future work can pursue new global land surface phenology products based on the high temporal resolution signatures of vegetation index time series.

  17. Ecosystem evaluation of post sand mining land in Cimalaka, Sumedang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.F. Sholihah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate ecosystem function of post-sand mining land in northern side of Layapan, Cimalaka, Sumedang, West Java (S 6o 47’ 33.68” and E 107o 58’18.73”, 744 m above sea level. Microclimate and soil characteristics measurements were carried out to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the land. Vegetation analysis was conducted with plotting method. Ecosystem Function Analysis, including Landscape Function Analysis (LFA has been used to analyze the function of landscape. The results showed that average light intensity, air temperature and humidity were 15.2x103 ± 7.3x103 lux, 29.1±1.02oC and 69.7±7.5%. High light intensity made the air temperature rouse higher than normal, which is between 17.1oC to 22oC. As for the soil, soil organic content was 4-11%, porosity 4.65-24.43%, macronutrient content was low and C/N ratio was high. The results showed that LFA value for land stability was 33.24%, water infiltration 37.2%, nutrient cycle rate 15.28%. Those numbers showed that land condition was poor. From the LFA data, it was also known that vegetations had the highest contribution for all LFA parameters. From vegetation analysis, herbs species were 67 while bushes only 9, which at least 40 species were invasive alien species. Species with highest Important Value (IV from herb was Cajanus scarabaeoides and from bush was Mimosa pigra. Both of them are members of Fabaceae. It was concluded that the soil of this post sand mining land was highly nutrient poor; critical and couldn’t perform the regulation, habitat and biomass production function of ecosystem.

  18. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Radeloff, Volker C.; Dara, Andrey; Terekhov, Alexey; Frühauf, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    During the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, approximately 23 million hectares (Mha) of Eurasian steppe grassland were converted into cropland in Northern Kazakhstan from 1954 to 1963. As a result Kazakhstan became an important breadbasket of the former Soviet Union. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered widespread agricultural abandonment, and much cropland reverted to grasslands. Our goal in this study was to reconstruct and analyze agricultural land-cover change since the eve of the Virgin Lands Campaign, from 1953 to 2010 in Kostanay Province, a region that is representative of Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from circa 1990, 2000 and 2010. Cropland extent peaked at approximately 3.1 Mha in our study area in 1990, 38% of which had been converted from grasslands from 1954 to 1961. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, 45% of the Soviet cropland was abandoned and had reverted to grassland by 2000. After 2000, cropland contraction and re-cultivation were balanced. Using spatial logistic regressions we found that cropland expansion during the Virgin Lands Campaign was significantly associated with favorable agro-environmental conditions. In contrast, cropland expansion after the Campaign until 1990, as well as cropland contraction after 1990, occurred mainly in areas that were less favorable for agriculture. Cropland re-cultivation after 2000 was occurring on lands with relatively favorable agro-environmental conditions in comparison to remaining idle croplands, albeit with much lower agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are

  19. Hydrochemistry (major and trace elements of Lake Malawi (Nyasa, Tanzanian Northern Basin: local versus global considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Branchu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first inventory of dissolved minor and trace element (F, Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Bi, Sr, Zn concentrations in Lake Malawi, the second largest African lake. Sampling was carried out during 1993 dry season in the northern part of the lake. Trace metal concentrations were measured, together with Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, Alkalinity and Si, along three profiles in the lake northern extremity, in five tributaries and two on-land hydrothermal springs. Water profiles show similar elemental distributions and concentrations that are influenced by lake physical-chemical stratification. Stratification, assessed using temperature, conductivity, Si and Mn profiles, is characterised by two boundaries: the thermocline (70–90 m and the oxicline (150–190 m. Elemental water concentrations are discussed using simple covariance analyse. Epilimnetic concentrations and distribution are also influenced by atmospheric deposition and river diving. Comparison of dissolved concentrations for potentially polluting elements with World Health Organisation Guidelines and those reported for other East African lakes shows that this reservoir is uncontaminated despite an increasing human stress. Major element behaviour is assessed through a 3 boxes model. In this model Cl and K are conservative elements whereas Si is removed from the solution by diatom productivity and sedimentation. Ca, Na, Mg and alkalinity show low reactivity. Evaporation is one of the controlling factors of lake element concentration that superimposes on the watershed control. Hydrothermal activity, not evidenced in the lake, controls the chemistry of one of the main northern tributary. Chemical comparison between Northern rivers and other tributaries characterises the geographical and geological specificity of studied northern watershed. Moreover the lake annual chemical budget shows that northern watershed generates the main elemental input to the lake

  20. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  1. Land use effects on climate in China as simulated by a regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO XueJie; ZHANG DongFeng; CHEN ZhongXin; J.S.PAL; F. GIORGI

    2007-01-01

    A regional climate model (RegCM3)nested within ERA40 re-analyzed data is used to investigate the climate effects of land use change over China. Two 15-year simulations (1987-2001),one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover without human intervention, are conducted for a domain encompassing China. The climate impacts of land use change are assessed from the difference between the two simulations. Results show that the current land use (modified by anthropogenic activities) influences local climate as simulated by the model through the reinforcement of the monsoon circulation in both the winter and summer seasons and through changes of the surface energy budget. In winter. Land use change leads to reduced precipitation and decreased surface air temperature south of the Yangtze River, and increased precipitation north of the Yangtze River. Land use change significantly affects summer climate in southern China, yielding increased precipitation over the region, decreased temperature along the Yangtze River and increased temperature in the South China area (south-end of China).In summer, a reduction of precipitation over northern China and a temperature rise over Northwest China are also simulated. Both daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the simulations. In general, the current land use in China leads to enhanced mean annual precipitation and decreased annual temperature over south China along with decreased precipitation over North China.

  2. Land use effects on climate in China as simulated by a regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.PAL; F.GIORGI

    2007-01-01

    A regional climate model (RegCM3) nested within ERA40 re-analyzed data is used to investigate the climate effects of land use change over China. Two 15-year simulations (1987―2001), one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover without human intervention, are conducted for a domain encompassing China. The climate impacts of land use change are assessed from the difference between the two simulations. Results show that the current land use (modified by anthropogenic ac- tivities) influences local climate as simulated by the model through the reinforcement of the monsoon circulation in both the winter and summer seasons and through changes of the surface energy budget. In winter, land use change leads to reduced precipitation and decreased surface air temperature south of the Yangtze River, and increased precipitation north of the Yangtze River. Land use change signifi- cantly affects summer climate in southern China, yielding increased precipitation over the region, de- creased temperature along the Yangtze River and increased temperature in the South China area (south-end of China). In summer, a reduction of precipitation over northern China and a temperature rise over Northwest China are also simulated. Both daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the simulations. In general, the current land use in China leads to enhanced mean annual precipitation and decreased annual temperature over south China along with decreased precipitation over North China.

  3. On land-use modeling: A treatise of satellite imagery data and misclassification error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Austin M.

    Recent availability of satellite-based land-use data sets, including data sets with contiguous spatial coverage over large areas, relatively long temporal coverage, and fine-scale land cover classifications, is providing new opportunities for land-use research. However, care must be used when working with these datasets due to misclassification error, which causes inconsistent parameter estimates in the discrete choice models typically used to model land-use. I therefore adapt the empirical correction methods developed for other contexts (e.g., epidemiology) so that they can be applied to land-use modeling. I then use a Monte Carlo simulation, and an empirical application using actual satellite imagery data from the Northern Great Plains, to compare the results of a traditional model ignoring misclassification to those from models accounting for misclassification. Results from both the simulation and application indicate that ignoring misclassification will lead to biased results. Even seemingly insignificant levels of misclassification error (e.g., 1%) result in biased parameter estimates, which alter marginal effects enough to affect policy inference. At the levels of misclassification typical in current satellite imagery datasets (e.g., as high as 35%), ignoring misclassification can lead to systematically erroneous land-use probabilities and substantially biased marginal effects. The correction methods I propose, however, generate consistent parameter estimates and therefore consistent estimates of marginal effects and predicted land-use probabilities.

  4. Land-use change arising from rural land exchange : an agent-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martha M.; Alam, Shah Jamal; van Dijk, Jerry; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmer

  5. On pilgrimage with biblical women in their land(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Wainwright

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent sociological and anthropological studies have provided models for examining pilgrimage both in its ancient and contemporary manifestations. Such models can facilitate an examination of the phenomenon of study tours to biblical lands and the multivalence of the discourses associated with such tours. The first part of the article engaged critically with the literature in order to open up some frameworks for examining the study tour to biblical lands. Feminist critical biblical scholarship with its potential for a feminist hermeneutic of creative imagination contributes to the multivalence around the study tour. Therefore, the second part of the article engaged this scholarship in relation to an imagined tour with women of the biblical lands. The article highlighted significant issues for consideration for those planning a study tour of biblical lands, especially in terms of the consideration that ought to be paid to gender.

  6. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  7. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  8. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the...

  9. Bureau of Land Management Surface Land Ownership (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — These data were collected by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in New Mexico at both the New Mexico State Office and at the various field offices. This...

  10. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  11. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  12. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  13. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  14. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  15. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  16. The implications of alternative developer decision-making strategies on land-use and land-cover in an agent-based land market model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, D.C.; Sun, S.; Filatova, T.; Magliocca, N.; Huang, Q.; Brown, D.G.; Riolo, R.; Seppelt, R.; et al, .

    2012-01-01

    Land developers play a key role in land-use and land cover change, as they directly make land development decisions and bridge the land and housing markets. Developers choose and purchase land from rural land owners, develop and subdivide land into parcel lots, build structures on lots, and sell hou

  17. Investigating the Impacts of Surface Temperature Anomalies Due to Wildfires in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, T.; Ichoku, C. M.; Matsui, T.; Capehart, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Sub-Saharan African region (NSSA) is an area of intense study due to the recent severe droughts that have dire consequences on the population, which relies mostly on rainfed agriculture for its food supply. This region's weather and hydrologic cycle are very complex and are dependent on the West African Monsoon. Different regional processes affect the West African Monsoon cycle and variability. One of the areas of current investigation is the water cycle response to the variability of land surface characteristics. Land surface characteristics are often altered in NSSA due to agricultural practices, grazing, and the fires that occur during the dry season. To better understand the effects of biomass burning on the hydrologic cycle of the sub-Saharan environment, an interdisciplinary team sponsored by NASA is analyzing potential feedback mechanisms due to the fires. As part of this research, this study focuses on the effects of land surface changes, particularly albedo and skin temperature, that are influenced by biomass burning. Surface temperature anomalies can influence the initiation of convective rainfall and surface albedo is linked to the absorption of solar radiation. To capture the effects of fire perturbations on the land surface, NASA's Unified Weather and Research Forecasting (NU-WRF) model coupled with NASA's Land Information System (LIS) is being used to simulate some of the fire-induced surface temperature anomalies and other environmental processes. In this presentation, we will report the strategy for these simulations, and show some preliminary results.

  18. A review of soils and crops in the Bukidnon Highlands of Northern Mindanao, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejarme-Calalang, GM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article reviews soil and crop production information from Bukidnon, Northern Mindanao, the Philippines. It focuses on the parent materials involved in forming Bukidnon soils, clay forming minerals, soil classification, types and location distribution, physico-chemical characteristics, soil potentialities and constraints, and the yields of the major crops. Literature. The information discussed was gathered from on-line journals, a compilation of agricultural research reports published in Northern Mindanao, published theses, government data and reports, and books. Bukidnon has existing soil information that could be useful for assessing and monitoring soil fertility and in establishing a regional Land Information System (LandIS. Soils in the Province are classified according to Soil Order, Great Group and soil type under the USDA Soil Taxonomic Classification. Data on crop production yields are also available. Soil information is intended more for crop fertilization planning at the broader scale. Studies on geomorphopedology and the interactions of elements within the soil are scarce. The relationship between soil formation and its characteristics and plant responses is not discussed here. Conclusion. The recommendations arising from this study are: (1 to conduct in-depth geomorphopedological studies in marginal areas of undifferentiated soils, (2 to study the relationship between soil characteristics and crop responses including nutrient assimilation by plants, focusing on phosphorus (P, and (3 to develop a generic protocol and establish a LandIS for mountain areas that can be replicated in other areas in Mindanao, the Philippines.

  19. The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

  20. LANDS CARTOGRAPHY: A MESOAMERICAN HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pájaro Huertas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Land maps, like prehispanic mesoamerican maps, do notuse Euclidean projections, which are based on ahumanistic or social projection. The spatial reality inthese maps is defined and structured by socialrelationships. Thus, a land map represents a communityshowing its territory and history, and not only an area likein conventional technical maps. A land map is a“communicentric projection” of the “egocentricperception” of the peasant, and can be defined as theprojection in graphic symbols of the spatial relationshipsabstracted from the knowledge available in cognitivemaps of the environments known by the peasant, ratherthan the result of sophisticated techniques, such as thoseused in soil surveys or remote perception.