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Sample records for arms race involving

  1. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  2. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  3. The arms race between fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  4. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  5. Naval trends in ASEAN: is there a new arms race?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Frank Curtis

    1995-01-01

    Global military spending is decreasing. However this trend does not apply to some regions of the world, specifically Southeast Asia. This thesis describes the ongoing naval arms buildup in this region and examines why it is occurring when the rest of the world is decreasing military spending. Next, this thesis asks if this arms build-up is dangerous. Unlike many other arms races around the world, the Southeast Asian build-up is not particularly dangerous because of the parallel development of...

  6. DMPD: An arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18031256 An arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies...arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. PubmedID 18031256 Title An arms ra...ce: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. Authors Schrod

  7. Financial Expertise as an Arms Race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glode, V.; Green, R.C.; Lowery, R.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model in which firms involved in trading securities overinvest in financial expertise. Intermediaries or traders in the model meet and bargain over a financial asset. As in the bargaining model in Dang (2008), counterparties endogenously decide whether to acquire information, and improv

  8. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research

  9. Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Hanifin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

  10. SDI: Fallacy of last move in arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), sold to the American people by a persuasive president as the weapons system to end all weapons systems, turned out to be only another step in the continuing arms race, contends the author. It might already have been terminated if President Bush did not fear the conservatives who see SDI as the strategic centerpiece of the Reagan legacy. He says the project was ill-conceived from the start because it was grounded in the simple-minded faith that technology can provide the answer to the arms race. The reason it got as far as it did was because this simple-minded faith had an adherent in an exceptionally popular president who sensed correctly that the voters shared the same naive confidence. He lists several factors that contributed to the unraveling of SDI: technical opposition based upon growing evidence that the system would not work; loss of the 1986 congressional elections and a subsequent drop in appropriations; and the dramatic improvement of relations between the superpowers. He concludes that SDI is but the latest in a series of fundamentally misguided efforts by both superpowers to achieve advantage; if it proves to be the final instance of the fallacy of the last move in the annals of the Cold War, at least it will not have been altogether in vain

  11. From proliferation to arms race. Nuclear challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If there is a region in the world where the 21. Century will be defined, it is Asia. When the rise of powers meets with old rivalries, competition for regional leadership and pending territorial disputes, the risk of conflict resurfaces and the balance of powers shifts. With changes come new trends, and with new trends come new dynamics. The nuclear realm is one of those where the changes are the most significant, the future the most uncertain, and where ongoing evolutions warrant the most scrutiny. What are these evolutions' main characteristics and what are their consequences for security, deterrence, non-proliferation and disarmament? Five major trends are currently shaping the strategic landscape and one of them has the potential for global ramifications: the advent of a regional arms race. (author)

  12. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.

    1987-01-01

    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  13. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  14. The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edger, Patrick P; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Bekaert, Michaël; Rota, Jadranka; Glöckner, Gernot; Platts, Adrian E; Heckel, David G; Der, Joshua P; Wafula, Eric K; Tang, Michelle; Hofberger, Johannes A; Smithson, Ann; Hall, Jocelyn C; Blanchette, Matthieu; Bureau, Thomas E; Wright, Stephen I; dePamphilis, Claude W; Eric Schranz, M; Barker, Michael S; Conant, Gavin C; Wahlberg, Niklas; Vogel, Heiko; Pires, J Chris; Wheat, Christopher W

    2015-07-01

    Coevolutionary interactions are thought to have spurred the evolution of key innovations and driven the diversification of much of life on Earth. However, the genetic and evolutionary basis of the innovations that facilitate such interactions remains poorly understood. We examined the coevolutionary interactions between plants (Brassicales) and butterflies (Pieridae), and uncovered evidence for an escalating evolutionary arms-race. Although gradual changes in trait complexity appear to have been facilitated by allelic turnover, key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. Furthermore, we show that the origins of both chemical defenses and of molecular counter adaptations were associated with shifts in diversification rates during the arms-race. These findings provide an important connection between the origins of biodiversity, coevolution, and the role of gene and genome duplications as a substrate for novel traits.

  15. Ad-Blocking and Counter Blocking: A Slice of the Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Nithyanand, Rishab; Khattak, Sheharbano; Javed, Mobin; Vallina-Rodriguez, Narseo; Falahrastegar, Marjan; Powles, Julia E.; De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Haddadi, Hamed; Murdoch, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Adblocking tools like Adblock Plus continue to rise in popularity, potentially threatening the dynamics of advertising revenue streams. In response, a number of publishers have ramped up efforts to develop and deploy mechanisms for detecting and/or counter-blocking adblockers (which we refer to as anti-adblockers), effectively escalating the online advertising arms race. In this paper, we develop a scalable approach for identifying third-party services shared across multiple web-sites and use...

  16. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  17. Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1992-06-05

    Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

  18. The phage-host arms race: Shaping the evolution of microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Adi [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Molecular Genetics; Sorek, Rotem [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Molecular Genetics

    2010-10-26

    Bacteria, the most abundant organisms on the planet, are outnumbered by a factor of 10 to 1 by phages that infect them. Faced with the rapid evolution and turnover of phage particles, bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to evade phage infection and killing, leading to an evolutionary arms race. The extensive co-evolution of both phage and host has resulted in considerable diversity on the part of both bacterial and phage defensive and offensive strategies. In this paper, we discuss the unique and common features of phage resistance mechanisms and their role in global biodiversity. Finally, the commonalities between defense mechanisms suggest avenues for the discovery of novel forms of these mechanisms based on their evolutionary traits.

  19. The phage-host arms-race: Shaping the evolution of microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adi_Stern,; Rotem_Sorek,; Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem

    2010-10-01

    Bacteria, the most abundant organisms on the planet, are outnumbered by a factor of 10 to 1 by phages that infect them. Faced with the rapid evolution and turnover of phage particles, bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to evade phage infection and killing, leading to an evolutionary arms-race. The extensive co-evolution of both phage and host has resulted in considerable diversity on the part of both bacterial and phage defensive and offensive strategies. Here, we discuss the unique and common features of phage resistance mechanisms and their role in global biodiversity. The commonalities between defense mechanisms suggest avenues for the discovery of novel such mechanisms based on their evolutionary traits.

  20. 15 CFR 971.405 - Breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security involving armed conflict. 971.405 Section 971.405 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating... armed conflict. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit, the Administrator must find... expected to lead to a breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict....

  1. Horizontal gene transfer events reshape the global landscape of arm race between viruses and homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, San-Jie; Chen, Shan-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) drives the evolution of recipient organism particularly if it provides a novel function which enhances the fitness or its adaption to the environment. Virus-host co-evolution is attractive for studying co-evolutionary processes, since viruses strictly replicate inside of the host cells and thus their evolution is inexorably tangled with host biology. HGT, as a mechanism of co-evolution between human and viruses, has been widely documented, however, the roles HGT play during the interaction between human and viruses are still in their infancy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the genes horizontally transferred between viruses and their corresponding human hosts. Our study suggests that the HGT genes in human are predominantly enriched in immune related GO terms while viral HGT genes are tend to be encoded by viruses which promote the invasion of immune system of hosts. Based on our results, it gives us a hint about the evolution trajectory of HGT events. Overall, our study suggests that the HGT between human and viruses are highly relevant to immune interaction and probably reshaped the arm race between hosts and viruses. PMID:27270140

  2. Poverty, Race, and Parental Involvement during the Transition to Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.; Crosnoe, Robert; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Pituch, Keenan A.

    2010-01-01

    Using multilevel models of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N = 20,356), the authors find that parental involvement in education partially mediates the association between family poverty and children's math and reading achievement in kindergarten, but differences exist across race. In Asian families, poor and…

  3. Virions at the gates: receptors and the host-virus arms race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coffin

    Full Text Available All viruses need to bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of target cells to initiate infection. Virus-receptor binding is highly specific, and this specificity determines both the species and the cell type that can be infected by a given virus. In some well-studied cases, the virus-binding region on the receptor has been found to be unrelated to the receptor's normal cellular function. Resistance to virus infection can thus evolve by selection of mutations that alter amino acids in the binding region with minimal effect on normal function. This sort of positive selection can be used to infer the history of the host-virus "arms race" during their coevolution. In a new study, Demogines et al. use a combination of phylogenetic, structural, and virological analysis to infer the history and significance of positive selection on the transferrin receptor TfR1, a housekeeping protein required for iron uptake and the cell surface receptor for at least three different types of virus. The authors show that only two parts of the rodent TfR1 molecule have been subject to positive selection and that these correspond to the binding sites for two of these viruses-the mouse mammary tumor virus (a retrovirus and Machupo virus (an arenavirus. They confirmed this result by introducing the inferred binding site mutations into the wild-type protein and testing for receptor function. Related arenaviruses are beginning to spread in human populations in South America as the cause of often fatal hemorrhagic fevers, and, although Demogines et al. could find no evidence of TfR1 mutations in this region that might have been selected as a consequence of human infection, the authors identified one such mutation in Asian populations that affects infection with these viruses.

  4. 15 CFR 970.505 - Breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security involving armed conflict. 970.505 Section 970.505 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating... to a breach of international peace and security involving armed conflict. .../revision; Suspension/revocation § 970.505 Breach of international peace and security involving...

  5. Does race influence survival for esophageal cancers treated on the radiation and chemotherapy arm of RTOG no. 85-01?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: In reported retrospective and non-randomized trials for esophageal carcinoma, blacks have a lower survival than whites but the patient population, method, quality and time periods of treatment differ. We reviewed the patient database of the combined modality arm of RTOG-8501 esophageal carcinoma protocol to see if there were differences in overall survival between black and white patients receiving the same standard of care. Materials and Methods: The chemotherapy (CT) consisted of Cisplatin, 75 mg/m2 during the first day of the first radiation treatment (RT) and then the first day of weeks, 5, 8, and 11. In addition, 5-fluorouracil, 1000 mg/m2 was given also the first day of radiotherapy and over 4 days and this 4 day cycle was repeated weeks 5, 8, and 11. 50 Gy was given to the esophagus as follows: 2 Gy x 5 days/week x 3 weeks (30 Gy), followed by a local boost of 2 Gy x 5 days/week x 2 weeks (20 Gy). 139 patients were entered into the combined modality arm of RT+CT. Nine patients were not evaluated in the analysis because 7 were deemed ineligible and 2 had incomplete data. This left 130 patients analyzable: 61 were initially randomized to the RT+CT arm and 69 were later registered to this arm when the RT only arm was closed due to poor survival (10% RT only vs 36% RT+CT alive at 2 years). Five additional patients were not included because their racial background was classified as 'other' and six patients were scheduled for, but did not receive any chemotherapy, leaving 119 patients, 37 blacks and 82 whites, evaluated in this report. The following pretreatment characteristics were analyzed using the Cox regression model: Race (black vs white); Histology (squamous vs adenocarcinoma; Age (5 cm vs 77% for whites. When analyzing dysphagia, only 3% of blacks had unrestricted diets vs 33% of whites. Nearly half (49%) of blacks could tolerate liquids only, whereas only 30% of whites were liquid-restricted. Only 14% of blacks had less than a 10 lb

  6. Untangling the Links among Athletic Involvement, Gender, Race, and Adolescent Academic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Don

    2005-01-01

    Although previous research has established that high school sports participation may be associated with positive academic outcomes, the parameters of the relationship remain unclear. Using a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents, this study examined gender- and race-specific differences in the impact of two dimensions of adolescent athletic involvement (“jock” identity and athlete status) on changes in school grades and school misconduct over a two-year interval. Fema...

  7. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2015-05-13

    The bend propagation involved in the stereotypical reaching movement of the octopus arm has been extensively studied. While these studies have analyzed the kinematics of bend propagation along the arm during its extension, possible length changes have been ignored. Here, the elongation profiles of the reaching movements of Octopus vulgaris were assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions. The analysis revealed that, in addition to bend propagation, arm extension movements involve elongation of the proximal part of the arm, i.e., the section from the base of the arm to the propagating bend. The elongations are quite substantial and highly variable, ranging from an average strain along the arm of -0.12 (i.e. shortening) up to 1.8 at the end of the movement (0.57 ± 0.41, n = 64 movements, four animals). Less variability was discovered in an additional set of experiments on reaching movements (0.64 ± 0.28, n = 30 movements, two animals), where target and octopus positions were kept more stationary. Visual observation and subsequent kinematic analysis suggest that the reaching movements can be broadly segregated into two groups. The first group involves bend propagation beginning at the base of the arm and propagating towards the arm tip. In the second, the bend is formed or present more distally and reaching is achieved mainly by elongation and straightening of the segment proximal to the bend. Only in the second type of movements is elongation significantly positively correlated with the distance of the bend from the target. We suggest that reaching towards a target is generated by a combination of both propagation of a bend along the arm and arm elongation. These two motor primitives may be combined to create a broad spectrum of reaching movements. The dynamical model, which recapitulates the biomechanics of the octopus muscular hydrostatic arm, suggests that achieving the observed elongation requires an extremely low ratio of longitudinal to transverse muscle

  8. An arms race is coming to the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After nearly half a century of the Cold War, the USA and Russia have finally come to carrying out their arms control agreements, drastically cutting their nuclear and conventional weapons as well as military personnel. One would imagine that the world would gradually cease to manufacture and sell weapons. The reality has seen quite the opposite. The Asia-Pacific region needs to establish urgently a forum for dialogue in security and cooperation negotiations in order to resolve peacefully outstanding territorial and political disputes. Certain arms control measures should be initiated by the Asia-Pacific nations, otherwise they will face the 21st century with the prospect of many military confrontations

  9. Intersections of family homelessness, CPS involvement, and race in Alameda County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jason M; Shinn, Marybeth

    2016-07-01

    The homelessness and child protective services (CPS) systems are closely linked. This study examines the patterns and sequence of families' involvement with homeless shelters and CPS, as well as whether involvement in each system predicts involvement in the other using linked administrative records for 258 families recruited in emergency shelters in Alameda County, California. More than half of families were reported to CPS at some point, but less than one-fifth ever had a report substantiated. Reports that were uninvestigated or unfounded increased in the months leading up to shelter entry and spiked immediately afterward, but substantiations and child removals increased only later. Shelter use before study entry was associated with CPS referrals and investigations after study entry, although not with substantiated cases or child removals. However, CPS involvement before study entry was not associated with returns to shelter after study entry. These results imply that an unsubstantiated report of neglect or abuse may serve as an early warning signal for homelessness and that preventive strategies aiming to affect both homeless and child protective systems should focus on reducing homelessness. CPS workers should evaluate families' housing needs and attempt to link families to appropriate resources. Black families were disproportionately referred to CPS after shelter entry after controlling for other family characteristics, but race was not associated with substantiations of neglect or abuse or with child removals. Findings lend modest support to human decision-making and institutional explanations of racial disproportionalities in CPS involvement, especially for reporters outside of the CPS system. PMID:27318034

  10. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  11. Computational analyses of an evolutionary arms race between mammalian immunity mediated by immunoglobulin A and its subversion by bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pinheiro

    Full Text Available IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin isotype in mucosal tissues and external secretions, playing important roles both in defense against pathogens and in maintenance of commensal microbiota. Considering the complexity of its interactions with the surrounding environment, IgA is a likely target for diversifying or positive selection. To investigate this possibility, the action of natural selection on IgA was examined in depth with six different methods: CODEML from the PAML package and the SLAC, FEL, REL, MEME and FUBAR methods implemented in the Datamonkey webserver. In considering just primate IgA, these analyses show that diversifying selection targeted five positions of the Cα1 and Cα2 domains of IgA. Extending the analysis to include other mammals identified 18 positively selected sites: ten in Cα1, five in Cα2 and three in Cα3. All but one of these positions display variation in polarity and charge. Their structural locations suggest they indirectly influence the conformation of sites on IgA that are critical for interaction with host IgA receptors and also with proteins produced by mucosal pathogens that prevent their elimination by IgA-mediated effector mechanisms. Demonstrating the plasticity of IgA in the evolution of different groups of mammals, only two of the eighteen selected positions in all mammals are included in the five selected positions in primates. That IgA residues subject to positive selection impact sites targeted both by host receptors and subversive pathogen ligands highlights the evolutionary arms race playing out between mammals and pathogens, and further emphasizes the importance of IgA in protection against mucosal pathogens.

  12. Computational analyses of an evolutionary arms race between mammalian immunity mediated by immunoglobulin A and its subversion by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana; Woof, Jenny M; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Parham, Peter; Esteves, Pedro J

    2013-01-01

    IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin isotype in mucosal tissues and external secretions, playing important roles both in defense against pathogens and in maintenance of commensal microbiota. Considering the complexity of its interactions with the surrounding environment, IgA is a likely target for diversifying or positive selection. To investigate this possibility, the action of natural selection on IgA was examined in depth with six different methods: CODEML from the PAML package and the SLAC, FEL, REL, MEME and FUBAR methods implemented in the Datamonkey webserver. In considering just primate IgA, these analyses show that diversifying selection targeted five positions of the Cα1 and Cα2 domains of IgA. Extending the analysis to include other mammals identified 18 positively selected sites: ten in Cα1, five in Cα2 and three in Cα3. All but one of these positions display variation in polarity and charge. Their structural locations suggest they indirectly influence the conformation of sites on IgA that are critical for interaction with host IgA receptors and also with proteins produced by mucosal pathogens that prevent their elimination by IgA-mediated effector mechanisms. Demonstrating the plasticity of IgA in the evolution of different groups of mammals, only two of the eighteen selected positions in all mammals are included in the five selected positions in primates. That IgA residues subject to positive selection impact sites targeted both by host receptors and subversive pathogen ligands highlights the evolutionary arms race playing out between mammals and pathogens, and further emphasizes the importance of IgA in protection against mucosal pathogens. PMID:24019941

  13. The Domestic Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Donald F.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of familial influence, victimization, gun ownership, and attitudes toward gun control. Victims whose parents owned guns are much more likely to own guns and oppose legislation. (JMF)

  14. The involvement of women in anti-establishment armed groups: deviance in the service of a citizenship enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Felices-Luna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies of women’s involvement in armed conflict and the majority of the existing research has gender as its main concern. However, through empirical research, this article will attempt to shows that gender is not a relevant issue when women discuss their motivations and experiences in being part of armed struggle. The interviewees refute the deviant label attributed to them and represent themselves as social and political actors. Thus, the analysis of their discourse leads us to see womens’ involvement in armed struggle as an active practice of citizenship, given that participating in political and war enterprises has traditionally been considered an essential component of citizenship.

  15. Behavioral investigation on the frames of reference involved in visuomotor transformations during peripheral arm reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Ambrosini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several psychophysical experiments found evidence for the involvement of gaze-centered and/or body-centered coordinates in arm-movement planning and execution. Here we aimed at investigating the frames of reference involved in the visuomotor transformations for reaching towards visual targets in space by taking target eccentricity and performing hand into account. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined several performance measures while subjects reached, in complete darkness, memorized targets situated at different locations relative to the gaze and/or to the body, thus distinguishing between an eye-centered and a body-centered frame of reference involved in the computation of the movement vector. The errors seem to be mainly affected by the visual hemifield of the target, independently from its location relative to the body, with an overestimation error in the horizontal reaching dimension (retinal exaggeration effect. The use of several target locations within the perifoveal visual field allowed us to reveal a novel finding, that is, a positive linear correlation between horizontal overestimation errors and target retinal eccentricity. In addition, we found an independent influence of the performing hand on the visuomotor transformation process, with each hand misreaching towards the ipsilateral side. CONCLUSIONS: While supporting the existence of an internal mechanism of target-effector integration in multiple frames of reference, the present data, especially the linear overshoot at small target eccentricities, clearly indicate the primary role of gaze-centered coding of target location in the visuomotor transformation for reaching.

  16. Metabolic and mechanical involvement of arms and legs in simulated double pole skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Secher, N H; Nilsson, J;

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated arm and leg work rate and metabolism during double pole ergometer skiing. Thermodilution arm and leg blood flow was determined together with the arterial to venous difference for oxygen, while the work rate was assessed in eight male recreational skiers [24 (SD 7) years]. When work...

  17. Identification by R-banding and FISH of chromosome arms involved in Robertsonian translocations in several deer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Garnier, A; Claro, F; Thévenon, S; Gautier, M; Hayes, H

    2003-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed the RBG-banded karyotype of five deer species: Chital (Axis axis), White-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) and Eld's deer (Cervus eldi siamensis). Among these five species, only Eld's deer had been previously karyotyped using R-banding. In order to identify all the chromosome correspondences with cattle and precisely which chromosome arms are involved in Robertsonian translocations, we compared the karyotypes of these five species with those of the closely related and well-characterized species, cattle (Bos taurus) and Vietnamese Sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis). Among these six deer species (the five above plus the Vietnamese Sika deer), we found thirteen different Robertsonian translocations involving nineteen different chromosome arms. Thirteen chromosome arms were identified by comparison of R-banding patterns only and the remaining six were either confirmed or identified by FISH-mapping of bovine or caprine probes previously localized in cattle. Finally, we observed that five of the thirteen Robertsonian translocations are shared by at least two species and that some chromosome arms are more frequently involved in Robertsonian translocations than others. PMID:14606627

  18. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs.

  19. The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Elbogen, Eric B

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the impact of race and arrest history on the likelihood of being prescribed, and maintaining an atypical antipsychotic prescription for 90 or more days among patients with schizophrenia in the community. Participants were 224 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services in public-sector mental health systems in North Carolina. The data used for this report were from a subsample of a larger group of participants being followed in an observational study and consisted of individuals who were prescribed either an atypical or conventional antipsychotic medication for 90 or more days. The purpose of the analyses presented here was to investigate differences in the likelihood of being prescribed an atypical antipsychotic by demographic and other characteristics. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African American patients were significantly less likely to receive atypical antipsychotics than their white counterparts, even when controlling for key clinical and demographic variables. However, white patients with a history of arrest were no more likely than black patients to receive atypical antipsychotics; that is, minority racial status and criminal involvement each functioned to limit patients' access to the novel medications. Implications for equal access to mental health services, in this case, effective psychopharmacologic treatment, are discussed.

  20. A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE STATE SYSTEM: NETWORKS, ARMS RACES AND MORAL HAZARDS Un sistema adaptativo complejo: Redes, carreras armamentistas y peligros morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO POLICZER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the debate over stateness in Latin America assumes that states should sustain basic levels of stability, and if they cannot, the question is why not. This article departs from the assumption of stability, by asking how the relationship between states and other actors has evolved over time. This departure requires a shift in focus: from stateness as referring to states and how they should operate, to stateness as referring to the relationships between states and other actors, and how they change over time. The article argues that such relationships can be understood as emergent complex adaptive systems (CAS, and considers three specific CAS mechanisms: networks, arms races, and moral hazards. This conceptual shift in how to think about states is especially challenging in a region historically accustomed to hierarchical governance.Buena parte del debate sobre la estatalidad en América Latina presupone que los estados deben mantener niveles básicos de estabilidad, y que si no pueden hacerlo, la pregunta es por qué no. Este artículo se aleja del supuesto de la estabilidad, al preguntar cómo la relación entre los estados y otros actores ha evolucionado con el tiempo. Esto requiere un cambio de enfoque: de estatalidad que se refiere a los estados y cómo debieran funcionar, a la estatalidad en referencia a las relaciones entre los estados y otros actores, y cómo éstas cambian con el tiempo. El artículo sostiene que este tipo de relaciones se puede entender como sistemas complejos adaptativos (SCA emergentes, y considera tres mecanismos específicos de SCA: redes, carreras armamentistas y peligros morales (moral hazards. Este cambio conceptual en laforma de pensar acerca de los estados es especialmente difícil en una región históricamente acostumbrada a la gobernanza jerárquica.

  1. Segond fracture: involvement of the iliotibial band, anterolateral ligament, and anterior arm of the biceps femoris in knee trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Boulet, Cedric; Willekens, Inneke; Mey, Johan de; Shahabpour, Maryam [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest University, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Cattrysse, Erik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Experimental Anatomy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-04

    To evaluate the involvement of the iliotibial band (ITB), the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and the anterior arm of the biceps femoris in MRI-diagnosed Segond fracture and to evaluate other associated findings of Segond fracture. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 13 cases of Segond fracture. The studies included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted with fat saturation images in the three planes. We studied 2 cadaveric specimens with emphasis on the ALL. One cadaveric specimen was dissected while the other was sectioned in the sagittal plane. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 17-52). There were 7 men and 6 women. The mean size of the Segond bone fragment was 8 x 10 x 2 mm. The distance from the tibia varied from 2 to 6 mm. Associated findings included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (n = 13), medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear (n = 8), meniscocapsular tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (n = 5), and posterolateral corner involvement (n = 4). Bone marrow edema involved the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior tibial plateau on both the medial and the lateral side. Edema at the Segond area was seen, but was limited. Fibular head edema was also seen. The ITB (11 out of 13) and ALL (10 out of 13) inserted on the Segond bone fragment. The anterior arm of the biceps tendon did not insert on the Segond fracture. Associated findings of Segond fracture include ACL tear, MCL tear, medial meniscus tear, and posterolateral corner injury. Both the ITB and the ALL may be involved in the Segond avulsion. The anterior arm of the biceps femoris tendon is not involved. (orig.)

  2. Computerized System for Evaluating Small Arm Projectile Trajectory Parameters Involving Space Time Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jauhari

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of certain parameters of the trajectory of a small arm projectile on the basis of Siacci approximation requires the values of space (S and Time (T functions as tabulated in the Ingalls and Hodsock ballistic tables. The development is reported of a computerized system, whereby the necessity of referring to these tables has been completely obviated. Programme flow-char has been presented and the logic behind the flow of programme has been made explicit. The programme has been executed successfully on the DCM Microsystem 1121.

  3. Identification by R-banding and FISH of chromosome arms involved in Robertsonian translocations in several deer species

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet-Garnier, Amelie; Claro, F.; Thevenon, S.; Gautier, Mathieu; Hayes, Hélène

    2003-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed the RBG-banded karyotype of ¢ve deer species: Chital (Axis axis), White-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) and Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi siamensis). Among these ¢ve species, only Eld’s deer had been previously karyotyped using R-banding. In order to identify all the chromosome correspondences with cattle and precisely which chromosome arms are involved in Robertsonian translocations, we compared the ka...

  4. The arms race between fishers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Poos, J.J.; Quirijns, F.J.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Wilde, de J.W.; Heijer, den W.M.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing flee

  5. Fuelling the nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of Siamese Twins (the wartime and postwar development of nuclear energy, with particular reference to government and industrial organisation for nuclear energy in the United Kingdom (military and civil programmes)); the nuclear chain (organisation and activities of UK plants at Windscale, Calder Hall, Chapelcross, Capenhurst, Springfields, Risley, Harwell, Dounreay, Aldermaston; uranium mining and the Rossing connection; low-level radiation; nuclear power and the American weapons connection); atoms for peace (table: proliferation risk research reactors; the IAEA and nuclear proliferation safeguards; table:main points of the Non-Proliferation Treaty; table:power reactors in non-nuclear weapons states; table:reprocessing and enrichment plants in non-nuclear weapons states; South Africa; nuclear exporting; nuclear power and the third world; the final solution); towards the nuclear state (secrecy; UKAEA; individual cases); breaking the nuclear chain. (U.K.)

  6. A Novel Protein RLS1 with NB-ARM Domains Is Involved in Chloroplast Degradation during Leaf Senescence in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Bin Jiao; Jian-Jun Wang; Xu-Dong Zhu; Long-Jun Zeng; Qun Li; Zu-Hua He

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence,a type of programmed cell death (PCD) characterized by chlorophyll degradation,is important to plant growth and crop productivity.It emerges that autophagy is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence.However,the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process is not well understood.In this study,the genetic and physiological characteristics of the rice rls1 (rapid leaf senescence 1) mutant were identified.The rls1 mutant developed small,yellow-brown lesions resembling disease scattered over the whole surfaces of leaves that displayed earlier senescence than those of wild-type plants.The rapid loss of chlorophyll content during senescence was the main cause of accelerated leaf senescence in rls1.Microscopic observation indicated that PCD was misregulated,probably resulting in the accelerated degradation of chloroplasts in rls1 leaves.Map-based cloning of the RLS1 gene revealed that it encodes a previously uncharacterized NB (nucleotide-binding site)-containing protein with an ARM (armadillo) domain at the carboxyl terminus.Consistent with its involvement in leaf senescence,RLS1 was up-regulated during dark-induced leaf senescence and down-regulated by cytokinin.Intriguingly,constitutive expression of RLS1 also slightly accelerated leaf senescence with decreased chlorophyll content in transgenic rice plants.Our study identified a previously uncharacterized NB-ARM protein involved in PCD during plant growth and development,providing a unique tool for dissecting possible autophagymediated PCD during senescence in plants.

  7. Mechanisms involved in the nociception triggered by the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gewehr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The frequency of accidental spider bites in Brazil is growing, and poisoning due to bites from the spider genus Phoneutria nigriventer is the second most frequent source of such accidents. Intense local pain is the major symptom reported after bites of P. nigriventer, although the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms involved in nociception triggered by the venom of Phoneutria nigriventer (PNV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty microliters of PNV or PBS was injected into the mouse paw (intraplantar, i.pl.. The time spent licking the injected paw was considered indicative of the level of nociception. I.pl. injection of PNV produced spontaneous nociception, which was reduced by arachnid antivenin (ArAv, local anaesthetics, opioids, acetaminophen and dipyrone, but not indomethacin. Boiling or dialysing the venom reduced the nociception induced by the venom. PNV-induced nociception is not dependent on glutamate or histamine receptors or on mast cell degranulation, but it is mediated by the stimulation of sensory fibres that contain serotonin 4 (5-HT4 and vanilloid receptors (TRPV1. We detected a kallikrein-like kinin-generating enzyme activity in tissue treated with PNV, which also contributes to nociception. Inhibition of enzymatic activity or administration of a receptor antagonist for kinin B2 was able to inhibit the nociception induced by PNV. PNV nociception was also reduced by the blockade of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+ channels, acid-sensitive ion channels (ASIC and TRPV1 receptors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that both low- and high-molecular-weight toxins of PNV produce spontaneous nociception through direct or indirect action of kinin B2, TRPV1, 5-HT4 or ASIC receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels present in sensory neurons but not in mast cells. Understanding the mechanisms involved in nociception caused by PNV are of

  8. Identification of the t Complex–encoded Cytoplasmic Dynein Light Chain Tctex1 in Inner Arm I1 Supports the Involvement of Flagellar Dyneins in Meiotic Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Alistair; Olds-Clarke, Patricia; King, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein light chain Tctex1 is a candidate for one of the distorter products involved in the non-Mendelian transmission of mouse t haplotypes. It has been unclear, however, how the t-specific mutations in this protein, which is found associated with cytoplasmic dynein in many tissues, could result in a male germ cell–specific phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that Tctex1 is not only a cytoplasmic dynein component, but is also present both in mouse sperm and Chlamydomonas flagella. Genetic and biochemical dissection of the Chlamydomonas flagellum reveal that Tctex1 is a previously undescribed component of inner dynein arm I1. Combined with the recent identification of another putative t complex distorter, Tctex2, within the outer dynein arm, these results support the hypothesis that transmission ratio distortion (meiotic drive) of mouse t haplotypes involves dysfunction of both flagellar inner and outer dynein arms but does not require the cytoplasmic isozyme. PMID:9490726

  9. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  10. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  11. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    insurgency. The article explores how binary representations of race as mestizo or Indian, mestizo or cholo, were both formed and challenged by everyday experience of teachers as well as their political action. Their reactions to, and negotiation of, racial ascription are framed within three fields of power......Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist......: racialised social identities, processes of state formation and opportunities and repertoire of contestatory politics. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  12. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  13. Racing Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  14. Scattered radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in using mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit: Which position is riskiest?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataractogenesis is something to be concerned by radiologist and radiographer who work extensively in fluoroscopy. The increasing use of fluoroscopy or interventional fluoroscopy has to come with safety awareness on scattered radiation risk for staff performing the procedure. This study is looking into the radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in fluoroscopy using the mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit. The Toshiba SXT-1000A and Alderson Rando phantom were used in this study. Based on the results, it is found clearly that over couch (OC) procedure is riskier than under couch (UC) procedure. The cathode bound area is clearly riskier than anode bound area especially for UC procedure. More doses (at least +1,568 % of safest position) are received by the lens of the eyes for staff standing at the cathode bound area especially the position opposite to the x-ray tube

  15. Scattered radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in using mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit: Which position is riskiest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, H.; Samat, S. B.; Matori, M. K.; Isa, M. J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Cataractogenesis is something to be concerned by radiologist and radiographer who work extensively in fluoroscopy. The increasing use of fluoroscopy or interventional fluoroscopy has to come with safety awareness on scattered radiation risk for staff performing the procedure. This study is looking into the radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in fluoroscopy using the mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit. The Toshiba SXT-1000A and Alderson Rando phantom were used in this study. Based on the results, it is found clearly that over couch (OC) procedure is riskier than under couch (UC) procedure. The cathode bound area is clearly riskier than anode bound area especially for UC procedure. More doses (at least +1,568 % of safest position) are received by the lens of the eyes for staff standing at the cathode bound area especially the position opposite to the x-ray tube.

  16. Scattered radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in using mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit: Which position is riskiest?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salleh, H.; Matori, M. K.; Isa, M. J. M. [Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Samat, S. B. [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Cataractogenesis is something to be concerned by radiologist and radiographer who work extensively in fluoroscopy. The increasing use of fluoroscopy or interventional fluoroscopy has to come with safety awareness on scattered radiation risk for staff performing the procedure. This study is looking into the radiation risk to the lens of the eyes for staff involved in fluoroscopy using the mobile C-arm fluoroscopy unit. The Toshiba SXT-1000A and Alderson Rando phantom were used in this study. Based on the results, it is found clearly that over couch (OC) procedure is riskier than under couch (UC) procedure. The cathode bound area is clearly riskier than anode bound area especially for UC procedure. More doses (at least +1,568 % of safest position) are received by the lens of the eyes for staff standing at the cathode bound area especially the position opposite to the x-ray tube.

  17. Nuclear arms race - no way around

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the invitation of the publisher, but really on the invitation of all those who had signed the Krefeld disarmament appeal till then the former General of the Federal Army, Gert Bastian came to Bremen as a guest. He gave a lecture in the municipal hall, answered all questions of the audience and gave interviews to the local press and was questioned by Radio Bremen and the regional television. This compendium contains all speeches, questions and answers of the municipal to hall-meeting, all radio- and TV-interviews, the press reports in full detail and some letters written in connection with the event. (orig./HS)

  18. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  19. Race concepts in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category. PMID:23300217

  20. Race and Gender Issues: Critical Race Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Adrien K.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new body of legal scholarship on race and gender: critical race feminism (CRF), examining critical legal studies, critical race theory, and feminism. Explains the term "global multiplicative identities" as it relates to CRF and concludes that CRF has the potential to benefit from more sustained interaction with human rights workers in…

  1. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor. PMID:25679364

  2. Race and ethnicity, religion involvement, church-based social support and subjective health in united states: A case of moderated mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Ethnicity shapes how church-based social support mediates the association between religious involvement and subjective health. Our results showed a moderating mediation effect of ethnicity and social support on the religious involvement-subjective health linkage, in a way that it is only among African Americans that social support is a pathway for the beneficial health effect of religious involvement.

  3. Three-way complex variant translocation involving short arm chromosome (1;9;22)(p36;q34;q11) in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASIF, MUHAMMAD; HUSSAIN, ABRAR; MALIK, ARIF; RASOOL, MAHMOOD

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease of the clonal hematopoietic stem cells caused by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22. Overall, 90–95% of CML patients present with a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation and in addition, variant complex translocations, involving a third chromosome, are observed in 5–8% of CML patients. Cytogenic testing using bone marrow sample was performed and the FISH test was used for the detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene and complete blood analysis of CML patient was also performed. Results of hematological analysis showed the induced values of white blood cells (168,5000/mm3) and platelets (300,000/mm3) and FISH analysis test showed that 98% cells were positive for BCR/ABL gene translocation. The present study describes a three-way (1;9;22)(p36;q34;q11) Ph chromosome translocation in a 24-year-old female with CML. The patient, who was in the chronic phase of the disease, was treated with daily dose of 400 mg/dl with imatinib mesylateand was monitored constantly at various intervals over a 6-month period. Many studies reported that certain CML patents with variant translocation responded poorly to imatinib. In the current case report, the CML patient exhibited a suboptimal response to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis. PMID:26622740

  4. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  5. Race to the Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The global race in developing and deploying green energy technology can be a win-win game "Clean energy race" has become a catchphrase for journalists and bloggers to attract reader eyes. Googling that, one will be

  6. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  7. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  8. Infliximab therapy for intestinal, neurological, and vascular involvement in Behcet disease: Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in a multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-arm phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, Toshifumi; Hirohata, Shunsei; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Tateishi, Ukihide; Sato, Noriko; Ozaki, Kunihiko; Kondo, Kazuoki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem disease associated with a poor prognosis in cases of gastrointestinal, neurological, or vascular involvement. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-arm phase 3 study to determine the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of infliximab (IFX) in BD patients with these serious complications who had displayed poor response or intolerance to conventional therapy.IFX at 5 mg/kg was administered to 18 patients (11 intestinal BD, 3 neurological BD [NBD], and 4 vascular BD [VBD]) at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and every 8 weeks thereafter until week 46. In patients who showed inadequate responses to IFX after week 30, the dose was increased to 10 mg/kg. We then calculated the percentage of complete responders according to the predefined criteria depending on the symptoms and results of examinations (ileocolonoscopy, brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid, or serum inflammatory markers), exploring the percentage of complete responders at week 30 (primary endpoint).The percentage of complete responders was 61% (11/18) at both weeks 14 and 30 and remained the same until week 54. Intestinal BD patients showed improvement in clinical symptoms along with decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after week 2. Consistently, scarring or healing of the principal ulcers was found in more than 80% of these patients after week 14. NBD patients showed improvement in clinical symptoms, imaging findings, and cerebrospinal fluid examinations. VBD patients showed improvement in clinical symptoms after week 2 with reductions in CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging findings showed reversal of inflammatory changes in 3 of the 4 VBD patients. Irrespective of the type of BD, all patients achieved improvement in quality of life, leading to the dose reduction or withdrawal of steroids. IFX dose was increased to 10 mg/kg in 3 intestinal BD

  9. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  10. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  11. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  12. THE POSITION OF RUSSIA IN THE WORLD ARMS MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Tuliakova I.R.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of Russia in the world arms market. Two world wars and arms race of the late twentieth century led to the formation of the defense- industrial complex. Russian military products are exported to many countries. Currently, Russia is the main supplier of arms to the world market. But there are serious limits to the expansion of military production

  13. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  14. The Kinesiology of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  15. Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track.

  16. RACE RELATIONSHIPS: COLLEGIALITY AND DEMARCATION IN PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs Collopy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 1962, anthropologist Carleton Coon argued in The Origin of Races that some human races had evolved further than others. Among his most vocal critics were geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky and anthropologist Ashley Montagu, each of whom had known Coon for decades. I use this episode, and the long relationships between scientists that preceded it, to argue that scientific research on race was intertwined not only with political projects to conserve or reform race relations, but also with the relationships scientists shared as colleagues. Demarcation between science and pseudoscience, between legitimate research and scientific racism, involved emotional as well as intellectual labor.

  17. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link. PMID:15641921

  18. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  19. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  20. [Woman and race biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H

    1993-01-01

    Early 20th century race biology takes a special interest in woman as part of the "intra-racial" project of bringing forth healthy and competitive individuals. But there are other motives as well for the race biologist to take an interest in woman. She is believed to develop fewer individual characteristics and is therefore a more typical representative of her race than man. The development level of the race is also presupposed to be discernible by the degree of "gender diformism": a race of higher standing would exhibit a greater difference between the sexes. The anthropologist, anatomist, gynaecologist--or whatever guise the race biologist may adopt-- will, in principle, stress that the relation between the sexes is not a matter of "more or less", but one of differences in kind. In reality, the "more-or-less of comparison is the very cornerstone of the issue. Quantitative differences, directly observed or obtained from statistics, are construed as signs of difference in kind. 18th century medical philosophy and sex-linked anthropology laid the theoretical foundation of the 19th century essentialist conception of woman, which is also that adopted by race biology. Eugenics of social Darwinist inspiration regarded prophylactic health care and social welfare programs with scepticism. A race biology founded on the man-woman dualism could sustain altogether different conclusions. An advanced culture calls for extensive division of labour. An extended childhood renders possible higher development but will also impose higher demands on woman. The protection of the female organism is thus an exigency for any people or race striving to survive and evolve. From society's care for the female organism health care for women and preventive maternity care will emerge. Race biology has been a preeminently German concern, as indicated by the selection of works taken to represent this perspective on woman: Bartels-Ploss' Das Weib, C.H. Stratz' Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes and

  1. Market Structure, Medical Arms Race and Health Expense Growth:An Empirical Analysis Based on the Cross-province Data%市场结构、医武竞争与医疗费用增长:基于跨省数据的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓胜; 刘海兰; 刘瑞明

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between hospital non-price competition behavior and market structure, analyze the relationship between hospital market construction and health care costs gtowth. Methods:Using cross-province data(SCP) theory to establish the regression function of health cost expenditure, hospital market concentration ratio and the occupancy of public hospital market, process the empirical analysis based on the two-factor effectiveness model of panel data. Results: There is no medical arms race in hospital business under the current market concentration. Conclusion: The reinforcement of market competition played a more important role in the improvement of operational efficiency rather than the differences in the nature of property rights and the profit of hospitals.%目的:分析医院非价格竞争行为与市场结构之间的关系,研究医院市场结构与医疗费用增长之间的关系。方法:利用SCP理论,建立卫生费用支出、医院市场集中度和公立医院市场占有率的回归方程,利用面板数据的双因素效应模型进行实证分析。结果:在目前的市场集中度条件下,医院产业不存在医武竞争。结论:市场竞争的加剧对于提高医院效率的作用,远远超过医院产权差异和盈利属性。

  2. Dynamic neural mechanisms underlie race disparities in social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Krendl, Anne C

    2016-05-15

    Race disparities in behavior may emerge in several ways, some of which may be independent of implicit bias. To mitigate the pernicious effects of different race disparities for racial minorities, we must understand whether they are rooted in perceptual, affective, or cognitive processing with regard to race perception. We used fMRI to disentangle dynamic neural mechanisms predictive of two separable race disparities that can be obtained from a trustworthiness ratings task. Increased coupling between regions involved in perceptual and affective processing when viewing Black versus White faces predicted less later racial trust disparity, which was related to implicit bias. In contrast, increased functional coupling between regions involved in controlled processing predicted less later disparity in the differentiation of Black versus White faces with regard to perceived trust, which was unrelated to bias. These findings reveal that distinct neural signatures underlie separable race disparities in social cognition that may or may not be related to implicit bias. PMID:26908320

  3. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...... responses for the single stimuli. It has been pointed out that fast guesses (e.g. anticipatory responses) interfere with this test, and a correction procedure ('kill-the-twin' procedure) has been suggested. In this note we formally derive this procedure and extend it to the case in which redundant stimuli...... are presented with onset asynchrony. We demonstrate how the kill-the-twin procedure is used in a statistical test of the race model prediction....

  4. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  6. Race, Beyond Fact and Fiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek

    2011-01-01

    What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or trivializ

  7. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  8. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  9. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  10. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  11. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  12. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  13. Academicians and Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the activities and attitudes of a group of academicians active in one area of current social change--race relations--in a mideastern urban area, with respect to their roles and their institutions' roles in the current social change. (Author/JM)

  14. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  15. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  16. Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  17. Arms control: misplaced focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  18. A Coevolutionary Arms Race: Understanding Plant-Herbivore Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and insects share a long evolutionary history characterized by relationships that affect individual, population, and community dynamics. Plant-herbivore interactions are a prominent feature of this evolutionary history; it is by plant-herbivore interactions that energy is transferred from primary producers to the rest of the food web. Not…

  19. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  20. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle. PMID:26796122

  1. Prevention of an arms race in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space age may be the to have begun in 1957, when for the first time a man-made object was lofted into orbit round the Earth. Since that date, the new problems of outer space have been discussed in the United Nations, particularly in the General Assembly, in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies, and in the Conference on Disarmament. The discussions have contributed to the conclusion of a number of international agreements concerning both military and peaceful aspects of the use of outer space. This paper reports that according to the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, known as the outer space Treaty, outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means (article II), and the parties undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of ass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner (article IV). Detailed norms for States' actions in this environment are included in the 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies to ensure that the Moon and other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than Earth, are used exclusively for peaceful purposes

  2. Autophagy and bacterial infection: an evolving arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Augustine; Roy, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    Autophagy is an important membrane transport pathway that is conserved among eukaryotic cells. Although first described as an intracellular catabolic pathway used to break down self-components, autophagy has been found to play an important role in the elimination of intracellular pathogens. A variety of host mechanisms exist for recognizing and targeting intracellular bacteria to autophagosomes. Several intracellular bacteria have evolved ways to manipulate, inhibit, or avoid autophagy in order to survive in the cell. Thus, the autophagy pathway can be viewed as an evolutionarily conserved host response to infection.

  3. Race en konstruktion

    OpenAIRE

    Therp, Helga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how representations ascribe meaning race in USA. In order to investigate this, I employ a broader perspective by using semiotic analysis on a testimony in the novel Americanah, written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Which representation has part in constituting the other and how does these representations internalize in the subject. Representations are however given meaning by other people, which make it necessary to include how The White Gaze positioned blacks. Fur...

  4. Rivalry and innovation races

    OpenAIRE

    Kukuk, Martin; Stadler, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    Based on an extended game-theoretic innovation-race model, we derive some Schumpeterian hypotheses of the impact of technological rivalry, market power, technological opportunities and market size on the timing of product and process innovations. Using innovation data at the firm level in the German industrial sector, we estimate various versions of an econometric specification of the model with dichotomous innovation data by using a univariate binary probit model with qualitative regressor v...

  5. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  6. Race en konstruktion

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Helga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how representations ascribe meaning race in USA. In order to investigate this, I employ a broader perspective by using semiotic analysis on a testimony in the novel Americanah, written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Which representation has part in constituting the other and how does these representations internalize in the subject. Representations are however given meaning by other people, which make it necessary to include how The White Gaze positioned blacks. Furt...

  7. Space race functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  8. Space race functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  9. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  10. The racing dragon

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  11. Dealing with the race for agricultural land

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Aslihan; Khalilian, Setareh; Lange, Mareike

    2011-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes the scientific discussion about land deals and presents some initial empirical results from a field trip to a large land investment in Zambia. It is intended to serve as a background paper for the symposium session 'Dealing with the Race for Agricultural Land' at the Global Economic Symposium 2011 in Kiel, Germany. We first give an overview of the main drivers of cropland expansion, and then discuss the possible opportunities and risks involved in land deals. Base...

  12. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  13. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  14. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  15. Balance of a race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With their atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the USA ended the second World War. One year later, efforts to have the development of atomic weapons controlled by an international authority were abandoned because of a veto by the Soviet Union. The final goal of this effort would have been the destruction of all atomic weapons. For 35 years, politicians have talked about disarmament and have, at the same time continued to arm with nuclear weapons. (orig.)

  16. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  17. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  18. Researching Race in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Within mathematics education research, policy, and practice, race remains undertheorized in relation to mathematics learning and participation. Although race is characterized in the sociological and critical theory literatures as socially and politically constructed with structural expressions, most studies of differential outcomes in…

  19. Two Patterns of Race Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Eduardo Seda

    What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…

  20. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  1. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  2. Variability in Race Tests with Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, R. D.; Schmitt, D. P.; Noel, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    Tests of Heterodera glycines on differential host plants to determine races were run in Arkansas, Illinois, and North Carolina to check the uniformity of results of the test. Methods used at the three locations varied somewhat. Results indicate that the race test is highly variable. Isolates previously identified as race 1 were identified as race 1 or race 3; those identified as race 2 were identified in these tests as race 2, 4, 9, or 14; those previously identified as race 3 were identified...

  3. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  4. Race to the finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An organised study of the nuclear power controversy is presented. Chapter headings are: in the beginning was the bomb (development of nuclear controversy); Murphy's Law at Three Mile Island (detailed account of accident to Three Mile Island-2 reactor); econuts and loose screws (organization of anti-nuclear demonstrations); further aspects of human frailty (nuclear incidents and possible hazards in USA, UK and France; government policies, nuclear controversy and sociology); how irradiated can you get (radiation hazards); what is MUF and where is it (proliferation); MAD (mutual assured destruction; nuclear arms and war); yesterday's men. (U.K.)

  5. Fueled by wealth, funneled by politics: the dominance of domestic drivers of arms procurement in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wah Kheng Dean

    2015-01-01

    What drives economically buoyant Southeast Asian nations, enjoying post–Cold War peace, to procure arms in a manner that has observers concerned about a regional arms race? Are these acquisitions driven by threats from within the region or from potential hegemons like China? Alternatively, are the purchases actually driven by domestic factors? This thesis investigates the following four factors to determine which are most powerful in driving arms procurements in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singa...

  6. Nuclear arms: ethics, strategy, politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolsey, R.J. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The range of debate over strategy and arms control today is broader than it was in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In part this is because the early 1980s debate has involved questioning of the fundamental notion of deterrence - by no less than the American Catholic bishops. Today's debate has also seen a national nuclear freeze campaign that, although its congressional supporters have held firmly to a bilateral approach, was tilted perceptibly towards unilateralism by noncongressional leaders at their national conference in February 1983. In one way or another the authors wrestle with different aspects of one central question: could the beginning steps for any consensus be possible, in today's climate, on strategic issues. Ethical issues are addressed in the first 3 papers: Charles Krauthammer, On Nuclear Morality; Patrick Glynn, The Moral Case for the Arms Buildup; and Michael Quinlarc, Thinking Deterrence Through. Three chapters on strategic considerations include: Brent Snowcroft, Understanding the US Strategic Arsenal; William J. Perry, Technological Prospects for US Strategic Forces; and Richard Burt, The Strategic and Political Lessons of INF. Arms control and politics is treated in chapters by: Walter B. Slocombe, Arms Control: Prospects; and Colin S. Gray, Arms Control: Problems. The nonnuclear dimensions of strategy are discussed in chapters by Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins, Reducing Vulnerability - The Energy Jugular; and Robert Kupperman, Vulnerable America. The chapters on space and defense are: Hans Mark, Arms Control and Space Technology; and Newt Gingrich and John Madison, Space and National Defense. The concluding chapters are by Sen. Sam Nunn, The Need to Reshape Military Stategy; and the editor, R. James Woolsey, The Politics of Vulnerability, 1980-1983.

  7. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other.

  8. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. PMID:24689369

  9. The Seattle Decision on Race and Public Schools: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2008-01-01

    In a recent ruling, the U.S. Supreme Court in "Parents v. Seattle" (Parents Involved, 2007) determined that race cannot be the sole factor in the assignment of children to public schools. The court also identified the conditions which would justify the use of race in assigning children to schools. In this article we (a) provide a historical…

  10. Maximizing Peak Running on Race Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…

  11. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  12. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  13. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  14. Victor or Villain? Wernher von Braun and the Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Sears, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Set during the Cold War and space race, this historical role-play focuses on Wernher von Braun's involvement in and culpability for the use of slave laborers to produce V-2 rockets for Nazi Germany. Students will grapple with two central questions. Should von Braun have been allowed to emigrate to the United States given his affiliation with the…

  15. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars use race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time when genetic technologies are increasingly being used to identify one's racial ancestry; and (3) how useful race seems to college students and their sense of ident...

  16. RACE pulls for shared control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-02-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  17. Race and Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Asher; Hoyles, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a definition of dyslexia as genetic, involving language processing and phonological awareness. It goes beyond reading and writing difficulties to include, for example, sequencing, orientation, short-term memory, speed, circumlocution, organisational skills, visual thinking, self-esteem and anger. Dyslexia, though…

  18. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  19. China's Shineray Racing Team Hits International Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Shineray International Motocross Racing Team is Chongqing Shineray Group's international racing team, established in March 2004. in less than two years, this team has developed into the representative of numerous Chinese enterprises.

  20. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  1. Racing Academy: A case study of a digital game for supporting students learning of physics and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Joiner, R.; Iacovides, I.; Darling, J.; Diament, A; Drew, B; Dudley, J; Owen, M.; Gavin, C

    2013-01-01

    Racing Academy is a digital game, which is specifically designed to engage and motivate students in science and engineering. The aim of this chapter is to report a case study where the authors evaluated how effective Racing Academy is at supporting students’ learning of science and engineering. The study involved 219 students from five different courses in three further and higher educational institutions. They were given a pre-test a week before they started using Racing Academy. It consiste...

  2. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam O Fofana

    2013-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...

  3. Critical race theory in a swedish context

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Race has been a term avoided in the Swedish debates, while at the same time, protections with respect to unlawful discrimination on the basis of race or ethnic origins have not been vigilantly upheld by the courts. This paper looks at the treatment of race by the Swedish legislature, as well as the treatment by the courts, specifically the Labour Court, with respect to claims of unlawful discrimination in employment on the basis of ethnic origins, against the background of Critical Race Theor...

  4. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  5. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  6. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  7. Two-Dice Horse Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  8. The Race To Be Wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramee, William

    1998-01-01

    Small colleges are under increasing pressure to spend on upgrading technology to win a real or imagined technology race against other institutions. However, the process of making this decision should be coordinated and focus on return on investment; strategic match of technology and mission; competitive advantage; knowledge of real needs;…

  9. Seeing race and seeming racist? Evaluating strategic colorblindness in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Sommers, Samuel R; Norton, Michael I

    2008-10-01

    One strategy practiced by many Whites to regulate the appearance of prejudice during social interaction is to avoid talking about race, or even acknowledging racial difference. Four experiments involving a dyadic task investigated antecedents and consequences of this tendency. Observed colorblindness was strategic in nature: Whites' acknowledgment of race was highly susceptible to normative pressure and most evident among individuals concerned with self-presentational aspects of appearing biased (Study 1). However, this tendency was often counterproductive, as avoiding race during interracial interaction predicted negative nonverbal behavior (Study 1), a relationship mediated by decreased capacity to exert inhibitory control (Study 2). Two studies examining White and Black observers' impressions of colorblind behavior revealed divergent assessments of actors' prejudice in situations where race was clearly relevant (Study 3) but convergent assessments when race was less relevant (Study 4). Practical and theoretical implications for interracial interaction are considered. PMID:18808268

  10. Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Isobel; Jaquiéry, Julie; Sugio, Akiko; Duvaux, Ludovic; Gharbi, Karim; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Legeai, Fabrice; Nelson, Michaela; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Smadja, Carole M; Butlin, Roger; Ferrari, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Host-race formation in phytophagous insects is thought to provide the opportunity for local adaptation and subsequent ecological speciation. Studying gene expression differences amongst host races may help to identify phenotypes under (or resulting from) divergent selection and their genetic, molecular and physiological bases. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) comprises host races specializing on numerous plants in the Fabaceae and provides a unique system for examining the early stages of diversification along a gradient of genetic and associated adaptive divergence. In this study, we examine transcriptome-wide gene expression both in response to environment and across pea aphid races selected to cover the range of genetic divergence reported in this species complex. We identify changes in expression in response to host plant, indicating the importance of gene expression in aphid-plant interactions. Races can be distinguished on the basis of gene expression, and higher numbers of differentially expressed genes are apparent between more divergent races; these expression differences between host races may result from genetic drift and reproductive isolation and possibly divergent selection. Expression differences related to plant adaptation include a subset of chemosensory and salivary genes. Genes showing expression changes in response to host plant do not make up a large portion of between-race expression differences, providing confirmation of previous studies' findings that genes involved in expression differences between diverging populations or species are not necessarily those showing initial plasticity in the face of environmental change. PMID:27474484

  11. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  12. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  13. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  14. Race against time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ontario Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning tabled its interim report in September 1979. The Commission expressed confidence in the safety and efficiency of the CANDU reactor, but was critical of Ontario Hydro's load forecasting. The report considers three scenarios which respectively envisage two, four, and six percent increases in the annual growth of demand for electricity, and concludes that four percent is a reasonable figure. Reaction to the report has been varied. Newspapers and public interest groups have welcomed its cautious approach to nuclear power and have praised the public participation involved in the Commission hearings. Industry spokesmen feel that the province's energy needs have been underestimated and that too much reliance was placed on the development of other energy sources and on conservation. (LL)

  15. The flip side of the other-race coin: They all look different to me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Sarah; Zhou, Xiaomei; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Poorer recognition of other-race faces than own-races faces has been attributed to a problem of discrimination (i.e., telling faces apart). The conclusion that 'they all look the same to me' is based on studies measuring the perception/memory of highly controlled stimuli, typically involving only one or two images of each identity. We hypothesized that such studies underestimate the challenge involved in recognizing other-race faces because in the real world, an individual's appearance varies in a number of ways (e.g., lighting, expression, hairstyle), reducing the utility of relying on pictorial cues to identity. In two experiments, Caucasian and East Asian participants completed a perceptual sorting task in which they were asked to sort 40 photographs of two unfamiliar identities into piles such that each pile contained all photographs of a single identity. Participants perceived more identities when sorting other-race faces than own-race faces, both when sorting celebrity (Experiment 1) and non-celebrity (Experiment 2) faces, suggesting that in the real world, 'they all look different to me'. We discuss these results in the light of models in which each identity is represented as a region in a multidimensional face space; we argue that this region is smaller for other-race than own-race faces.

  16. The flip side of the other-race coin: They all look different to me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Sarah; Zhou, Xiaomei; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Poorer recognition of other-race faces than own-races faces has been attributed to a problem of discrimination (i.e., telling faces apart). The conclusion that 'they all look the same to me' is based on studies measuring the perception/memory of highly controlled stimuli, typically involving only one or two images of each identity. We hypothesized that such studies underestimate the challenge involved in recognizing other-race faces because in the real world, an individual's appearance varies in a number of ways (e.g., lighting, expression, hairstyle), reducing the utility of relying on pictorial cues to identity. In two experiments, Caucasian and East Asian participants completed a perceptual sorting task in which they were asked to sort 40 photographs of two unfamiliar identities into piles such that each pile contained all photographs of a single identity. Participants perceived more identities when sorting other-race faces than own-race faces, both when sorting celebrity (Experiment 1) and non-celebrity (Experiment 2) faces, suggesting that in the real world, 'they all look different to me'. We discuss these results in the light of models in which each identity is represented as a region in a multidimensional face space; we argue that this region is smaller for other-race than own-race faces. PMID:26366460

  17. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  18. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  19. ARM7-kehityskortti

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa ARM-mikro-ohjain pohjainen kehityskortti. Kortin tuli olla soveltuva ARM-ohjelmoinnin opettamiseen. Työssä myös selvitettiin ARM-mikro-ohjaimen ohjelmointiympäristön käyttöönotto. Teoriaosassa käsitellään ARM-arkkitehtuuria, työssä käytettyjen Atmelin AT91R40008-mikro-ohjaimen sekä Philipsin LPC2105-mikro-ohjaimen ominaisuuksia. Erityisesti työssä keskitytään kehityskorttien suunnitteluun. Kehityskortin vaatimuksina oli, että se ...

  20. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  1. Simulations of tidally induced spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Semczuk, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The origin of grand design spiral structure in galaxies is still under debate but one of promising scenarios involves tidal interactions. We use N-body simulations to study the evolution of a Milky Way-size galaxy in a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a typical eccentric orbit and evolved for 10 Gyr. We find that grand design spiral arms are triggered by pericenter passages and later on they wind up and dissipate. The arms formed in the simulations are approximately logarithmic, but are also dynamic, transient and recurrent.

  2. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  3. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment. The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Hemispace asymmetries and laterality effects in arm positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, K; Abernethy, B; Yamauchi, M; Funase, K; Nishihira, Y

    1995-12-01

    Hemispace asymmetries and laterality effects were examined on an arm positioning reproduction task. Sixteen male subjects were asked to reproduce both abductive and adductive positioning movements with the left or right arm within either the left or the right hemispace. Hemispace was manipulated using a 90 degrees head-rotation paradigm. A left hemispace advantage in positioning accuracy was predicted for both left and right arm movements on the grounds that the perceptual-motor control of positioning movements made in left hemispace is primarily mediated by the right hemisphere which is known to be advantageous for tasks which are spatial in nature (Heilman, Bowers, & Watson, 1984). No arm laterality effects were predicted to occur because the proximal musculature involved in the control of arm movements is innervated from both contralateral and ipsilateral cerebral hemispheres (Brinkman & Kuypers, 1973). Results showed that the predicted left hemispace advantage was evident for the right arm on the positioning variability measure alone, whereas it was absent for all other possible conditions on all error measures. Laterality (arm) effects were absent as predicted. The experiment also demonstrated a greater degradation of reproduction performance under the "crossed" arm-hemispace conditions than under the "uncrossed" conditions. A plausible explanation for the uncrossed advantage for the task is that under normal conditions, a single hemisphere is primarily responsible for both controlling the contralateral arm and directing attention to the contralateral hemispace, and consequently potential interhemispheric interference is minimized. A clear response bias effect in movement reproduction was also evident as a function of the direction of concurrent arm movement and head rotation. Arm movements made in the same direction as head rotation were systematically undershot in reproduction to a much greater degree than arm movements made in the opposite direction to head

  5. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlow B. Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.

  6. Race in Biological and Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S Cooper

    2013-01-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and jus...

  7. Accurately Classifying Data Races with Portend

    OpenAIRE

    Kasikci, Baris; Zamfir, Cristian; Candea, George

    2011-01-01

    Even though most data races are harmless, the harmful ones are at the heart of some of the worst concurrency bugs. Eliminating all data races from programs is impractical (e.g., system performance could suffer severely), yet spotting just the harmful ones is like finding a needle in a haystack: state-of-the-art data race detectors and classifiers suffer from high false positive rates of 37%–84%. We present Portend, a technique and system for automatically triaging suspect data races based on ...

  8. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yull, Denise G.

    2014-01-01

    Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US) school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, ra...

  9. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  10. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqui

    2001-01-01

    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the notion that…

  11. Rediscovering "Race Traitor": Towards a Critical Race Theory Informed Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to politically resituate Ignatiev and Garvey's conception of the "Race Traitor" within contemporary notions of Critical Race Theory and Public Pedagogy. Race Traitor has been critiqued both by those on the academic and neo-conservative right, who accuse advocates of the project of genocide and misuse of public funds, and has…

  12. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  13. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  14. Children In Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Tejaswini

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive study. A child soldier is a child under the age of 18 that is recruited into the armed forces and engages in political violence. Child Soldiers are recruited by a state or non-state armed group and used as fighters, cooks, suicide bombers, human shields, messengers, spies, or for sexual purposes. This work of research describes the plight of child soldiers taking in context the scenario of different nations. The International mechanisms to combat this problem have also b...

  15. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10-3). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  16. PHENIX Muon Arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En' yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F. E-mail: readkf@ornl.gov; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D. [and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons ({approx}10{sup -3}). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described.

  17. Ultracold fermion race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the quantum level, particles behave very differently depending on whether their spin angular momentum is an integer or a half-integer. Half-integer spin particles are known as fermions, and include all the constituents of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Bosons, on the other hand, are particles with integer spin, such as photons. Atoms are fermions if they are composed of an odd number of particles, like helium-3 or lithium-6. If they have an even number of constituents, like hydrogen, helium-4 or lithium-7, they are known as bosons. Fermions and bosons behave in profoundly different ways under certain conditions, especially at low temperatures. Four years ago, physicists created a Bose condensate, a quantum degenerate gas of bosons. Now the race is on to do the same with fermions. Deborah Jin's group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado has cooled a fermion gas to the lowest temperature yet (B DeMarco 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4208). And John Thomas and co-workers at Duke University have set a new record for the length of time that fermions can be trapped using lasers (K O'Hara 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4204). In this article the author describes the latest advances in the race to create a quantum degenerate gas of fermions. (UK)

  18. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  19. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  20. Data Races vs. Data Race Bugs: Telling the Difference with Portend

    OpenAIRE

    George Candea; Baris Kasikci; Cristian Zamfir; and George Candea

    2012-01-01

    Even though most data races are harmless, the harmful ones are at the heart of some of the worst concurrency bugs. Alas, spotting just the harmful data races in programs is like finding a needle in a haystack: 76%-90% of the true data races reported by state-of-the- art race detectors turn out to be harmless [45]. We present Portend, a tool that not only detects races but also automatically classifies them based on their potential con- sequences: Could they lead to crashes or hangs? Could th...

  1. Kinematics of cross-country ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, B; Rundell, K W; Roy, B; Boulay, M R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers engaged respectively in a 30-km skating race (N = 34) or a 50-km classical race (N = 27) were videotaped as they skied two different sections of 30 m, a 7 degrees uphill, and a flat section. In the skating race, most skiers used the offset technique on uphill and the 2-skate on flat, while the preferred techniques during the classical race were the diagonal stride for uphill and double-poling on flat. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers except for the flat sections of the classical race. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels in any circumstances or races. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the skating race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their kick and pole pushes and enhance cycle length.

  2. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  3. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  4. How Race Counts for Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.

    This report assesses racial differences among Hispanic Americans. Since 1970, the U.S. Census has asked all Americans to identify their race and, separately, whether they are Hispanic. This means Hispanics can be of any race. Data come from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Censuses and from pre-tabulated summary files from Census 2000. This report…

  5. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  6. Race- en toerfietsen : mogelijkheden voor meer veiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Gent, P. van

    2015-01-01

    Racing and touring bicycles: opportunities for greater safety; Questionnaire study and expert assessment. Racing and touring cyclists often practise their sport on public roads in the presence of other road users. For this reason, hazardous situations may occur that increasingly result in crashes in

  7. Gamic Race: Logics of Difference in Videogame Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Higgin, Tanner

    2012-01-01

    Gamic Race: Logics of Difference in Videogame Culture makes race central to the study of videogames and videogame cultures. The project emphasizes the need for critical race theory in game studies to understand how race is informed and reshaped by the logics of gameplay resulting in the multi-layered, politically complex, and agile concept of gamic race. Displaced racialization, the project's other key concept, revises former studies of race in digital media that focus predominantly on repres...

  8. Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jennifer; Ucik, Laura; Baldwin, Nell; Hasslinger, Christopher; George, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care. PMID:27166865

  9. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-05-13

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  10. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  11. An investigation of racing performance and whip use by jockeys in thoroughbred races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Evans

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed concerning animal-welfare issues associated with whip use during Thoroughbred races. However, there have been no studies of relationships between performance and use of whips in Thoroughbred racing. Our aim was to describe whip use and the horses' performance during races, and to investigate associations between whip use and racing performance. Under the Australian Racing Board (ARB rules, only horses that are in contention can be whipped, so we expected that whippings would be associated with superior performance, and those superior performances would be explained by an effect of whipping on horse velocities in the final 400 m of the race. We were also interested to determine whether performance in the latter sections of a race was associated with performance in the earlier sections of a race. Measurements of whip strikes and sectional times during each of the final three 200 metre (m sections of five races were analysed. Jockeys in more advanced placings at the final 400 and 200 m positions in the races whipped their horses more frequently. Horses, on average, achieved highest speeds in the 600 to 400 m section when there was no whip use, and the increased whip use was most frequent in the final two 200 m sections when horses were fatigued. This increased whip use was not associated with significant variation in velocity as a predictor of superior placing at the finish.

  12. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  13. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  14. Investigating the Other-Race Effect in Different Face Recognition Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kyung Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Faces convey various types of information like identity, ethnicity, sex or emotion. We investigated whether the well-known other-race effect (ORE is observable when facial information other than identity varies between test faces. First, in a race comparison task, German and Korean participants compared the ethnicity of two faces sharing similar identity information but differing in ethnicity. Participants reported which face looked more Asian or Caucasian. Their behavioral results showed that Koreans and Germans were equally good at discriminating ethnicity information in Asian and Caucasian faces. The nationality of participants, however, affected their eye-movement strategy when the test faces were shown sequentially, thus, when memory was involved. In the second study, we focused on ORE in terms of recognition of facial expressions. Korean participants viewed Asian and Caucasian faces showing different facial expressions for 100ms to 800ms and reported the emotion of the faces. Surprisingly, under all three presentation times, Koreans were significantly better with Caucasian faces. These two studies suggest that ORE does not appear in all recognition tasks involving other-race faces. Here, when identity information is not involved in the task, we are not better at discriminating ethnicity and facial expressions in same race compared to other race faces.

  15. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  16. Nuclear weapon race does not stop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    60 years after Hiroshima, the race for nuclear weaponry keeps on. The comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), signed in 1996 by the 5 official nuclear-weapon-owning states (Usa, Russia, China, U.K. and France), has not yet been implemented because its implementation requires the ratification of 44 states that harbour on their territories industrial or research nuclear reactors. Till now only 33 such states have ratified CTBT. CTBT aims at prohibiting any nuclear test whatever the amount of energy released in it. Countries like Usa, North-Korea, Russia, soon Iran... are suspected to develop new types of nuclear warfare. For 2005 the American Congress have decided to freeze the funding of programmes dedicated to the development of 'mini-nukes' like the bunker-burster. The international network of monitoring stations will soon cover all the world and will be able to detect and locate, in an almost automated way, any test involving an energy greater than 1 kiloton. 321 stations have been settled and their efficient detection systems are based on seismic or infra-sound or radioactivity or hydro-acoustic analysis. (A.C.)

  17. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities. PMID:22228388

  18. Have betting exchanges corrupted horse racing?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alasdair; Yang, Fuyu

    2016-01-01

    Betting exchanges allow punters to bet on a horse to lose a race. This, many argue, has opened up the sport to a new form of corruption, where races will be deliberately lost in order to profit from betting. We examine whether anecdotal evidence of the fixing of horses to lose - of which there are many examples - is indicative of wider corruption. Following a ‘forensic economics’ approach, we build an asymmetric information model of exchange betting, and take it to betting data on 9,560 races...

  19. A randomized clinical trial comparing advanced pneumatic truncal, chest, and arm treatment to arm treatment only in self-care of arm lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H; Murphy, Barbara; Deng, Jie; Kidd, Nancy; Galford, Emily; Bonner, Candace; Bond, Stewart M; Dietrich, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the truncal lymphatics prior to treatment of the lymphedematous arm is an accepted, although not empirically tested, therapeutic intervention delivered during decongestive lymphatic therapy (DLT). Breast cancer survivors with arm lymphedema are encouraged to use these techniques when performing simple lymphatic drainage as part of their life-long lymphedema self-care. Self-massage is at times difficult and pneumatic compression devices are used by many patients to assist with self-care. One such device, the Flexitouch(®) System, replicates the techniques used during DLT; however, the need for application of pneumatic compression in unaffected truncal areas to improve self-care outcomes in arm only lymphedema is not established. The objective of this study was to compare the therapeutic benefit of truncal/chest/arm advanced pneumatic compression therapy (experimental group) verses arm only pneumatic compression (control group) in self-care for arm lymphedema without truncal involvement using the Flexitouch(®) System. Outcomes of interest were self-reported symptoms, function, arm impedance ratios, circumference, volume, and trunk circumference. Forty-two breast cancer survivors, (21 per group), with Stage II lymphedema completed 30 days of home self-care using the Flexitouch(®) System. Findings revealed a statistically significant reduction in both the number of symptoms and overall symptom burden within each group; however, there were no statistically significant differences in these outcomes between the groups. There was no statistically significant overall change or differential pattern of change between the groups in function. A statistically significant reduction in bioelectrical impedance and arm circumference within both of the groups was achieved; however, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction between groups. These findings indicate that both configurations are effective, but that there may be no added benefit to

  20. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  1. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  2. Cervicobrachial involvement in diabetic radiculoplexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J S; Saperstein, D S; Wolfe, G; Nations, S P; Alkhersam, H; Amato, A A; Barohn, R J

    2001-06-01

    Diabetic radiculoplexopathy is commonly viewed as a condition affecting the lower extremities. However, other regions may also be affected and the presence of upper extremity involvement has rarely been emphasized. Our goal was to illustrate the clinical features of arm involvement in this condition. Of 60 patients with diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, we identified 9 who also had upper extremity involvement. The study included 8 men and 1 woman, ranging in age from 36 to 71 years. Upper limb involvement developed simultaneously with the onset of lower limb disorder in 1 patient, preceded it by 2 months in another patient, and occurred between 3 weeks and 15 months later in the remaining 7. In 5 cases, arm involvement developed after symptoms in the legs began to improve. The upper extremity weakness affected the hands and forearms most severely. It was unilateral in 5 patients and bilateral but asymmetric in 4. Pain was often present, but it was not a prominent feature. In most patients, neurologic deficits in the arms improved spontaneously after 2-9 months. We conclude that diabetic radiculoplexopathy may involve the cervical region before, after, or simultaneously with the lumbosacral syndrome. The upper limb process is similar to that in the legs, with subacutely progressive weakness and pain followed by spontaneous recovery. PMID:11360263

  3. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  4. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Vainionpää; Esa-Pekka Tienhaara; Marja Raekallio; Jouni Junnila; Marjatta Snellman; Outi Vainio

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures bef...

  5. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  6. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414

  7. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACEBASE Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  8. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Uterine Cancer Home Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ...

  9. The effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Ran

    Full Text Available Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains.

  10. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. Acute neuromuscular responses to car racing

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Jani

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine racing car drivers’ acute neuromuscular responses to race driving. The secondary purpose was to compare the cardiovascular loading of driving to that of maximal rowing action. Methods: The subjects of the present cross-sectional study (n = 9) were international level karting drivers. The study was performed in two parts; the laboratory tests and driving test. All subjects took part to the laboratory tests and five of the subjects per...

  12. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  13. A biomechanical analysis of the 'high guard' position of arms during walking in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we investigated biomechanical contributions of the high guard position of the arms observed only in a subgroup of toddlers at very early stages of gait development. Six healthy toddlers who showed this peculiar arm posture were involved in this study. They participated in two data collection sessions (1 month apart). We used three-dimensional analysis of arm posture during gait to estimate the changes in forces and torques generated by the arms and acting on the upper trunk segment. Across visits, toddlers' increase in walking speeds coincided with lowering arm postures. Despite the apparent trend of changes in arm posture in this group of toddlers, the interaction between arm posture and upper trunk position created a variety of changes in forces and torques among individuals. Findings of this study exhibited an example of the exploration of dynamics by toddlers in the early stage of gait development.

  14. Tidal origin of spiral arms in galaxies orbiting a cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Semczuk, Marcin; del Pino, Andres

    2016-01-01

    One of the scenarios for the formation of grand-design spiral arms in disky galaxies involves their interactions with a satellite or another galaxy. Here we consider another possibility, where the perturbation is instead due to the potential of a galaxy cluster. Using $N$-body simulations we investigate the formation and evolution of spiral arms in a Milky Way-like galaxy orbiting a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a few orbits of different size but similar eccentricity and its evolution is followed for 10 Gyr. The tidally induced, two-armed, approximately logarithmic spiral structure forms on each of them during the pericenter passages. The spiral arms dissipate and wind up with time, to be triggered again at the next pericenter passage. We confirm this transient and recurrent nature of the arms by analyzing the time evolution of the pitch angle and the arm strength. We find that the strongest arms are formed on the tightest orbit, however they wind up rather quickly and are disturbed by another p...

  15. Multiple-race mortality data for California, 2000-2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Katherine E.; Parker, Jennifer D.; McKendry, C. Jane

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine mortality rates and quality of race reporting for multiple-race individuals in California using the new multiple-race data available on the death certificate. METHODS: Death date were drawn from California vital statistics for 2000 and 2001. Denominator data were drawn from the 2000 census Modified Race Data Summary File. The authors calculated mortality rates and relative standard errors for multiple-race individuals as a whole and by county, and for the three largest ...

  16. The Computational Complexity of RaceTrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Markus; McKenzie, Pierre

    Martin Gardner in the early 1970's described the game of RaceTrack [M. Gardner, Mathematical games - Sim, Chomp and Race Track: new games for the intellect (and not for Lady Luck), Scientific American, 228(1):108-115, Jan. 1973]. Here we study the complexity of deciding whether a RaceTrack player has a winning strategy. We first prove that the complexity of RaceTrack reachability, i.e., whether the finish line can be reached or not, crucially depends on whether the car can touch the edge of the carriageway (racetrack): the non-touching variant is NL-complete while the touching variant is equivalent to the undirected grid graph reachability problem, a problem in L but not known to be L-hard. Then we show that single-player RaceTrack is NL-complete, regardless of whether driving on the track boundary is allowed or not, and that deciding the existence of a winning strategy in Gardner's original two-player game is P-complete. Hence RaceTrack is an example of a game that is interesting to play despite the fact that deciding the existence of a winning strategy is most likely not NP-hard.

  17. Verticillium dahliae race 2-specific PCR reveals a high frequency of race 2 strains in commercial spinach seed lots and delineates race structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Dylan P G; Gurung, Suraj; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi K; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2014-07-01

    Two pathogenic races of Verticillium dahliae have been described on lettuce and tomato. Host resistance to race 1 is governed by plant immune receptors that recognize the race 1-specific fungal effector Ave1. Only partial resistance to race 2 exists in lettuce. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are available to identify race 1, no complementary test exists to positively identify race 2, except for lengthy pathogenicity assays on host differentials. Using the genome sequences of two isolates of V. dahliae, one each from races 1 and 2, we identified potential markers and PCR primers to distinguish the two races. Several primer pairs based on polymorphisms between the races were designed and tested on reference isolates of known race. One primer pair, VdR2F-VdR2R, consistently yielded a 256-bp amplicon in all race 2 isolates exclusively. We screened DNA from 677 V. dahliae isolates, including 340 from spinach seedlots, with the above primer pair and a previously published race 1-specific primer pair. DNA from isolates that did not amplify with race 1-specific PCRs amplified with the race 2-specific primers. To validate this, two differential lines of lettuce were inoculated with 53 arbitrarily selected isolates from spinach seed and their pathogenicity and virulence were assessed in a greenhouse. The reactions of the differential cultivars strongly supported the PCR data. V. dahliae race structure was investigated in crops in coastal California and elsewhere using primers specific to the two races. All artichoke isolates from California were race 1, whereas nearly all tomato isolates were race 2. Isolates from lettuce, pepper, and strawberry from California as well as isolates from spinach seed from two of four countries comprised both races, whereas only race 2 was observed in cotton, mint, olive, and potato. This highlights the importance of identifying resistance against race 2 in different hosts. The technique developed in this study will benefit

  18. The Illusion of Inclusion: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Race and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Julian Vasquez; Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Julian Vasquez Heilig, Keffrelyn Brown, and Anthony Brown offer findings from a close textual analysis of how the Texas social studies standards address race, racism, and communities of color. Using the lens of critical race theory, the authors uncover the sometimes subtle ways that the standards can appear to adequately address…

  19. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  20. "Race to the Bottom" or "Race to Brussels"? : Environmental Competition in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Holzinger, Katharina; Sommerer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The theory of regulatory competition in environmental policy predicts a 'race to the bottom' of standards. The article tests the theory for the first time directly using environmental out-put data for 24 countries over a period of 35 years. It finds a clear 'race to the top' which be partly explained by the search for international harmonisation when competition is imminent.

  1. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…

  2. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  3. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  4. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  5. Schrödinger's killer app race to build the world's first quantum computer

    CERN Document Server

    Dowling, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    The race is on to construct the first quantum code breaker, as the winner will hold the key to the entire Internet. From international, multibillion-dollar financial transactions to top-secret government communications, all would be vulnerable to the secret-code-breaking ability of the quantum computer. Written by a renowned quantum physicist closely involved in the U.S. government's development of quantum information science, Schrodinger's Killer App: Race to Build the World's First Quantum Computer presents an inside look at the government's quest to build a quantum computer capable of solvi

  6. Race, Citizenship and Social Order in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Bala Ruma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of race in Shakespeare’s Othello. It attempts to show that race is a very important issue raised by Shakespeare in the play in his eagerness to highlight the racial problems confronting Europe in the seventeenth century. In this play he attempts to expose the racial prejudice that exists in the Venetian society in particular and Europe in general. He also attempts to subvert the European feelings of racial superiority against the blacks in particular and people of other races in general. He sets out to do this by making a black man (Othello marry a white woman (Desdemona of an aristocratic extraction against the will and wish of her father. This inter-racial marriage may not in reality be possible in the seventeenth century, but all the same Shakespeare contrived it to be so, possibly as a way of foregrounding future change in European attitudes toward other races. The paper also looks at how individual citizens of a city-state like Venice can constitute themselves as threats to its social well being, by allowing their personal interests to override the national ethos. In this regard the activities of Othello, Iago and Roderigo are examined.Keywords: citizenship, race, racism, revolt, social order

  7. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Properties of a hybrid zone between highly distinct chromosomal races of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) in Northern Italy, and comparisons with other hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, H C; Giménez, M D; Vega, R; White, T A; Searle, J B

    2011-01-01

    Here we provide the first detailed description of the hybrid zone between the Cremona chromosomal race of house mouse (ICRE; 2n = 22) and the standard all-telocentric race (40ST; 2n = 40), with full karyotypes of 106 individuals from 17 localities along a transect between the 2 races to the west of Lake Garda in Northern Italy. The ICRE race is characterised by 9 pairs of metacentric chromosomes in a homozygous state and we use the metacentric frequency data along the transect to fit tanh metacentric clines. The clines are narrow (5-8 km, standardised width) suggesting low hybrid fitness. However, the lack of occurrence of ICRE × 40ST F(1) hybrids and presence of other hybrid types suggests that the F(1) hybrids initially produced in this hybrid zone were at least partially fertile, despite having 9 meiotic trivalent configurations. We apply the same cline-fitting methodology to 3 previously studied hybrid zones between metacentric races and the 40ST race. Taken together with published clinal data on 4 further metacentric-40ST hybrid zones, we are able to make objective generalisations on the characteristics of such zones in the house mouse. Zones involving 22-chromosome races are narrower, on average, than other metacentric-40ST hybrid zones and do not show a tendency towards the generation of new races as found with zones where the metacentric race has a higher 2n. It appears that metacentric-40ST zones are unlikely to be sites of speciation (even when a 22-chromosome race is involved), although a mosaic structure to the hybrid zone may enhance this possibility. We make a comparison between metacentric-40ST zones and contacts between 2 metacentric races, for a comprehensive perspective of chromosomal hybrid zones in the house mouse.

  9. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed.

  10. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed. PMID:27354112

  11. "I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monica P; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

  12. "I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monica P; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections. PMID:24575069

  13. I pick you: The impact of fairness and race on infants’ selection of social partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Patricia Burns

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution, and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution, Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants’ social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

  14. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context. PMID:22279128

  15. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  16. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  17. Kinematic and electromyographic patterns of Olympic race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M P; Guten, G N; Mollinger, L A; Gardner, G M

    1983-01-01

    The performance of two Olympic race walkers was studied during free-speed, fast, and race walking. Measurements of the stride and temporal components of gait, as well as the simultaneous displacement patterns of the body segments, and the electromyographic activity of muscles of the trunk and upper and lower limbs were recorded during the three walking speeds. During the testing, the race walkers achieved an average speed of 12.5 km/hr as compared to the 8.7 km/hr average speed achieved by normal men of the same age during fast walking. Race walking was characterized by an increase in cadence and stride length beyond that of normal controls (in a prior study) during fast walking, with stride lengths averaging 125% of stature during race walking, and 115% during normal fast walking. In the two race walkers the amplitudes of most of the movement patterns of the trunk and upper and lower limbs were exaggerated during race walking as compared to normal controls' fast walking. Several mechanisms were used by the race walkers to minimize the vertical excursion of the center of gravity of the body during race walking. All of the muscles monitored in the race walkers showed an increase in the amplitude of electromyographic activity during race walking as compared to fast walking; duration of muscle activity was also usually increased during race walking. Several suggestions for prevention of injuries associated with race walking are made. PMID:6846684

  18. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  19. CERN Relay Race: information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday, 24 May starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. In addition, there will be a Nordic Walking event which will finish around 12.50. This should not block the roads, but please drive carefully during this time. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race can be found here.

  20. Race and racism: Towards a global future

    OpenAIRE

    Winant, H

    2006-01-01

    There is a deepening and worldwide contradiction in the meaning and structure of race and racism. The age of empire is over; apartheid and Jim Crow have ended; a significant consensus exists that the concept of race lacks an objective basis; and yet the concept persists, as idea, as practice, as identity, and as social structure. This suggests that the global racial situation remains not only volatile but also seriously under-theorized. Five key racial problems of the twenty-first century are...

  1. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  2. Introduction: Globalization and Race in World Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars of world-systems and global political economy have wrestled for decades with the genesis of 'race' as a social construct and its historical significance for the system of world capitalism.  Transformations in the world capitalist system pose a new challenge to Western theories of race.  Older colonial structures may be giving way in the face of capitalist globalization.  Racial or ethnic dimensions of the relations of exploitation in the capitalist world-system need to be reconceptua...

  3. The objective qualification of non-international armed conflicts: A Colombian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Machado; Guillermo Otálora Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has raged in Colombia since at least the 1960’s, involving governmental forces, rebel groups, and paramilitary forces. The Uribe government (2002-2010) declared that Colombia was not in a ‘state of armed conflict’ but was rather facing a ‘terrorist threat’. This declaration was done in fear of conferring a political status to the armed groups, and most particularly, in fear that a recognition of armed conflict would open the possibility of endowing the Revolutionary Ar...

  4. A race for RAGE ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Erwin D

    2010-08-01

    In experimental animals a causal involvement of the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the development of diabetic vascular complications has been demonstrated. However, the nature of RAGE ligands present in patients with diabetic nephropathy has not yet been defined; this leaves open the relevance of the RAGE system to the human disease.

  5. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  6. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  7. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  8. Novel Kidins220/ARMS Splice Isoforms: Potential Specific Regulators of Neuronal and Cardiovascular Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Schmieg

    Full Text Available Kidins220/ARMS is a transmembrane protein playing a crucial role in neuronal and cardiovascular development. Kidins220/ARMS is a downstream target of neurotrophin receptors and interacts with several signalling and trafficking factors. Through computational modelling, we found two potential sites for alternative splicing of Kidins220/ARMS. The first is located between exon 24 and exon 29, while the second site replaces exon 32 by a short alternative terminal exon 33. Here we describe the conserved occurrence of several Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms at RNA and protein levels. Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms display spatio-temporal regulation during development with distinct patterns in different neuronal populations. Neurotrophin receptor stimulation in cortical and hippocampal neurons and neuroendocrine cells induces specific Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms and alters the appearance kinetics of the full-length transcript. Remarkably, alternative terminal exon splicing generates Kidins220/ARMS variants with distinct cellular localisation: Kidins220/ARMS containing exon 32 is targeted to the plasma membrane and neurite tips, whereas Kidins220/ARMS without exon 33 mainly clusters the full-length protein in a perinuclear intracellular compartment in PC12 cells and primary neurons, leading to a change in neurotrophin receptor expression. Overall, this study demonstrates the existence of novel Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms with unique properties, revealing additional complexity in the functional regulation of neurotrophin receptors, and potentially other signalling pathways involved in neuronal and cardiovascular development.

  9. The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edger, P.P.; Heidel-Fischer, H.M.; Bekaert, K.M.; Rota, J.; Glockner, G.; Platts, A.E.; Heckel, D.G.; Der, J.P.; Wafula, E.K.; Tang, M.; Hofberger, J.A.; Smithson, A.; Hall, J.C.; Blanchette, M.; Bureau, T.E.; Wright, S.I.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Schranz, M.E.; Conant, G.C.; Barker, M.S.; Wahlberg, N.; Vogel, H.; Pires, J.C.; Wheat, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolutionary interactions are thought to have spurred the evolution of key innovations and driven the diversification of much of life on Earth. However, the genetic and evolutionary basis of the innovations that facilitate such interactions remains poorly understood. We examined the coevolutionary

  10. Arms races, ornaments and fragrant genes: the dilemma of mate choice in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    Female preference for secondary sexual male ornaments that are handicapping survival has been an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis assumes that costly ornaments can be produced only by those males that carry the genes for resistance against the current infectious disease. I review studies in fishes that indeed bright colors can only be displayed by males in good health and females prefer healthy males by choosing the brighter ones. On the other hand, female vertebrates from fish to humans smell out partners that provide the complementary genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them producing offspring with the optimal number of different MHC alleles. In sticklebacks females have a two-step choice. Using smell they approach a male that offers the optimally complementary number of MHC alleles. When they can see the male, they accept it only when it is bright and thus offers in its complementary set of alleles the specific MHC allele providing resistance against the current disease as revealed by the male's sexual ornamentation.

  11. Next Generations, Catwalks, Random Walks and Arms Races: conceptualising the development of quality assurance schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Don F.; Stensaker, Bjorn; Rosa, Maria J.; Corbett, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and development of quality assurance schemes in European countries over the last 15–20 years has inspired many national case studies of the systems and procedures adopted. The methods, contexts, and procedures associated with this policy change are diverse. But although individual coun

  12. A Path Where No Man Thought; Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Guy

    In 1982, Paul Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany, and John Birks, University of Colorado, Boulder, published a provocative paper suggesting that the smoke from the fires triggered by potential massive nuclear explosions would generate profound changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the Earth's atmosphere. A year later, a group of five scientists, Richard Turco, Brian Toon, Tom Ackerman, Jim Pollack, and Carl Sagan, showed, on the basis of model calculations, that the Earth would cool significantly following nuclear explosions and that the climatic impacts of a nuclear war would affect not only the country attacked but also the aggressor. This group, which received the acronym of TTAPS, showed that the number of fatalities resulting from the indirect climatic perturbations could be at least as large as the number of humans directly killed by the explosions. Two of the authors of the TTAPS theory, Carl Sagan and Richard Turco, have summarized 10 years of extensive research and public controversy following the publication of the nuclear winter hypothesis. In their fascinating book they try to analyze how the concept of nuclear winter has changed the attitude of the political world, has contributed to the improvement of political relations between the two superpowers, and has initiated a revision of geopolitical and military theories.

  13. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first reported case of a nuclear suppressor of male-killing in a ladybird. They are considered in regard to sex ratio and intra-genomic conflict theories, and models of the evolutionary dynamics and distribution of inherited symbionts.

  14. Our Future at Stake: A Teenager's Guide to Stopping the Nuclear Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melinda; Olsen, Laurie

    Intended to encourage young people to take part in the dialogue about nuclear weapons and become active on nuclear issues, this guide talks about nuclear weapons and what people can do to stop the threat of nuclear war. There are two major sections. The first section, "The Problem," contains background readings on nuclear issues. Discussed are how…

  15. Whip use by jockeys in a sample of Australian Thoroughbred races--an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available The use of whips by jockeys is an issue. The current study viewed opportunistic high-speed footage of 15 race finishes frame-by-frame to examine the outcomes of arm and wrist actions (n = 350 on 40 horses viewed from the left of the field. Any actions fully or partially obscured by infrastructure or other horses were removed from the database, leaving a total of 104 non-contact sweeps and 134 strikes. For all instances of arm actions that resulted in fully visible whip strikes behind the saddle (n = 109, the outcomes noted were area struck, percentage of unpadded section making contact, whether the seam made contact and whether a visible indentation was evident on impact. We also recorded use of clockwise or counter-clockwise arm action from each jockey's whip, whether the whip was held like a tennis racquet or a ski pole, whether the hind leg on the side of the impact was in stance or swing phase and whether the jockey's arm was seen traveling above shoulder height. The goal of the study was to characterize the area struck and the visual impact of whip use at the level of the horse. We measured the ways in which both padded and unpadded sections of the whip made impact. There was evidence of at least 28 examples, in 9 horses, of breaches of the whip rules (one seam contact, 13 contacts with the head, and 14 arm actions that rose above the height of the shoulder. The whip caused a visible indentation on 83% of impacts. The unpadded section of the whip made contact on 64% of impacts. The results call into question the ability of Stewards to effectively police the rules concerning whip use and, more importantly, challenge the notion that padding the distal section of whips completely safeguards horses from any possible whip-related pain.

  16. Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzban, Robert; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have established that people encode the race of each individual they encounter, and do so via computational processes that appear to be both automatic and mandatory. If true, this conclusion would be important, because categorizing others by their race is a precondition for treating them differently according to race. Here we report experiments, using unobtrusive measures, showing that categorizing individuals by race is not inevitable, and supporting ...

  17. Hot Galactic Arms Point To Vicious Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the aftermath of a titanic explosion that wracked the elliptical galaxy known as NGC 4636. This eruption could be the latest episode in a cycle of violence that is triggered by gas falling into a central massive black hole. Chandra's images of NGC 4636 show spectacular symmetric arms, or arcs, of hot gas extending 25,000 light years into a huge cloud of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas that envelopes the galaxy. At a temperature of 10 million degrees, the arms are 30 percent hotter than the surrounding gas cloud. "The temperature jump, together with the symmetry and scale of the arms, suggests that we are observing the effects of a tremendous outburst that occurred in the center of the galaxy," said Christine Jones of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author of a paper on these observations scheduled for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The energy of this explosion would be the equivalent of several hundred thousand supernovas." The arms appear to be the leading edges of a galaxy-sized shock wave that is racing outward at 700 kilometers per second, or 1.6 million miles per hour. At this speed, it would take 3 million years for the structures to attain their present size. Cavities detected in the hot gas cloud to the east and west of the center of the galaxy support the shockwave explanation. The authors suggest that the explosion is part of a majestic cosmic feedback process that keeps the galaxy in a state of turmoil. Over a period of a few million years, a hot gas cloud that envelops the stars in the galaxy cools and falls inward toward a central, massive black hole. The feeding of the black hole by the infalling material leads to an explosion that heats the hot gaseous envelope, starting the cycle anew. NGC 4636 NGC 4636 Background Subtracted This feedback cycle may explain one puzzling feature of the galaxy - the lack of a strong radio source of the type that is

  18. Births per U.S. woman? Depends on race, ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1993-09-01

    A profile of mothers giving birth is presented for the US for 1990 based on race and ethnicity. Some of the complexities involved in compiling racial and ethnic data are described. The total fertility rate was 2.1 for all American women, 1.1 for Japanese Americans, and 3.2 for Hawaiians and Mexican Americans. The number of births per woman was derived from state birth registration data, which culls data from preadmission hospital forms filled out by the mother. The denominator of the birth rate comes from the number of women in the specified age group as determined by the Census. The problem arises from self-reports themselves. Consistency between recording systems has been improved since 1989 when births were counted based on mother's race and ethnicity. There have been greater percentages of interracial births for which race of both parents were known, and the trend was for 15% of the births for race of the father not to be reported in 1990. The data revealed that in 1990, Mexican Americans and Hawaiians had the highest birth rate of 3.2, which was comparable to developing countries in Latin America. The other Hispanic group was another high fertility group for a developed country. Low fertility was found among Japanese, Chinese, and Cuban Americans. The actual numbers revealed that non-Hispanic whites constitute 2.6 million out of 4.2 million children born in the US. 595,100 were Hispanics, 661,700 were non-Hispanic blacks, 142,000 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and less than 40,000 were American Indian. Teenage pregnancy was considerable among the ethnic populations: nearly 25% of African Americans, and about 20% of American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and Mexican Americans having births to women under 20 years of age. The birthing patterns were different among minority groups. Hispanic women had early childbearing and continued childbearing throughout the reproductive years. Black and American Indian women tended to complete childbearing early. Asian

  19. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  20. [Apothecaries' arms of Voltaire's family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    Apothecaries of Voltaire's family can be divided into two groups. Marceton Family: Claude Marceton, Hierosme and Pierre Testefolle, from Thouars. Arouet family: Jehan Arouet, Pierre Rochard and Jean Gougeard. Five of those apothecaries beand arms. PMID:11625327

  1. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone...

  2. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  3. After the Glow: Race Ambivalence and Other Educational Prognoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2011-01-01

    The Right has a long history of questioning the importance of race analysis. Recently, the conceptual and political status of race has come under increased scrutiny from the Left. Bracketing the language of "race" has meant that the discourse of skin groups remains at the level of abstraction and does not speak to real groups as such. As a…

  4. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  5. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  6. The Use of Race-Related Variables in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Thad Q.; Lee, D. John; Trahan, Emily; Kaufman, Aimee; Pritchett, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a detailed analysis of all race-related articles published in prominent counseling journals between 1995 and 2004. Findings indicate that 75% of articles did not define race variables and in the absence of an operational definition, authors tended to conceptualize race as an inherent biological variable. (Contains 3 tables.)

  7. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set back the few…

  8. Preliminary theoretical acoustic and rf sounding calculations for MILL RACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As participant in DOE/ISA's Ionospheric Monitoring Program, LLNL has the responsibility of providing theoretical understanding and calculational support for experimental activities carried out by Los Alamos National Laboratory in using ionospheric sounders to remotely detect violent atmospheric phenomena. We have developed a system of interconnected computer codes which simulate the entire range of atmospheric and ionospheric processes involved in this remote detection procedure. We are able to model the acoustic pulse shape from an atmospheric explosion, the subsequent nonlinear transport of this energy to all parts of the immediate atmosphere including the ionosphere, and the propagation of high-frequency ratio waves through the acoustically perturbed ionosphere. Los Alamos' coverage of DNA's MILL RACE event provided an excellent opportunity to assess the credibility of the calculational system to correctly predict how ionospheric sounders would respond to a surface-based chemical explosion. In this experiment, 600 tons of high explosive were detonated at White Sands Missile Range at 12:35:40 local time on 16 September 1981. Vertical incidence rf phase sounders and bistatic oblique incidence rf sounders fielded by Los Alamos and SRI International throughout New Mexico and southern Colorado detected the ionospheric perturbation that ensued. A brief account of preliminary calculations of the acoustic disturbance and the predicted ionospheric sounder signatures for MILL RACE is presented

  9. Ovotestes and Sexual Reversal in Racing Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, G A

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of ovotestes associated with male behavioral characteristics in two mature female racing pigeons (Columba livia) is recorded. An ovotestis developed in the area of the vestigial right gonad of one bird and within the functional left ovary of the second bird.

  10. The Old Jalopy Races into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Discusses alternative transportation technological advances in speed, range, battery strategies, and safety facilitated by motor car racing. Presents a historical perspective of the development of steam, electric and gas-powered vehicles and modern versions of electric, and mixed power source cars being tested today. (MCO)

  11. Race, Education, and the Politics of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Barbara Loomis

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the legacies of the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision within the historical context of race relations in the United States. The pursuit by African Americans to exercise their rights of citizenship is described as influenced by the changing face of fear. The Supreme Court decisions that determined the…

  12. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research pr

  13. Class, Race, and Higher Education in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that U.S. higher education reinforces the nation's individualistic values, including rejection of socialism's group orientation. Explains that the university promoted social mobility in the postwar era. Suggests that U.S. guilt about race relations gave rise to affirmative action. Argues that the policy ironically has heightened awareness…

  14. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday May 19, the traditional relay race was held at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. In spite of the less than optimal weather, the 127 registered teams were not discouraged. Warmed by their efforts on the roads of CERN, the participants were able to withstand the chilly May weather. The start signal for the race was given by our Director General, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Can we hope for next year to see a team from the Directorate in the race? The many spectators who had come to cheer on the runners could also visit the stalls staffed by a few clubs and some of Interfon’s commercial partners. Refreshment and food stands contributed to the friendly atmosphere. The organisation of such an event requires however a substantial investment in order to cover all aspects of logistics, from preparation before the race, to the actual establishment ...

  15. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. PMID:14768649

  16. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from critical…

  17. A World View of Race Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles P.

    2004-01-01

    "Globalization" is the hot new term to explain an old phenomenon. As early as 1936, Ralph Bunche contended that the "inequality of peoples" was becoming an organizing theme for political and economic life across the globe. He introduced the concept of "social race" to explain the consciousness of environmental and social conditions when manifested…

  18. Race, Racial Projects, and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Critical scholars have argued that mathematics education is in danger of becoming increasingly influenced by and aligned with neoliberal and neoconservative market-focused projects. Although this larger argument is powerful, there are often 2 peculiar responses to issues of race and racism within these analyses. These responses are characterized…

  19. Stop and smell the fungi: Fungal volatile metabolites are overlooked signals involved in fungal interaction with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse fungi are intimately associated with plants, and molecules secreted from both the plant and fungal sides play critical roles in the establishment of their associations and resulting effects on plant growth and health. Through evolutionary arms races and strategic alliances with plants, fungi...

  20. Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D.; Barnes, Namdi W.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent and vexing health disadvantages accrue to African Americans despite decades of work to erase the effects of race discrimination in this country. Participating in these efforts, psychologists and other social scientists have hypothesized that African Americans’ continuing experiences with racism and discrimination may lie at the root of the many well-documented race-based physical health disparities that affect this population. With newly emerging methodologies in both measurement o...

  1. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  2. Is race erased? Decoding race from patterns of neural activity when skin color is not diagnostic of group boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Kyle G.; Kaul, Christian; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that people do not represent race when it does not signify group boundaries. However, race is often associated with visually salient differences in skin tone and facial features. In this study, we investigated whether race could be decoded from distributed patterns of neural activity in the fusiform gyri and early visual cortex when visual features that often covary with race were orthogonal to group membership. To this end, we used multivariate pattern analysis to ex...

  3. Contributions of Racial and Sociobehavioral Homophily to Friendship Stability and Quality among Same-Race and Cross-Race Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Dashiell-Aje, Ebony; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how racial and sociobehavioral similarities were associated with friendship stability and friendship quality. Cross-race friends were not significantly similar to each other in peer-nominated shyness/withdrawal, victimization, exclusion, and popularity/sociability. Relative to same-race friends, cross-race friends were…

  4. A cross-race effect in metamemory: Predictions of face recognition are more accurate for members of our own race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Benjamin, Aaron S; Liu, Xiping

    2012-09-01

    The Cross-Race Effect (CRE) in face recognition is the well-replicated finding that people are better at recognizing faces from their own race, relative to other races. The CRE reveals systematic limitations on eyewitness identification accuracy and suggests that some caution is warranted in evaluating cross-race identification. The CRE is a problem because jurors value eyewitness identification highly in verdict decisions. In the present paper, we explore how accurate people are in predicting their ability to recognize own-race and other-race faces. Caucasian and Asian participants viewed photographs of Caucasian and Asian faces, and made immediate judgments of learning during study. An old/new recognition test replicated the CRE: both groups displayed superior discriminability of own-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Importantly, relative metamnemonic accuracy was also greater for own-race faces, indicating that the accuracy of predictions about face recognition is influenced by race. This result indicates another source of concern when eliciting or evaluating eyewitness identification: people are less accurate in judging whether they will or will not recognize a face when that face is of a different race than they are. This new result suggests that a witness's claim of being likely to recognize a suspect from a lineup should be interpreted with caution when the suspect is of a different race than the witness.

  5. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...... the Type I error if a theory predicts that the race model prediction holds in a given experimental condition. © 2011 Psychonomic Society, Inc....

  6. Suicide mortality at time of armed conflict in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Yur'yeva, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the dynamics of suicide mortality rates in Ukraine during an ongoing armed conflict between 2014 and 2015. Suicide mortality data were obtained by reviewing annual analytical releases from the State Service for Emergent Situations of Ukraine and annual release of Russian Federal Service of State Statistics. Suicide mortality in mainland Ukraine and in the Crimea region demonstrated a mild decrease, whereas suicide mortality in the regions directly involved in the armed conflict demonstrated a prominent decrease. The results of this review support Durkheim theory. The limitation of this review includes general concern about quality of data at time of armed conflict in the country. PMID:26420846

  7. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam Al-Ammri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user interface (GUI. The control algorithm depends on joint to joint mapping method to match between the motions at each joint of portable sensing arm with corresponding joint of a robot in order to make the robot mimic the motion.

  8. Molecular characterization of cloned avirulence genes from race 0 and race 1 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Staskawicz, B; Dahlbeck, D; Keen, N; Napoli, C.

    1987-01-01

    A wide-host-range cosmid cloning vector, pLAFR3, was constructed and used to make cosmid libraries of partially digested Sau3A DNA from race 0 and race 1 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Two avirulence genes, avrB0 and avrC, cloned from race 0, elicited the hypersensitivity reaction (HR) on specific cultivars of soybean. Race 4 transconjugants containing avrB0 induced a dark brown necrotic HR within 24 h on the soybean cultivars Harosoy and Norchief, whereas race 4 transconjugants contai...

  9. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  10. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian;

    2011-01-01

    on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG). First, we describe the competition regulations and the software framework. Then, the five best teams describe the methods of computational intelligence they used to develop their drivers and the lessons they learned from the participation in the championship......In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  11. Philosophy of race meets population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections 'the discreteness objection', 'the visibility objection', 'the very important objection', and 'the objectively real objection.' After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical assumptions about the relevant meaning of 'race' or the nature of biological racial realism. In order to be constructive, I end by offering some advice for how we can productively critique attempts to defend biological racial realism based on recent human genetic clustering results. I also offer a clarification of the relevant human-population genetic research.

  12. CERN Relay Race | 5 June | Get ready!

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    In anticipation of the CERN relay race, the Medical Service would like to remind all participants that preparing for this sporting activity is essential - even though it is a short event.   Progressive and regular training. Adequate nutrition and hydration. Advice and information is available at the infirmary in Building 57. Everyone should adapt their physical activity to match their fitness levels, bearing in mind that the aim of this race is not necessarily to achieve great success but to participate in a collective sporting event. In the framework of the "Move! Eat better" campaign and for the third successive year, a 2.4 km route is open to walkers, both beginners and experts. Before, during and after this event, test yourself with a pedometer, available from the CERN infirmary! 

  13. Sciences and races in Brazil ca. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Arteaga, Juan Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a general overview about the way in which Brazilian medicine and physical anthropology gave a naturalistic approach to the idea of race and to the «problem» posed by the mixture of races in the country during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the introduction of evolutionism in Brazil.

    El presente artículo trata de mostrar una visión panorámica sobre el modo en que la medicina y la antropología física brasileñas trataron la cuestión de las «razas» y el mestizaje durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX, a la vez que los principios evolucionistas pasaban a ser aceptados por la ciencia nacional.

  14. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race

    OpenAIRE

    Krosch, Amy R.; Amodio, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities on socioeconomic indices expand dramatically during economic recession. Although prior explanations for this phenomenon have focused on institutional causes, our research reveals that perceived scarcity influences people’s visual representations of race in a way that may promote discrimination. Across four studies, scarce conditions led perceivers to view Black people as “darker” and “more stereotypically Black” in appearance, relative to control conditions, and this shift ...

  15. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  16. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  17. Innovation Races with the Possibility of Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Stephen Martin

    2011-01-01

    The standard innovation race specification assumes a memoryless exponential distribution for the time to success of an R&D project. This specification implies that a project succeeds, eventually, with probability one. We introduce a positive probability that an R&D project fails. With this modified specification, we compare the non-cooperative and cooperative R&D in terms of innovation effort, consumer surplus, and net social welfare.

  18. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  19. Job satisfaction and race among military officers

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Ellen S.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigated the extent of variation in levels of job satisfaction among military officers that could be attributed to race. The data came from the 1978 Department of Defense Survey of Officers and Enlisted Personnel conducted by the Rand Corporation. The population analyzed was black and white officers in all four services, with the ranks of 01 through 03, who were still within their initial period of ...

  20. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  1. Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCrosse, Ed

    The paper discusses the rationale and guidelines for parent involvement in HCEEP (Handicapped Children's Early Education Program) projects. Ways of assessing parents' needs are reviewed, as are four types of services to meet the identified needs: parent education, direct participation, parent counseling, and parent provided programs. Materials and…

  2. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  3. Inter-observer agreement on subjects' race and race-informative characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather J H Edgar

    Full Text Available Health and socioeconomic disparities tend to be experienced along racial and ethnic lines, but investigators are not sure how individuals are assigned to groups, or how consistent this process is. To address these issues, 1,919 orthodontic patient records were examined by at least two observers who estimated each individual's race and the characteristics that influenced each estimate. Agreement regarding race is high for African and European Americans, but not as high for Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The indicator observers most often agreed upon as important in estimating group membership is name, especially for Asian and Hispanic Americans. The observers, who were almost all European American, most often agreed that skin color is an important indicator of race only when they also agreed the subject was European American. This suggests that in a diverse community, light skin color is associated with a particular group, while a range of darker shades can be associated with members of any other group. This research supports comparable studies showing that race estimations in medical records are likely reliable for African and European Americans, but are less so for other groups. Further, these results show that skin color is not consistently the primary indicator of an individual's race, but that other characteristics such as facial features add significant information.

  4. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships. PMID:23148901

  5. Race and nation in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.

  6. The role of configural processing in face classification by race: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Jing eLv; Tianyi eYan; Luyang eTao; Lun eZhao

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race classification advantage (ORCA) in the subordinate classification of normally configured faces and distorted faces by race. Slightly distorting the face configuration delayed even more the categorization of own-race faces having no conspicuous effect on other race faces. The N170 was not sensitive to configural distortions and faces’ races. The P3 was enhanced for other-race than own-race faces and reduced by configural manipula...

  7. John Dewey and the Question of Race: The Fight for Odell Waller

    OpenAIRE

    Stack, Sam F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey and the Question of Race: The Fight for Odell Waller Abstract: In an attempt to better understand the complexity of American racism and democracy, this paper explores racism through the plight of an African American sharecropper, Odell Waller, and the reaction and involvement of John Dewey, America’s most liberal democratic philosopher of the 20th century. This exploration delves into the nature of American justice in one of the most difficult struggles in our history, the late yea...

  8. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  9. Gendered Race: Are Infants’ Face Preferences Guided by Intersectionality of Sex and Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin I Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  10. Attending to Race (or Gender) Does Not Increase Race (or Gender) Aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Vu, Chan Q; Heller, Nathan H; Collins, John M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that attention can influence the strength of face aftereffects. For example, attending to changes in facial features increases the strength of identity and figural aftereffects relative to passive viewing (Rhodes et al., 2011). Here, we ask whether attending to a specific social dimension of a face (such as race or gender) influences the strength of face aftereffects along that dimension. Across three experiments, participants completed many single-shot face adaptation trials. In each trial, participants observed a computer-generated adapting face for 5 s while instructed to focus on either the race or gender of that adapting face. Adapting faces were either Asian and female or Caucasian and male. In Experiment 1, all trials included an intermediate question (IQ) following each adaptation period, soliciting a rating of the adapting face on the attended dimension (e.g., race). In Experiment 2, only half of the trials included this IQ, and in Experiment 3 only a quarter of the trials did. In all three experiments, participants were subsequently presented with a race- and gender-neutral face and asked to rate it on either the attended dimension (e.g., race, attention-congruent trials) or the unattended dimension (e.g., gender, attention-incongruent trials) using a seven-point scale. Overall, participants showed significant aftereffects in all conditions, manifesting as (i) higher Asian ratings of the neutral faces following Caucasian vs. Asian adapting faces and (ii) higher female ratings of neutral faces following male vs. female adapting faces. Intriguingly, although reaction times were shorter during attention-congruent vs. attention-incongruent trials, aftereffects were not stronger along attention-congruent than attention-incongruent dimensions. Our results suggest that attending to a facial dimension such as race or gender does not result in increased adaptation to that dimension. PMID:27378998

  11. "We Especially Welcome Applications from Members of Visible Minority Groups": Reflections on Race, Gender and Life at Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This autoethnographic account documents and analyses university life as a racialised woman who has worked in both Canadian and American universities. The theoretical framework draws from critical perspectives on race, black feminisms and narrative and autoethnographic research methodologies. The study involves a range of data sources that provide…

  12. Biological soil disinfestation (BSD), a new control method for potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Wenneker, M.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Blok, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD) to control potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, was investigated. BSD involves the induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing microbial respiration through incorporation of fresh organic amendments (here:

  13. Canadian Mock Juror Attitudes and Decisions in Domestic Violence Cases Involving Asian and White Interracial and Intraracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann

    2013-01-01

    This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…

  14. The Cross-Race Effect: Resistant to Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Bornstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross-race effect (CRE is the tendency for eyewitnesses to be better at recognizing members of their own race/ethnicity than members of other races/ethnicities. It manifests in terms of both better discrimination (i.e., telling apart previously seen from new targets and a more conservative response criterion for own-race than for other-race faces. The CRE is quite robust and generally resistant to change. Two studies examined the effectiveness of reducing the CRE with special instructions given prior to retrieval. Although instructions at retrieval did change participants’ response criterion—making them less likely to identify test faces as previously seen—they did not shift their response criterion selectively for other-race faces. The findings indirectly support the importance of encoding processes in producing the CRE.

  15. Race, Genetics and Medicine: New Information, Enduring Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, Jonathan R.

    2008-08-01

    Final Report on Conference held on April 9, 2005 and its Sequelae The Conference, “Race, Genetics and Medicine: New Information, Enduring Questions,” was held on Saturday, April 9, 2005 in the Science Center, Lecture Hall D at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Approximately 150 people attended. The audience was composed mainly of college and graduate school science students and postdoctoral fellows, some science and medical school faculty, science teachers at various levels, journalists and interested members of the public. The keynote speaker and the panelists reflected different academic disciplines (genetics, medicine, anthropology, sociology) and a CEO of a biotechnology company with background in medicine and law. They also presented different perspectives on the utility of race concepts in medicine and even on the use of the word “race.” While the talks often involved descriptions of genetic approaches that were not simple to explain, the speakers did an effective job of getting across the gist of studies that have been carried out on these issues. Although no consensus was reached, the conference gave the audience the opportunity to understand the issues and to have the tools to follow the debates in the future. Our strongest feedback was from attendees who had heard of the race and genetics issues through various media, but did not have a sense of what they were really about. They reported to us that they now felt they understood the basis of these discussions. Our post-conference activities have been successfully completed. While we had proposed to make available transcripts of the talks to the public through a Website, some of the speakers would not agree to have their presentations available in this way. Therefore, we asked permission from the DOE to use the funds to prepare classroom lesson plans for high school students to discuss the issues. These were prepared over a year-long period by the Genetic Screening Study Group Members with an

  16. Ranking the European armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, R.J.M.; Bogers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of collectiveness aimed for in European defence policy raises issues such as burden sharing and relative performance measurement of the European Armed Forces (EAF). This paper compares EAF performance rates on three dimensions: input, throughput and output. In order to express performance

  17. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  18. Rhetorical Histories and Arms Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the use of historical events as rhetorical artifacts has sustained cold war assumptions and attitudes; that rhetorical events provide composites for rhetorical histories which become the basis for argumentative appeals; and that these rhetorical histories continue to permeate American diplomacy in general and arms negotiations in…

  19. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  20. Workplace Segregation in the United States: Race, Ethnicity, and Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Hellerstein; David Neumark

    2005-01-01

    We study workplace segregation in the United States using a unique matched employer-employee data set that we have created. We present measures of workplace segregation by education and language, and by race and ethnicity, and ­ since skill is often correlated with race and ethnicity ­ we assess the role of education- and language-related skill differentials in generating workplace segregation by race and ethnicity. We define segregation based on the extent to which workers are more or less l...

  1. The concept of race and health status in America.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D R; Lavizzo-Mourey, R; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Race is an unscientific, societally constructed taxonomy that is based on an ideology that views some human population groups as inherently superior to others on the basis of external physical characteristics or geographic origin. The concept of race is socially meaningful but of limited biological significance. Racial or ethnic variations in health status result primarily from variations among races in exposure or vulnerability to behavioral, psychosocial, material, and environmental risk fa...

  2. Looking the Part: Social Status Cues Shape Race Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Penner, Andrew M.; Aliya Saperstein; Matthias Scheutz; Nalini Ambady

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire in...

  3. The Race Concept in Six Regions: Variation Without Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Leonard; Kaszycka, Katarzyna A.; Martinez, Antonio J.; Yablonsky, Fuentes Leonid; Kirk, Rodney C.; Štrkalj, Goran; Wang, Qian; Sun, Li

    2004-01-01

    Race, once the central concept in physical anthropology worldwide, now varies in the degree of support it receives in different regions. We present the currently available information on the status of the concept in the United States, the Spanish language areas, Poland, Europe, Russia, and China. Rejection of race ranges from high to low with the highest rejection occurring among anthropologists in the United States (and Canada). Rejection of race is moderate in Europe, sizeable in Poland and...

  4. Affect, History, and Race and Ellison's Invisible Man

    OpenAIRE

    Bourassa, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In his article "Affect, History, and Race and Ellison's Invisible Man" Alan Bourassa explores the implications of the Deleuze and Guattarian concept of "affect" for a reading of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man. In the novel's most problematic relationship -- that between race and history -- there is a third term that transforms the problematic. Invisible Man is simultaneously a conventional novel that establishes emotional individuality as the third term between history and race, and an "underg...

  5. The Lived Experience of Mixed-Race Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study shows a phenomenological account of the mixed-race lived experience. Previous research focused on mixed-race White/Black individuals and mainly consisted of American studies. For this study, six British young adults were interviewed. The participants self identified as mixed-race, all had one Black parent and one White or Indian. Transcripts were analysed using the qualitative method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four master themes emerged, Wholeness: more than...

  6. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS IN TROTTERS RACING PERFOMANCE EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mato Čačić; Stjepan Šimundža

    2012-01-01

    Breeding goal and selection measures in breeding of trotter horses are subjected to horses production with the fastest possible speed in trotting. Evaluation of racing horses’ performances is important because of horse impact on horse industry. More valuable horses and larger prizing fond result in a higher attendance of hippodromes and more money paid in betting offices. Race horse industry notes a large number of data used in predictions during breeding of horses with better racing performa...

  7. Association of Unconscious Race and Social Class Bias With Vignette-Based Clinical Assessments by Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H.; Sexton, Janel; Sriram, N.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Efron, David T.; Swoboda, Sandra; Villegas, Cassandra V.; Haut, Elliott R.; Bonds, Morgan; Pronovost, Peter J.; Lipsett, Pamela A.; Freischlag, Julie A.; Cornwell, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Studies involving physicians suggest that unconscious bias may be related to clinical decision making and may predict poor patient-physician interaction. The presence of unconscious race and social class bias and its association with clinical assessments or decision making among medical students is unknown. Objective To estimate unconscious race and social class bias among first-year medical students and investigate its relationship with assessments made during clinical vignettes. Design, Setting, and Participants A secure Web-based survey was administered to 211 medical students entering classes at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, in August 2009 and August 2010. The survey included the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess unconscious preferences, direct questions regarding students’ explicit race and social class preferences, and 8 clinical assessment vignettes focused on pain assessment, informed consent, patient reliability, and patient trust. Adjusting for student demographics, multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether responses to the vignettes were associated with unconscious race or social class preferences. Main Outcome Measures Association of scores on an established IAT for race and a novel IAT for social class with vignette responses. Results Among the 202 students who completed the survey, IAT responses were consistent with an implicit preference toward white persons among 140 students (69%, 95% CI, 61%–75%). Responses were consistent with a preference toward those in the upper class among 174 students (86%, 95% CI, 80%–90%). Assessments generally did not vary by patient race or occupation, and multivariable analyses for all vignettes found no significant relationship between implicit biases and clinical assessments. Regression coefficient for the association between pain assessment and race IAT scores was −0.49 (95% CI, −1.00 to 0.03) and for social class, the coefficient was −0.04 (95% CI

  8. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  9. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  10. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  11. The decline of race in American physical anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Leonard; Kirk, Rodney C.; Corcoran, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of how and why the race concept has changed in the United States during the 20th century. In the 19th century the concept of race provided the unchallenged folk taxonomy and the prevailing scientific paradigm for placing human biological and cultural variation into categories called races. At the height of the eugenic and anti-immigration movement of the early decades of the 20th century, Boas and his students began the critique of racism and aspects of the race concept...

  12. Implementation of Scheduling Algorithm with Robotic Arm and Analytical Plate for Clinical Chemistry Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ramasamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Complete automation is the ultimate goal in health care industry and this is of utmost importance in clinical laboratories. Processor based bio robots are involved in all these automation procedures. In this study, the indigenous robotic platform, used in clinical chemistry analyzers, which is highly flexible and user friendly for small or medium sized hospitals, is designed. A microcontroller based robotic arm is put forth as the robotic platform and this is capable of handling blood samples, reagents, etc. The basic design is of a compact, three circular analytical plates, placed one inside the other. The samples and reagents are loaded onto the analytical plate; the arm then transfers the blood samples and reagents successively to the reaction cell and if required, next to an incubating unit. Two different arms perform all the different tasks based on the controlling algorithm. The circuit manipulating the path of the robot arm, along with other controlling circuitry of the arm is embedded within the arm itself. By automating this unit, the flexibility and throughput of the tests will be increased. Controlled and precise use of reagents and high accuracy of results are additional advantages. Data handling is also simplified. The robotic arm and analytical plate has been designed, a prototype model has been made and synchronization between the two has been achieved. The clear description of arm and analytical plate movement along with the synchronization algorithms are presented in this study.

  13. Traumatic dural laceration in a racing Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute pelvic limb paralysis occurred in a racing Greyhound after a traumatic incident. During myelography, a dorsal laceration of the dura mater was detected at T12–13. Immediate hemilaminectomy was performed at T12–13, but neurologic status did not improve. At necropsy there was epidural and subdural hemorrhage at the T12–13 interspace, and malacia and swelling of the spinal cord at that level. Intramedullary hemorrhage, malacia, and free fibrocartilaginous material characterized histopathology of the lesion. Possible mechanisms of the traumatic disk extrusion are discussed

  14. QCD critical point: the race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical point in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), if established either theoretically or experimentally, would be as profound a discovery as the good-old gas-liquid critical point. Unlike the latter, however, first-principles-based approaches are being employed to locate it theoretically. Due to the short-lived nature of the concerned phases, novel experimental techniques are needed to search for it. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in USA has an experimental programme to do so. This short review is an attempt to provide a glimpse of the race between the theorists and the experimentalists as well as the synergy between them. (author)

  15. QCD critical point: The race is on

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajiv V Gavai

    2015-05-01

    A critical point in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), if established either theoretically or experimentally, would be as profound a discovery as the good-old gas–liquid critical point. Unlike the latter, however, first-principles-based approaches are being employed to locate it theoretically. Due to the short-lived nature of the concerned phases, novel experimental techniques are needed to search for it. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in USA has an experimental programme to do so. This short review is an attempt to provide a glimpse of the race between the theorists and the experimentalists as well as the synergy between them.

  16. The Charisma of Sport and Race

    OpenAIRE

    Early, Gerald; Solomon, Eric; Wacquant, Loic

    1996-01-01

    This Occasional Paper explores the importance of both charisma and performance in the analysis of sport(s). Professor Loic Waquant argues that the "universe of sport is not the world of charisma but the world of persona;" athletes are performers who wear masks. For Gerald Early, sport offers grounds on which to examine race, masculinity, and even more broadly, the "symbols and metaphors of our society;" it is about merit, justice, desire and will. Eric Solomon argues that the lore and "deep m...

  17. A RACE-HORSE CALLED PHERENIKOS

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. Henderson

    2012-01-01

    The aptly-named stallion Pherenikos (Victory-bearer) raced and won for Hieron,tyrant of Gela (485 BC) and Syracuse (485-467/6 BC). This is the only horse thatis named in the surviving victory odes (epinikia) of Pindar and Bacchylides.1 Hemakes his first victorious appearance in the single-horse event, the κέλης, of sixlaps (just over 1 km) in the hippodrome at the Pythia in 478, to which Pindar refersin P. 3.72-74, composed sometime after 476.2 This is probably the victory to whichBacchylides...

  18. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  19. Bad Teacher: What Race to the Top Learned from the "Race to the Bottom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Obama Administration created a $4.3 billion dollar grant competition for states called "Race to the Top" (RttT). The money, earmarked from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, was to be distributed by the Department of Education to states who were making efforts to adhere to precirculated reforms supported by…

  20. Tracing Family, Teaching Race: Critical Race Pedagogy in the Millennial Sociology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    The "millennial" historical moment presents fresh dilemmas for race-critical instructors. In addition to being well-versed in colorblind racial discourse, millennial students are socialized in a pop-cultural milieu that implies a more integrated, racially egalitarian world than exists in reality and includes claims that U.S. society is now…

  1. The Near-Race and Other-Race Effect in Taiwanese Adults: Exploring the Featural versus Configural Face Discrimination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fong Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Other-race-effect (ORE refers to the observation that we can recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces (Meissner & Brigham, 2001. Yet, whether featural or configural face processing might contribute to other-race effect is still unclear. In the present study, we tested Taiwanese adults with faces of four ethnic groups (Taiwanese, Philippine, Caucasian, African and each with four levels of discriminability: Easy (change configuration and component: change identity, Medium (change component: change eyes, Hard-I (change configuration: widen eye spacing, and Hard-II (change configuration: mouth moved up. We adopted the visual paired-comparison task with two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC procedure. The overall results showed that accuracy decreased and response time increased as the stimulus difficulty increased for each race. The accuracy was highest and the response time was lowest for the Taiwanese easy condition, which suggests an own-race advantage. In addition, the pattern of response time for Philippine faces was similar to that of Taiwanese faces and was shorter than Caucasian faces in the medium and Hard-I conditions. In conclusion, our study had two main findings. First, Philippine faces were seen as more like own-race faces rather than other-race faces. Second, both featural and configural face processing contribute to the other-race-effect.

  2. Nodule over Arm during Pregnancy: An Unusual Presentation of Filariasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Usha Kumar Mahesh; Madhavrao Ratnakar Potekar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a rare case of filariasis presenting as a nodule over arm in a pregnant lady which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem in India with most infections being caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Clinical manifestations depend on the area of lymphatic involvement and the duration of infection. The present case is being presented because on clinical examination there was absence of adjacent enlarged...

  3. “I pick you”: the impact of fairness and race on infants’ selection of social partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monica P.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants’ social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections. PMID:24575069

  4. Rethinking homicide: violence, race, and the politics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, E

    1990-01-01

    Although homicide is the fourth leading cause of premature mortality in the United States and the leading cause of death for young blacks, the health professions have been largely oblivious to violence. Prevailing explanations contribute to this neglect by emphasizing biological or psychiatric factors that make homicide unpredictable and cultural and environmental factors such as the emergence of a new "underclass" that link violence to race. Focusing on instances where no other crime is involved, this article proposes that "primary" homicide be reconceptualized as a by-product of interpersonal violence, a broad category of social entrapment rooted in the politics of gender inequality and including wife abuse, child abuse, and assaults by friends and acquaintances. The data show that blacks are no more violent than whites, though they are arrested and die more often as the consequence of violence. In addition, a majority of homicides are between social partners or involve gender stereotypes, are preceded by a series of assaults that are known to service providers, and grow out of "intense social engagement" about issues of male control and independence. Professional failure to respond appropriately is a major reason why assaults become fatal, particularly among blacks. An international strategy that combines sanctions against interpersonal assault, gun control, and the empowerment of survivors might prevent half of all homicides.

  5. D'Eichthal and Urbain's "Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche": race, gender, and reconciliation after slave emancipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Naomi J

    2011-01-01

    This article is a close reading of Gustave D'Eichthal and Ishmayl Urbain's Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche (1839), written during the decade prior to the "second" French emancipation in 1848. The article argues that the hierarchical gendering of race described in the letters is reflective of metropolitan concerns about potential for social disorder accompanying slave emancipation in the French colonies. In arguing for social reconciliation through interracial marriage and its offspring, the symbolically charged figure of the mulatto, the authors deployed gendered and familial language to describe a stable post-emancipation society.

  6. Marked assisted selection for horses racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although equines have participated in the forming and development of several civilizations around the world since their domestication 6,000 years ago in comparison to other species that have zootechnical interest, few researches have been done related to animal breeding area, especially in Brazil. Some reasons for that are difficulties associated with the species as well as operational aspects. However, developments in genetics in the last decades contributed to a better understanding of the traits related to reproduction, heath, behavior and performance of domestic animals, including equines. Recent technologies as next generation sequencing methods and the high density chips of SNPs for genotyping allowed some advances in the researches already done. These researches used basically the candidate gene strategy, and identified genomic regions related to diseases and syndromes and, more recently, the performance in sport competition and specific abilities. Using these genomic analysis tools, some regions related to race performance have been identified and based on this information; genetic tests to select superior animals for racing performance have started to be available in the market.

  7. Record Participation in the Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN has a more sporting spirit than ever before. This is not the result of any survey, but the impression you got as soon as you saw the 62 teams of six runners each speeding around the laboratory in the 32nd annual relay race. This year 11 more teams competed than in 2001.   First changeover: Hervé Cornet takes over from Camille Ruiz Llamas for The Shabbys, and Sebastian Dorthe from Daniel Matteazzi for Charmilles Technologies. Jérôme Bendotti (EP/TA1) just holding off the team from the WHO at the finish. A total of 372 people ran together last Wednesday in this year's relay race, making for a record participation. It also seems that women are becoming more and more attracted by this competition, since this year there were eight ladies teams, also a new record. The first team were The Shabbys in a time of 10 minutes 45 seconds, finishing almost before the second team had started its last 300 metre leg. The 6 runners in each team cover distances of 1000, 800, 800,...

  8. The relationship between consistency of propulsive cycles and maximum angular velocity during wheelchair racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong Tai; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos Dino; Xu, Dali

    2008-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the consistency of wheelchair athletes' upper-limb kinematics in consecutive propulsive cycles and to investigate the relationship between the maximum angular velocities of the upper arm and forearm and the consistency of the upper-limb kinematical pattern. Eleven elite international wheelchair racers propelled their own chairs on a roller while performing maximum speeds during wheelchair propulsion. A Qualisys motion analysis system was used to film the wheelchair propulsive cycles. Six reflective markers placed on the right shoulder, elbow, wrist joints, metacarpal, wheel axis, and wheel were automatically digitized. The deviations in cycle time, upper-arm and forearm angles, and angular velocities among these propulsive cycles were analyzed. The results demonstrated that in the consecutive cycles of wheelchair propulsion the increased maximum angular velocity may lead to increased variability in the upper-limb angular kinematics. It is speculated that this increased variability may be important for the distribution of load on different upper-extremity muscles to avoid the fatigue during wheelchair racing. PMID:18843158

  9. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  10. Another cost of being a young black male: Race, weaponry, and lethal outcomes in assaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Painter-Davis, Noah

    2012-09-01

    We examine the effect of the race, age, and gender of victims of assault on the offenders' use of weapons and lethal intent. Evidence from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) suggests that offenders are particularly likely to use guns against young black men-a three-way interaction - and to kill black males and young black adults. Black offenders respond more strongly to the victim's race than do white offenders. As a result of these effects, a violent incident between two young black men is about six times more likely to involve a gun than a violent incident between two young white men. We suggest that adversary effects, i.e., an offender's tactical response to the threat posed by adversaries, help explain why violence in black communities tends to be much more serious than violence in white communities.

  11. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols

  12. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  13. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  14. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  15. Technologies of belonging: the absent presence of race in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek; K. Schramm; D. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, the explicit discussion of race as a biological phenomenon has long been avoided. This has not meant that race has become obsolete or irrelevant all together. Rather, it is a slippery object that keeps shifting and changing. To understand its slippery nature, we suggest t

  16. Om jazz og race i dansk jazzkritik: nogle eksempler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christen Kold

    2010-01-01

    'Race' bliver i dansk jazzkritik, især fra 50erne og frem, ignoreret som et ydre 'sociologisk' faktum, i modsætning til kulturradiklisternes idealisering før 2. verdenskrig af musikernes 'race' . Men faktisk fortsætter begrebet med at spille en uerkendt rolle, ofte som kvalitets- og stilmarkør i ...

  17. Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class in Introductory Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Jennifer; Gougherty, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We update Ferree and Hall’s (1996) examination of the stratification systems of gender, race, and class in introductory textbooks. Using a sample of textbooks from 2003 through 2010, we explore 24 introductory sociology textbooks to determine the relationship between categories of gender, race, and class and levels of analysis. Previous research…

  18. Lateral ligamentous injury to the carpus of a racing Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral collateral ligament of the ulna and the dorsolateral ligaments of the radiocarpal joint of a racing Greyhound were ruptured, resulting in instability of the carpus when the joint was flexed. This report describes a technique for making a ligament prosthesis, using the ulnaris lateralis tendon. Although the dog did not return to racing, the carpus was stable enough for general activity

  19. 75 FR 30007 - Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., 2010, the Department of Education published in the Federal Register (75 FR 18171) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 (NIA) for the Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program. This notice... Overview Information Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  20. 33 CFR 100.108 - Great Kennebec River Whatever Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Kennebec River Whatever Race. 100.108 Section 100.108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Whatever Race. (a) Regulated Area. That portion of the Kennebec River, extending bank to bank, between...

  1. Looking the part: social status cues shape race perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Freeman

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1. When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2. Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.

  2. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Research: An 18-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…

  3. Students' Race and Gender in Introductory Business Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Farhad M. E.; Ahmadi, Mohammad

    1987-01-01

    Grade, sex, and race information of 1,391 students registered in Introduction to Business Statistics at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga were gathered to investigate sex and race differences in achieving quantitative competencies. Results indicated that females scored significantly higher than males, whereas blacks scored significantly…

  4. Expression and Perception of Emotion: Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; Black, Harvey

    A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), sex of expressor, race of perceiver and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and sadness) was analyzed in terms of three dependent variables: (1)…

  5. Amazing Race: Finding and Correctly Citing Credible Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-Springer, Kimberly; Striley, Katie Margavio

    2016-01-01

    The "Amazing Race" activity utilizes experiential learning by encouraging students to venture outside the classroom to collect and cite sources for an upcoming assignment. In the popular TV show, "Amazing Race," teams compete to complete tasks that take them around the world. Similarly, in this classroom activity, groups…

  6. Race, Gender, Class and Asian American Literary Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David Leiwei

    1997-01-01

    Approaches the categorical construction of "Asian American" through an interdisciplinary examination of its contemporary literary emergence. Investigates the ways with which race, gender, and class are embedded within or absent from an evolving Asian American critical and cultural discourse, and reflects on the interplay among race, class, and…

  7. Circuit-Adaptive Challenge Balancing in Racing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rietveld; S. Bakkes; D. Roijers

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to challenge balancing in racing games: circuit-adaptive challenge balancing. We propose to automatically adapt the actual racing circuit - while it is being played - such that the performed circuit adaptations intelligently balance the challenge for all pl

  8. Talking Race: Facilitating Critical Conversations in Educational Leadership Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In the field of education, critical conversations focusing on race and race relations are of primary importance given the continued inequities within our society. Statistically, public schools continue to be racially and socioeconomically separate and unequal. In our continued efforts to address such inequities, this study examines the ways in…

  9. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  10. Office Discipline and Student Behavior: Does Race Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found a relationship between student race and discipline. For example, African Americans are more likely than whites to be sent to the office or suspended. However, much of this work is limited by a lack of student behavior and school-level variables. This study examined the effect of student race on office…

  11. Evolution in action : host race formation in Galerucella nymphaeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappers, Stephanie Maria

    2001-01-01

    A host race is a population which is partially reproductively isolated as a direct consequence of adaptation to a certain host. For host race formation to occur five conditions should be met. First of all, the populations should occur in sympatry, which means that they co-occur within the normal cru

  12. Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Degutis; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Jeremy Wilmer; Andrew Rosenblatt

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing tha...

  13. The Construction of Whiteness in the Work of The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellman, Ulrika; Eld, Christer

    2015-01-01

    In 1922 a eugenic research centre, The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology, was founded in Uppsala, with the purpose being to survey and classify the Swedish people according to race. The data collected was intended to make a foundation for a rational population policy aiming at improving the Nordic (Swedish) race. This race was deemed superior in comparison with the other races living in Sweden– primarily the East Baltic (Finnish) and the Lappish (Sami) race. But due to miscegenation an...

  14. Race, law, and health: Examination of 'Stand Your Ground' and defendant convictions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Nicole; Goodman, Melody S; Gilbert, Keon; Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Previous analyses of Stand Your Ground (SYG) cases have been primarily descriptive. We examine the relationship between race of the victim and conviction of the defendant in SYG cases in Florida from 2005 to 2013. Using a regression analytic approach, we allow for simultaneous examination of multiple factors to better understand existing interrelationships. Data was obtained from the Tampa Bay Times SYG database (237 cases) which was supplemented with available online court documents and/or news reports. After excluding cases which were, still pending as of January 2015; had multiple outcomes (because of multiple suspects); and missing information on race of victim and weapon of victim, our final analytic sample has 204 cases. We chose whether the case resulted in a conviction as the outcome. We develop logistic regression models using significant bivariate predictors as candidates. These include race of the victim (White, non-White), whether the defendant could have retreated from the situation, whether the defendant pursued the victim, if the victim was unarmed, and who was the initiator of the confrontation. We find race of the victim to be a significant predictor of case outcome in this data set. After controlling for other variables, the defendant is two times (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.07, 4.10]) more likely to be convicted in a case that involves White victims compared to those involving non-White victims. Our results depict a disturbing message: SYG legislation in Florida has a quantifiable racial bias that reveals a leniency in convictions if the victim is non-White, which provides evidence towards unequal treatment under the law. Rather than attempting to hide the outcomes of these laws, as was done in Florida, other states with SYG laws should carry out similar analyses to see if their manifestations are the same as those in Florida, and all should remediate any injustices found. PMID:26313247

  15. Researching "race" in lesbian space: a critical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Feminist researchers have acknowledged that racial differences between researcher and researched impact on the research process; however, there has been little concern with how "race" is actually made in/through the research process. If we think "race" as performative and as always in the process of being made then this theoretical claim has crucial implications for research encounters. In this article the author draws on her own research, which focuses on processes of racialization. This ethnographic study was conducted in two lesbian bars in the North West of England. The article illustrates different ways of how "race," in particular Whiteness, operated during the research process. The author critically reflects on her role in "race making" during this process and highlights the importance of acknowledging that researchers are also complicit in this making when doing research where "race" is not the central focus.

  16. Evaluation of characteristics of race-track bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the extraction part of J-PARC 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron, a race-track bellows is required between the vacuum chamber of extraction septum magnet 1 and 2, because there is no space to install a circular bellows. However, formed titanium bellows with race-track shape have never been fabricated. Small size formed titanium race-track bellows were fabricated. Characteristics of them were measured and evaluated. Spring force measurements, expansion/contraction repetition life test, vacuum heating test and He-gas leak test were performed. The characteristics of the race-track bellows are satisfied with our use conditions. We obtained a prospect that actual size race-track bellows could be used. (author)

  17. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  18. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Garvican-Lewis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour.Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin.Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005 during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001 while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p < 0.001 during racing at moderate-high altitude compared with the race simulation near sea-level.A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  19. Negotiating Race-Related Tensions: How White Educational Leaders Recognize, Confront, and Dialogue about Race and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…

  20. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female). Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear. PMID:26900957

  1. Race Making in a Penal Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a ground-level investigation into the lives of penal inmates, linking the literature on race making and penal management to provide an understanding of racial formation processes in a modern penal institution. Drawing on 135 days of ethnographic data collected as an inmate in a Southern California county jail system, the author argues that inmates are subjected to two mutually constitutive racial projects--one institutional and the other microinteractional. Operating in symbiosis within a narrative of risk management, these racial projects increase (rather than decrease) incidents of intraracial violence and the potential for interracial violence. These findings have implications for understanding the process of racialization and evaluating the effectiveness of penal management strategies.

  2. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Emilio J

    2008-05-01

    This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace. PMID:19044141

  3. Incipient habitat race formation in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, J

    2014-03-01

    Theory defines conditions under which sympatric speciation may occur, and several possible examples of the process in action have been identified. In most cases, organisms specialize onto habitats that fall into discrete categories, such as host species used by herbivores and parasites. Ecological specialization within a continuous habitat gradient is theoretically possible, but becomes less likely with increasing gene flow among clinal habitat types. Here, I show that habitat race formation is underway in a frog, Rana temporaria, along a continuous and spatially mosaic habitat gradient. Tadpoles from 23 populations raised in an outdoor mesocosm experiment showed adaptive phenotypic variation correlated with the predator density in their pond of origin. A survey of microsatellite markers in 48 populations found that neutral genetic divergence was enhanced between ponds with very different densities of predators. This represents a new example of habitat specialization along a continuous habitat gradient with no spatial autocorrelation in habitat. PMID:26230250

  4. Structural debris experiments at operation MILL RACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural debris patterns as determined by the mechanisms of building collapse under airblast loading have been studied experimentally at MILL RACE, White Sands, NM. Three near full-size buildings were instrumented to observe deflections, accelerations and air pressures and exposed to two different regimes of incident blast pressure produced by HE simulating 1 kt, viz., 10 and 3 psi; after the shot enough wall debris was located and identified to provide estimates of debris movement. Two of the test buildings were unreinforced, load-bearing masonry, one located at each of the two incident overpressures. The third building was made of reinforced concrete panels and was exposed to approximately 25 psi. Preliminary estimates of the effect of arching on debris energy and distribution are presented

  5. Scientific Productivity, Research Funding, Race and Ethnicity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J S; Wang, F; Deng, Y; Ou, F R; Bennett, J R; Liu, Y; Wang, G

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study by Ginther et al., the probability of receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) RO1 award was related to the applicant's race/ethnicity. The results indicate black/African-American applicants were 10% less likely than white peers to receive an award, after controlling for background and qualifications. It has generated a widespread debate regarding the unfairness of the NIH grant review process and its correction. In this paper, the work by Ginther et al. was augmented by pairing analysis, axiomatically-individualized productivity and normalized funding success measurement. Although there are racial differences in R01 grant success rates, normalized figures of merit for funding success explain the discrepancy. The suggested "leverage points for policy intervention" are in question and require deeper and more thorough investigations. Further adjustments in policies to remove racial disparity should be made more systematically for equal opportunity, rather than being limited to the ...

  6. Novel race track microtron end magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are designing a large volume, high-precision, high-reliability 1 T dipole magnet that requires no power. This hybrid magnet uses iron to shape the gap field and permanent magnet material to excite the iron (i.e., put iron poles and surfaces onto desired scalar potentials). This structure is surrounded by an iron yoke box, thus producing the smallest size with the least cost without contaminating the environment with stray fields. To satisfy the beam optics conditions for a specific race track microtron (RTM) design, the magnet has a reverse field (and potential) pole over the entire beam entrance/exit width. The scalar potentials of both the main and reverse field poles are passively adjustable (i.e., without using power) over a small range which allows the two-magnet RTM system to be tuned. (orig.)

  7. A RACE-HORSE CALLED PHERENIKOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Henderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aptly-named stallion Pherenikos (Victory-bearer raced and won for Hieron,tyrant of Gela (485 BC and Syracuse (485-467/6 BC. This is the only horse thatis named in the surviving victory odes (epinikia of Pindar and Bacchylides.1 Hemakes his first victorious appearance in the single-horse event, the κέλης, of sixlaps (just over 1 km in the hippodrome at the Pythia in 478, to which Pindar refersin P. 3.72-74, composed sometime after 476.2 This is probably the victory to whichBacchylides (5.41 refers when he states that Pherenikos won at Delphi before hisvictory at Olympia in 476.

  8. Race Guides Attention in Visual Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Otten

    Full Text Available It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female. Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear.

  9. Genetic divergence in land races of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Rajesh, K.Paramasivam and S.Thirumeni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity was assessed in 29 land races of rice using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistics. Eight quantitativecharacters including grain yield were considered for the study. Based on genetic distances, the 29 genotypeswere grouped into five clusters. The mode of distribution of genotypes from different geographic regions intovarious clusters was at random indicating that geographical diversity and genetic diversity were not related .Thecharacters days to first flowering and single plant yield contributed maximum towards genetic divergence. Themaximum inter cluster distance was recorded between cluster IV and cluster V. The genotypes in these clustersVattan and Vellai Chitraikar (cluster IV and Thulasi Manjari (cluster V may serve as potential donors forfuture hybridization programmes.

  10. Attending to Race (or Gender) Does Not Increase Race (or Gender) Aftereffects

    OpenAIRE

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Vu, Chan Q.; Heller, Nathan H.; Collins, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that attention can influence the strength of face aftereffects. For example, attending to changes in facial features increases the strength of identity and figural aftereffects relative to passive viewing (Rhodes et al., 2011). Here, we ask whether attending to a specific social dimension of a face (such as race or gender) influences the strength of face aftereffects along that dimension. Across three experiments, participants completed many single-shot face adaptati...

  11. Autonomous sensor-based dual-arm satellite grappling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Tso, Kam; Litwin, Todd; Hayati, Samad; Bon, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Dual-arm satellite grappling involves the integration of technologies developed in the Sensing and Perception (S&P) Subsystem for object acquisition and tracking, and the Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) Subsystem for dual-arm control. S&P acquires and tracks the position, orientation, velocity, and angular velocity of a slowly spinning satellite, and sends tracking data to the MCM subsystem. MCM grapples the satellite and brings it to rest, controlling the arms so that no excessive forces or torques are exerted on the satellite or arms. A 350-pound satellite mockup which can spin freely on a gimbal for several minutes, closely simulating the dynamics of a real satellite is demonstrated. The satellite mockup is fitted with a panel under which may be mounted various elements such as line replacement modules and electrical connectors that will be used to demonstrate servicing tasks once the satellite is docked. The subsystems are housed in three MicroVAX II microcomputers. The hardware of the S&P Subsystem includes CCD cameras, video digitizers, frame buffers, IMFEX (a custom pipelined video processor), a time-code generator with millisecond precision, and a MicroVAX II computer. Its software is written in Pascal and is based on a locally written vision software library. The hardware of the MCM Subsystem includes PUMA 560 robot arms, Lord force/torque sensors, two MicroVAX II computers, and unimation pneumatic parallel grippers. Its software is written in C, and is based on a robot language called RCCL. The two subsystems are described and test results on the grappling of the satellite mockup with rotational rates of up to 2 rpm are provided.

  12. The objective qualification of non-international armed conflicts: A Colombian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Machado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Armed conflict has raged in Colombia since at least the 1960’s, involving governmental forces, rebel groups, and paramilitary forces. The Uribe government (2002-2010 declared that Colombia was not in a ‘state of armed conflict’ but was rather facing a ‘terrorist threat’. This declaration was done in fear of conferring a political status to the armed groups, and most particularly, in fear that a recognition of armed conflict would open the possibility of endowing the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC with a ‘belligerency status’. From a legal point of view, the government’s fears were unfounded, since contemporary international humanitarian law does not require a formal for a situation to qualify as armed conflict. During the Uribe administration, efforts were made by the Ministry of Defense to identify operational rules of engagement with precision, violations of international humanitarian law were publicly denounced, and the apex courts adjudicated on issues of international humanitarian law. This seemingly paradoxical situation illustrates the importance of the objective definition of armed conflict, which has been a defining characteristic of international humanitarian law since 1949.

     

  13. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  14. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait

    OpenAIRE

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  15. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  16. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  17. Narrative Arts in A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋆

    2015-01-01

    Most of Hemingway's contributions to literature lie in his artistic version,as well as his art of narration.This paper means to give an analysis of A Farewell to Arms from its art of narration.Drawing from theories of narratology,the dissertation focuses on the analysis of narrative time,narrative person and narrative voice as they are presented in A Farewell to Arms.The aim of this dissertation is to make an objective analysis of Hemingway's narrative power in A Farewell to Arms from narrative perspectives,and tries to find out why A Farewell to Arms are enduring and great.

  18. Genetic architecture underlying host choice differentiation in the sympatric host races of Lochmaea capreae leaf beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudi, Shaghayegh; Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif

    2016-04-01

    Speciation in herbivorous insects has received considerable attention during the last few decades. Much of this group's diversity originates from adaptive population divergence onto different host plants, which often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host choice behaviour. Differences in host choice often translates directly into divergence in mating sites, and therefore positive assortative mating will be created which will act as a strong barrier to gene flow. In this study, we first explored whether host choice is a genetically determined trait in the sympatric willow and birch host races of the leaf feeding beetle Lochmaea capreae, or whether larval experience influences adult host choice. Once we had established that host choice is a genetically based trait we determined its genetic architecture. To achieve this, we employed a reciprocal transplant design in which offspring from pure willow and birch cross-types, F1, F2 and backcrosses were raised on each host plant and their preference was determined upon reaching adulthood. We then applied joint-scaling analysis to uncover the genetic architecture of host preference. Our results suggest that rearing host does not have a pronounced effect on adult's host choice; rather the segregation pattern implies the existence of genetic loci affecting host choice in these host races. The joint-scaling analysis revealed that population differences in host choice are mainly influenced by the contribution of additive genetic effects and also maternally inherited cytoplasmic effects. We explore the implications of our findings for evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  19. Do congenital prosopagnosia and the other-race effect affect the same face recognition mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eEsins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race effect, a disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both affect face recognition abilities. Are the same face processing mechanisms affected in both situations? To investigate this question, we tested three groups of 21 participants: German congenital prosopagnosics, South Korean participants and German controls in three different tasks involving faces and objects. First we tested all participants on the Cambridge Face Memory Test in which they had to recognize Caucasian target faces in a 3-alternative-forced-choice task. German controls performed better than Koreans who performed better than prosopagnosics. In the second experiment, participants rated the similarity of Caucasian faces that differed parametrically in either features or second-order relations (configuration. Prosopagnosics were less sensitive to configuration changes than both other groups. In addition, while all groups were more sensitive to changes in features than in configuration, this difference was smaller in Koreans. In the third experiment, participants had to learn exemplars of artificial objects, natural objects, and faces and recognize them among distractors of the same category. Here prosopagnosics performed worse than participants in the other two groups only when they were tested on face stimuli. In sum, Koreans and prosopagnosic participants differed from German controls in different ways in all tests. This suggests that German congenital prosopagnosics perceive Caucasian faces differently than do Korean participants. Importantly, our results suggest that different processing impairments underlie the other-race effect and congenital prosopagnosia.

  20. Eight Americas: investigating mortality disparities across races, counties, and race-counties in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J L Murray

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gap between the highest and lowest life expectancies for race-county combinations in the United States is over 35 y. We divided the race-county combinations of the US population into eight distinct groups, referred to as the "eight Americas," to explore the causes of the disparities that can inform specific public health intervention policies and programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The eight Americas were defined based on race, location of the county of residence, population density, race-specific county-level per capita income, and cumulative homicide rate. Data sources for population and mortality figures were the Bureau of the Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. We estimated life expectancy, the risk of mortality from specific diseases, health insurance, and health-care utilization for the eight Americas. The life expectancy gap between the 3.4 million high-risk urban black males and the 5.6 million Asian females was 20.7 y in 2001. Within the sexes, the life expectancy gap between the best-off and the worst-off groups was 15.4 y for males (Asians versus high-risk urban blacks and 12.8 y for females (Asians versus low-income southern rural blacks. Mortality disparities among the eight Americas were largest for young (15-44 y and middle-aged (45-59 y adults, especially for men. The disparities were caused primarily by a number of chronic diseases and injuries with well-established risk factors. Between 1982 and 2001, the ordering of life expectancy among the eight Americas and the absolute difference between the advantaged and disadvantaged groups remained largely unchanged. Self-reported health plan coverage was lowest for western Native Americans and low-income southern rural blacks. Crude self-reported health-care utilization, however, was slightly higher for the more disadvantaged populations. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in mortality across the eight Americas, each consisting of millions or tens of millions of

  1. Crohn's disease in one mixed-race population in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Genoile Oliveira Santana; Luiz Guilherme Costa Lyra; Tamara Celi Almeida Santana; Lidiane Bianca dos Reis; Jorge Carvalho Guedes; Maria Betania Toralles; André Castro Lyra

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the classification and severity of Crohn's disease in different racial groups.METHODS: Patients with Crohn's disease from the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Prof. Edgard Santos were enrolled in the study. This hospital is a reference centre for inflammatory bowel disease. Race was determined using self-identification. The Vienna's classification was applied for all subjects. The severity of Crohn's disease was determined according to the number of surgical procedures, hospital admissions in the last year and treatment with steroids and immunosuppressors. Statistical analysis was calculated using t test for means, χ2 or F for proportions. A P value < 0.05 was considered to be significant.RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were enrolled. Non-white patients were more frequently diagnosed with Crohn's disease in the age less than 40 years than white patients. The behaviour of disease was similar in both groups with a high frequency of the penetrating form.There was a tendency for non-white patients to have a greater frequency of hospital admissions in the last year compared to white subjects. Non-whites also had a higher rate of colonic and upper gastrointestinal involvement, and were also more frequently on treatment with immunossupressors than white patients although this difference was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Non-white patients with Crohn's disease had an earlier diagnosis and appeared to have had a more severe disease presentation than white patients.

  2. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  3. Surviving Violence: Transgressing Categories and Boundaries in Armed Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, activities intended for the protection of civilians have been steadily incorporated into humanitarian, peacekeeping, and development operations across the globe. Yet, what was initially perceived as a progressive step in the advancement of human security (Goldberg and Hubert 2001 is now coming under increasing scrutiny (Fox 2002; Thakur 2002. The civilian protection agenda involves a series of inter-related activities designed to prevent, mitigate, respond to, and recover from physical harm caused by armed conflict. Despite the steady elaboration and execution of this agenda, however, critics point to key challenges including the lack of compliance by states and non-state armed actors (Ferris 2011, problems with coordination and efficiency among aid organizations (Barnett 2009, under-resourced peacekeeping operations with limited training and equipment (Williams 2013, and the lack of capacity and will on the part of the ‘international community’ (Barr 2010.

  4. The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System: Functional Aspects and Therapeutic Implications is the first comprehensive publication to signal the protective role of a distinct part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), providing readers with early insight into a complex system which...... will become of major medical importance in the near future. Focusing on recent research, The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System presents a host of new experimental studies on specific components of the RAS, namely angiotensin AT2 receptors (AT2R), the angiotensin (1-7) peptide with its receptor...... understanding of the protective side of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) involving angiotensin AT2 receptor, ACE2, and Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor Combines the knowledge of editors who pioneered research on the protective renin angiotensin system including; Dr. Thomas Unger, one of the founders of AT2 receptor...

  5. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  6. The Design of Humanoid Robot Arm Based on Morphological and Neurological Analysis of Human Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Yongseon; Ko, Nak Yong; Bae, Youngchul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have presented the implementation and performance evaluation for SERCOS based humanoid robot arm by using morphological and neurological analysis of human arm. Moreover, we reviewed the possibility of application of these robot arms. First, we proposed robot development methodology of open architecture based on ISO15745 for "opening of humanoid robot." Then, we verified the method of implementation of humanoid robot arm and its application to the real world. We have implemen...

  7. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  9. Adults scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genyue Fu

    Full Text Available It is well established that individuals show an other-race effect (ORE in face recognition: they recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. The present study tested the hypothesis that individuals would also scan own- and other-race faces differently. We asked Chinese participants to remember Chinese and Caucasian faces and we tested their memory of the faces over five testing blocks. The participants' eye movements were recorded with the use of an eye tracker. The data were analyzed with an Area of Interest approach using the key AOIs of a face (eyes, nose, and mouth. Also, we used the iMap toolbox to analyze the raw data of participants' fixation on each pixel of the entire face. Results from both types of analyses strongly supported the hypothesis. When viewing target Chinese or Caucasian faces, Chinese participants spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the eyes of other-race Caucasian faces than the eyes of own-race Chinese faces. In contrast, they spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the nose and mouth of Chinese faces than the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces. This pattern of differential fixation, for own- and other-race eyes and nose in particular, was consistent even as participants became increasingly familiar with the target faces of both races. The results could not be explained by the perceptual salience of the Chinese nose or Caucasian eyes because these features were not differentially salient across the races. Our results are discussed in terms of the facial morphological differences between Chinese and Caucasian faces and the enculturation of mutual gaze norms in East Asian cultures.

  10. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  11. Vibration transmissibility characteristics of the human hand-arm system under different postures, hand forces and excitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewusi, S. A.; Rakheja, S.; Marcotte, P.; Boutin, J.

    2010-07-01

    Biodynamic responses of the hand-arm system have been mostly characterized in terms of driving-point force-motion relationships, which have also served as the primary basis for developing the mechanical-equivalent models. The knowledge of localized vibration responses of the hand-arm segments could help derive more effective biodynamic models. In this study, the transmission of z h-axis handle vibration to the wrist, elbow and the shoulder of the human hand and arm are characterized in the laboratory for the bent-arm and extended arm postures. The experiments involved six subjects grasping a handle subject to two different magnitudes of broad-band random vibration, and nine different combinations of hand grip and push forces. The vibration transmissibility data were acquired in the z h- and y h-axis at the wrist and shoulder, and along all the three axes around the elbow joint. The results show that the human hand-arm system in an extended arm posture amplifies the vibration transmitted to the upper-arm and the whole-body at frequencies below 25 Hz, but attenuates the vibration above 25 Hz more effectively than the bent-arm posture, except at the shoulder. The magnitudes of transmitted vibration under an extended arm posture along the y h-axis were observed to be nearly twice those for the bent-arm posture in the low frequency region. The results further showed that variations in the grip force mostly affect vibration transmissibility and characteristic frequencies of the forearm, while changes in the push force influenced the dynamic characteristics of the entire hand-arm system. The magnitudes of transmitted vibration in the vicinity of the characteristic frequencies were influenced by the handle vibration magnitude.

  12. Does Divisional Play Lead to More Pennant Races?

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Winston; Ashok Soni

    1982-01-01

    A "pennant race" occurs in a sports league if the top two teams in a league finish within m\\bar games of each other. We develop an analytical model that can be used to predict the probability that a sports league will have a pennant race. The model is then tested on data from the last 50 major league baseball seasons and is shown to do a remarkable job of predicting the number of pennant races that actually occurred. Finally, we give conditions which ensure that dividing a league of 2n teams ...

  13. A new RACE method for extremely GC-rich genes

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xianzong; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is widely utilized to determine the 5′- and 3′-terminal nucleotide sequences of genes. Many different RACE methods have been developed to meet various requirements, but none address the difficult problems that arise when trying to isolate the ends of extremely GC-rich genes. In this study, we found that we were unable to isolate the correct 5′ or 3′ ends of an insect gene, which appeared to include extremely GC-rich sequences, using current RACE methods...

  14. Using transcription of six Puccinia triticina races to identify the effective secretome during infection of wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron eBruce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat leaf rust, caused by the basidiomycete Puccinia triticina, can cause yield losses of up to 20% in wheat producing regions. During infection, the fungus forms haustoria that secrete proteins into the plant cell and effect changes in plant transcription, metabolism and defense. It is hypothesized that new races emerge as a result of overcoming plant resistance via changes in the secreted effector proteins. To understand gene expression during infection and find genetic differences associated with races, RNA from wheat leaves infected with six different rust races, at six days post inoculation, was sequenced using Illumina. As P. triticina is an obligate biotroph, RNA from both the host and fungi were present and separated by alignment to the P. triticina genome and a wheat EST reference. A total of 222,571 rust contigs were assembled from 165 million reads. An examination of the resulting contigs revealed 532 predicted secreted proteins among the transcripts. Of these, 456 were found in all races. Fifteen genes were found with amino acid changes, corresponding to putative avirulence effectors potentially recognized by 11 different leaf rust resistance (Lr genes. Thirteen of the potential avirulence effectors have no homology to known genes. One gene had significant similarity to cerato-platanin, a known fungal elicitor, and another showed similarity to fungal tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin synthesis. Temporal expression profiles were developed for these genes by qRT-PCR and show that the 15 genes share similar expression patterns from infection initiation to just prior to spore eruption.

  15. Coordinating arms and legs on a hybrid rehabilitation tricycle: the metabolic benefit of asymmetrical compared to symmetrical arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Meyns, Pieter; Van De Walle, Patricia; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Kiekens, Carlotte; Desloovere, Kaat; Duysens, Jaak

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used propulsion method for handcycling is moving the arms symmetrically. Previous studies indicated that during outdoor handcycling symmetrical arm movements are more efficient. During locomotor movements, however, arm movements are performed asymmetrically in combination with leg movements. We questioned which combination of arm and leg movements is more efficient during combined arm and leg cycling for stationary use.

  16. 75 FR 41373 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... to Mackinac Island Sail Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Race. This action is necessary to safely control vessel movements in the vicinity of the race starting... regulation pertaining to this annual race was previously published in the Code of Federal Regulations....

  17. Critical Race Media Projects: Counterstories and Praxis (Re)Claim Chicana/o Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Sonya M.; Alemán, Enrique, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article maps out two critical race media projects -- a documentary and a Chicana/o-centric student newspaper--developed by Chicana/o scholars seeking to fulfilll the promise of praxis hailed by critical race theorists. Fortified and guided by the quintessential tenets of critical race theory and Latino critical race theory, these critical…

  18. Minimizing Skin Color Differences Does Not Eliminate the Own-Race Recognition Advantage in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of experience with own-race faces and limited to no experience with other-race faces has been associated with better recognition memory for own-race faces in infants, children, and adults. This study investigated the developmental origins of this other-race effect (ORE) by examining the role of a salient perceptual property of…

  19. NCHS - Infant Mortality Rates, by Race: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All birth data by race before 1980 are based on race of the child; starting in 1980, birth data by race are based on race of the mother. Birth data are used to...

  20. Genetics of the partial resistance against race 2 of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production on the Coastal California is threatened by Verticillium wilt, a soil borne fungal disease caused by Verticillium dahliae that diminishes yield and quality. Two races of V. dahliae were identified on lettuce, race 1 and race 2. Complete resistance to race 1 is c...

  1. Beyond fact or fiction: on the materiality of race in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek

    2013-01-01

    What is biological race and how is it made relevant by specific practices? How do we address the materiality of biological race without pigeonholing it? And how do we write about it without reifying race as a singular object? This article engages with biological race not by debunking or trivializing

  2. A tutorial on testing the race model inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Minakata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    effect. Several models have been proposed to explain this effect, including race models and coactivation models of information processing. In race models, the two stimulus components are processed in separate channels and the faster channel determines the processing time. This mechanism leads, on average......, to faster responses to redundant signals. In contrast, coactivation models assume integrated processing of the combined stimuli. To distinguish between these two accounts, Miller (1982) derived the well-known race model inequality, which has become a routine test for behavioral data in experiments...... model inequality, such as inappropriate control of Type I error, insufficient statistical power, wrong treatment of omitted responses or anticipations and the interpretation of violations of the race model inequality. We make detailed recommendations on the design of redundant signals experiments...

  3. Worship Discourse and White Race-based Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality. PMID:25324579

  4. 77 FR 66182 - Race to the Top-District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Register (77 FR 49654) a notice inviting applications for the Race to the Top--District competition. That... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Meredith Farace, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW.,...

  5. Genes, race, and psychology in the genome era: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Nickerson, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    The mapping of the human genome has reawakened interest in the topic of race and genetics, especially the use of genetic technology to examine racial differences in complex outcomes such as health and intelligence. Advances in genomic research challenge psychology to address the myriad conceptual, methodological, and analytical issues associated with research on genetics and race. In addition, the field needs to understand the numerous social, ethical, legal, clinical, and policy implications of research in this arena. Addressing these issues should not only benefit psychology but could also serve to guide such thought in other fields, including molecular biology. The purpose of this special issue is to begin a discussion of this issue of race and genetics within the field of psychology. Several scholars who work in the fields of genetics, race, or related areas were invited to write (or had previously submitted) articles sharing their perspectives.

  6. Race and History: Comments from an Epistemological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The historiography of race is usually framed by two discontinuities: The invention of race by European naturalists and anthropologists, marked by Carl Linnaeus’s Systema naturae (1735); and the demise of racial typologies after WWII in favor of population-based studies of human diversity. This framing serves a similar function as the quotation marks that almost invariably surround the term. “Race” is placed outside of rational discourse as a residue of outdated essentialist and hierarchical thinking. I will throw doubt on this underlying assumption, not in order to re-legitimate race, but in order to understand better why race has been, and continues to be, such a politically powerful and explosive concept. PMID:25684833

  7. Race-related PTSD: the Asian American Vietnam veteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, C M

    1994-10-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework by which to understand race-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the Asian American Vietnam veteran. The framework draws from cognitive schema theory, social behaviorism, the notion of cumulative racism as trauma, and the assumption that bifurcation and negation of one's bicultural identity is injurious. Classifications of race-related stress or trauma that may be experienced by Asian American Vietnam veterans, with exemplifying clinical case material, are presented. These types of stressors include being mistaken for Vietnamese, verbal and physical assaults that are race-related, death and near-death experiences that are race-related, racial stigmatization, dissociation from one's Asian identity, and marginalization. As studies of combat trauma and sexual assault forced the psychological stresses attendant to war and sexist oppression into public consciousness, so this article addresses psychological stress and trauma attendant to racism. PMID:7820354

  8. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  9. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  10. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  11. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  12. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...

  13. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay

  14. Physiology of wheelchair racing in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2002-01-01

    Wheelchair racing is one of the most popular sporting activities of individuals with spinal cord injury. Athletes with this impairment have unique changes in metabolic, cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and thermoregulatory systems, which reduce their overall physiological capacity compared with able-bodied individuals or individuals with other types of impairments. This review on spinal cord injury: presents the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation classification of wheelchair athletes; describes methods commonly used to characterise anaerobic and aerobic fitness; presents the findings of physiological studies that have evaluated wheelchair racing performance; identifies the risks associated with temperature regulation when competing in wheelchair races; and discusses special conditions that can influence wheelchair racing performance. Currently there is limited research that has examined the relationship between sprint or distance wheelchair racing performance and the anaerobic and aerobic components of physical fitness. Although the descriptive evidence indicates that the profiles of these athletes reflect their training and participation in these specific events, the association between their physiological profiles and real or simulated racing performance is unclear. The generally accepted concept that high values of aerobic and anaerobic power are strongly correlated with endurance and sprint racing performance, respectively, are not necessarily true in this population. Athletes with spinal cord injury have an impaired thermoregulatory capacity, because the compromised autonomic and somatic nervous system functions disrupt control of skin blood flow and sweating below the level of the lesion. As a result, they may be more susceptible to hyperthermia during distance wheelchair racing performance. Wheelchair athletes should follow recommendations advocated for able-bodied individuals to minimise their risks of heat stress during competition. Many

  15. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  16. Power output during women's World Cup road cycle racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Tammie R; Martin, David T; McDonald, Warren; Victor, James; Plummer, John; Withers, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Little information exists on the power output demands of competitive women's road cycle racing. The purpose of our investigation was to document the power output generated by elite female road cyclists who achieved success in FLAT and HILLY World Cup races. Power output data were collected from 27 top-20 World Cup finishes (19 FLAT and 8 HILLY) achieved by 15 nationally ranked cyclists (mean +/- SD; age: 24.1+/-4.0 years; body mass: 57.9+/-3.6 kg; height: 168.7+/-5.6 cm; VO2max 63.6+/-2.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1); peak power during graded exercise test (GXT(peak power)): 310+/-25 W). The GXT determined GXT(peak power), VO2peak lactate threshold (LT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Bicycles were fitted with SRM powermeters, which recorded power (W), cadence (rpm), distance (km) and speed (km h(-1)). Racing data were analysed to establish time in power output and metabolic threshold bands and maximal mean power (MMP) over different durations. When compared to HILLY, FLAT were raced at a similar cadence (75+/-8 vs. 75+/-4 rpm, P=0.93) but higher speed (37.6+/-2.6 vs. 33.9+/-2.7 km h(-1), P=0.008) and power output (192+/-21 vs. 169+/-17 W, P=0.04; 3.3+/-0.3 vs. 3.0+/-0.4 W kg(-1), P=0.04). During FLAT races, riders spent significantly more time above 500 W, while greater race time was spent between 100 and 300 W (LT-AT) for HILLY races, with higher MMPs for 180-300 s. Racing terrain influenced the power output profiles of our internationally competitive female road cyclists. These data are the first to define the unique power output requirements associated with placing well in both flat and hilly women's World Cup cycling events. PMID:16151832

  17. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  18. Power output during women's World Cup road cycle racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Tammie R; Martin, David T; McDonald, Warren; Victor, James; Plummer, John; Withers, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Little information exists on the power output demands of competitive women's road cycle racing. The purpose of our investigation was to document the power output generated by elite female road cyclists who achieved success in FLAT and HILLY World Cup races. Power output data were collected from 27 top-20 World Cup finishes (19 FLAT and 8 HILLY) achieved by 15 nationally ranked cyclists (mean +/- SD; age: 24.1+/-4.0 years; body mass: 57.9+/-3.6 kg; height: 168.7+/-5.6 cm; VO2max 63.6+/-2.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1); peak power during graded exercise test (GXT(peak power)): 310+/-25 W). The GXT determined GXT(peak power), VO2peak lactate threshold (LT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Bicycles were fitted with SRM powermeters, which recorded power (W), cadence (rpm), distance (km) and speed (km h(-1)). Racing data were analysed to establish time in power output and metabolic threshold bands and maximal mean power (MMP) over different durations. When compared to HILLY, FLAT were raced at a similar cadence (75+/-8 vs. 75+/-4 rpm, P=0.93) but higher speed (37.6+/-2.6 vs. 33.9+/-2.7 km h(-1), P=0.008) and power output (192+/-21 vs. 169+/-17 W, P=0.04; 3.3+/-0.3 vs. 3.0+/-0.4 W kg(-1), P=0.04). During FLAT races, riders spent significantly more time above 500 W, while greater race time was spent between 100 and 300 W (LT-AT) for HILLY races, with higher MMPs for 180-300 s. Racing terrain influenced the power output profiles of our internationally competitive female road cyclists. These data are the first to define the unique power output requirements associated with placing well in both flat and hilly women's World Cup cycling events.

  19. Perceptual other-race training reduces implicit racial bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lebrecht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implicit racial bias denotes socio-cognitive attitudes towards other-race groups that are exempt from conscious awareness. In parallel, other-race faces are more difficult to differentiate relative to own-race faces--the "Other-Race Effect." To examine the relationship between these two biases, we trained Caucasian subjects to better individuate other-race faces and measured implicit racial bias for those faces both before and after training. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of Caucasian subjects were exposed equally to the same African American faces in a training protocol run over 5 sessions. In the individuation condition, subjects learned to discriminate between African American faces. In the categorization condition, subjects learned to categorize faces as African American or not. For both conditions, both pre- and post-training we measured the Other-Race Effect using old-new recognition and implicit racial biases using a novel implicit social measure--the "Affective Lexical Priming Score" (ALPS. Subjects in the individuation condition, but not in the categorization condition, showed improved discrimination of African American faces with training. Concomitantly, subjects in the individuation condition, but not the categorization condition, showed a reduction in their ALPS. Critically, for the individuation condition only, the degree to which an individual subject's ALPS decreased was significantly correlated with the degree of improvement that subject showed in their ability to differentiate African American faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results establish a causal link between the Other-Race Effect and implicit racial bias. We demonstrate that training that ameliorates the perceptual Other-Race Effect also reduces socio-cognitive implicit racial bias. These findings suggest that implicit racial biases are multifaceted, and include malleable perceptual skills that can be modified with relatively little training.

  20. Navigating the Race to the Top Traffic Jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early last week the U.S. Department of Education announced an unexpected 16 finalists for the first round of Race to the Top (RTT) funding--a veritable traffic jam in the Race to the Top. The finalists have requested a total of $6.5 billion in funds, but only $4.3 billion is up for grabs, and that needs to be spread over two rounds of competition.…

  1. The effect of swimsuit resistance on freestyle swimming race time.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, A.P.; Taunton, D.J.; Hudson, D.A.; Forrester, A.I.J.; Turnock, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that swimming equipment (suit, cap and goggles) can affect the total resistance of a swimmer, and therefore impact the resulting swimming speed and race time. After the 2009 swimming world championships (WC) the international swimming federation (FINA) banned a specific type of full body suit, which resulted in an increase in race times for subsequent WC events. This study proposes that the 2009 suits provided a reduction in swimming resistance and aims to quantify this resistance...

  2. Simulation of an electric racing car using energetic macroscopic representation

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Fontán Tebar, Cristian; Vidal Salvia, Humbert

    2014-01-01

    Formula Student is a university competition around the world where students are required to design, construct and compete with a race car in static and dynamic tests. Since few years ago, this competition has moved to electric propulsion. ETSEIB Motorsport Team at Barcelona, Spain has develop an electric race car and this paper presents the EMR and IBC developed for that in order to analyze the car and further improve the braking and traction system.

  3. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yinan; Wand, Vinzenz; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: yinan@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  4. Conflits armés et environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsouma, Al–Hamandou; Bouchard, Michel-André

    2013-01-01

    Les conflits armés sont source de catastrophes majeures pour l’environnement. Dans les années 60, la défoliation de la jungle vietnamienne par l’armée américaine a interpellé la conscience collective sur la protection de l’environnement en situation de conflit armé (Pearce, 2000). La guerre du Golfe de 1990-1991, avec l’utilisation des armes à l’uranium appauvri et l’incendie des puits de pétrole a fait de la protection de l’environnement lors des conflits armés une préoccupation internationa...

  5. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  6. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency. PMID:26769575

  7. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  8. CERN Relay Race: sporty and colourful

    CERN Multimedia

    Andy Butterworth, CERN Running Club

    2013-01-01

    On Thursday 23 May, the 43rd CERN Relay Race took place, with 108 teams on the starting line, the largest participation ever!       The DG was present at the start and said a few words to encourage the runners. At 12:15, the Solar Club and handbike racers, led by Jean-Yves Le Meur, were the first to set off. And as last year, the relay runners were accompanied by an enthusiastic group of Nordic walkers. The first team across the finish line was "Velo City", in a very fast time of 10'31". New this year was a prize category for the best fancy dress, which was won by Les Schtroumpfs from the BE Department. The challenge for the best represented department was won for the third year in a row by FP, but second and third were HR and IT, up from 6th and 9th places last year. To see all the pictures of the event, click here.

  9. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  10. Next Space Race is in IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, George; Santiago, S. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The next Space Race will be in the economic applications from space and science technology. As NASA science and technology has global application; IT is global, economics is global; surely there are great untapped potentials in finding the IT links of commonality among these three. The Economics of IT will continue to depend upon solution providers creating new methods that capitalize on linking information and information centers with the applications community for business and economic functions.. New and innovative IT vendors whose increased efforts to apply evolving technologies and principles that power the e-business revolution are now seeing the business of government being transformed in a similar fashion. NASA will be a prime example of IT transformation. Potential benefits of e-government are identical to the benefits of e-commerce, which start from value derived from capabilities and assets. The capability and asset wealth of NASA technology and data mass scattered through hundreds of archives will one day provide incredible economic benefit across international and corporate boundaries. Yet the ability to economically benefit from bridging the gap between capability to billable service has yet to find it's first major market. Ultimately the role of government, science, and technology linking to the business world will find greater dependence from this increasingly common ground of IT solutions and technologies. Therefore the future role of the IT industry may be as much administrative as technical, ultimately of critical importance furthering the role of science into application.

  11. Host Suitability and Susceptibility of Glycine max cv. Bedford to Race 1 of Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J. L.; Schmitt, D. P.; Dupree, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Populations of Heterodera glycines identifiable as race 1 reproduced on the race 1 resistant 'Bedford' soybean. A Beaufort County, North Carolina, population had an index of parasitism of 112% on Bedford in greenhouse tests. Indices of parasitism for this population on race 1 resistant cultivars Pickett 71, Centennial, and Forrest were less than 10%. The Beaufort County population had significantly greater reproduction on Bedford in microplots than did populations of race 3 or race 4. In fiel...

  12. Training-Level Induced Changes in Blood Parameters Response to On-Water Rowing Races

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril Petibois; Marc Testa; François Denis Desgorces

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated blood markers allowing discriminating physiological responses to on-water rowing races, notably regarding training volume of athletes and race duration. College (COL) and national (NAT) rowers performed a 1000- or 2000-m race. Capillary blood samples obtained before and post-race allowed an analysis of a wide range of serum parameters. COL rowers had a lower rowing experience and training volume than NAT. Races induced a higher lactate concentration increase in NAT comp...

  13. Bionic robot arm with compliant actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehl, Bernhard

    2000-10-01

    Traditional robotics uses non-compliant materials for all components involved in the production of movement. Elasticity is avoided as far as possible, because it leads to hazardous oscillations and makes control of precise movements very difficult. Due to this deliberate stiffness, robots are typically heavy and clumsy structures in comparison to their living counterparts (i.e. man and animals). Yet, moving systems in nature cope not only with the difficulties introduced by compliant materials, they also take advantage of the elasticity in muscles and tendons to produce smooth and even rapid movements. It is understood, that elasticity in a multi-jointed moving system requires sophisticated control mechanisms- as provided by a nervous system or a suitably programmed computer. In this contribution I shall describe a two-jointed robot with purpose-built elasticity in its actuators. This is accomplished by spiral springs places in series with a conventional electric motor and a tendon to the arm. It is shown that, with sufficiently soft elasticity, oscillations can be avoided by active oscillation damping. (Such active oscillation damping presumably also governs movement control in man and animals.) Furthermore, once the major problem has been overcome, elasticity is found to offer a wide spectrum of valuable advantages, as far as the most serious problems in traditional robotics are concerned. They are summarized by terms such as less dangerous, position tolerant, lightweight construction, controlled forces, and ballistic movements. These will be explained in detail and presented for discussion.

  14. Convection-diffusion effects in marathon race dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of the recent terrorist attack event on the 2013 Boston Marathon, the increasing participation of recreational runners in large marathon races has imposed important logistical and safety issues for organizers and city authorities. An accurate understanding of the dynamics of the marathon pack along the race course can provide important insights for improving safety and performance of these events. On the other hand, marathon races can be seen as a model of pedestrian movement under confined conditions. This work used data of the 2011 Chicago Marathon event for modeling the dynamics of the marathon pack from the corral zone to the finish line. By considering the marathon pack as a set of particles moving along the race course, the dynamics are modeled as a convection-diffusion partial differential equation with position-dependent mean velocity and diffusion coefficient. A least-squares problem is posed and solved with optimization techniques for fitting field data from the 2011 Chicago Marathon. It was obtained that the mean pack velocity decreases while the diffusion coefficient increases with distance. This means that the dispersion rate of the initially compact marathon pack increases as the marathon race evolves along the race course.

  15. CERN runners on the podium for the Escalade race

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    For the last race of the season, CERN runners distinguished themselves by notching up third place in the inter-entreprises category of the Escalade, Geneva’s famous running race across the city.   Some of the runners from the CERN team. On Friday 30 November and Saturday 1 December, 35 runners from CERN braved the chilly Geneva weather to take part in the 35th Escalade race. With 81 teams competing in the race, the group representing the Laboratory took third place in the inter-entreprises category, behind the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève and the Panards Migros teams.   CERN’s Helenka Przysiezniak, Steffen Doebert and Camille Ruiz Llamas also distinguished themselves individually by finishing eighth, sixth and fourth in their respective categories and Patrick Villeton achieved a very good ranking in the DUC race on Friday evening and in the classic race on Saturday. Congratulations to everyone who participated and see you next ...

  16. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  17. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  18. “The Most Progressive and Forward Looking Race Relations Experiment in Existence”: Race “Militancy”, Whiteness, and DRRI in the Early 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, SN

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the 1960s, the United States military was rocked by race-related violence and riots. Growing fears of black “militancy” eventually compelled the military’s largely white leadership to implement policies aimed at ameliorating racial disparities. One of the most significant changes was the establishment of the Defense Race Relations Institute (DRRI) and the requirement that all troops partake in race relations education. Largely overlooked in histories of military race relations a...

  19. The other face of the other-race effect: An fMRI investigation of the other-race face categorization advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Lu; Liu, Jiangang; Wang, Zhe; Li, Jun; Li, Ling; Ge, Liezhong; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The present study was the first to use the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of race categorization of own- and other-race faces. We found that Chinese participants categorized the race of Caucasian faces more accurately and faster than that of Chinese faces, replicating the robust effect of the other-race categorization advantage. Regions of interest (ROI) analyses revealed greater neural activations when participants were categoriz...

  20. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  1. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S.; Hazel, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1–3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38oC, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal temperatures

  2. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  3. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  4. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Atit Shah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.

  5. Social Involvement in Religious Institutions and God-Mediated Control Beliefs: A Longitudinal Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Neal M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among race, education, formal as well as informal involvement in the church, and God-mediated control. Formal involvement in the church was assessed by the frequency of attendance at worship services, Bible study groups, and prayer groups. Informal involvement was measured with an index of spiritual support provided by fellow church members. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older people suggest that both formal and informal church involvement...

  6. Race Talk and School Equity in Local Print Media: The Discursive Flexibility of Whiteness and the Promise of Race-Conscious Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villenas, Sofia A.; Angeles, Sophia L.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how a progressive, rural/small city community in the USA wrestles with race, racism, and school equity in the public arena of print media. It inquires into the tensions, limitations, and possibilities for race-conscious discourse in the face of both explicit racist hate speech and benevolent liberal race talk. Based on…

  7. Race and Class in Britain: A Critique of the Statistical Basis for Critical Race Theory in Britain: And Some Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dave

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author critiques what he analyses as the misuse of statistics in arguments put forward by some Critical Race Theorists in Britain showing that "Race" "trumps" Class in terms of underachievement at 16+ exams in England and Wales. At a theoretical level, using Marxist work the author argues for a notion of "raced" and gendered…

  8. Friction in the development of arms control policy. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report reviews the arms-control policy and decision-making process of the last several administrations with the emphasis on how frictional forces, not unlike those discussed by von Clausewitz, affect the process. It is discusses friction within administrations, as a result of Congressional actions, from nongovernmental organizations, and from the media. Friction is present in every process involving individuals and organizations with differing views and objectives. It may not be desirable to remove all friction from the process, even if it were possible to do so, lest the decision makers stifle creativity and lose the benefit of a variety of views and approaches.

  9. Is the Polar F6 heart rate monitor less accurate during aerobic bench stepping because of arm movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Lisa K; Crixell, Sylvia H; Price, Larry R

    2014-07-01

    Because of the well-documented linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate is commonly used to estimate energy expenditure during exercise. However, previous research suggests that heart rate increases without a concomitant rise in VO2 when arm movements are added to exercise. If so, this could impact the accuracy of heart rate monitors in estimating energy expenditure during combined arm and leg exercise. This study compared the cardiorespiratory responses to a bench step aerobics routine performed with and without arm movements and evaluated whether the accuracy of the Polar F6 heart rate monitor in predicting energy expenditure was impacted by the inclusion of arm movements. Thirty-two women performed the same routine with and without arm movements while stepping up and down off of a 15.24-cm bench at a cadence of 128 b·min-1. Heart rate and VO2 increased, whereas oxygen pulse (VO2·heart rate-1) decreased when arm movements were added (p rise in heart rate relative to V[Combining Dot Above]O2. However, results do not support that these movements increase the prediction error in energy expenditure, as the Polar F6 heart rate monitor over predicted energy expenditure when arm movements were involved and when they were not involved. PMID:24448006

  10. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,P<0.001). In the World Cup, knee angles ranged between 175 and 186° at initial contact and between 180 and 195° at midstance. During the European Cup, walking speed decreased significantly (F=9.35,P=0.002), mostly due to a decrease in step length between 38.5 and 48.5 km (t=8.59,P=0.014). From this study, it would appear that the key areas a 50 km race walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue. PMID:23679143

  11. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  12. Falls in Swedish hurdle and steeplechase racing and the condition of the track surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb-Vedi, M.; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2015-01-01

    -frequency and the recorded explanatory variables were found. The fact that significantly more horses fell in long-distance steeplechases on soft to heavy going, makes surface condition important to consider in order to improve race safety. Among the 195 horse starts in long-distance steeplechases in this study 7 (2......Falls in National Hunt races is a tragic part of the sport. The present study focuses on the relation between racing track conditions and the number of falls in Swedish jump racing. The assumption was that more horses fell on heavy or soft going than on good or firm going. Results from all jump...... races at Täby Racecourse (1992-2001) were recorded. Parameters registered were: type and number of races, racing surface and condition, total time to finish the race, number of starting horses and number of falls. In this period 212 races, corresponding to 1,556 horse starts, were registered. Falls were...

  13. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  14. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  15. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  16. Own-Race Faces Capture Attention Faster than Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Response Time and the N2pc

    OpenAIRE

    Guomei Zhou; Zhijie Cheng; Zhenzhu Yue; Colin Tredoux; Jibo He; Ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that people are better at recognizing human faces from their own-race than from other-races, an effect often termed the Own-Race Advantage. The current study investigates whether there is an Own-Race Advantage in attention and its neural correlates. Participants were asked to search for a human face among animal faces. Experiment 1 showed a classic Own-Race Advantage in response time both for Chinese and Black South African participants. Using event-related potentials (ERPs...

  17. Studying Children in Armed Conflict: Data Production, Social Indicators and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jon; Sommerfelt, Tone

    2007-01-01

    The authors seek to give an overview of ways in which social indicators relevant to research on children affected by armed conflict can be developed, and how such research can be carried out. Technical and methodological challenges involved in this pursuit are discussed. It is argued that data production must consider issues of definition and…

  18. Do Parental Involvement Laws Deter Risky Teen Sex?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Thomas S. Dee; Theodore J. Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Parental involvement (PI) laws require that physicians notify or obtain consent from a parent(s) of a minor seeking an abortion before performing the procedure. Several studies suggest that PI laws curb risky sexual behavior because teens realize that they would be compelled to discuss a subsequent pregnancy with a parent. We show that prior evidence based on gonorrhea rates overlooked the frequent under-reporting of gonorrhea by race and ethnicity, and present new evidence on the effects of ...

  19. CERN Relay Race: No records broken in a bumper year

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...

  20. ATLAS participation to the 36th Annual CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P.

    On May 17, the Annual CERN relay race took place for the 36th time. This is a fun relay race where a team of six runners runs around the CERN site in Meyrin, up and down many hills, to cover the following distances: the first runner runs 1000 m, the second and third runners cover 800 m each, the fourth and fifth runners each have 500 m and finally, the sixth runner covers the last 300 m all the way to the finish line. Each year, serious and occasionnal runners who take this opportunity to make it their only running moment of the year, give it their best to run the 3.9 km loop in times ranging from a mere 10:39.9 for the best team this year to 18:14.3 for the last of the 65 teams that completed the race. Nobody was wasting time at the starting line of the CERN Annual Relay Race. ATLAS was better represented than ever with a record of eight ATLAS teams participating in this race organized by the CERN running club. The names of the ATLAS participants, as well as the team official times are given in the t...

  1. Gene expression profiling gut microbiota in different races of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiome is shaped and modified by the polymorphisms of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Its composition shows strong individual specificity and may play a crucial role in the human digestive system and metabolism. Several factors can affect the composition of the gut microbiome, such as eating habits, living environment, and antibiotic usage. Thus, various races are characterized by different gut microbiome characteristics. In this present study, we studied the gut microbiomes of three different races, including individuals of Asian, European and American races. The gut microbiome and the expression levels of gut microbiome genes were analyzed in these individuals. Advanced feature selection methods (minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection) and four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, nearest neighbor algorithm, sequential minimal optimization, Dagging) were employed to capture key differentially expressed genes. As a result, sequential minimal optimization was found to yield the best performance using the 454 genes, which could effectively distinguish the gut microbiomes of different races. Our analyses of extracted genes support the widely accepted hypotheses that eating habits, living environments and metabolic levels in different races can influence the characteristics of the gut microbiome.

  2. Requests for medical assistance during an amateur road cycling race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roi, Giulio Sergio; Tinti, Riccardo

    2014-12-01

    Requests for medical assistance during an amateur road cycling race, which included 56,700 cyclists over 6 consecutive races between 2006 and 2011, were analysed with the aim of improving injury prevention and medical coverage. Medical assistance was requested by a small percentage of participants (1.7 ± 1.0%), but the actual number seeking assistance was quite high due to the large total number of participants (162 ± 51). 0.17% of all participants did not finish the race for medical reasons. No fatal injuries were recorded. The incidence rate of requests for medical assistance was 0.108/1,000 km, and the incidence of withdrawal was 0.011/1,000 km of the race. Of all medical requests, those due to direct trauma caused by falls accounted for 63%, requests for overload injuries accounted for 4% and requests for non-traumatic complaints accounted for 22% of the total; 11% of requests were not classified. Weather conditions may affect the type and the incidence of requests: requests for traumatic injuries increase if raining; requests for heat-related illnesses if hot. Prevention techniques are aimed at guaranteeing and promoting health and safety and should be implemented by both the race organisers and the cyclists.

  3. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. S.; Grabelsky, D. A.; May, J.; Alvarez, H.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1985-01-01

    From a new survey of the 2.6 mm line of CO in the southern Milky Way, 37 molecular clouds were identified along the Carina arm from l = 282 deg to 336 deg with masses generally greater than 10 to the 5th solar mass. The clouds lie approximately every 700 pc along a spiral segment that is nearly 25 kpc long and has a pitch of about 10 deg. The total mass of these clouds is 40 x 10 to the 6th solar mass, or rougly 1 x 10 to the 6th solar mass each on average. The abrupt tangent point in molecular clouds at l = 280 deg and the characteristic loop structure in the l-v diagram are unmistakable evidence of a CO spiral arm in Carina. This arm apparently connects with the northern hemisphere Sagittarius arm to form a single 10 deg spiral which extends more than two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy.

  4. 78 FR 30731 - Armed Forces Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-12402 Filed 5-21-13; 11:15 am] Billing code..., liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And on Armed Forces Day, we honor those who serve bravely...

  5. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  6. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Degutis

    Full Text Available Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE. One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task. We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance. First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of

  7. Comparison of Arm and Interarm Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, H. G.; Moon, D. S.; Stark, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of the molecular clouds in the arm and interarm region of the inner Galalxy are compared. We used Bell Laboratories Galactic Plane 13CO Survey data and UMSB Galactic Plane 12CO Survey data. The LCO/M of the interarm molecular clouds is much smaller that of arm molecular clouds. Several physical properties, including abundance ratio of molecular clouds in two regions are discussed.

  8. Firm exit and armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Andriana; Rodriguez, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two unique panel data sets to study the causal effect that armed conflict has over entrepreneurial activity in Colombia. Using a fixed effect estimation methodology at the plant level and controlling for the possible endogeneity of armed conflict through the use of instrumental variables, we find that a one standard deviation in the number of guerrilla and paramilitary attacks in a municipality increases the probability of firm exit in 8.1 percentage points. This effect is str...

  9. A comparison of ultra-endurance cyclists in a qualifying ultra-cycling race for Paris-Brest-Paris and Race Across America-Swiss cycling marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-endurance events test the adaptation of human physiology to extreme physical and mental demands, high levels of training, motivation, and physical conditioning among participants. To understand basic differences among participants according to the severity of the race, participants in qualifying events for two ultra-endurance cycling races, differing in length and intensity, were compared on measures of anthropometry, training, and support. One race was four times longer, required supporting teams, and racers typically had little sleep, which should lead to the qualifiers being substantially more highly trained than those from the shorter race. The qualifiers in the longer race had greater intensity in training while the qualifiers in the shorter race relied more on training volume. Different strategies and types of training reflected the different demands of the races. Future studies should evaluate personality and motivational differences in ultra-endurance events and between these athletes and athletes in other sports.

  10. Assemble four-arm DNA junctions into nanoweb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA is of structural polymorphism, which is useful in nanoarchitecture; especially, four-arm DNA junc tions can be used to assemble nanowebs. The static four-arm DNA junctions were designed and synthesized. One-arm DNA and two-arm DNA came out simultaneously with the four-arm DNA junction's formation. A new method, termed the two-step method, was proposed and the productivity of four-arm DNA junctions was increased. A nanoweb was assembled successfully, but it showed irregularity itself. It was not the same as we expected. We consider that it is aresult from the flexibility of four-arm DNA junction.

  11. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  12. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  13. The Global Sporting Arms Race: an International Comparative Study on Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, Veerle de; Bingham, Jerry; Shibli, Simon; Bottenburg, Maarten van; Knop, Paul de

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades the power struggle between nations to win medals in major international competitions has intensified. This has led to national sports organisations and governments throughout the world spending increasing sums of money on elite sport. Several nations have indeed shown that

  14. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  15. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  16. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  17. A permutation test for the race model inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    When participants are asked to respond in the same way to several stimulus identities, responses are often observed to be faster if two stimuli are presented simultaneously as opposed to when a single stimulus is presented (redundant signals effect; Miller, 1982). An important issue...... of such experiments is whether the observed redundancy gains can be explained by parallel processing of the two stimuli in a race-like fashion. To test the parallel processing model, Miller derived the well-known race model inequality which has become a routine test for behavioral data in experiments with redundant...... signals. Several statistical procedures have been used for testing the race model inequality. However, the commonly employed procedure does not control the Type I error. In this article a permutation test is described that keeps the Type I error at the desired level. Simulations show that the power...

  18. Abraham Lincoln’s Attitudes on Slavery and Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The life of Abraham Lincoln coincided with dramatic societal transformations that shaped the future of the United States. In the center of these developments stood the question whether that nation could continue to grow with the system of slavery or not. Inherently linked to that issue—that almost dissolved the nation—was the problem of racism and the future of race relations after emancipation. To examine Lincoln’s attitudes on slavery and race opens a window for us to look at his own struggles concerning these issues, but at the same time at the political and cultural contentions at large of a nation that he helped to save as President during the American Civil War. His legacy as the "Great Emancipator,” liberating over four millions slaves, has generated a controversial debate on Lincoln’s position towards race and racism.

  19. Race and racism in nursing research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Cornelia P; Barbee, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Nursing research on race and racism began in the 1970s. However, because these concepts were seen as cultural attitudes, race and racism were obscured. The evidence on the presence of negative attitudes, biases, and stereotypes about different racial and ethnic groups is inconsistent. During the past two decades, research on race and racism has grown, but there is still an urgent need for more high-quality research on this subject. The major recommendations from this review are to conduct observational research on racism in clinical and practice settings, not as an intellectual end in itself; to assist in eliminating of the historically based disparities among members of racial and ethnic groups; and to conduct research about racism as it affects mobility in educational and practice settings. PMID:15368766

  20. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW. These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group. PMID:18807774