WorldWideScience

Sample records for arms control verification

  1. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  2. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  3. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  4. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs

  5. Identifying, Visualizing, and Fusing Social Media Data to Support Nonproliferation and Arms Control Treaty Verification: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Whattam, Kevin M.

    2013-07-11

    While international nonproliferation and arms control verification capabilities have their foundations in physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, and on-site inspections, verification experts are beginning to consider the importance of open source data to complement and support traditional means of verification. One of those new, and increasingly expanding, sources of open source information is social media, which can be ingested and understood through social media analytics (SMA). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to further our ability to identify, visualize, and fuse social media data to support nonproliferation and arms control treaty verification efforts. This paper will describe our preliminary research to examine social media signatures of nonproliferation or arms control proxy events. We will describe the development of our preliminary nonproliferation and arms control proxy events, outline our initial findings, and propose ideas for future work.

  6. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  7. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  8. Use of Social Media to Target Information-Driven Arms Control and Nonproliferation Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Williams, Laura S.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Whattam, Kevin M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Rose, Stuart J.; Bell, Eric B.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-07-19

    There has been considerable discussion within the national security community, including a recent workshop sponsored by the U.S. State Department, about the use of social media for extracting patterns of collective behavior and influencing public perception in areas relevant to arms control and nonproliferation. This paper seeks to explore if, and how, social media can be used to supplement nonproliferation and arms control inspection and monitoring activities on states and sites of greatest proliferation relevance. In this paper, we set the stage for how social media can be applied in this problem space and describe some of the foreseen challenges, including data validation, sources and attributes, verification, and security. Using information analytics and data visualization capabilities available at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), we provide graphical examples of some social media "signatures" of potential relevance for nonproliferation and arms control purposes. We conclude by describing a proposed case study and offering recommendations both for further research and next steps by the policy community.

  9. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  10. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  11. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  12. Arms control: misplaced focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  13. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism. Vienna, 29 October 2001. Statement to the symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics dealt with the ensuring of an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation, namely as follows: Effectiveness of the system; Participation in the system ; Financing of the system; Making Progress in Nuclear Arms Control; Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism. In the Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 2000, the Agency was able to conclude that for all 140 states with safeguards agreements in place the nuclear material and other items placed under safeguards remained in peaceful nuclear activities or were otherwise adequately accounted for. The Agency currently safeguards over 900 facilities in 70 countries on a regular safeguards budget of approximately US $80 million per year. Turning to the major recent challenge, protection against nuclear terrorism, the IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The recent attacks in the United States were, however, a wake-up call to all that more can and must be done. In the week immediately following the tragedy, the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution which requested a thorough review of Agency activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism

  14. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  15. Design of Robotic Arm Control System Mimics Human Arm Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam Al-Ammri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system to make the robotic hand mimic human hand motion in real time and offline mode. The human hand tracking system is a wearable sensing arm (potentiometers used to determine the position in space and to sense the grasping task of human hand. The maskable sensing arm was designed with same geometrical arrangement of robotic hand that needs to be controlled. The control software of a robot was implemented using Visual Basic and supported with graphical user interface (GUI. The control algorithm depends on joint to joint mapping method to match between the motions at each joint of portable sensing arm with corresponding joint of a robot in order to make the robot mimic the motion.

  16. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  17. Technical safety requirements control level verification; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  18. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  19. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: http://cern.ch/project-plc-formalmethods [2]: http://cern.ch/plcverif

  20. Co-verification of hardware and software for ARM SoC design

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Hardware/software co-verification is how to make sure that embedded system software works correctly with the hardware, and that the hardware has been properly designed to run the software successfully -before large sums are spent on prototypes or manufacturing. This is the first book to apply this verification technique to the rapidly growing field of embedded systems-on-a-chip(SoC). As traditional embedded system design evolves into single-chip design, embedded engineers must be armed with the necessary information to make educated decisions about which tools and methodology to deploy. SoC verification requires a mix of expertise from the disciplines of microprocessor and computer architecture, logic design and simulation, and C and Assembly language embedded software. Until now, the relevant information on how it all fits together has not been available. Andrews, a recognized expert, provides in-depth information about how co-verification really works, how to be successful using it, and pitfalls to avoid. H...

  1. Verification and validation of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following guidelines are proposed for verification and validation (V ampersand V) of nuclear power plant control system software: (a) use risk management to decide what and how much V ampersand V is needed; (b) classify each software application using a scheme that reflects what type and how much V ampersand V is needed; (c) maintain a set of reference documents with current information about each application; (d) use Program Inspection as the initial basic verification method; and (e) establish a deficiencies log for each software application. The following additional practices are strongly recommended: (a) use a computer-based configuration management system to track all aspects of development and maintenance; (b) establish reference baselines of the software, associated reference documents, and development tools at regular intervals during development; (c) use object-oriented design and programming to promote greater software reliability and reuse; (d) provide a copy of the software development environment as part of the package of deliverables; and (e) initiate an effort to use formal methods for preparation of Technical Specifications. The paper provides background information and reasons for the guidelines and recommendations. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  3. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...

  4. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...

  5. The Implications of a New ERa in Arms Control -- Perspectives and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 13, 2003 the INMM hosted a workshop in Washington, DC entitled 'The Implications of a New Era in Arms Control on Regional Nonproliferation and Nuclear Materials Management'. In this paper we summarize the workshop's highlights and provide our analysis of the dominant themes. Ambassador Linton Brooks, Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), delivered the keynote address and focused on four points that are key to understanding the new era: (1) The demise of traditional East/West arms control; (2) The new strategic relationship between Russia and the United States; (3) The blurring of the distinction between nonproliferation and counter-terrorism; (4) The growing recognition that the nonproliferation regime is no longer adequate and needs to be strengthened. He issued a set of challenges to the workshop participants: if his premises were right, what should replace the lexicon of arms control? He described a four-part strategy for nuclear materials protection in Russia, and asked if that model should be replicated globally - potentially by leveraging the new relationship with Russia. Should it be through the IAEA, bilaterally, or some other mechanism? Asserting that the old Nonproliferation Treaty regime was inadequate, he asked what should replace it, and how do we bring it about? Three panel discussions were presented: (1) Implications of a New Era in US/Russia Arms Control Agreements; (2) Implications of a New in Arms Control Upon Regional Nuclear Nonproliferation: South Asia/East Asia/Middle East; and (3) Nuclear Materials Management in a New Era of Arms Control In the first panel, Daryl Kimball, Executive Director of the Arms Control Association argued that arms control agreements provided predictability in the reduction of arms, and had been successful in advancing the methods of verification. Lucas Fischer, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Arms Control at the US State Department acknowledged that INF and START provide a basis

  6. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  7. Formal verification of safety protocol in train control system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; TANG, TAO; Li, Keping; Mera Sanchez de Pedro, Jose Manuel; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Tianhua

    2011-01-01

    In order to satisfy the safety-critical requirements, the train control system (TCS) often employs a layered safety communication protocol to provide reliable services. However, both description and verification of the safety protocols may be formidable due to the system complexity. In this paper, interface automata (IA) are used to describe the safety service interface behaviors of safety communication protocol. A formal verification method is proposed to describe the safety communication pr...

  8. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  9. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Hong, Linh; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    can be combined and used for an efficient development and verification of new fail-safe systems. The expected result is a methodology for using domain-specific, formal languages, techniques and tools for more efficient development and verification of robust software for railway control systems......This paper presents work package WP4.1 of the RobustRails research project. The work package aims at suggesting a methodology for efficient development and verification of safe and robust railway control systems. 1 Project background and state of the art Over the next 10 years all Danish railway...... signalling systems are going to be completely replaced with modern, computer based railway control systems based on the European standard ERTMS/ETCS [3, 4] by the Danish Signaling Programme [1]. The purpose of these systems is to control the railway traffic such that unsafe situations, like train collisions...

  10. Conversion and verification procedure for goal-based control programs

    OpenAIRE

    Braman, J. M. B.; Murray, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbolic model checkers. An example...

  11. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation

  12. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  13. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to the registration and licensing of persons engaged in the business of manufacturing, importing...

  14. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  15. Hybrid Control and Verification of a Pulsed Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Currently systems, which are desired to control, are becoming more and more complex and classical control theory objectives, such as stability or sensitivity, are often not sufficient to cover the control objectives of the systems. In this paper it is shown how the dynamics of a pulsed welding...... process can be reformulated into a timed automaton hybrid setting and subsequently properties such as reachability and deadlock absence is verified by the simulation and verification tool UPPAAL....

  16. Formal Verification of Effectiveness of Control Activities in Business Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yasuhito; Iida, Shusaku; Futatsugi, Kokichi

    It has been an important issue to deal with risks in business processes for achieving companies' goals. This paper introduces a method for applying a formal method to analysis of risks and control activities in business processes in order to evaluate control activities consistently, exhaustively, and to give us potential to have scientific discussion on the result of the evaluation. We focus on document flows in business activities and control activities and risks related to documents because documents play important roles in business. In our method, document flows including control activities are modeled and it is verified by OTS/CafeOBJ Method that risks about falsification of documents are avoided by control activities in the model. The verification is done by interaction between humans and CafeOBJ system with theorem proving, and it raises potential to discuss the result scientifically because the interaction gives us rigorous reasons why the result is derived from the verification.

  17. Arms control and the rule of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War

  18. Arms control and the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  19. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  20. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  1. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be

  2. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, W

    2001-07-01

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  3. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  4. Verification hybrid control of a wheeled mobile robot and manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynska, Magdalena; Burghardt, Andrzej; Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    In this article, innovative approaches to realization of the wheeled mobile robots and manipulator tracking are presented. Conceptions include application of the neural-fuzzy systems to compensation of the controlled system's nonlinearities in the tracking control task. Proposed control algorithms work on-line, contain structure, that adapt to the changeable work conditions of the controlled systems, and do not require the preliminary learning. The algorithm was verification on the real object which was a Scorbot - ER 4pc robotic manipulator and a Pioneer - 2DX mobile robot.

  5. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...... created from the specification, and finally the model is compiled into executable object code. Formal verification is performed automatically by tools at three levels: (1) the specification is checked to follow the rules of the domain, (2) the controller model is checked to ensure safety, and (3......) the object code is verified to be a correct implementation of the controller model....

  6. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-05-03

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  7. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  8. Statistical process control for IMRT dosimetric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Stephen L; Moseley, Douglas J; Zhang, Beibei; Sharpe, Michael B

    2008-10-01

    Patient-specific measurements are typically used to validate the dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). To evaluate the dosimetric performance over time of our IMRT process, we have used statistical process control (SPC) concepts to analyze the measurements from 330 head and neck (H&N) treatment plans. The objectives of the present work are to: (i) Review the dosimetric measurements of a large series of consecutive head and neck treatment plans to better understand appropriate dosimetric tolerances; (ii) analyze the results with SPC to develop action levels for measured discrepancies; (iii) develop estimates for the number of measurements that are required to describe IMRT dosimetry in the clinical setting; and (iv) evaluate with SPC a new beam model in our planning system. H&N IMRT cases were planned with the PINNACLE treatment planning system versions 6.2b or 7.6c (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) and treated on Varian (Palo Alto, CA) or Elekta (Crawley, UK) linacs. As part of regular quality assurance, plans were recalculated on a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom, and ion chamber measurements were made in high-dose volumes (the PTV with highest dose) and in low-dose volumes (spinal cord organ-at-risk, OR). Differences between the planned and measured doses were recorded as a percentage of the planned dose. Differences were stable over time. Measurements with PINNACLE3 6.2b and Varian linacs showed a mean difference of 0.6% for PTVs (n=149, range, -4.3% to 6.6%), while OR measurements showed a larger systematic discrepancy (mean 4.5%, range -4.5% to 16.3%) that was due to well-known limitations of the MLC model in the earlier version of the planning system. Measurements with PINNACLE3 7.6c and Varian linacs demonstrated a mean difference of 0.2% for PTVs (n=160, range, -3.0%, to 5.0%) and -1.0% for ORs (range -5.8% to 4.4%). The capability index (ratio of specification range to range of the data) was 1.3 for the PTV data, indicating that almost

  9. Modelling and Control of 5 dof Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Gökhan Adar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic modeling of a 5 DOF Robotic Arm was carried out. The Robotic Arm totally had 5 DOF spatial articulated arm which consist of 3 parts. The modeling of dynamic equations of motion were based on Lagrange-Euler equations. The equations were taked into matrix-vector form. The parts of Robotic Arm had been in free fall to see the accuracy of the equations of motion and each joint graphs were obtained. A control algorithm was designed to achieve the position of the joint corresponding to the desired scenario. PID control algorithm is used in this study. As a result of the simulation of the orbits of the cubic joint position had been followed up successfully.

  10. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  11. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...... the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...... of the Portuguese broad gauge railway network (1948-2012)....

  12. The applicability of sample collection and analysis in support of nuclear arms control agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Agreements are being negotiated to halt the spread of nuclear arms both within the declared nuclear weapons states and to states not heretofore declaring their possession. With the verification regime of the recently negotiated Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) as a model, negotiators are considering variations of on-site inspection as formulas to enhance the assurance of compliance with future agreements. These on-site inspections may be part of a treaty dictated verification regime or one of a set of voluntary {open_quotes}confidence building{close_quotes} measures. In either case, the collection of material samples for analysis could be an integral component of the inspection as it is in the CWC. The following is an assessment of the applicability of sampling and analysis for compliance monitoring nuclear arms control agreements currently envisioned. There are two essentially orthogonal ways of approaching this question of applicability: the consideration of the analytical questions and the consideration of the specifics of the individual agreements. This study is meant to utilize both approaches in examining the possible impact of sampling and analysis on compliance assessment. First attention must be given to technical questions relating to the efficacy of sampling and analysis.

  13. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  14. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  15. Weintek interfaces for controlling the position of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Ilia, M.; Ilut, T.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Dragan, F.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the use of Weintek panels to control the position of a robotic arm, operated step by step on the three motor axes. PLC control interface is designed with a Weintek touch screen. The HMI Weintek eMT3070a is the user interface in the process command of the PLC. This HMI controls the local PLC, entering the coordinate on the axes X, Y and Z. The subject allows the development in a virtual environment for e-learning and monitoring the robotic arm actions.

  16. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  17. ANFIS-PID Controller for Arm Rehabilitation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.Jali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the arm rehabilitation device controller based on fuzzy logic techniques is presented. Patients who has post-stroke may lose control of their upper limb. If they are treated with functional rehabilitation training, the patients can rehabilitate their motion functions and working abilities. These rehabilitation devices are used to recover the movement of arm after stroke. Many controllers had been used for the rehabilitation device and one of them is ANFIS-PID controller where Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS technique is the combination of fuzzy logic and neural network system. The objectives of this project are to develop arm rehabilitation device controller based on the ANFIS-PID technique. The development of ANFIS is purposely as an inverse model to the system and proportional-integral- erivative (PID controller as a feedback control. EMG model is integrated to the control system as reference where Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to model the EMG to position relationship. Simulation is conducted using MATLAB to validate the system performance that is integrated with EMG model. Then the performance is compared between ANFIS-PID controller and PID alone controller. ANFIS–PID controller reduced more tracking error compared to PID controller and demonstrates better results when disturbance is applied to the control system.

  18. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  19. Biologically Inspired Robotic Arm Control Using an Artificial Neural Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address a neural-oscillator-based control scheme to achieve biologically inspired motion generation. In general, it is known that humans or animals exhibit novel adaptive behaviors regardless of their kinematic configurations against unexpected disturbances or environment changes. This is caused by the entrainment property of the neural oscillator which plays a key role to adapt their nervous system to the natural frequency of the interacted environments. Thus we focus on a self-adapting robot arm control to attain natural adaptive motions as a controller employing neural oscillators. To demonstrate the excellence of entrainment, we implement the proposed control scheme to a single pendulum coupled with the neural oscillator in simulation and experiment. Then this work shows the performance of the robot arm coupled to neural oscillators through various tasks that the arm traces a trajectory. With these, the real-time closed-loop system allowing sensory feedback of the neural oscillator for the entrainment property is proposed. In particular, we verify an impressive capability of biologically inspired self-adaptation behaviors that enables the robot arm to make adaptive motions corresponding to an unexpected environmental variety.

  20. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-01

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling.

  1. Photogrammetric calibration of a C-arm X-ray system as a verification tool for orthopaedic navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, H.; Hemken, H.; Luhmann, T.; Ritschl, P.

    For the total replacement of the knee joint, the precise reconstruction of the mechanical axis is significantly determined by the alignment of the cutting tool with respect to the rotation centre of the femur head. Operation techniques supported by navigation allow for the precise three-dimensional location of the hip centre by cinematic analysis. Recent results permit the reconstruction of the femur axis to be better than 0.7°. Therefore, conventional verification methods such as the post-operative recording of the complete leg are not suitable due to their limited system accuracy of about 2°. As the femur head cannot be accessed directly during the operation, an X-ray method has been used to verify alignment. The paper presents a method and the results achieved for the calibration of a C-arm system by introducing photogrammetric parameters. Since the method is used during operation, boundary conditions such as minimal invasive surgical intervention and sterility have been considered for practical applications of patients.

  2. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  3. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan; Hettler, Eric; Yedavalli, Rama; Mitra, Sayan

    2013-01-01

    NASA's vision for an intelligent engine will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system featuring highly reliable, modular, and dependable components capable of both surviving the harsh engine operating environment and decentralized functionality. A set of control system verification tools was developed and applied to a C-MAPSS40K engine model, and metrics were established to assess the stability and performance of these control systems on the same platform. A software tool was developed that allows designers to assemble easily a distributed control system in software and immediately assess the overall impacts of the system on the target (simulated) platform, allowing control system designers to converge rapidly on acceptable architectures with consideration to all required hardware elements. The software developed in this program will be installed on a distributed hardware-in-the-loop (DHIL) simulation tool to assist NASA and the Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) in integrating DCS (distributed engine control systems) components onto existing and next-generation engines.The distributed engine control simulator blockset for MATLAB/Simulink and hardware simulator provides the capability to simulate virtual subcomponents, as well as swap actual subcomponents for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) analysis. Subcomponents can be the communication network, smart sensor or actuator nodes, or a centralized control system. The distributed engine control blockset for MATLAB/Simulink is a software development tool. The software includes an engine simulation, a communication network simulation, control algorithms, and analysis algorithms set up in a modular environment for rapid simulation of different network architectures; the hardware consists of an embedded device running parts of the CMAPSS engine simulator and controlled through Simulink. The distributed engine control simulation, evaluation, and analysis technology provides unique

  4. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lau, Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  5. Learning and Control Model of the Arm for Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu

    We propose a learning and control model of the arm for a loading task in which an object is loaded onto one hand with the other hand, in the sagittal plane. Postural control during object interactions provides important points to motor control theories in terms of how humans handle dynamics changes and use the information of prediction and sensory feedback. For the learning and control model, we coupled a feedback-error-learning scheme with an Actor-Critic method used as a feedback controller. To overcome sensory delays, a feedforward dynamics model (FDM) was used in the sensory feedback path. We tested the proposed model in simulation using a two-joint arm with six muscles, each with time delays in muscle force generation. By applying the proposed model to the loading task, we showed that motor commands started increasing, before an object was loaded on, to stabilize arm posture. We also found that the FDM contributes to the stabilization by predicting how the hand changes based on contexts of the object and efferent signals. For comparison with other computational models, we present the simulation results of a minimum-variance model.

  6. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  7. Telepresence control of a dual-arm dexterous robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Larry; Cox, Brian; Shelton, Susan; Diftler, Myron

    1994-01-01

    Telepresence is an approach to teleoperation that provides egocentric, intuitive interactions between an operator and a remote environment. This approach takes advantage of the natural cognitive and sensory-motor skills of an on-orbit crew and effectively transfers them to a slave robot. A dual-arm dexterous robot operating under telepresence control has been developed and is being evaluated. Preliminary evaluation revealed several important observations that suggest the directions of future enhancement.

  8. Next generation nuclear arms control staff development initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current demographics for staff with nuclear expertise within the United States National Laboratory complex are dominated by a well experienced, but departing late-career workforce, a cadre of mid-career staff that are relatively few in number, and entry-level staff that are well educated but inexperienced, particularly in nuclear arms control and international nuclear safeguards affairs. Although there are a few significant United States Department of Energy (DOE) Programs that have been established to deal with this issue across the Laboratory complex (Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, as two examples), it remains the responsibility of the individual laboratories to provide internal education, training and development activities to move the next generation of nuclear arms control practitioners to higher levels of competency and responsibility. This presentation describes an internal Next Generation Nuclear Arms Control Staff Development Initiative for early- to mid-career technical and policy experts from a broad range of disciplines at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Elements of this internally funded PNNL initiative include, inter alia, student selection criteria, course focus and objectives, core curriculum topics, the distinguished guest speakers series, practical applications of new knowledge and other student responsibilities for action and engagement, training for technical publication, funding issues, and successes and achievements from the very first class of 2012. (author)

  9. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Prof. R.K. Yedavalli, propose a novel verification environment for eventual rapid certification...

  10. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  11. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  12. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface

  13. Arms control is everyone`s business: The United States and the United Nations at the mid-point of the 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-03-01

    This presentation encourages current efforts in arms control, non- proliferation, and peacekeeping. Verification is heralded as a confidence building method to bring about more openness in international relations. It is purported that openness has already enhanced democratic forces around the world. The insistence on strict compliance with the decisions of the United Nations Security Council is a show of support for international law. It is recommended that international norms on human rights, non-proliferation, and non-aggression be strengthened.

  14. The Ukraine crisis and control of weapons of mass destruction: impacts on German arms control objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Meier

    2014-01-01

    Russia's annexation of Crimea will make it harder for Germany to achieve its disarmament and non-proliferation objectives. Joint action by Russia and the United States to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals appears unlikely in the medium term. And that reduces the chances of tactical nuclear weapons being included - as Germany would prefer - in a future arms control accord. While existing nuclear arms control agreements have not thus far been openly called into question, they may yet beco...

  15. Definition of ground test for Large Space Structure (LSS) control verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, H. B.; Doane, G. B., III; Tollison, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    An overview for the definition of a ground test for the verification of Large Space Structure (LSS) control is given. The definition contains information on the description of the LSS ground verification experiment, the project management scheme, the design, development, fabrication and checkout of the subsystems, the systems engineering and integration, the hardware subsystems, the software, and a summary which includes future LSS ground test plans. Upon completion of these items, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center will have an LSS ground test facility which will provide sufficient data on dynamics and control verification of LSS so that LSS flight system operations can be reasonably ensured.

  16. A domain specific language and methodology for control systems GUI specification, verification and prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    risoldi, matteo; Buchs, Didier

    2007-01-01

    A work-in-progress domain-specific language and methodology for modeling complex control systems GUIs is presented. MDA techniques are applied for language design and verification, simulation and prototyping.

  17. Friction in the development of arms control policy. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report reviews the arms-control policy and decision-making process of the last several administrations with the emphasis on how frictional forces, not unlike those discussed by von Clausewitz, affect the process. It is discusses friction within administrations, as a result of Congressional actions, from nongovernmental organizations, and from the media. Friction is present in every process involving individuals and organizations with differing views and objectives. It may not be desirable to remove all friction from the process, even if it were possible to do so, lest the decision makers stifle creativity and lose the benefit of a variety of views and approaches.

  18. Motion control of the satellite mounted robot arm which assures satellite attitude stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsushige, Oda

    When a robot arm is mounted on a satellite to perform some tasks, the satellite's attitude must be stabilized to retain the communication link and to generate electrical power from solar panels. It is not realistic to control the total system as one dynamic system, since the number of degrees of freedom becomes too large to be handled by state-of-the-art satellite mounted computers. This paper proposes a coordinated control between the satellite's attitude control system and the robot-arm control system. The robot-arm control system estimates the angular momentum of the planned robot-arm's motion. The satellite's attitude control system will compensate for the reaction by using feed-forward control. The robot-arm controller also manages the motion plan of the robot arm in order not to disturb the satellite's attitude stability.

  19. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  20. Light Duty Utility Arm interface control document plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, J.W.

    1994-12-27

    This document describes the interface control documents that will be used to identify and control interface features throughout all phases of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) development and design. After the system is built, delivered and installed in the Cold Test Facility and later at the tank farm, the Interface Control Documents can be used in maintaining the configuration control process. The Interface Control Document will consist of Interface Control Drawings and a data base directly tied to the Interface Control Drawings. The data base can be used as an index to conveniently find interface information. Design drawings and other text documents that contain interface information will appear in the database. The Interface Control Drawings will be used to document and control the data and information that define the interface boundaries between systems, subsystems and equipment. Also, the interface boundaries will define the areas of responsibility for systems and subsystems. The drawing will delineate and identify all the physical and functional interfaces that required coordination to establish and maintain compatibility between the co-functioning equipment, computer software, and the tank farm facilities. An appendix contains the Engineering interface control database system riser manual.

  1. Light Duty Utility Arm interface control document plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the interface control documents that will be used to identify and control interface features throughout all phases of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) development and design. After the system is built, delivered and installed in the Cold Test Facility and later at the tank farm, the Interface Control Documents can be used in maintaining the configuration control process. The Interface Control Document will consist of Interface Control Drawings and a data base directly tied to the Interface Control Drawings. The data base can be used as an index to conveniently find interface information. Design drawings and other text documents that contain interface information will appear in the database. The Interface Control Drawings will be used to document and control the data and information that define the interface boundaries between systems, subsystems and equipment. Also, the interface boundaries will define the areas of responsibility for systems and subsystems. The drawing will delineate and identify all the physical and functional interfaces that required coordination to establish and maintain compatibility between the co-functioning equipment, computer software, and the tank farm facilities. An appendix contains the Engineering interface control database system riser manual

  2. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  3. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  4. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzon Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  5. Kinect-Based Sliding Mode Control for Lynxmotion Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ben Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the technological development of manipulator robot increases very quickly and provides a positive impact to human life. The implementation of the manipulator robot technology offers more efficiency and high performance for several human’s tasks. In reality, efforts published in this context are focused on implementing control algorithms with already preprogrammed desired trajectories (passive robots case or trajectory generation based on feedback sensors (active robots case. However, gesture based control robot can be considered as another channel of system control which is not widely discussed. This paper focuses on a Kinect-based real-time interactive control system implementation. Based on LabVIEW integrated development environment (IDE, a developed human-machine-interface (HMI allows user to control in real time a Lynxmotion robotic arm. The Kinect software development kit (SDK provides a tool to keep track of human body skeleton and abstract it into 3-dimensional coordinates. Therefore, the Kinect sensor is integrated into our control system to detect the different user joints coordinates. The Lynxmotion dynamic has been implemented in a real-time sliding mode control algorithm. The experimental results are carried out to test the effectiveness of the system, and the results verify the tracking ability, stability, and robustness.

  6. The Redundant Arm Self-motion Control Based on Self-tuning Fuzzy PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu(刘宇); Sun Lining; Du Zhijiang

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy control algorithm based on self-tuning PID proportional factor is presented. To a certain degree, it overcomes robot motion control's nonlinearity and uncertainty caused by joints coupled and friction, and decreases overshoot of end manipulator's tracking desired curves. The controller's structure is very simple but effective. With this control method, a 7-DOF redundant arm's self-motion developed by the authors is investigated. Research results show that the said controller restrains track overshoot and possesses preferable merits.

  7. Arms control and disarmament: A new conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the Millennium Assembly of the UN, the Secretary-General urged the global community to seize a sense of the occasion that comes from the turning of the century, to step back from today's headlines and take a broader, longer-term view of the state of the world and the challenges it poses. In partnership with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) is taking up precisely that challenge. This panel discussion is part of a series of events sponsored by the Department to deepen the discussion on topical disarmament and security related issues. It is also part of the constant search for a new approach, a new concept, a new paradigm or vision for disarmament and arms control since the end of the cold war, the end of the post-cold war period and the beginning of the new century. It is axiomatic that progress in disarmament is closely linked to the evolution of the security environment. Disarmament cannot be separated from the new geo-political and security configurations in Europe, new demonstrations of nuclear capability in Asia, the emergence of new conflicts that are being driven mainly by internal and ethnic strife and that are outrageous in their brutality in Europe, Asia and Africa. Today's agenda is still full and diverse in the traditional areas of disarmament, nuclear, chemical and biological disarmament as well as ballistic missile defense and proliferation and conventional disarmament including landmines. Like many organizations, research institutes, researchers and individuals in the field of security, DDA has set store on the reliability and credibility of the research and publications produced by SIPRI. As an independent international institute for research on problems for peace and conflict, disarmament and arms control founded in 1966, SIPRI's primary research has been consistently objective, timely, comprehensive and clearly presented. SIPRI's Yearbook has been a reference

  8. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  9. Formal verification of reactor process control software using assertion checking environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) was developed in-house for carrying out formal (rigorous/ mathematical) functional verification of embedded software written in MISRA C. MISRA C is an industrially sponsored safe sub-set of C programming language and is well accepted in the automotive and aerospace industries. ACE uses static assertion checking technique for verification of MISRA C programs. First the functional specifications of the program are derived from the specifications in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (formal comments) in the program code. The annotated C code is then formally verified using ACE. In this paper we present our experience of using ACE for the formal verification of process control software of a nuclear reactor. The Software Requirements Document (SRD) contained textual specifications of the process control software. The SRD was used by the designers to draw logic diagrams which were given as input to a code generator. The verification of the generated C code was done at 2 levels viz. (i) verification against specifications derived from logic diagrams, and (ii) verification against specifications derived from SRD. In this work we checked approximately 600 functional specifications of the software having roughly 15000 lines of code. (author)

  10. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  11. An integrated user-oriented laboratory for verification of digital flight control systems: Features and capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, P.; Doane, D.; Saito, J.

    1982-01-01

    A Digital Flight Control Systems Verification Laboratory (DFCSVL) has been established at NASA Ames Research Center. This report describes the major elements of the laboratory, the research activities that can be supported in the area of verification and validation of digital flight control systems (DFCS), and the operating scenarios within which these activities can be carried out. The DFCSVL consists of a palletized dual-dual flight-control system linked to a dedicated PDP-11/60 processor. Major software support programs are hosted in a remotely located UNIVAC 1100 accessible from the PDP-11/60 through a modem link. Important features of the DFCSVL include extensive hardware and software fault insertion capabilities, a real-time closed loop environment to exercise the DFCS, an integrated set of software verification tools, and a user-oriented interface to all the resources and capabilities.

  12. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  13. 9 CFR 310.25 - Contamination with microorganisms; process control verification criteria and testing; pathogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination with microorganisms... CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.25 Contamination with microorganisms; process control verification... controls sufficient to prevent fecal contamination. FSIS shall take further action as appropriate to...

  14. 9 CFR 381.94 - Contamination with Microorganisms; process control verification criteria and testing; pathogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination with Microorganisms... § 381.94 Contamination with Microorganisms; process control verification criteria and testing; pathogen... maintaining process controls sufficient to prevent fecal contamination. FSIS shall take further action...

  15. Safety in the nuclear era. Politics - strategy - arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details are given on safety and the factors specifying safety in Europe; the history of the NATO and development of an alliance of sovereign states; nuclear deterrence - the politico-strategic standard of the nuclear era; the East/West struggle for military power; co-operative arms control - theory and practice of stability in the nuclear era; alternative schemes and models; SDI and EURECA - present and future chances and risks. The world is at the beginning of a fascinating development likely to be culminating in the control over and utilization of space, and the mastering of various technical problems be they of a civil or military nature. It remains to be seen whether man will be able to handle the new additional technical capacities in an ethically and politically responsible way. Be that as it may, political scepticism and negative reactions will not succeed in blocking the dynamic forces inherent in the development described. This is especially true for SDI and EURECA. Both schemes are full of both chances and risks. While chances ought to be made the most of risks must be controlled through policies guided by reason. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Verification and validation of software related to nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is produced in response to a recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. The report has objectives of providing practical guidance on the methods available for verification of the software and validation of computer based systems, and on how and when these methods can be effectively applied. It is meant for those who are in any way involved with the development, implementation, maintenance and use of software and computer based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. The report is intended to be used by designers, software producers, reviewers, verification and validation teams, assessors, plant operators and licensers of computer based systems

  17. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  18. 77 FR 52105 - Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2011... first ``Innovation in Arms Control Challenge,'' with the goal of spurring innovation, and developing scientific and technological options that will provide additional transparency and information related...

  19. Analysis of hypothetical loss-of-control-arm accidents in HIFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor power transient produced in the HIFAR materials testing reactor upon severance of a central coarse control arm connecting rod and the subsequent pivoting of the arm out of the core has been calculated for a range of reactor conditions likely to be encountered in normal operation. It is concluded that as long as the remaining arms of the control arm bank can be relied on to suppress the post power peak oscillations in power, the reactor will withstand the consequences of such an accident

  20. A Determination of the Lifetime of a Set of PLUTO Coarse-Control Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Testing Reactor PLUTO is controlled by seven coarse-control arms. These arms move as signal arms through the reactor core and are fabricated from cadmium sheet clad in stainless steel, the stainless steel being in direct contact with the D2O moderator. In a consideration of the safe operation of PLUTO, it is important that the lifetime of these arms, with regard to the burn-up of the cadmium, be accurately known. For an estimate of their lifetime each arm of the set was removed from the reactor after a known irradiation period, and the cadmium was analysed for determination of the burn-up which had taken place in the cadmium-113 isotope. In the analysis the cross section of solutions of cadmium samples, which had been punched from each arm, was compared with a solution of natural cadmium, the cross-sections being measured in the reactor GLEEP. The burn-up distribution over each of the cadmium arms is presented and discussed with regard to an estimation of the lifetime of each coarse-control arm in the reactor. Also presented is the thermal-flux distribution over the surface of two of the coarse-control arms, as measured in DAPHNE, the zero-power mock-up of PLUTO. (author)

  1. Optimal control model of arm configuration in a reaching task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Gary T.; Kakavand, Ali

    1996-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the configuration of the upper limb during a hand static positioning task could be predicted using a dynamic musculoskeletal model and an optimal control routine. Both rhesus monkey and human upper extremity models were formulated, and had seven degrees of freedom (7-DOF) and 39 musculotendon pathways. A variety of configurations were generated about a physiologically measured configuration using the dynamic models and perturbations. The pseudoinverse optimal control method was applied to compute the minimum cost C at each of the generated configurations. Cost function C is described by the Crowninshield-Brand (1981) criterion which relates C (the sum of muscle stresses squared) to the endurance time of a physiological task. The configuration with the minimum cost was compared to the configurations chosen by one monkey (four trials) and by eight human subjects (eight trials each). Results are generally good, but not for all joint angles, suggesting that muscular effort is likely to be one major factor in choosing a preferred static arm posture.

  2. Safety verification of a fault tolerant reconfigurable autonomous goal-based robotic control system

    OpenAIRE

    Braman, Julia M. B.; Murray, Richard M.; Wagner, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Fault tolerance and safety verification of control systems are essential for the success of autonomous robotic systems. A control architecture called Mission Data System (MDS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, takes a goal-based control approach. In this paper, a method for converting goal network control programs into linear hybrid systems is developed. The linear hybrid system can then be verified for safety in the presence of failures using existing symbo...

  3. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    elaborate safety mechanisms in order to keep the risk at the same low level that has been established for European railways until today. The challenge is further increased by the demand for shorter time-to-market periods and higher competition among suppliers of the railway domain; both factors resulting in...... a demand for a higher degree of automation for the development verification, validation and test phases of projects, without impairing the thoroughness of safety-related quality measures and certification activities. Motivated by these considerations, this presentation describes an approach for...... automated construction and verification of railway control systems....

  4. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  5. Formal development and verification of a distributed railway control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, J.

    2000-01-01

    further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model and a controller model. The domain model describes the physical system in absence of control and the controller model introduces the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system to...

  6. Robust control design verification using the modular modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Modular Modeling System (B ampersand W MMS) is being used as a design tool to verify robust controller designs for improving power plant performance while also providing fault-accommodating capabilities. These controllers are designed based on optimal control theory and are thus model based controllers which are targeted for implementation in a computer based digital control environment. The MMS is being successfully used to verify that the controllers are tolerant of uncertainties between the plant model employed in the controller and the actual plant; i.e., that they are robust. The two areas in which the MMS is being used for this purpose is in the design of (1) a reactor power controller with improved reactor temperature response, and (2) the design of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) robust fault-accommodating controller for a deaerator level and pressure control problem

  7. Robust control design verification using the modular modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.M.; Ben-Abdennour, A.; Lee, K.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Modular Modeling System (B W MMS) is being used as a design tool to verify robust controller designs for improving power plant performance while also providing fault-accommodating capabilities. These controllers are designed based on optimal control theory and are thus model based controllers which are targeted for implementation in a computer based digital control environment. The MMS is being successfully used to verify that the controllers are tolerant of uncertainties between the plant model employed in the controller and the actual plant; i.e., that they are robust. The two areas in which the MMS is being used for this purpose is in the design of (1) a reactor power controller with improved reactor temperature response, and (2) the design of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) robust fault-accommodating controller for a deaerator level and pressure control problem.

  8. 78 FR 43959 - Announcement of the 2013 Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... applications of the proposed solution to broaden potential adoption of the technology beyond arms control...) announces the following challenge: What Information Technology Tools and Concepts Can Support Future Arms... proposed technology tool or concept. 3. Description of the concept's feasibility, achievability...

  9. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  10. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  11. Continuous User Identity Verification for Trusted Operators in Control Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavone, Enrico; Ceccarelli, Andrea; Bondavalli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human operators in control rooms are often responsible of issuing critical commands, and in charge of managing sensitive data. Insiders must be prevented to operate on the system: they may benefit of their position in the control room to fool colleagues, and gain access to machines or accounts. This paper proposes an authentication system for deterring and detecting malicious access to the workstations of control rooms. Specifically tailored for the operators in the control room of the crisis...

  12. Design and Implementation of Prosthetic Arm using Gear Motor Control Technique with Appropriate Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Neogi, Biswarup; Ghosal, Soumya; Das, Achintya; Tibarewala, D N

    2011-01-01

    Any part of the human body replication procedure commences the prosthetic control science. This paper highlights the hardware design technique of a prosthetic arm with implementation of gear motor control aspect. The prosthetic control arm movement has been demonstrated in this paper applying processor programming and with the successful testing of the designed prosthetic model. The architectural design of the prosthetic arm here has been replaced by lighter material instead of heavy metal, as well as the traditional EMG (electro myographic) signal has been replaced by the muscle strain.

  13. Verification of the safety communication protocol in train control system using colored Petri net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with formal and simulation-based verification of the safety communication protocol in ETCS (European Train Control System). The safety communication protocol controls the establishment of safety connection between train and trackside. Because of its graphical user interface and modeling flexibility upon the changes in the system conditions, this paper proposes a composition Colored Petri Net (CPN) representation for both the logic and the timed model. The logic of the protocol is proved to be safe by means of state space analysis: the dead markings are correct; there are no dead transitions; being fair. Further analysis results have been obtained using formal and simulation-based verification approach. The timed models for the open transmit system and the application process are created for the purpose of performance analysis of the safety communication protocol. The models describe the procedure of data transmission and processing, and also provide relevant timed and stochastic factors, as well as time delay and lost packet, which may influence the time for establishment of safety connection of the protocol. Time for establishment of safety connection of the protocol in normal state is verified by formal verification, and then time for establishment of safety connection with different probability of lost packet is simulated. After verification it is found that the time for establishment of safety connection of the safety communication protocol satisfies the safety requirements.

  14. A Formal Approach for the Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Kinder, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a complete model-based development and verification approach for railway control systems. For each control system to be generated, the user makes a description of the application-specific parameters in a domain-specific language. This description is automatically transformed ...... are verified for the SystemC model by means of bounded model checking. (2) The object code is verified to be I/O behaviourally equivalent to the SystemC model from which it was compiled....

  15. Design and verification of distributed logic controllers with application of Petri nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Wiśniewska, Monika [University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-12-31

    The paper deals with the designing and verification of distributed logic controllers. The control system is initially modelled with Petri nets and formally verified against structural and behavioral properties with the application of the temporal logic and model checking technique. After that it is decomposed into separate sequential automata that are working concurrently. Each of them is re-verified and if the validation is successful, the system can be finally implemented.

  16. Manual input device for controlling a robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-axis input device, eg joystick, is supported by a mechanism which enables the joystick to be aligned with any desired orientation, eg parallel to the tool. The mechanism can then be locked to provide a rigid support of the joystick. The mechanism may include three pivotal joints whose axes are perpendicular, each incorporating a clutch. The clutches may be electromagnetic or mechanical and may be operable jointly or independently. The robot arm comprises a base rotatable about a vertical axis, an upper arm, a forearm and a tool or grip rotatable about three perpendicular axes relative to the forearm. (author)

  17. Integrated Optimal Model of Structure and Control of the Single Arm Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Deng-lin; JIANG Tao; WEI Jun-hua; WANG An-lin; WANG Shi-gang

    2006-01-01

    The integrated optimal design of mechanical and control system is discussed in terms of the performance requirement and configuration for the single arm flexible manipulator. By combination of dynamics of flexible structure and control theory, a PD feedback control system, which minimizes the settling time, has been designed. Then, the viable region of poles of the PD closed-loop control system is decided according to overshoot and the settling time, and an integrated optimal model of structure and control of single arm manipu lator is presented. Finally, the parameters of structure and control system are simultaneously optimized withrespect to objective function including the moment of inertia and the control effort of system.

  18. Control structural interaction testbed: A model for multiple flexible body verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chory, M. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Manning, R. A.; Narigon, M. L.; Spector, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional end-to-end ground tests for verification of control system performance become increasingly complicated with the development of large, multiple flexible body spacecraft structures. The expense of accurately reproducing the on-orbit dynamic environment and the attendant difficulties in reducing and accounting for ground test effects limits the value of these tests. TRW has developed a building block approach whereby a combination of analysis, simulation, and test has replaced end-to-end performance verification by ground test. Tests are performed at the component, subsystem, and system level on engineering testbeds. These tests are aimed at authenticating models to be used in end-to-end performance verification simulations: component and subassembly engineering tests and analyses establish models and critical parameters, unit level engineering and acceptance tests refine models, and subsystem level tests confirm the models' overall behavior. The Precision Control of Agile Spacecraft (PCAS) project has developed a control structural interaction testbed with a multibody flexible structure to investigate new methods of precision control. This testbed is a model for TRW's approach to verifying control system performance. This approach has several advantages: (1) no allocation for test measurement errors is required, increasing flight hardware design allocations; (2) the approach permits greater latitude in investigating off-nominal conditions and parametric sensitivities; and (3) the simulation approach is cost effective, because the investment is in understanding the root behavior of the flight hardware and not in the ground test equipment and environment.

  19. Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, E. K.; Blana, D.; Simeral, J. D.; Lambrecht, J.; Kim, S. P.; Cornwell, A. S.; Taylor, D. M.; Hochberg, L. R.; Donoghue, J. P.; Kirsch, R. F.

    2011-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES), the coordinated electrical activation of multiple muscles, has been used to restore arm and hand function in people with paralysis. User interfaces for such systems typically derive commands from mechanically unrelated parts of the body with retained volitional control, and are unnatural and unable to simultaneously command the various joints of the arm. Neural interface systems, based on spiking intracortical signals recorded from the arm area of motor cortex, have shown the ability to control computer cursors, robotic arms and individual muscles in intact non-human primates. Such neural interface systems may thus offer a more natural source of commands for restoring dexterous movements via FES. However, the ability to use decoded neural signals to control the complex mechanical dynamics of a reanimated human limb, rather than the kinematics of a computer mouse, has not been demonstrated. This study demonstrates the ability of an individual with long-standing tetraplegia to use cortical neuron recordings to command the real-time movements of a simulated dynamic arm. This virtual arm replicates the dynamics associated with arm mass and muscle contractile properties, as well as those of an FES feedback controller that converts user commands into the required muscle activation patterns. An individual with long-standing tetraplegia was thus able to control a virtual, two-joint, dynamic arm in real time using commands derived from an existing human intracortical interface technology. These results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting.

  20. Formal Verification of Congestion Control Algorithm in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yusof Darus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs is the technology that uses moving cars as nodes in a network to create a mobile network. VANETs turn every participating car into a wireless router, allowing cars of each other to connect and create a network with a wide range. VANETs are developed for enhancing the driving safety and comfort of automotive users. The VANETs can provide wide variety of service such as Intelligent Transportation System (ITS e.g. safety applications. Many of safety applications built in VANETs are required real-time communication with high reliability. One of the main challenges is to avoid degradation of communication channels in dense traffic network. Many of studies suggested that appropriate congestion control algorithms are essential to provide efficient operation of the network. However, most of congestion control algorithms are not really applicable to event-driven safety messages. In this paper we propose congestion control algorithm as solution to prevent congestion in VANETs environment. We propose a complete validation method and analyse the performance of our congestion control algorithms for event-driven safety messages in difference congested scenarios. The effectiveness of the proposed congestion control algorithm is evaluated through the simulation using Veins simulator.

  1. Production monitoring of a RTM automotive control arm by means of fibre optic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris; Kaufmann, Markus; Martens, Tom; Lamberti, Alfredo Lamberti; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a sensor network based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor has been embedded in a carbon fibre reinforced control arm car component, which was produced by Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) technique. Two main challenges were to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensors lines in the existing RTM mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the control arm without damaging the sensors lines. Both tasks were successfully achieved and the process was monitored. The wa...

  2. Arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies, global relations, and agreements pertaining to arms control. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), security affairs, proliferation due to commercial uses of nuclear energy, and deterrence and disarmament are among the topics discussed. The military uses of space and the control and distribution of chemical warfare agents are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Policy Paper 26: The Middle East Arms Control and Regional Security Talks: Progress, Problems, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jentleson, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    The record of the Arms Control and Regional Security (ACRS) Working Group thus far is a mixed one. On the one hand, the very creation of a multilateral process for arms control and regional security in a region where no comparable process ever before existed is in itself a significant achievement. A working agenda then was defined, and by late 1994 a series of initial multilateral agreements had been negotiated for confidence-building measures (CBMs), confidence-and-security-building measures...

  4. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  5. Analysis and test verification of control rod buffer in HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thin-walled shell buffer in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) was designed for absorbing the kinetic energy of the control rod drop in the drive line fracture accident. The thin-walled cylinder structure satisfying the requirements of actual working condition was design by using the energy absorption model of the classical cylinder shell under axial pressure. By using ABAQUS/explicit with J-C constitutive model, the finite element models of both the real reactor condition and the test condition were built to simulate the collision. Based on the analysis results, the control rod fall- down test was designed and implemented. The test results demonstrate that stable pro gressive buckling occurs when the full size buffer is impacted by equiponderance test bar, and the buffer can reduce the crush force effectively and protect the graphite from being destroyed. The analysis results show that the test model can represent and envelope the real condition in reactor. (authors)

  6. Virtual reality verification of workplace design guidelines for the process plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early identification of potential human factors guideline-violations and corrective input into the design process is desired for efficient and cost-effective control room design. Virtual reality (VR) technology makes it possible to perform evaluation of the design of the control room at an early stage of the design process, but can we trust the results from such evaluations? This paper describes an experimental validation of a VR model against the real world in five different guideline verification tasks. Results indicate that guideline verification in the VR model can be done with satisfactory accuracy for a number of evaluations. However, some guideline categories require further development of measurement tools and use of a model with higher resolution than the model used in this study. (Author). 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants. Design, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)

  8. Application of the Actor-Critic Architecture to Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of a Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philip; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of the actor-critic architecture, with neural networks for the both the actor and the critic, as a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a planar arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. Finally, we devise methods for achieving both rapid learning and long-term stability. PMID:20689654

  9. Creating a Reinforcement Learning Controller for Functional Electrical Stimulation of a Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philip S; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of Reinforcement Learning to create a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a two-dimensional arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. An actor-critic architecture is used with artificial neural networks for both the actor and the critic. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. PMID:22081795

  10. Design and verification of controllers for longitudinal oscillations using optimal control theory and numerical simulation: Predictions for PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, H.; Prabhakar, S.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The authors present a technique for the design and verification of efficient bunch-by-bunch controllers for damping longitudinal multibunch instabilities. The controllers attempt to optimize the use of available feedback amplifier power--one of the most expensive components of a feedback system--and define the limits of closed loop system performance. The design technique alternates between analytic computation of single bunch optimal controllers and verification on a multibunch numerical simulator. The simulator identifies unstable coupled bunch modes and predicts their growth and damping rates. The results from the simulator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with analytical calculations based on the single bunch model. The technique is then used to evaluate the performance of a variety of controllers proposed for PEP-II.

  11. Design And Verification of Controllers for Coupled Bunch Instabilities Using Optimal Control Theory And Numerical Simulation: Predictions for PEP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, Haitham; Prabhakar, Shyam; Fox, John D.; Linscott, Ivan; Teytelman, Dmitri; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    We present a technique for the design and verification of efficient bunch-by-bunch controllers for damping longitudinal multibunch instabilities. The controllers attempt to optimize the use of available feedback amplifier power - one of the most expensive components of a feedback system - and define the limits of the closed loop system performance. Our design technique alternates between analytic computation of single bunch optimal controllers and verification on a multibunch numerical simulator. The simulator uses PEP-II parameters and identifies unstable coupled bunch modes, their growth rates and their damping rates with feedback. The results from the simulator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with analytical calculations based on the single bunch model. The technique is then used to evaluate the performance of a variety of controllers proposed for PEP-II.

  12. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm..; Au-dela de l'arms control? A la recherche du paradigme perdu..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, P

    2002-07-01

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  13. Embedded ANFIS as a Supervisory Controller for a 6-DOF Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meher Madhu Dharmana, Sai Shashidhar, Sachin Kumar,Chaithanya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper implements multi-layered ANFIS controller in PIC16F886 micro-controller as a supervisory control for a 6 DOF robotic arm. The complexity in mathematical modelling demands for machine-learning techniques, which rely less on precise mathematical analysis. ANFIS is one such machine learning technique which helps in decision making for the control of robotic arms. Standard PD controllers could be used as servos to guarantee precise tracking. Based on real physical parameters of Dexter ER-1, a model is developed in Sim –Mechanics to capture the actual dynamics of robot arm. The time dependent reachable set is generated out of which it gave nearly 40,000 data samples. This data is used as inverse training data for ANFIS network and is implemented as a supervisory controller in microcontroller. The controller is tested with predefined paths and random position targets and results are shown to act satisfactorily.

  14. Co-Simulation Control of Robot Arm Dynamics in ADAMS and MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is how to quickly establish the virtual prototyping model of robot arm system and effectively solve trajectory tracking control for a given signal. Taking the 2-DOF robot arm as an example, a co-simulation control method is introduced to research multi-body dynamics. Using Newton-Euler and Lagrange method, respectively establish the dynamics model of robot arm and verify the correctness of equations. Firstly, the physical model of robot arm was built by PROE and ADAMS. Furthermore, a control model was created in MATLAB/SIMULINK. And then, the co-simulation model was established based on ADAMS/Control and MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results indicate that the robot arm system has preferable response characteristics and nicer locus-tracking ability. The co-simulation method is intuitive and effective. It is no need to create dynamics equation of complicated physical system and has the important practical significance to study manipulation and control for robot arm.

  15. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydes Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1 stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2 adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility, three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival, and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival. Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1 Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the

  16. The IXV guidance, navigation and control subsystem: Development, verification and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Victor; Contreras, Rafael; Sanchez, Raul; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Serrano, Daniel; Kerr, Murray; Fernandez, Vicente; Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Peñin, Luis F.; Ospina, Jose A.; De Zaiacomo, Gabriale; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Yague, Ricardo; Zaccagnino, Elio; Preaud, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) [1] is an ESA re-entry lifting body demonstrator built to verify in-flight the performance of critical re-entry technologies. The IXV was launched on February the 11th, 2015, aboard Europe's Vega launcher. The IXV´s flight and successful recovery represents a major step forward with respect to previous European re-entry experience with the Atmospheric Re-entry Demonstrator (ARD) [2], flown in October 1998. The increased in-flight manoeuvrability achieved from the lifting body solution permitted the verification of technologies over a wider re-entry corridor. Among other objectives, which included the characterisation of the re-entry environment through a variety of sensors, special attention was paid to Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) aspects, including the guidance algorithms for the lifting body, the use of the inertial measurement unit measurements with GPS updates for navigation, and the flight control by means of aerodynamic flaps and reaction control thrusters. This paper presents the overall Design, Development and Verification logic that has been successfully followed by the GNC and Flight Management (FM) subsystem of the IXV. It also focuses on the interactions between the GNC and the System, Avionics and OBSW development lifecycles and how an integrated and incremental verification process has been implemented by ensuring the maximum representativeness and reuse through all stages.

  17. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  18. Nonproliferation and arms control impacts on declared excess fissile material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.A.; Close, D.A.; Lucas, M.C.; Beary, B.L.

    1996-06-01

    The presence of nuclear materials derived from dismantled nuclear weapons presents new safeguards and security issues for international inspections, for example, inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The requirements of an IAEA inspection under existing guidance and the areas of conflicting interests are discussed. Possible solutions to these issues are presented. Experiences with actual inspections of material at the Y-12 facility at Oak Ridge and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site are presented. A technique to recast some of the material is discussed. A new nondestructive assay/verification instrument that may satisfy the requirements of an inspection is described.

  19. International Space Station Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem design. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Element Verification methodologies for nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem operations utilized during the Qualification phase.

  20. Verification of product quality from process control---preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how, using reasonable assumptions, a simple model for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification process can be constructed. Well-developed statistical ideas are then used to determine the consequences of the expected variations in process control variables, first in terms of glass product composition and then in terms of glass properties. Simple models for melt viscosity and glass chemical durability are presented and show how such models may be combined with the process model to verify product quality. The region most likely encompassing process variations is defined, and by requiring that this lies entirely within the region of acceptable glasses, we arrive at the present WVDP reference composition, WVW-RG4. To the extent that the assumptions described are valid, a point that will be tested at WVDP, it is concluded that the WVDP, as presently characterized, can successfully produce glasses that are both processible and of acceptable durability. Finally, the extensions and refinement of this work in progress are presented. 7 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  1. A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  2. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system. PMID:22255087

  3. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics

  4. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.

  5. Real-Time Discrete Adaptive Control of Robot Arm Based on Digital Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A discrete model reference adaptive controller of robot arm is obtained by integrating the reduced dynamic model of robot, model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and digital signal processing (DSP) computer system into an electromechanical system. With the DSP computer system, the control signal of each joint of the robot arm can be processed in real time and independently. The simulation and experiment results show that with the control strategy, the robot achieved a good trajectory following precision, a good decoupling performance and a high real-time adaptivity.

  6. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Ryu, Jehkwang; Kim, Seonjin; Choi, MooYoung

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics.

  7. Self-Tuning Vibration Control of a Rotational Flexible Timoshenko Arm Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-tuning vibration control of a rotational flexible arm using neural networks is presented. To the self-tuning control system, the control scheme consists of gain tuning neural networks and a variable-gain feedback controller. The neural networks are trained so as to make the root moment zero. In the process, the neural networks learn the optimal gain of the feedback controller. The feedback controller is designed based on Lyapunov's direct method. The feedback control of the vibration of the flexible system is derived by considering the time rate of change of the total energy of the system. This approach has the advantage over the conventional methods in the respect that it allows one to deal directly with the system's partial differential equations without resorting to approximations. Numerical and experimental results for the vibration control of a rotational flexible arm are discussed. It verifies that the proposed control system is effective at controlling flexible dynamical systems.

  8. Accurate position control of a flexible arm using a piezoactuator associated with a hysteresis compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung Hoon

    2013-04-01

    In this work, position control of a one-link flexible arm is undertaken by considering the field-dependent hysteresis behavior of a piezoceramic actuator (piezoactuator in short). The proposed arm is controlled by two actuators: a motor mounted at the hub and a piezoceramic bonded to the surface of the flexible link. In the modeling process, two transfer functions: one from the input torque to output hub angle and the other from the input voltage to the output tip deflection are obtained. The hysteretic behavior of the piezoactuator is experimentally identified using the Preisach model, and the first-order descending (FOD) curves are obtained that are required to design a hysteresis compensator. After establishing the overall control block diagram for the position control of the flexible arm, a quantitative feedback theory (QFT) controller is designed by treating parameter variations and external disturbances as uncertainties. Subsequently, a hysteresis compensator that produces additional control input to the piezoactuator is designed to enhance the vibration control performance. An experimental realization of the proposed control scheme is undertaken and the effect of the hysteresis compensator on vibration control of the flexible arm is evaluated in the time domain.

  9. A rule-based verification and control framework in ATLAS Trigger-DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Sloper, J E; Ryabov, Yu; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ATLAS data taking, the ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system is composed of O(1000) of applications running on more than 2600 computers in a network. With such system size, s/w and h/w failures are quite often. To minimize system downtime, the Trigger-DAQ control system shall include advanced verification and diagnostics facilities. The operator should use tests and expertise of the TDAQ and detectors developers in order to diagnose and recover from errors, if possible automatically. The TDAQ control system is built as a distributed tree of controllers, where behavior of each controller is defined in a rule-based language allowing easy customization. The control system also includes verification framework which allow users to develop and configure tests for any component in the system with different levels of complexity. It can be used as a stand-alone test facility for a small detector installation, as part of the general TDAQ initialization procedure, and for diagnosing the problems ...

  10. Automatic generation and verification of railway interlocking control tables using FSM and NuSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. YAZDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their important role in providing safe conditions for train movements, railway interlocking systems are considered as safety critical systems. The reliability, safety and integrity of these systems, relies on reliability and integrity of all stages in their lifecycle including the design, verification, manufacture, test, operation and maintenance.In this paper, the Automatic generation and verification of interlocking control tables, as one of the most important stages in the interlocking design process has been focused on, by the safety critical research group in the School of Railway Engineering, SRE. Three different subsystems including a graphical signalling layout planner, a Control table generator and a Control table verifier, have been introduced. Using NuSMV model checker, the control table verifier analyses the contents of control table besides the safe train movement conditions and checks for any conflicting settings in the table. This includes settings for conflicting routes, signals, points and also settings for route isolation and single and multiple overlap situations. The latest two settings, as route isolation and multiple overlap situations are from new outcomes of the work comparing to works represented on the subject recently.

  11. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the many…

  12. Dynamic Structure Optimization Design of Lower Control Arm Based on ESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure optimization techniques under static load conditions have been widely used in automotive industry for lightweight and performance improvement of modern cars. However, these static load conditions could not represent all the severe situations of automobile parts which subjected to complex loads varying with time, especially for lower control arm of front suspension. In this study, dynamic optimization of lower control arm was performed by combing traditional static load optimization techniques and multi-body dynamics by Equivalent Static Load (ESL. And the best draw-bead distribution of the stamped lower control arm was attained. Comparing the MBD analysis results of the new design derived from dynamic optimization and original structure, results show that the strength and stiffness was increased significantly while the mass was almost unchanged.

  13. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  14. A Comparison between Two Force-Position Controllers with Gravity Compensation Simulated on a Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a comparison between two force-position controllers with gravity compensation simulated on the DEXTER bioinspired robotic arm. The two controllers are both constituted by an internal proportional-derivative (PD closed-loop for the position control. The force control of the two systems is composed of an external proportional (P closed-loop for one system (P system and an external proportional-integrative (PI closed-loop for the other system (PI system. The simulation tests performed with the two systems on a planar representation of the DEXTER, an eight-DOF bioinspired arm, showed that by varying the stiffness of the environment, with a correct setting of parameters, both systems ensure the achievement of the desired force regime and with great precision the desired position. The two controllers do not have large differences in performance when interacting with a lower stiffness environment. In case of an environment with greater rigidity, the PI system is more stable. The subsequent implementation of these control systems on the DEXTER robotic bioinspired arm gives guidance on the design and control optimisation of the arms of the humanoid robot named SABIAN.

  15. Filtering sensory information with XCSF: improving learning robustness and robot arm control performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissler, Jan; Stalph, Patrick O; Drugowitsch, Jan; Butz, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the control of a robot arm can be efficiently learned using the XCSF learning classifier system, which is a nonlinear regression system based on evolutionary computation. So far, however, the predictive knowledge about how actual motor activity changes the state of the arm system has not been exploited. In this paper, we utilize the forward velocity kinematics knowledge of XCSF to alleviate the negative effect of noisy sensors for successful learning and control. We incorporate Kalman filtering for estimating successive arm positions, iteratively combining sensory readings with XCSF-based predictions of hand position changes over time. The filtered arm position is used to improve both trajectory planning and further learning of the forward velocity kinematics. We test the approach on a simulated kinematic robot arm model. The results show that the combination can improve learning and control performance significantly. However, it also shows that variance estimates of XCSF prediction may be underestimated, in which case self-delusional spiraling effects can hinder effective learning. Thus, we introduce a heuristic parameter, which can be motivated by theory, and which limits the influence of XCSF's predictions on its own further learning input. As a result, we obtain drastic improvements in noise tolerance, allowing the system to cope with more than 10 times higher noise levels.

  16. A Comparison between Two Force-Position Controllers with Gravity Compensation Simulated on a Humanoid Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo; Kenji Hashimoto; Atsuo Takanishi; Paolo Dario

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose a comparison between two force-position controllers with gravity compensation simulated on the DEXTER bioinspired robotic arm. The two controllers are both constituted by an internal proportional-derivative (PD) closed-loop for the position control. The force control of the two systems is composed of an external proportional (P) closed-loop for one system (P system) and an external proportional-integrative (PI) closed-loop for the other system (PI system). The simulation t...

  17. Considerations for control system software verification and validation specific to implementations using distributed processor architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, digital control systems have been implemented on centralized processing systems to function in one of several ways: (1) as a single processor control system; (2) as a supervisor at the top of a hierarchical network of multiple processors; or (3) in a client-server mode. Each of these architectures uses a very different set of communication protocols. The latter two architectures also belong to the category of distributed control systems. Distributed control systems can have a central focus, as in the cases just cited, or be quite decentralized in a loosely coupled, shared responsibility arrangement. This last architecture is analogous to autonomous hosts on a local area network. Each of the architectures identified above will have a different set of architecture-associated issues to be addressed in the verification and validation activities during software development. This paper summarizes results of efforts to identify, describe, contrast, and compare these issues

  18. A Zero Knowledge Protocol For Nuclear Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Alexander [Princeton, Univ., NJ (United States). Program on Science and Global Security; Goldston, Robert J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The verification of nuclear warheads for arms control faces a paradox: International inspectors must gain high confidence in the authenticity of submitted items while learning nothing about them. Conventional inspection systems featuring ''information barriers'', designed to hide measurments stored in electronic systems, are at risk of tampering and snooping. Here we show the viability of fundamentally new approach to nuclear warhead verification that incorporates a zero-knowledge protocol, designed such that sensitive information is never measured so does not need to be hidden. We interrogate submitted items with energetic neutrons, making in effect, differential measurements of neutron transmission and emission. Calculations of diversion scenarios show that a high degree of discrimination can be achieved while revealing zero information. Timely demonstration of the viability of such an approach could be critical for the nexxt round of arms-control negotiations, which will likely require verification of individual warheads, rather than whole delivery systems.

  19. Walking Pattern Generation of Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using Preview Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stability request of robot’s moving on the ground, the motion planning of dual-arm mobile robot when moving on the ground is studied and the preview control system is applied in the robot walking pattern generation. Direct question of robot kinematics in the extended task space is analyzed according to Degrees of Freedom configuration of the dual-arm mobile robot. It is proved that the preview control system could be used in the generation of robot Center of Mass forward trajectory through the building of double linear inverted pendulum model of dual-arm mobile robot. The sector gridding search algorithm is proposed and the reachable workspace which meets the Zero Moment Point stability principle when the robot moving on the ground is obtained. Tip Trajectory is generated through polynomial interpolation. Each joint curve is calculated using MATLAB which is imported to virtual physical model. The feasibility of gait generation is verified.

  20. Comments for A Conference on Verification in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-12

    The author offers 5 points for the discussion of Verification and Technology: (1) Experience with the implementation of arms limitation and arms reduction agreements confirms that technology alone has never been relied upon to provide effective verification. (2) The historical practice of verification of arms control treaties between Cold War rivals may constrain the cooperative and innovative use of technology for transparency, veification and confidence building in the future. (3) An area that has been identified by many, including the US State Department and NNSA as being rich for exploration for potential uses of technology for transparency and verification is information and communications technology (ICT). This includes social media, crowd-sourcing, the internet of things, and the concept of societal verification, but there are issues. (4) On the issue of the extent to which verification technologies are keeping pace with the demands of future protocols and agrements I think the more direct question is ''are they effective in supporting the objectives of the treaty or agreement?'' In this regard it is important to acknowledge that there is a verification grand challenge at our doorstep. That is ''how does one verify limitations on nuclear warheads in national stockpiles?'' (5) Finally, while recognizing the daunting political and security challenges of such an approach, multilateral engagement and cooperation at the conceptual and technical levels provides benefits for addressing future verification challenges.

  1. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lewis, L.C. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  2. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US investigated the use of 233U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use 233U on a large scale. Most of the 233U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some 233U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with 233U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when 233U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns

  3. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Response Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 Emergency Response capability, which includes nominal and off-nominal FDS operation, off nominal ACS operation, and off-nominal THC operation. These subsystems provide the capability to help aid the crew members during an emergency cabin depressurization, a toxic spill, or a fire. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Node 1 ECLS Element Verification methodologies for operation of the Node 1 Emergency Response hardware operations utilized during the Qualification phase.

  4. The design of multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer based on ARM micro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces the design of multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer based on embedded ARM micro-controller. The embedded and real-time system μC/OS-II builds up the real-time and stability of the system and advances the integration. (authors)

  5. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  6. Arms control in space: workshop proceedings, Washington, DC, January 30-31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1982 and early 1983, the Subcommittee on Arms Control, Oceans, International Operations, and Environment of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations held hearings on space weapons and arms control. To explore these issues further in a discussion format not easily achieved in hearings, Sen. Larry Pressler, Chairman of the Subcommittee, asked OTA to conduct a workshop focusing on antisatellite (ASAT) weapons as one aspect of space arms control. The workshop held in Washington, DC on January 30 and 31, 1984, provided an opportunity for technical, diplomatic, military, and policy-analysis experts to interact, think out loud, and build each other's ideas. The workshop was organized into six sessions, although issues involving anti-satellite weapons and arms control are not easily compartmentalized into distinct subject areas. Each session was introduced by a 10- or 15-minute informal oral presentation which set the stage for further discussion. This workshop proceedings volume is organized along the same divisions as the sessions, with some rearrangement

  7. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  8. The Struggle for Territorial Control in Colombia: An Analysis of the Dynamics of the Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Henao Duque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the theory of armed conflict and examines its application to the insurgents´ struggle with the State for political and territorial control in Colombia during 1999-2010.  The analysis examines three sub-periods during this period and several geographic regions to analyze the effect of varying levels of participant capability on the dynamics of the conflict, as measured by the intensity of the conflict over time.  We conclude that as long as there are asymmetries between the State and the insurgency, armed confrontation is likely to continue.

  9. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  10. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  11. Internet remote control interface for a multipurpose robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Dunnigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Internet remote control interface for a MITSUBISHI PA10-6CE manipulator established for the purpose of the ROBOT museum exhibition during spring and summer 2004. The robotic manipulator is a part of the Intelligent Robotic Systems Laboratory at Heriot ? Watt University, which has been established to work on dynamic and kinematic aspects of manipulator control in the presence of environmental disturbances. The laboratory has been enriched by a simple vision system consisting of three web-cameras to broadcast the live images of the robots over the Internet. The Interface comprises of the TCP/IP server providing command parsing and execution using the open controller architecture of the manipulator and a client Java applet web-site providing a simple robot control interface.

  12. Automated Generation of Formal Models from ST Control Programs for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Blech, J-O; Gonzalez Suarez, V

    2014-01-01

    In large industrial control systems such as the ones installed at CERN, one of the main issues is the ability to verify the correct behaviour of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programs. While manual and automated testing can achieve good results, some obvious problems remain unsolved such as the difficulty to check safety or liveness properties. This paper proposes a general methodology and a tool to verify PLC programs by automatically generating formal models for different model checkers out of ST code. The proposed methodology defines an automata-based formalism used as intermediate model (IM) to transform PLC programs written in ST language into different formal models for verification purposes. A tool based on Xtext has been implemented that automatically generates models for the NuSMV and UPPAAL model checkers and the BIP framework.

  13. A distributed Petri Net controller for a dual arm testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjanes, Atle

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and functionality of a Distributed Petri Net Controller (DPNC). The controller runs under X Windows to provide a graphical interface. The DPNC allows users to distribute a Petri Net across several host computers linked together via a TCP/IP interface. A sub-net executes on each host, interacting with the other sub-nets by passing a token vector from host to host. One host has a command window which monitors and controls the distributed controller. The input to the DPNC is a net definition file generated by Great SPN. Thus, a net may be designed, analyzed and verified using this package before implementation. The net is distributed to the hosts by tagging transitions that are host-critical with the appropriate host number. The controller will then distribute the remaining places and transitions to the hosts by generating the local nets, the local marking vectors and the global marking vector. Each transition can have one or more preconditions which must be fulfilled before the transition can fire, as well as one or more post-processes to be executed after the transition fires. These implement the actual input/output to the environment (machines, signals, etc.). The DPNC may also be used to simulate a Great SPN net since stochastic and deterministic firing rates are implemented in the controller for timed transitions.

  14. Rehabilitation of a Human Arm Supported by a Robotic Manipulator: A Position/Force Cooperative Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The assistance of person with limited ability of arm movement is necessary for rehabilitation reasons. This aid is required not only to cover the human performances of the arm in motion and force but also to have a strictly stable dynamics. In this study, we proposed a cooperative system between a disabled arm and a robotic manipulator to reach such objectives. Desired positions and contact forces were imposed by the disabled human whereas appropriate torques were applied by the manipulator to follow human intension. Approach: Various control strategies were proposed during recent years to solve position/force control problem. The impedance control concept was used in this study. A relationship between the dynamics of the robot and its energy was developed to derive stability conditions of the robotic system at the constrained motion phase using a suitable Lyapunov approach. Results: New sufficient conditions of asymptotic stability were developed. To prove the efficiency of the proposed approach, a prototype of a human arm coupled to cooperative constrained robotic manipulator was used. The simulation results showed the stability and the performances of the proposed approach. Conclusion: Results showed the possibility of their use in a real context of rehabilitation of injured and disabled people.

  15. ADAPTIVE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM OF ARMED HELICOPTER USING WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHURong-gang; JIANGChangsheng; FENGBin

    2004-01-01

    A discussion is devoted to the design of an adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method. Firstly, the control loop of the attitude angle is designed with a dynamic inversion scheme in a quick loop and a slow loop. respectively. Then, in order to compensate the error caused by dynamic inversion, the adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method is put forward, so the BP wavelet neural network and the Lyapunov stable wavelet neural network are used to design the helicopter flight control system. Finally, the typical maneuver flight is simulated to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness. Result proves that the wavelet neural network has an engineering practical value and the effect of WNN is good.

  16. Impedance Controller Tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization for Robotic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and fast method for fine tuning the controller parameters of robot manipulators in constrained motion. The stability of the robotic system is proved using a Lyapunov‐based impedance approach whereas the optimal design of the controller parameters are tuned, in offline, by a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. For designing the PSOmethod,differentindexperformancesare considered in both joint and Cartesian spaces. A 3DOF manipulator constrained to a circular trajectory is finally used to validate the performances of the proposed approach. The simulation results show the stability and the performances of the proposed approach.

  17. Control of a Step Walking Combined to Arms Swinging for a Three Dimensional Humanoid Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Aloulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Present researches focus to make humanoid robots more and more autonomous so they can assist human in daily works like taking care of children, aged or disabled persons. In such social activities, the contemporary humanoid robots are expected to have human like morphology and gait. Studies on bipedal locomotion for humanoid robots are then part of the hottest topics in the field of robotic researches. Knowing the benefits of arm swinging for human gait, we propose in this study a new prototype of female humanoid robot morphology having the capabilities to swing arms during step walking. Approach: A new humanoid robot prototype had been introduced based on a human morphology corresponding to a woman whose weight is 70 kg and height is 1,73 m and using realistic gait parameters of a women. The female humanoid robot prototype was composed of fifteen links associated to twenty-six degrees of freedom. Winter statistical model had been applied to determine all physical parameters corresponding to each link. Modeling the proposed humanoid robot implies first to establish the kinematic model basically founded on Euler’s transformation matrix and then to set the dynamic model computed using the Newton-Euler method. To show how the arms played an important role in bipedal gait, we had chosen to consider the whole body as two independent robotic systems: the upper body and the lower body. Results: Both three dimensional kinematic and dynamic models of the humanoid robot had been developed. The three dimensional humanoid robot was controlled via a feedback linearization control during the single support, impact and double support phases. The simulation results showed the arm swing during the step of walking. Conclusion: The humanoid robot proposed has a human like morphology and ensures the function of a step walking with arm swinging. The applied control laws have ensured to the robot desired performances during a step walking.

  18. Safeguard Verification as Cooperative Measure for Non Proliferation Control in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru applies the safeguard measures on its nuclear activities based in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguard Agreement and the Additional Protocol which has been fully implemented becoming part of the Integrated Safeguard since 2005. In addition to international safeguard commitments Peru is also committed with the United Nations 1540 Resolution by which national controls has to be established for preventing the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vector systems. The safeguards measures have become an important part of the verification activities related to this Resolution by analyzing of materials and equipment to be imported or that may be in transit across the country. These activities are part of those developed jointly with other governmental organizations. (author)

  19. On nonlinear dynamics and control of a robotic arm with chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix J. L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a robotic arm is modelled by a double pendulum excited in its base by a DC motor of limited power via crank mechanism and elastic connector. In the mathematical model, a chaotic motion was identified, for a wide range of parameters. Controlling of the chaotic behaviour of the system, were implemented using, two control techniques, the nonlinear saturation control (NSC and the optimal linear feedback control (OLFC. The actuator and sensor of the device are allowed in the pivot and joints of the double pendulum. The nonlinear saturation control (NSC is based in the order second differential equations and its action in the pivot/joint of the robotic arm is through of quadratic nonlinearities feedback signals. The optimal linear feedback control (OLFC involves the application of two control signals, a nonlinear feedforward control to maintain the controlled system to a desired periodic orbit, and control a feedback control to bring the trajectory of the system to the desired orbit. Simulation results, including of uncertainties show the feasibility of the both methods, for chaos control of the considered system.

  20. Control of arm movement: reaching synergies for neuroprosthesis with life-like control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents control methods for restoration of reaching and grasping that mimics the mapping in the space of output states found in healthy subjects. The hypothesis was that the externally driven movements are most likely to advance the recovery of functioning if they follow lifelike control mechanisms. For this, it is important to analyze movement considering the conditions such as: 1 variety of functional tasks (drinking, writing, using computer disk; 2 different locations of the object (with respect to the body; with respect to the active arm; 3 variable loading of the hand (light, heavy; and 4 available grasp strategy (palmar, lateral, pinch. The overall goals of our study were the following 1 identification of coordinated synergies in functional tasks, 2 investigation of differences and similarities between these synergies related to different grasp types, and 3 analysis of the impact of direction, distance and load to synergies. Three spatial reaching synergies were validated for the following coordinated rotations: shoulder adduction/abduction vs. elbow flexion/extension angular velocity (synergy SI, humeral rotation vs. elbow flexion/extension angular velocity (synergy S2, and shoulder vs. elbow flexion/extension angular velocity (synergy S3. These are timely synchronized with the phases of functional tasks; where four reaching phases were distinguished. Here, we present alternation of synergies' coupling during successive phases of a functional task. Preliminary results indicate that the two phases of a functional task termed "no-object" phases used one coupling, between synergies S2 and S3; while the two other phases termed "object" phases were coupled by synergies SI and S2. We established the generalization on the following two objectives: the discrimination of tasks' phases and matching the synergies with task phases. This result reduces the number of mappings necessary for the design of neuroprosthesis with life

  1. REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN 2011REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN 2011%REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN2011REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Schulte

    2011-01-01

    @@ The first vision for removing the threat of nuclear weapons, within a year of their first use, was the far-reaching agenda of the Acheson Lilienthal Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy in 1946[1] proposing that all fissile material should be transferred to a new international agency (the Atomic Development Authority) which would release small amounts to individual nations for peaceful uses.This proposal, like many others, fell victim to the ideologically aggravated suspicions of the Cold War.But, over time, and even during periods of intense east-west suspicion, a substantial body of negotiated agreements has been achieved.Almost all necessarily involved the nuclear superpowers, who led the way in the expansion of nuclear weapons, and whose arsenals therefore needed to be limited as a precondition for achieving wider global nuclear stability.

  2. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics.

  3. International Space Station Atmosphere Control and Supply, Atmosphere Revitalization, and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem - Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.

  4. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhanwu; Wang Congqing

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quantitative bounds on the model uncertainties, a robust tracking controller design is used during the trajectory tracking phase. The optimal control method is designed in the fast subsystem to guarantee the exponential stability. With the combination of the two above, the system can track the expected trajectory accurately, even though with uncertainty in model parameters, and its flexible vibration gets suppressed, too. Finally, some simulation tests have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Arm Orthosis/Prosthesis Movement Control Based on Surface EMG Signal Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suberbiola, Aaron; Zulueta, Ekaitz; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows experimental results on electromyography (EMG)-based system control applied to motorized orthoses. Biceps and triceps EMG signals are captured through two biometrical sensors, which are then filtered and processed by an acquisition system. Finally an output/control signal is produced and sent to the actuators, which will then perform the actual movement, using algorithms based on autoregressive (AR) models and neural networks, among others. The research goal is to predict the desired movement of the lower arm through the analysis of EMG signals, so that the movement can be reproduced by an arm orthosis, powered by two linear actuators. In this experiment, best accuracy has achieved values up to 91%, using a fourth-order AR-model and 100ms block length.

  6. SU-E-I-24: Method for CT Automatic Exposure Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, M; Olasolo, J; Martin, M; Bragado, L; Gallardo, N; Miquelez, S; Maneru, F; Lozares, S; Pellejero, S; Rubio, A [Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Design of a phantom and a simple method for the automatic exposure control (AEC) verification in CT. This verification is included in the computed tomography (CT) Spanish Quality Assurance Protocol. Methods: The phantom design is made from the head and the body phantom used for the CTDI measurement and PMMA plates (35×35 cm2) of 10 cm thickness. Thereby, three different thicknesses along the longitudinal axis are obtained which permit to evaluate the longitudinal AEC performance. Otherwise, the existent asymmetry in the PMMA layers helps to assess angular and 3D AEC operation.Recent acquisition in our hospital (August 2014) of Nomex electrometer (PTW), together with the 10 cm pencil ionization chamber, led to register dose rate as a function of time. Measurements with this chamber fixed at 0° and 90° on the gantry where made on five multidetector-CTs from principal manufacturers. Results: Individual analysis of measurements shows dose rate variation as a function of phantom thickness. The comparative analysis shows that dose rate is kept constant in the head and neck phantom while the PMMA phantom exhibits an abrupt variation between both results, being greater results at 90° as the thickness of the phantom is 3.5 times larger than in the perpendicular direction. Conclusion: Proposed method is simple, quick and reproducible. Results obtained let a qualitative evaluation of the AEC and they are consistent with the expected behavior. A line of future development is to quantitatively study the intensity modulation and parameters of image quality, and a possible comparative study between different manufacturers.

  7. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokov, N

    2003-07-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  8. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  9. On Control of Reaching Movements for Musculo-Skeletal Redundant Arm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Tahara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a dynamic sensory-motor control mechanism of reaching movements for a musculo-skeletal redundant arm model. The formulation of a musculo-skeletal redundant arm system, which takes into account non-linear muscle properties obtained by some physiological understandings, is introduced and numerical simulations are perfomed. The non-linear properties of muscle dynamics make it possible to modulate the viscosity of the joints, and the end point of the arm converges to the desired point with a simple task-space feedback when adequate internal forces are chosen, regardless of the redundancy of the joint. Numerical simulations were performed and the effectiveness of our control scheme is discussed through these results. The results suggest that the reaching movements can be achieved using only a simple task-space feedback scheme together with the internal force effect that comes from non-linear properties of skeletal muscles without any complex mathematical computation such as an inverse dynamics or optimal trajectory derivation. In addition, the dynamic damping ellipsoid for evaluating how the internal forces can be determined is introduced. The task-space feedback is extended to the ‘virtual spring-damper hypothesis’ based on the research by Arimoto et al. (2006 to reduce the muscle output forces and heterogeneity of convergence depending on the initial state and desired position. The research suggests a new direction for studies of brain-motor control mechanism of human movements.

  10. Multimodal System Based on Electrooculography and Voice Recognition to Control a Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People with severe motor disorders cannot use their arms and/or hands to interact with the environment. In such cases, a human‐machine interface can be used to allow these people to perform activities of daily life. Voice recognition would be the best method to control a device devoted to help with these tasks, but this method is very dependent on the background noise and, under certain circumstances, it cannot be used successfully. In this sense, other methods must be included in the system to assist the voice recognition module. In this project, electrooculography (EOG has been selected due to its stability and robustness. This way, a multimodal system based on EOG and voice recognition has been developed to control a robotic arm. This paper presents the procedures designed to combine both methods to create a multimodal interface useful for disabled people. Tests presented in this document compare the skills of five different users while controlling the robotic arm to perform pick‐and‐place tasks. Task duration and accuracy have been measured to obtain specific scores that are used to evaluate both interaction methods independently and the multimodal combination of them. The system works successfully using both methods (EOG and voice recognition. In addition, the multimodal interface improves robustness and reduces the uncertainty generated by the environment when there is background noise.

  11. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  12. The implementation of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) for controlling robot arm via web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the employment of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology in the implementation of our distributed Arm Robot Controller (ARC). CORBA is an industrial standard architecture based on distributed abstract object model, which is developed by Object Management Group (OMG). The architecture consists of five components i.e. Object Request Broker (ORB), Interface Definition Language (IDL), Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII), Interface Repositories (IR) and Object adapter (OA). CORBA objects are different from typical programming objects in three ways i.e. they can be executed on any platform, located anywhere on the network and written in any language that supports IDL mapping. In the implementation of the system, 5 degree of freedom (DOF) arm robot RCS 6.0 and Java as a programming mapping to the CORBA IDL. By implementing this architecture, the objects in the server machine can be distributed over the network in order to run the controller. the ultimate goal for our ARC system is to demonstrate concurrent execution of multiple arm robots through multiple instantiations of distributed object components. (Author)

  13. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  14. Trajectory control of an articulated robot with a parallel drive arm based on splines under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Jong

    Today's industrial robots controlled by mini/micro computers are basically simple positioning devices. The positioning accuracy depends on the mathematical description of the robot configuration to place the end-effector at the desired position and orientation within the workspace and on following the specified path which requires the trajectory planner. In addition, the consideration of joint velocity, acceleration, and jerk trajectories are essential for trajectory planning of industrial robots to obtain smooth operation. The newly designed 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism which permits the joint actuators to be placed in the same horizontal line to reduce the arm inertia and to increase load capacity and stiffness is selected. First, the forward kinematic and inverse kinematic problems are examined. The forward kinematic equations are successfully derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation with independent joint angle constraints. The inverse kinematic problems are solved using the arm-wrist partitioned approach with independent joint angle constraints. Three types of curve fitting methods used in trajectory planning, i.e., certain degree polynomial functions, cubic spline functions, and cubic spline functions under tension, are compared to select the best possible method to satisfy both smooth joint trajectories and positioning accuracy for a robot trajectory planner. Cubic spline functions under tension is the method selected for the new trajectory planner. This method is implemented for a 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism to improve the smoothness of the joint trajectories and the positioning accuracy of the manipulator. Also, this approach is compared with existing trajectory planners, 4-3-4 polynomials and cubic spline functions, via circular arc motion simulations. The new trajectory planner using cubic spline functions under tension is implemented into the microprocessor based robot controller and

  15. Learning arm's posture control using reinforcement learning and feedback-error-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, H; Kim, J; Sato, M; Koike, Y

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning model using the Actor-Critic method and the feedback-error-learning scheme. The Actor-Critic method, which is one of the major frameworks in reinforcement learning, has attracted attention as a computational learning model in the basal ganglia. Meanwhile, the feedback-error-learning is learning architecture proposed as a computationally coherent model of cerebellar motor learning. This learning architecture's purpose is to acquire a feed-forward controller by using a feedback controller's output as an error signal. In past researches, a predetermined constant gain feedback controller was used for the feedback-error-learning. We use the Actor-Critic method for obtaining a feedback controller in the feedback-error-earning. By applying the proposed learning model to an arm's posture control, we show that high-performance feedback and feed-forward controller can be acquired from only by using a scalar value of reward. PMID:17271719

  16. Brain-Machine Interface control of a robot arm using actor-critic rainforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline; Sanchez, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how a marmoset monkey can use a reinforcement learning (RL) Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) to effectively control the movements of a robot arm for a reaching task. In this work, an actor-critic RL algorithm used neural ensemble activity in the monkey's motor cortext to control the robot movements during a two-target decision task. This novel approach to decoding offers unique advantages for BMI control applications. Compared to supervised learning decoding methods, the actor-critic RL algorithm does not require an explicit set of training data to create a static control model, but rather it incrementally adapts the model parameters according to its current performance, in this case requiring only a very basic feedback signal. We show how this algorithm achieved high performance when mapping the monkey's neural states (94%) to robot actions, and only needed to experience a few trials before obtaining accurate real-time control of the robot arm. Since RL methods responsively adapt and adjust their parameters, they can provide a method to create BMIs that are robust against perturbations caused by changes in either the neural input space or the output actions they generate under different task requirements or goals. PMID:23366831

  17. Adaptive gravity and joint stiffness compensation methods for force-controlled arm supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Prat, Joan; Keemink, Arvid Q.L.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.; Stienen, Arno H.A.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    People with muscular weakness can benefit from arm supports that compensate the weight of their arms. Due to the disuse of the arms, passive joint stiffness increases and providing only gravity compensation becomes insufficient to support the arm function. Hence, joint stiffness compensation is also

  18. Verification of Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System using air-bearing-based attitude control simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousaloo, H. S.; Nodeh, M. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper accomplishes one goal and it was to verify and to validate a Spin Magnetic Attitude Control System (SMACS) program and to perform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) air-bearing experiments. A study of a closed-loop magnetic spin controller is presented using only magnetic rods as actuators. The magnetic spin rate control approach is able to perform spin rate control and it is verified with an Attitude Control System (ACS) air-bearing MATLAB® SIMULINK® model and a hardware-embedded LABVIEW® algorithm that controls the spin rate of the test platform on a spherical air bearing table. The SIMULINK® model includes dynamic model of air-bearing, its disturbances, actuator emulation and the time delays caused by on-board calculations. The air-bearing simulator is employed to develop, improve, and carry out objective tests of magnetic torque rods and spin rate control algorithm in the experimental framework and to provide a more realistic demonstration of expected performance of attitude control as compared with software-based architectures. Six sets of two torque rods are used as actuators for the SMACS. It is implemented and simulated to fulfill mission requirement including spin the satellite up to 12 degs-1 around the z-axis. These techniques are documented for the full nonlinear equations of motion of the system and the performances of these techniques are compared in several simulations.

  19. Control strategies and experimental verifications of the electromagnetic mass damper system for structural vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chunwei; Ou Jinping

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic mass damper (EMD) control system, as an innovative active control system to reducestructural vibration, offers many advantages over traditional active mass driver/damper (AMD) control systems. In this paper,studies of several EMD control strategies and bench-scale shaking table tests of a two-story model structure are described.First, two structural models corresponding to uncontrolled and Zeroed cases are developed, and parameters of these modelsare validated through sinusoidal sweep tests to provide a basis for establishing an accurate mathematical model for furtherstudies. Then, a simplified control strategy for the EMD system based on the pole assignment control algorithm is proposed.Moreover, ideal pole locations are derived and validated through a series of shaking table tests. Finally, three benchmarkearthquake ground motions and sinusoidal sweep waves are imposed onto the structure to investigate the effectiveness andfeasibility of using this type of innovative active control system for structural vibration control. In addition, the robustnessof the EMD system is examined. The test results show that the EMD system is an effective and robust system for the controlof structural vibrations.

  20. Seismology: Verification technology utilized for regional cooperation. Transparencies used during the presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the seismology as a verification technology applied for regional cooperation in the field of arms control. It covers the historical earthquakes, recent seismic events, seismic monitoring, national seismic network in Egypt, current research fields, training courses in seismology, implementation of CTBT in Egypt and proposes hosting of a regional data center

  1. Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Grossman, Paul; Schwarzer, Barbara; Jena, Susanne; Naumann, Johannes; Walach, Harald

    2011-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured 8-week group program teaching mindfulness meditation and mindful yoga exercises. MBSR aims to help participants develop nonjudgmental awareness of moment-to-moment experience. Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome with chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia as major symptoms. Efficacy of MBSR for enhanced well-being of fibromyalgia patients was investigated in a 3-armed trial, which was a follow-up to an earlier quasi-randomized investigation. A total of 177 female patients were randomized to one of the following: (1) MBSR, (2) an active control procedure controlling for nonspecific effects of MBSR, or (3) a wait list. The major outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 2 months post-treatment. Secondary outcomes were disorder-specific quality of life, depression, pain, anxiety, somatic complaints, and a proposed index of mindfulness. Of the patients, 82% completed the study. There were no significant differences between groups on primary outcome, but patients overall improved in HRQoL at short-term follow-up (P=0.004). Post hoc analyses showed that only MBSR manifested a significant pre-to-post-intervention improvement in HRQoL (P=0.02). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of secondary measures indicated modest benefits for MBSR patients. MBSR yielded significant pre-to-post-intervention improvements in 6 of 8 secondary outcome variables, the active control in 3, and the wait list in 2. In conclusion, primary outcome analyses did not support the efficacy of MBSR in fibromyalgia, although patients in the MBSR arm appeared to benefit most. Effect sizes were small compared to the earlier, quasi-randomized investigation. Several methodological aspects are discussed, e.g., patient burden, treatment preference and motivation, that may provide explanations for differences. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial in female patients suffering from fibromyalgia, patients benefited modestly from a mindfulness

  2. Embed System for Robotic Arm with 3 Degree of Freedom Controller Using Computational Vision on Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cortinhas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Paper deals with robotic arm embed controller system, with distributed system based on protocol communication between one server supportin g multiple points and mobile applications trough sockets .The proposed system utilizes hand with glove gesture in three-dimensional recognition using fuzzy implementation to set x,y,z coordinates. This approach present all implementation over: two raspberry PI arm based com puter running client program, x64 PC running server program, and one robot arm controlle d by ATmega328p based board.

  3. Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky: Scientist and Arms-Control Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Vera G.

    2013-10-01

    Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky is remembered as the legendary founder and first director of SLAC, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He devoted his life to teaching and research in accelerator and particle physics, to science policy, to his work as a science advisor to both the US and foreign governments, and to world peace as an expert on arms control and international security. He was admired by all who had a chance to meet and interact with him, and who simply called him Pief.

  4. Design of microphone control system based on ARM11%基于ARM11的麦克风控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣少巍

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种基于ARM11的麦克风控制系统的硬件、操作系统驱动部分的设计与实现.采用继电器对外部进行控制,并使用片上AD采集语音信号.系统的处理器运用了高性能低功耗S3C6410A ARM11芯片作为主处理器,操作系统采用Linux系统,使板上FLASH进行数据存储,外部采用有触摸屏进行输入,软件系统采用Nokia公司推出的Qt4.7作为开发平台进行开发,拥有良好的可视化界面.最后进行系统调试,拥有较好的性能.%This paper introduces to the software and hardware design of a microphone control system based on ARM11, include operating system part of the design and implementation. A relay for external control, acquisition voice signals use on-chip AD. The system uses a S3C6410A /ARM11 of high-performance and low power consumption processor as main processor. The operating system use Linux. The system use board on FLASH to data storage, External input use of a touch screen for input. The software use Nokia's Qt4. 7 as software develop platform. This platform has a good visual interface. Finally,system debug and it has better performance.

  5. Mechanical Design, Control Choices and first Return of Use of a Prosthetic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Thomann, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    In the world of upper limb prostheses, few companies dominate the majority of the market. They propose different kinds of hand, wrist and elbow prostheses but their control is often difficult to understand by the patients. We have decided to develop new myoelectric prosthetic arm (elbow, wrist and hand) by axing our development on the use of new technologies and facility of use for the patient. In this paper, we are explaining in details the different kinds of prostheses currently proposed to the amputees, their advantages and their drawbacks, the descriptions of the patients' needs and the possible improvements of the product. We will develop the designing choices of our prosthesis and the movements it can realize. Then we will explain the simplified control of the product by the patient and its first reactions. Finally, we will conclude by the news ideas and the next researches to concretize.

  6. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    demonstrated their ability to change conformation under different conditions. These conformational changes are connected to various intramolecular interactions and can to some extent, be controlled by pH (Chapter 3). Fusing these conformationally labile compounds to the rim of a cyclodextrin would create...... and can to some extent, be controlled by pH (Chapter 3). Fusing these conformationally labile compounds to the rim of a cyclodextrin would create compounds that could release molecules at a specified change in pH conditions. To investigate this, four hexahydropyridazines were synthesized and investigated......The overall objective of the research presented in this PhD thesis was to investigate torsional arming of thiogalacto- and thiomannosyl donors (part 1) and to investigate the possible synthesis and attachment of a pH regulated conformational switch to an α-cyclodextrin (part 2). Part 1: It is well...

  7. Societal Verification: Intellectual Game or International Game-Changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the nuclear nonproliferation and arms control field, there is an increasing appreciation for the potential of open source information technologies to supplement existing verification and compliance regimes. While clearly not a substitute for on-site inspections or national technical means, it may be possible to better leverage information gleaned from commercial satellite imagery, international trade records and the vast amount of data being exchanged online and between publics (including social media) so as to develop a more comprehensive set of tools and practices for monitoring and verifying a state’s nuclear activities and helping judge compliance with international obligations. The next generation “toolkit” for monitoring and verifying items, facility operations and activities will likely include a more diverse set of analytical tools and technologies than are currently used internationally. To explore these and other issues, the Nuclear Threat Initiative has launched an effort that examines, in part, the role that emerging technologies and “citizen scientists” might play in future verification regimes. This paper will include an assessment of past proliferation and security “events” and whether emerging tools and technologies would have provided indicators concurrently or in advance of these actions. Such case studies will be instrumental in understanding the reliability of these technologies and practices and in thinking through the requirements of a 21st century verification regime. Keywords: Verification, social media, open-source information, arms control, disarmament.

  8. Progress to a nuclear-weapon-free world through tactical nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when, after some years of passivity, nuclear disarmament is becoming more of an urgent item on the international agenda and receiving accordingly more attention on the part of politicians and non-governmental experts. This is partly reflected in the Report of the Canberra Commission, and the statement on nuclear weapons by international generals and admirals. At the same time some developments such as uncertainties with START II ratification and the process of NATO enlargement make the task of nuclear arms control even more demanding. What is needed now is to pursue at last without any further delay negotiations on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to nuclear disarmament. And these effective measures must include both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Only a sustained commitment at the highest political level will legitimate serious discussions of the elimination option and ensure that resources and personnel are devoted to finding solutions to the problems associated with moving to zero, and to crafting appropriate transition strategies. In the absence of such a commitment, the nations of the world may never reach the point at which the desirability and feasibility of a nuclear-free world can be evaluated with greater certainty. This Pugwash Conference is trying to make a modest contribution in helping to make possible such a vitally important commitment

  9. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  10. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes

  11. Critical element study on autonomous position control of articulated-arm type manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An articulated-arm type manipulator can be operated effectively in a restricted space due to its flexibility and it can be attractive for a wide range of in-vessel maintenance such as viewing, inspection and limiter handling in fusion experimental reactors. In case of the in-vessel maintenance using a flexible manipulator, it is quite essential to develop an autonomous control method for compensating a deflection of manipulator so as to minimize the maintenance time with high precision. For this purpose, a new position control method using a combination of neural network predictor with a rigid inverse kinematics is being developed. The key features of this method are to simplify a kinematics modeling of flexible manipulator, to enable quick position compensation in stead of ordinary large matrix compensation, and to be applicable to a wide variety of manipulator characteristics. A sub-scaled model of flexible manipulator with 4 joints has been fabricated for a benchmark experiments of the autonomous position control. Comparing analytical simulation with experiments using the flexible manipulator, it has been demonstrated that the new position control method gives significant improvement in control performance with high precision in order of a figure. In addition, further optimization can be possible by adding other non-linear predictors such as radial basis function and fuzzy modeling. This paper describes the details of a sub-scaled flexible manipulator and a neural network position control system as well as results of analytical simulation and benchmark experiments. (author)

  12. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; Noriega-Hernández, M.; Salazar-Hueta, A.

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes.

  13. Verification of BGA type FPGA logic applied to a control equipment with Safety Class using the special socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, YounHu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. This device converts to the different module from the input signals for both digital and analogue of the equipment in the field and outputs their data. In addition, it should perform the logical controls such as backplane communication control and data communication. We suggest acquiring method of the data signal with efficient logic using the socket in this article. Proposed test socket is made by simpler process than former one, and the process is done in batches by which cost can be reduces, and the test socket can be quickly produced in response to any request. Also, it is possible to reduce the wear by reducing the contact force of the ball phenomenon. The structure on the basis of silicon can be reduced the modification, and it has excellent linearity. At the logic verification, the operation that state data block is designed in the FPGA could be easily confirmed by using a socket.

  14. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Control of Speed and Power in a Humanoid Robot Arm Using Pneumatic Actuators for Human-Robot Coexisting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Kiyoshi

    A new type of humanoid robot arm which can coexist and be interactive with human beings are looked for. For the purpose of implementation of human smooth and fast movement to a pneumatic robot, the author used a humanoid robot arm with pneumatic agonist-antagonist actuators as endoskeletons which has control mechanism in the stiffness of each joint, and the controllability was experimentally discussed. Using Kitamori's method to experimentally decide the control gains and using I-PD controller, three joints of the humanoid robot arm were experimentally controlled. The damping control algorithm was also adopted to the wrist joint, to modify the speed in accordance with the power. The results showed that the controllability to step-wise input was less than one degree in error to follow the target angles, and the time constant was less than one second. The simultaneous input of command to three joints was brought about the overshoot of about ten percent increase in error. The humanoid robot arm can generate the calligraphic motions, moving quickly at some times but slowly at other times, or particularly softly on some occasions but stiffly on other occasions at high accuracy.

  16. Towards Brain-Computer Interface Control of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Robotic Arm Using Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Astaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of a robotic arm that can be operated using an exoskeletal position sensing harness as well as a dry electrode brain-computer interface headset. Design priorities comprise an intuitive and immersive user interface, fast and smooth movement, portability, and cost minimization. Materials and Methods. A robotic arm prototype capable of moving along 6 degrees of freedom has been developed, along with an exoskeletal position sensing harness which was used to control it. Commercially available dry electrode BCI headsets were evaluated. A particular headset model has been selected and is currently being integrated into the hybrid system. Results and Discussion. The combined arm-harness system has been successfully tested and met its design targets for speed, smooth movement, and immersive control. Initial tests verify that an operator using the system can perform pick and place tasks following a rather short learning curve. Further evaluation experiments are planned for the integrated BCI-harness hybrid setup. Conclusions. It is possible to design a portable robotic arm interface comparable in size, dexterity, speed, and fluidity to the human arm at relatively low cost. The combined system achieved its design goals for intuitive and immersive robotic control and is currently being further developed into a hybrid BCI system for comparative experiments.

  17. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  18. A comparative study of the active force control schemes applied to robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a comparative study of three different types of active force control (AFC) schemes applied to a robotic arm is described. The study particularly focuses on the techniques to compute the estimated inertia matrix (ΙΝ) of a robotic manipulator necessary for the execution of the AFC strategy since the computation of (ΙΝ) is the common central theme to all AFC-based schemes. The first of the three AFC schemes is based on the conventional method of obtaining (ΙΝ), the second uses artificial neural network while the third incorporates an iterative learning algorithm. The study also discusses the characteristics of the (ΙΝ) curves obtained, the trajectory track performance of the schemes and the effects of the modelled disturbances. The robustness of all the AFC schemes are also ascertained in the study. (Author)

  19. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C. [eds.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  20. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  1. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winstein Carolee J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP, compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC. Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only usual and customary (UCC therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary

  2. Driving and controlling circuit for full-color OLED based on ARM7%ARM7全彩OLED驱动控制电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 蒋泉

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一款全彩无源OLED模块的驱动接口电路及驱动程序的设计.系统采用ARM7系列的LPC2138为控制核心,分别设计了电源电路、下载电路、复位电路和接口电路,并向全彩无源OLED模块提供数据信号和控制信号,从而实现了分辨力为128×128,65×103色的动态全彩图片显示.设计了基于ARM7内核的OLED驱动电路实验系统,可显示红、绿、蓝单色以及全彩图片,为中小尺寸OLED提供了一种低成本、低功耗的单芯片解决方案.%The paper introduces the design of driving circuit, reset circuit, download circuit, interface circuit and driving programs of the full-color passive OLED(organic light emitting device) module in the display system. The system adopts the LPC2138, family of ARM7-core, to control the OLED module. The data and control signals are provided by LPC2138 in order to realize a resolution of 128X 128, 65X 103 dynamic full-color display. Experiment results show that the system can display red, green, blue and full-color pictures, provide a low-cost, low-power and single-chip solution for small sized OLEDs.

  3. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PNNL

    2016-02-21

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  4. Design and verification of Guidance, Navigation and Control systems for space applications

    OpenAIRE

    Stesina, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, systems have strongly increased their complexity in terms of number of functions that can be performed and quantity of relationships between functions and hardware as well as interactions of elements and disciplines concurring to the definition of the system. The growing complexity remarks the importance of defining methods and tools that improve the design, verification and validation of the system process: effectiveness and costs reduction without loss of confidence in ...

  5. Verification and validation of software related to nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has always been significant concern with introduction of software in industry and the nuclear industry is no different from any other sector save its safety demands are some of the most onerous. The problems associated with software have led to the well documented difficulties in the introduction of computer based systems. An important area of concern with software in systems is the processes of Verification and Validation. One of the many activities the IAEA is currently engaged in is the preparation of a document on the process of verification and validation of software. The document follows the safety classification of IEC 1226 but includes software important to plant operation to establish three levels of assurance. The software that might be deployed on a plant was then identified as one of four types: new software, existing software for which full access to the code and documentation is possible, existing software of a proprietary nature and finally configurable software. The document attempts to identify the appropriate methods and tools for conducting the verification and validation processes. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  6. Adaptive neural network control for coordinated motion of a dual-arm space robot system with uncertain parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi-shen; CHEN Li

    2008-01-01

    Control of coordinated motion between the base attitude and the arm joints of a free-floating dual-arm space robot with uncertain parameters is discussed.By combining the relation of system linear momentum conversation with the Lagrangian approach,the dynamic equation of a robot is established.Based on the above results,the free-floating dual-arm space robot system is modeled with RBF neural networks,the GL matrix and its product operator.With all uncertain inertial system parameters,an adaptive RBF neural network control scheme is developed for coordinated motion between the base attitude and the arm joints.The proposed scheme does not need linear parameterization of the dynamic equation of the system and any accurate prior-knowledge of the actual inertial parameters.Also it does not need to train the neural network offline so that it would present real-time and online applications.A planar free-floating dual-arm space robot is simulated to show feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  7. DIMENSIONAL VERIFICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF IMPLANTS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Toth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of computer technology and alternative manufacturing methods in form of additive manufacturing leads to the manufacture of products with complex shapes. In the field of medicine they include, inter alia, custom-made implants manufactured for a particular patient, such as cranial implants, maxillofacial implants, etc. With regard to the fact that such implants are inserted into a patient’s body, it is necessary to perform the verification, including the shape and dimensional verification. The article deals with the application of the industrial computer tomography within the process of inspection and verification of selected custom-made implant types.Methodology/Approach: The Department of Biomedical Engineering and Measurement performs the verification of medicinal products manufactured by the additive manufacturing technologies from the Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5 titanium alloy, using the coordinate measuring machine Carl Zeiss Contura G2 and the industrial computed tomography machine Carl Zeiss Metrotom 1500. These equipment fulfil the requirements for the identification and evaluation of dimensions of both, the external and the internal structures. Findings: The article presents the possibilities of the computed tomography utilisation in the inspection of individual implant manufacture using the additive manufacturing technologies. The results indicate that with the adjustment of appropriate input parameters (alignment, this technology is appropriate for the analysis of shape deviations, when compared with the CAD model.Research Limitation/implication: With the increasing distance of measured object from X-ray source, the machine’s resolution function decreases. Decreasing of resolution has a minor impact on the measured dimensions (relatively high tolerances, but has a significant impact on the evaluation of porosity and inclusions. Originality/Value of paper: Currently, the verification of a manufactured implant  can be

  8. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversity verification in Danish greening subsidy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferré, Ty Paul Andrew; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-07-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers' declarations to warrant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers' subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014-2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach (proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation of the crop diversification rules at farm level; and (4) identification of farmers who are violating the requirements for greening subsidies. The prediction probabilities are computed by a neural network ensemble supplied with training samples selected automatically using farmers declared parcels (field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty or confidence intervals with the class labels at the farmer level. The proposed approach was tested with WV2 imagery acquired in 2011 for a study area in Vennebjerg

  9. Upper-limb motor control in patients after stroke: Attentional demands and the potential beneficial effects of arm support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Steenbergen, B.; Prange, G.B.; Buurke, J.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the attentional load of using the upper limb in moderately and mildly affected patients after stroke, with and without arm support. Ten patients with stroke (4 mild and 6 moderate paresis) and ten healthy, gender- and age-matched control subjects performed a

  10. Upper-limb motor control in patients after stroke: Attentional demands and the potential beneficial effects of arm support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Steenbergen, B.; Prange, G.B.; Buurke, J.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the attentional load of using the upper limb in moderately and mildly affected patients after stroke, with and without arm support. Ten patients with stroke (4 mild and 6 moderate paresis) and ten healthy, gender- and age-matched control subjects performed a

  11. Motor imagery, P300 and error-related EEG-based robot arm movement control for rehabilitation purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Konar, Amit; Tibarewala, D N

    2014-12-01

    The paper proposes a novel approach toward EEG-driven position control of a robot arm by utilizing motor imagery, P300 and error-related potentials (ErRP) to align the robot arm with desired target position. In the proposed scheme, the users generate motor imagery signals to control the motion of the robot arm. The P300 waveforms are detected when the user intends to stop the motion of the robot on reaching the goal position. The error potentials are employed as feedback response by the user. On detection of error the control system performs the necessary corrections on the robot arm. Here, an AdaBoost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to decode the 4-class motor imagery and an SVM is used to decode the presence of P300 and ErRP waveforms. The average steady-state error, peak overshoot and settling time obtained for our proposed approach is 0.045, 2.8% and 44 s, respectively, and the average rate of reaching the target is 95%. The results obtained for the proposed control scheme make it suitable for designs of prosthetics in rehabilitative applications.

  12. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Laurids Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  13. Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Mediated by Iterative Learning Control and Robotics to Improve Arm Movement for People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Patrica; Freeman, Chris; Coote, Susan; Demain, Sara; Feys, Peter; Meadmore, Katie; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Few interventions address multiple sclerosis (MS) arm dysfunction but robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) appear promising. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining FES with passive robotic support during virtual reality (VR) training tasks to improve upper limb function in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The system assists patients in following a specified trajectory path, employing an advanced model-based paradigm termed iterative learning control (ILC) to adjust the FES to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Reaching tasks were repeated six times with ILC learning the optimum control action from previous attempts. A convenience sample of five pwMS was recruited from local MS societies, and the intervention comprised 18 one-hour training sessions over 10 weeks. The accuracy of tracking performance without FES and the amount of FES delivered during training were analyzed using regression analysis. Clinical functioning of the arm was documented before and after treatment with standard tests. Statistically significant results following training included: improved accuracy of tracking performance both when assisted and unassisted by FES; reduction in maximum amount of FES needed to assist tracking; and less impairment in the proximal arm that was trained. The system was well tolerated by all participants with no increase in muscle fatigue reported. This study confirms the feasibility of FES combined with passive robot assistance as a potentially effective intervention to improve arm movement and control in pwMS and provides the basis for a follow-up study.

  14. Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Mediated by Iterative Learning Control and Robotics to Improve Arm Movement for People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Patrica; Freeman, Chris; Coote, Susan; Demain, Sara; Feys, Peter; Meadmore, Katie; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Few interventions address multiple sclerosis (MS) arm dysfunction but robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) appear promising. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining FES with passive robotic support during virtual reality (VR) training tasks to improve upper limb function in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The system assists patients in following a specified trajectory path, employing an advanced model-based paradigm termed iterative learning control (ILC) to adjust the FES to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Reaching tasks were repeated six times with ILC learning the optimum control action from previous attempts. A convenience sample of five pwMS was recruited from local MS societies, and the intervention comprised 18 one-hour training sessions over 10 weeks. The accuracy of tracking performance without FES and the amount of FES delivered during training were analyzed using regression analysis. Clinical functioning of the arm was documented before and after treatment with standard tests. Statistically significant results following training included: improved accuracy of tracking performance both when assisted and unassisted by FES; reduction in maximum amount of FES needed to assist tracking; and less impairment in the proximal arm that was trained. The system was well tolerated by all participants with no increase in muscle fatigue reported. This study confirms the feasibility of FES combined with passive robot assistance as a potentially effective intervention to improve arm movement and control in pwMS and provides the basis for a follow-up study. PMID:25823038

  15. Performance Study of PID and Fuzzy Controllers for Position Control of 6 DOF arm Manipulator with Various Defuzzification Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharidege Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s arm manipulators are more and more demanding in terms of productivity. Conventional controllers are not always able to provide good and accurate results. To complete a position movement of the manipulator’s end-effector, a set of joint angles of manipulator first required to be converted to the position coordinates by using the forward kinematics method, and each joint rotation is executed using a servomotor feedback control. The kinematic model has been validated using MATLAB® robotics toolbox. An end-effector based 6 degree of freedom (6-DOF platform is proposed in this work which uses DC servomotor for actuation of the three revolute joints. PID controller is used as a reference benchmark. And FLC controller with different defuzzification strategies was employed. Results were compared in terms of time response criteria. Simulation results using MATLAB are demonstrated that PID has superior performance in terms of transient parameters. In Steady state response, both PID and FLC manage to converge to the desired output but in terms of overshot FLC is outperformed.

  16. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the “UCM reference feedback control.” To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque

  17. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change

  18. Visual feedback facilitates intermanual transfer of the motor control of the dominant arm towards the nondominant arm

    OpenAIRE

    Urra Vicario, Oiane; Casals Gelpi, Alicia; Jané Campos, Raimon

    2015-01-01

    Visual feedback (VF) is applied to recover motor skills after stroke. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of VF remain unclear, limiting its optimal use in clinical practice. We previously reported that the effect of neural mechanisms triggered by VF is reflected in the upperlimb at the level of the control structure (the set of synergies/corresponding activation coefficients used to perform a task). Here, we hypothesize that VF may facilitate the transfer of...

  19. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  20. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Carlos M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF, both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB® environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP. The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Results Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. Conclusion The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present.

  1. Design of Air Conditioner Central Control System Based on ARM-Linux-Qt%基于ARM-Linux-Qt的空调集中控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨都; 赖东锋; 肖焕明; 叶铁英

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a central control system based on embedded technology, communication technology and HMI (Human and Machine Interactive) technology designed is introduced. The system selects TI AM335x hardware plat-form which based on ARM Cortex A8 processor, and Linux operation system as the software platform. The HMI in-terface is designed using Qt technology, and the communication is designed using CAN bus technology. The functions of the system include Multi-VRF centralized control, real time inspect, and schedule management. In addition, a high definition LCD and capacitive touch screen is provided to make system interactive conveniently and efficiently.%基于嵌入式技术、通信技术和人机交互技术设计了空调集中控制系统。该系统基于ARM Cortex A8的高速处理器TI AM335X硬件平台,采用嵌入式Linux操作系统,利用Qt设计了人机交互界面,通过CAN总线通讯技术,实现了多联机空调集中控制、实时监控、日程管理等功能。该系统采用7寸高分辨率彩色液晶屏和电容式触摸,较好的解决了以往空调集中控制器人机交互便捷性差、效率低下的问题。

  2. Command and Control in a Nuclear-Armed Iran - Proliferation Papers No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the long standoff regarding its nuclear ambition, Iran has cultivated ambiguity and been loath to reliably assure the international community of its ultimate intentions, complicating Western efforts to understand, let alone constrain, Tehran's endeavors. While many analyses have focused on how to prevent or contain a potential nuclear-armed Iran, the posture Iran would adopt once it has developed its nuclear weapons remains elusive. This paper highlights that while opting for command-and-control (C2) arrangements, Iran would have to reconcile two contrasting imperatives: first, to disperse assets and decentralize C2 to minimize the risks and potential damages of a disabling strike, which has been seen as a real - even imminent - threat in recent years. A contrasting concern emerged as the Iranian Revolutionary Guards' Corps became a key formulator and executor of Tehran's security policy: how to guard against the risk of unauthorized use of major weapons systems? Among the factors that could influence Iran's choices in terms of C2 arrangements, this paper focuses on Tehran's national security experience, the lessons it may have derived from it, as well as from the experience of other countries. (author)

  3. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  4. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  5. Active Force with Fuzzy Logic Control of a Two-Link Arm Driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Jahanabadi; M. Mailah; M. Z. Md Zain; H. M. Hooi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the practicality and feasibility of Active Force Control (AFC) integrated with Fuzzy Logic(AFCAFL) appliedto a two link planar arm actuated by a pair of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) is investigated.The study emphasizes on the application and control of PAM actuators which may be considered as the new generation of actuators comprising fluidic muscle that has high-tension force,high power to weight ratio and high strength in spite of its drawbacks in the form of high nonlinearity behaviour,high hysteresis and time varying parameters.Fuzzy Logic (FL) is used as a technique to estimate the best value of the inertia matrix of robot arm essential for the AFC mechanism that is complemented with a conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control at the outermost loop.A simulation study was first performed followed by an experimental investigation for validation.The experimental study was based on the independent joint tracking control and coordinated motion control of the arm in Cartesian or task space.In the former,the PAM actuated arm is commanded to track the prescribed trajectories due to harmonic excitations at the joints for a given frequency,whereas for the latter,two sets of trajectories with different loadings were considered.A practical rig utilizing a Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation (H1LS) configuration was developed and a number of experiments were carried out.The results of the experiment and the simulation works were in good agreement,which verified the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed AFCAFL scheme actuated by PAM.

  6. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  7. The Global Diffusion of Societal Verification Tools: A Quantitative Assessment of the Public’s Ability to Engage Nonproliferation Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2015-07-11

    The spread of nuclear and dual-use technologies and the need for more robust, effective and efficient nonproliferation and arms control treaties has led to an increasing need for innovative verification approaches and technologies. This need, paired with advancements in online computing, mobile devices, commercially available satellite imagery and the evolution of online social networks, has led to a resurgence of the concept of societal verification for arms control and nonproliferation treaties. In the event a country accepts its citizens’ assistance in supporting transparency, confidence-building and societal verification, the host government will need a population that is willing and able to participate. While scholarly interest in societal verification continues to grow, social scientific research on the topic is lacking. The aim of this paper is to begin the process of understanding public societal verification capabilities, extend the availability of quantitative research on societal verification and set in motion complementary research to increase the breadth and depth of knowledge on this topic. This paper presents a potential framework and outlines a research roadmap for the development of such a societal verification capability index.

  8. The development of fabrication techniques for europia/iron cermets tips for coarse control arms in Dido and Pluto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of cermet-fabrication techniques to the production of europia/iron cermets for use as coarse-control arm tips in the materials test reactors DIDO and PLUTO has been investigated. Spheroids of europia were prepared by a dry agglomeration process. These were sintered, dispersed in iron powder and pressed into plates; the plates were then sintered to densify the iron matrix. These stages were optimised to produce a strong cermet with a europia density of 2.75 g/cm3. The uniformity of distribution of the absorber particles was confirmed by radiography, and adequate neutron-absorption worth by measurements carried out in the GLEEP reactor. An outline flow sheet has been prepared for the manufacture of europia/iron cermet plates suitable for use in the tips of DIDO and PLUTO coarse-control arms. (U.K.)

  9. An open-source and cross-platform framework for Brain Computer Interface-guided robotic arm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubben, Pieter L; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have focused on several areas, of which motor substitution has received particular interest. Whereas open-source BCI software is available to facilitate cost-effective collaboration between research groups, it mainly focuses on communication and computer control. We developed an open-source and cross-platform framework, which works with cost-effective equipment that allows researchers to enter the field of BCI-based motor substitution without major investments upfront. It is based on the C++ programming language and the Qt framework, and offers a separate class for custom MATLAB/Simulink scripts. It has been tested using a 14-channel wireless electroencephalography (EEG) device and a low-cost robotic arm that offers 5° of freedom. The software contains four modules to control the robotic arm, one of which receives input from the EEG device. Strengths, current limitations, and future developments will be discussed. PMID:23372966

  10. Sequential control signals determine arm and trunk contributions to hand transport during reaching in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elena; Mitnitski, Arnold; Feldman, Anatol G

    2002-01-15

    When reaching towards objects placed outside the arm workspace, the trunk assumes an active role in transport of the hand by contributing to the extent of movement while simultaneously maintaining the direction of reach. We investigated the spatial-temporal aspects of the integration of the trunk motion into reaching. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency ('gain') of the arm-trunk co-ordination determining the contribution of the trunk to the extent of hand movement may vary substantially with the phase of reaching. Sitting subjects made fast pointing movements towards ipsi- and a contralateral targets placed beyond the reach of the right arm so that a forward trunk motion was required to assist in transporting the hand to the target. Sight of the arm and target was blocked before the movement onset. In randomly selected trials, the trunk motion was unexpectedly prevented by an electromagnet. Subjects were instructed to make stereotypical movements whether or not the trunk was arrested. In non-perturbed trials, most subjects began to move the hand and trunk simultaneously. In trunk-blocked trials, it was impossible for the hand to cover the whole pointing distance but the hand trajectory and velocity profile initially matched those from the trials in which the trunk motion was free, approximately until the hand reached its peak velocity. The arm inter-joint co-ordination substantially changed in response to the trunk arrest at a minimal latency of 40 ms after the perturbation onset. The results suggest that when the trunk was free, the influence of the trunk motion on the hand trajectory and velocity profile was initially neutralized by appropriate changes in the arm joint angles. Only after the hand had reached its peak velocity did the trunk contribute to the extent of pointing. Previous studies suggested that the central commands underlying the transport component of arm movements are completed when the hand reaches peak velocity. These

  11. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quanti...

  12. The Design of a Small UAV's Flight Controller Based on ARM11+CPLD%基于ARM11+CPLD的小型无人机飞行控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑积仕; 蒋新华; 陈兴武

    2012-01-01

    本文针对小型无人机控制精度低、实时性不足的问题,设计了基于ARM11+ CPLD的飞行控制器.阐述该飞行控制器的硬件总体架构,各传感器与ARM11接口设计,CPLD并行多路PWM输入、输出设计;阐述硬件的驱动,导航控制、姿态控制的算法设计与实现.该飞行控制器的飞行测试结果理想.%The design of the flight controller based on ARM11+CPLD is presented in this paper aiming to solve the low accuracy and the inadequacy of real time in the control of UAV (Unamed Aircraft Veheicle). The overall frame of the flight controller hardware, the design of the interface between ARM11 and several sensors and the design of multi parallel PWM controls in CPLD are all presented. Furthermore, this paper also elaborates the hardware drive and the algorithm design and fulfillment of the navigation control and the attitude control. The flight test shows the flight controller works well.

  13. Synergic Effect of Compression Therapy and Controlled Active Exercises Using a Facilitating Device in the Treatment of Arm Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria Regina Pereira, Antonio Helio Oliani, Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trial design: A randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effect of the combination of compression therapy with active exercising using a facilitating apparatus on arm lymphedema. Method: Twenty women with a mean age of 63.3 years were evaluated; all had lymphedema resulting from breast cancer treatment. The inclusion criterion was a difference of 200 mL in size between arms. The apparatus used, called 'pulley system', is a vertical iron wheel fixed on a support at a distance of 10 cm from the patient's body. Participants were submitted to two series of active exercises using this facilitating device, one series using a compression sleeve and the other without. Each series consisted of four 12-minute sessions of exercises separated by 3-minute rest intervals. Volumetry was performed before and after each series of exercises. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis (p-value < 0.05. Results: A significant mean reduction (p-value < 0.007 and non-significant mean increase (p-value < 0.2 in volumes were observed during exercising with and without compression, respectively. Conclusion: Controlled active exercising utilizing a facilitating apparatus while wearing a compression sleeve reduces the size of lymphedematous arms.

  14. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  15. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  16. The Situation of International Arms Control and Non-proliferation in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou; Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The international non-proliferation efforts have achieved some positive results. The Iran nuclear issue has taken the first step towards solution; the abolition of Syrian chemical weapon is going ahead according the plan and the UN has adopted the Arms Trade Treaty. However, the DPRK nuclear issue has made no progress yet.

  17. Development of proximal arm muscle control during reaching in young infants : From variation to selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Hanneke; de Graaf-Peters, Victorine B.; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Reaching movements are initiated by activity of the prime mover, i.e. the first activated arm muscle. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prime mover activity and kinematics of reaching in typically developing (TD) infants in supine and sitting position. Fourteen infants were assessed a

  18. Postdeployment Battlemind Training for the U.K. Armed Forces: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Fear, Nicola T.; Jones, Norman; Alvarez, Helen; Hull, Lisa; Naumann, Ulrike; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Combat exposure can increase the risk of subsequent psychological ill-health in armed forces (AF) personnel. A U.S. postdeployment psycho-educational intervention, Battlemind, showed a beneficial effect on mental health in U.S. military personnel exposed to high combat levels. We evaluated the effectiveness of an anglicized version of…

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... members present, final action will be taken only on the business for which the meeting was called. c. A... addressing installation or command concerns or issues. (1) Federal, State, and local judicial, legislative... detrimental to the good order and discipline, health, morale, welfare, safety, and morals of Armed...

  20. Experimental verification of the flow characteristics of an active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chun-Peng; Wang, Dai-Hua

    2014-03-01

    The principle and structural configuration of an active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary is presented in this paper. The active controlled flowrate model of the active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary is established. The prototypes of the active controlled microfluidic valves with annular boundaries with three different combinations of the inner and outer radii are fabricated and tested on the established experimental setup. The experimental results show that: (1) The active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary possesses the on/off switching and the continuous control capability of the fluid with simple structure and easy fabrication processing; (2) When the inner and outer diameters of the annular boundary are 1.5 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively, the maximum flowrate of the valve is 0.14 ml/s when the differential pressure of the inlet and outlet of the valve is 1000 Pa and the voltage applied to circular piezoelectric unimorph actuator is 100 V; (3) The established active controlled flowrate model can accurately predict the controlled flowrate of the active controlled microfluidic valves with the maximum relative error of 6.7%. The results presented in this paper lay the foundation for designing and developing the active controlled microfluidic valves with annular boundary driven by circular piezoelectric unimorph actuators.

  1. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungshin Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL, amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments.

  2. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungshin; Yun, Sung Wook; Rhim, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG) that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments. PMID:27104539

  3. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungshin; Yun, Sung Wook; Rhim, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG) that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments. PMID:27104539

  4. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungshin; Yun, Sung Wook; Rhim, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG) that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments.

  5. Energy shaping non-linear acceleration control for a pendulum-type mobility and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kazuto; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-02-01

    A dynamics-based non-linear controller with energy shaping to accelerate a pendulum-type mobility is proposed. The concept of this study is to control translational acceleration of the vehicle in a dynamically reasonable manner. The body angle is controlled to maintain a reference state where the vehicle is statically unstable but dynamically stable, which leads to a constant translational acceleration due to instability of the system. The accelerating motion is like a sprinter moving from crouch start and it fully exploits dynamics of the vehicle. To achieve it, the total energy of the system is shaped to have the minimum at a given reference state and the system is controlled to converge to it. The controller can achieve various properties through the energy shaping procedure. Especially, an energy function that will lead to safe operation of the vehicle is proposed. The effectiveness of the controller is verified in simulations and experiments.

  6. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Jungshin Lee; Sung Wook Yun; Jaewook Rhim

    2016-01-01

    A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG) that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. T...

  7. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  8. Viscoelastic model for redundancy resolution of the human arm via the swivel angle: applications for upper limb exoskeleton control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Li, Zhi; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    One of the key research efforts associated with a redundant seven degree of freedom (7-DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot that is mechanically coupled to the human body is to develop high and low level control algorithms that enable the system to become a natural extension of the human body. Improving the synergistic relationship between the exoskeleton and the operator is manifested in part by decreasing the force exchange between the two entities. Such a reduction is accomplished in part by developing criteria for resolving the human arm redundancy. The redundancy may be represented by a swivel angle which is defined as the angular rotation of the elbow around an axis that passes through the shoulder and wrist joints. The proposed criteria for defining the swivel angle takes into account the dynamics of the human arm along with a viscoelastic muscle-like model with variable damping. The swivel angle is estimated using the pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian with a secondary objective function that estimates the desired joint angles during human arm movement. The result is then fed to the muscle model to create a more realistic human motion. The estimated swivel angle is then compared with the actual swivel angle measured experimentally by a motion capture system. Results indicate that the average error between the estimated and measured swivel joint angle is 4.4 degrees (in the range [3.7-6] degrees), which are lower than the kinematically based redundant resolution criterion. PMID:23367411

  9. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  10. Handling performance control for hybrid 8-wheel-drive vehicle and simulation verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve handling performance of a hybrid 8-Wheel-Drive vehicle, the handling performance control strategy was proposed. For armoured vehicle, besides handling stability in high speed, the minimum steer radius in low speed is also a key tactical and technical index. Based on that, the proposed handling performance control strategy includes 'Handling Stability' and 'Radius Minimization' control modes. In 'Handling Stability' control mode, 'Neutralsteer Radio' is defined to adjust the steering characteristics to satisfy different demand in different speed range. In 'Radius Minimization' control mode, the independent motors are controlled to provide an additional yaw moment to decrease the minimum steer radius. In order to verify the strategy, a simulation platform was built including engine and continuously variable transmission systems, generator and battery systems, independent motors and controllers systems, vehicle dynamic and tyre mechanical systems. The simulation results show that the handling performance of the vehicle can be enhanced significantly, and the minimum steer radius can be decreased by 20% which is significant improvement compared to the common level of main battle armoured vehicle around the world.

  11. Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymer W Zev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Providing active assistance to complete desired arm movements is a common technique in upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. Such active assistance may improve recovery by affecting somatosensory input, motor planning, spasticity or soft tissue properties, but it is labor intensive and has not been validated in controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of robotically administered active-assistive exercise and compare those with free reaching voluntary exercise in improving arm movement ability after chronic stroke. Methods Nineteen individuals at least one year post-stroke were randomized into one of two groups. One group performed 24 sessions of active-assistive reaching exercise with a simple robotic device, while a second group performed a task-matched amount of unassisted reaching. The main outcome measures were range and speed of supported arm movement, range, straightness and smoothness of unsupported reaching, and the Rancho Los Amigos Functional Test of Upper Extremity Function. Results and discussion There were significant improvements with training for range of motion and velocity of supported reaching, straightness of unsupported reaching, and functional movement ability. These improvements were not significantly different between the two training groups. The group that performed unassisted reaching exercise improved the smoothness of their reaching movements more than the robot-assisted group. Conclusion Improvements with both forms of exercise confirmed that repeated, task-related voluntary activation of the damaged motor system is a key stimulus to motor recovery following chronic stroke. Robotically assisting in reaching successfully improved arm movement ability, although it did not provide any detectable, additional value beyond the movement practice that occurred concurrently with it. The inability to detect any additional value of robot-assisted reaching

  12. Experimental verification of chaotic control of an underactuated tethered satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhaojun; Jin, Dongping

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies chaotic control of a tethered satellite system (TSS) driven only by a momentum-exchange device during its attitude adjustment. In dealing with such the underactuated system, an extended time-delay autosynchronization (ETDAS) is employed to stabilize the chaotic motion to a periodic motion. To obtain the control domains of the ETDAS method, a stability analysis of the controlled tethered satellite system in elliptical orbit is implemented. According to the principle of dynamic similarity, then, ground-based experiment setups are proposed and designed to emulate the in-plane motions of the TSS. Representative experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ETDAS scheme in controlling the chaotic motion of the underactuated TSS.

  13. Study and experimental verification of control tuning strategies in a variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza, Jordi; Pou, Josep; Arias, Antoni [Electronic Engineering Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Campus Terrassa, C. Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Spiteri, Cyril [Department of Industrial Electrical Power Conversion, University of Malta, Faculty of Engineering, Msida (Malta); Robles, Eider; Ceballos, Salvador [Energy Unit, Robotiker-Tecnalia Technology Corporation, Zamudio, Basque Country (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    This paper analyzes and compares different control tuning strategies for a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The aerodynamics of the wind turbine (WT) and a PMSG have been modeled. The control strategy used in this research is composed of three regulators, which may be based on either linear or nonlinear controllers. In this analysis, proportional-integral (PI) linear controllers have been used. Two different tuning strategies are analyzed and compared. The main goal is to enhance the overall performance by achieving a low sensitivity to disturbances and minimal overshoot under variable operating conditions. Finally, the results have been verified by an experimental WECS laboratory prototype. (author)

  14. Verification of indirect measure of self-control using suppression indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika VAVRICOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility of operationalization and review process of self-control in dealing with stressful situations. This verifies an alternative of indirect identification of self-controlin coping through by us selected indicator of suppression of selected forms of coping. Based on the definition of self-control, we sampled the suppression by the difference between the wanted (under consideration and then realized behavior (coping in the background of simplified questionnaire of coping and model stressful situation. The sample consisted of 153college students. Self-control has been shown mainly in strategies 7. Express negative emotions, 8. Stop fighting and 13. Show that this all is ridiculous. These strategies are socially undesirable, which further supports the suitability of the chosen indicator of suppression. It is also documented by a positive correlation of these strategies with Scale of Self-control self-report questionnaire.

  15. Verification of indirect measure of self-control using suppression indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Monika VAVRICOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the possibility of operationalization and review process of self-control in dealing with stressful situations. This verifies an alternative of indirect identification of self-controlin coping through by us selected indicator of suppression of selected forms of coping. Based on the definition of self-control, we sampled the suppression by the difference between the wanted (under consideration) and then realized behavior (coping) in the background o...

  16. Model Predictive Control of a Hybrid Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Experimental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Steenson, L.V.; Turnock, S.R.; Phillips, A.B.; Harris, C.; Furlong, M.E.; Rogers, E.; Wang, L.; Bodles, K.; Evans, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    In this work model predictive control is used to provide transit and hover capabilities for an autonomous underwater vehicle where the description of the system dynamics used include terms measured experimentally. The resulting controller manoeuvres the vehicle in the presence of constraints on the actuators and results obtained from the deployment of the vehicle in an inland lake for the study of the Zebra mussel, an invasive species, are also given.

  17. Verification of Optimal Control Strategy Search Using a Simplest 3-D PWR Xenon Oscillation Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power spatial oscillations due to the transient xenon spatial distribution are well known as xenon oscillation in large PWRs. When the reactor size becomes larger than the current design, then even radial oscillations can be also divergent. Even if the radial oscillation is convergent, when some control rods malfunction occurs, it is necessary to suppress the oscillation in as short time as possible. In such cases, optimal control strategy is required. Generally speaking the optimality search based on the modern control theory requires a lot of calculation for the evaluation of state variables. In the case of control rod malfunctions the xenon oscillation could be three dimensional. In such case, direct core calculations would be inevitable. From this point of view a very simple model, only four point reactor model, has been developed and verified. In this paper, an example of a procedure and the validity of the results for optimal control strategy search are presented by comparing it with the result by a three dimensional nuclear design code The simplest simulator can predict optimal strategy in less than 10 seconds on a PC. Thus it is recommended that a strategy generator, which is quick in analyzing and easy to use, might be installed in a monitoring system or in an operator guiding system. (author)

  18. Verification of optimal control strategy search using a simplest 3-D PWR xenon oscillation simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power spatial oscillations due to the transient xenon spatial distribution are well known as a xenon oscillation in large PWRs. When the reactor size becomes larger than the current design, then even radial oscillations can be also divergent. Even if the radial oscillation is convergent, when some control rods' malfunction occurs, it is necessary to suppress the oscillation in a short time as much as possible. In such cases, an optimal control strategy is required. Generally speaking, the optimality search based on the modern control theory requires a lot of calculation for the evaluation of state variables. In the case of control rod malfunctions, the xenon oscillation could be three dimensional. In such case, direct core calculations would be inevitable. From this point of view, a very simple model, an only four-point reactor model, has been developed and verified. In this paper, an example of a procedure and the validity of the results for an optimal control strategy search are presented by comparing it with the result by a three dimensional nuclear design code. The simplest simulator can predict an optimal strategy in less than 10 s on a PC. Thus, it is recommended that a strategy generator, which is quick in analyzing and easy to use, might be installed in a monitoring system or in an operator guiding system. (author)

  19. Experimental Verification of Fully Decentralized Control Inspired by Plasmodium of True Slime Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Takeda, Koichi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    This paper presents a fully decentralized control inspired by plasmodium of true slime mold and its validity using a soft-bodied amoeboid robot. The notable features of this paper are twofold: (1) the robot has truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs and a balloon, the former is utilized as an outer skin of the body and the latter serves as protoplasm; and (2) a fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the long-distance physical interaction between the body parts induced by the law of conservation of protoplasmic mass. Experimental results show that this robot exhibits truly supple locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on design scheme for autonomous decentralized control system.

  20. Electroacupuncture to treat painful diabetic neuropathy: study protocol for a three-armed, randomized, controlled pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Joo-Hee; Shin, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Kyung-Won; Lee, Minhee; Jung, So-Young; Shin, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to conduct a basic analysis of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) as compared to placebo and usual care and to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale clinical research. Methods/design This study is a protocol for a three-armed, randomized, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of treatment), controlled pilot trial. Forty-five participants with a ≥ six month history of PDN and a mean ...

  1. Learning to Control Planar Hitting Motions of a Robotic Arm in a Mini-Golf-like Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kronander, Klas Jonas Alfred

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we tackle the problem of goal-oriented adaptation of a robot hitting motion. We propose the parameters that must be learned in order to use and adapt a basic hitting motion to play minigolf. Then, two different statistical methods are used to learn these parameters. The two methods are evaluated and compared. To validate the proposed approach, a minigolf control module is developed for a robotic arm. Using the different learning techniques, we show that a robot can learn the no...

  2. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto;

    2015-01-01

    and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines......Gas bearings are popular for their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation, but require low clearances and suffer from poor damping properties. The poor damping properties cause high disturbance amplification near the natural frequencies. These become critical when the rotation...... supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...

  3. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  4. Adaptive neural control for dual-arm coordination of humanoid robot with unknown nonlinearities in output mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Ci; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L P

    2015-03-01

    To achieve an excellent dual-arm coordination of the humanoid robot, it is essential to deal with the nonlinearities existing in the system dynamics. The literatures so far on the humanoid robot control have a common assumption that the problem of output hysteresis could be ignored. However, in the practical applications, the output hysteresis is widely spread; and its existing limits the motion/force performances of the robotic system. In this paper, an adaptive neural control scheme, which takes the unknown output hysteresis and computational efficiency into account, is presented and investigated. In the controller design, the prior knowledge of system dynamics is assumed to be unknown. The motion error is guaranteed to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by Lyapunov's stability theory. Simultaneously, the internal force is kept bounded and its error can be made arbitrarily small. PMID:24968367

  5. Nuclear power plant monitoring and control system software: verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design philosophy, configuration, and production of process computer system software used for the monitoring and control of nuclear power plants are presented in detail. To achieve a very complex software system that not only has excellent performance, high reliability, and full fail safe protection, but also is easy to produce, verify, and validate, and has flexibility for future modifications, we developed the following software production system to support safe operation of nuclear power stations. The fundamental design philosophy of our monitoring and control system software is the complete separation of program logic from the data base. The logic section is highly standardized and applicable to a wide range of power generation plant computer application systems. The plant-unique properties and characteristics are all described in the data base. This separation of logic and data base has a dramatic effect on the reliability and productivity of the software system. One of the main features of the data base system is the use of easy-to-learn, easy-to-use, problem-oriented language that enables non-programmers to build up the data base using simple fill-in-the-blank type tables. The generation of these tables is fully automated, and the full set of online table editing utility software, which runs on the target plant process computer, has proven very effective in incorporation of changes and modifications at the site. (author)

  6. Guidelines for verification and validation of software related to nuclear power plant control and instrumentation. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the consultancy organized by the IAEA and held form 6 to 10 September 1993 was to prepare an extended outline of a new technical document in which a current status of Verification and Validation of software related to NPP I and C systems and guidance on the practical use of Verification and Validation methods for solving special problems in design, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants are to be presented. The present volume contains: (1) report of the meeting; (2) reports presented by the national delegates; and (3) technical draft document. Ref and figs

  7. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  8. Image Hashes as Templates for Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Tadeusz; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Seifert, Allen; McDonald, Benjamin S.; White, Timothy A.

    2012-07-17

    Imaging systems can provide measurements that confidently assess characteristics of nuclear weapons and dismantled weapon components, and such assessment will be needed in future verification for arms control. Yet imaging is often viewed as too intrusive, raising concern about the ability to protect sensitive information. In particular, the prospect of using image-based templates for verifying the presence or absence of a warhead, or of the declared configuration of fissile material in storage, may be rejected out-of-hand as being too vulnerable to violation of information barrier (IB) principles. Development of a rigorous approach for generating and comparing reduced-information templates from images, and assessing the security, sensitivity, and robustness of verification using such templates, are needed to address these concerns. We discuss our efforts to develop such a rigorous approach based on a combination of image-feature extraction and encryption-utilizing hash functions to confirm proffered declarations, providing strong classified data security while maintaining high confidence for verification. The proposed work is focused on developing secure, robust, tamper-sensitive and automatic techniques that may enable the comparison of non-sensitive hashed image data outside an IB. It is rooted in research on so-called perceptual hash functions for image comparison, at the interface of signal/image processing, pattern recognition, cryptography, and information theory. Such perceptual or robust image hashing—which, strictly speaking, is not truly cryptographic hashing—has extensive application in content authentication and information retrieval, database search, and security assurance. Applying and extending the principles of perceptual hashing to imaging for arms control, we propose techniques that are sensitive to altering, forging and tampering of the imaged object yet robust and tolerant to content-preserving image distortions and noise. Ensuring that the

  9. Impact of Two Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Interventions on Risky Sexual Behavior: A Three-Arm Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael R.; van Zyl, Michiel A.; Antle, Becky F.; Langley, Cheri N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. Methods. The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial of 1448 impoverished youths, aged 14 to 19 years, in 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, Kentucky, from September 2011 through March 2014. Results. At 3 and 6 months, compared with the control condition, youths in RTR reported fewer sexual partners and greater use of birth control. At 6 months, LN participants reported greater use of birth control and condoms, fewer sexual partners, and were less likely to have ever had sex compared with the control condition. Conclusions. We provided additional evidence for the continued efficacy of RTR and the first rigorous study of LN, which embeds sex education into a larger curriculum on healthy relationships and violence prevention. PMID:27689500

  10. Digital-flight-control-system software written in automated-engineering-design language: A user's guide of verification and validation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Jim

    1987-01-01

    The user guide of verification and validation (V&V) tools for the Automated Engineering Design (AED) language is specifically written to update the information found in several documents pertaining to the automated verification of flight software tools. The intent is to provide, in one document, all the information necessary to adequately prepare a run to use the AED V&V tools. No attempt is made to discuss the FORTRAN V&V tools since they were not updated and are not currently active. Additionally, the current descriptions of the AED V&V tools are contained and provides information to augment the NASA TM 84276. The AED V&V tools are accessed from the digital flight control systems verification laboratory (DFCSVL) via a PDP-11/60 digital computer. The AED V&V tool interface handlers on the PDP-11/60 generate a Univac run stream which is transmitted to the Univac via a Remote Job Entry (RJE) link. Job execution takes place on the Univac 1100 and the job output is transmitted back to the DFCSVL and stored as a PDP-11/60 printfile.

  11. Territorial Service as part of the social and territorial control of the Salvadoran State during the armed conflict (1972-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herard Von Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historiography study done with a narrative approach, based on documentary research and consulting oral sources. A historical review of the social and territorial control developed by the Salvadoran State during the internal armed conflict (1972-1992 is made. This is an academic effort to bring relevant elements that could be useful for contemporary contexts, especially in stages where irregular armed groups have a presence in the territory and exercise powers. The Territorial Service was a strategy to recover the State’s presence in the territory and exercise social control over vulnerable populations.

  12. Reinforcement Learning Adaptive PID Controller for an Under-actuated Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Akbarimajd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An adaptive PID controller is used to control of a two degrees of freedom under actuated manipulator. An actor-critic based reinforcement learning is employed for tuning of parameters of the adaptive PID controller. Reinforcement learning is an unsupervised scheme wherein no reference exists to which convergence of algorithm is anticipated. Thus, it is appropriate for real time applications. Controller structure and learning equations as well as update rules are provided. Simulations are performed in SIMULINK and performance of the controller is compared with NARMA-L2 controller. The results verified good performance of the controller in tracking and disturbance rejection tests.

  13. Dynamics Modeling and Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for a Class of Hybrid Humanoid Arm Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yueling; JIN Zhenlin

    2009-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of trajectory tracking for a class of novel serial-parallel hybrid humanoid arm(HHA), which has parameters uncertainty, frictions, disturbance, abrasion and pulse forces derived from motors, a multistep dynamics modeling strategy is proposed and a robust controller based on neural network(NN)-adaptive algorithm is designed. At the first step of dynamics modeling, the dynamics model of the reduced HHA is established by Lagrange method. At the second step of dynamics modeling, the parameter uncertain part resulting mainly from the idealization of the HHA is learned by adaptive algorithm. In the trajectory tracking controller, the radial basis function(RBF) NN, whose optimal weights are learned online by adaptive algorithm, is used to learn the upper limit function of the total uncertainties including frictions, disturbances, abrasion and pulse forces. To a great extent, the conservatism of this robust trajectory tracking controller is reduced, and by this controller the HHA can impersonate mostly human actions. The proof and simulation results testify the validity of the adaptive strategy for parameter learning and the neural network-adaptive strategy for the trajectory tracking control.

  14. On the improvement of the control force readiness of students engaged arm sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov A.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the most informative tests and test exercises to assess force readiness athletes. Material : the study involved 23 students of mass sports categories. Ascertaining experiment involved testing athletes force readiness, analysis of their competitive activity and determination of strength and reliability of correlation tests with the results of the competition. There were 19 trials and two anthropometric measurements. Results : it was found that traditional tests to determine the strength abilities athletes enough authentic. A significant positive correlation with the results of competitive activity indicators carpal dynamometry (in two different weight classes, and on both hands in the categories of more than 85 kg. And pull-ups on the maximum number of times. A high degree of correlation between the results of competitive activity and holding a dumbbell on a special bench capture below. This exercise is effective for assessing the level of preparedness of special strength in the weight category up to 80 kg and 85 kg. Conclusions : the most informative tests and benchmarks to determine the exercise of power readiness 1-2 athletes in sports categories arm sport.

  15. Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayose Haruhiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of a variety of finger-key touches in the piano is essential for expressive musical performance. However, it remains unknown how expert pianists control multi-joint finger and arm movements for manipulating the touch. The present study investigated differences in kinematics and kinetics of the upper-limb movements while expert pianists were depressing a key with two different touches: pressed and struck. The former starts key-depression with the finger-tip contacting the key, whereas the latter involves preparatory arm-lift before striking the key. To determine the effect of individual muscular torque (MUS as well as non-muscular torques on joint acceleration, we performed a series of inverse and forward dynamics computations. Results The pressed touch showed smaller elbow extension velocity, and larger shoulder and finger flexion velocities during key-depression compared with the struck touch. The former touch also showed smaller elbow extension acceleration directly attributed to the shoulder MUS. In contrast, the shoulder flexion acceleration induced by elbow and wrist MUS was greater for the pressed touch than the struck touch. Towards the goal of producing the target finger-key contact dynamics, the pressed and struck touches effectively took advantage of the distal-to-proximal and proximal-to-distal inter-segmental dynamics, respectively. Furthermore, a psychoacoustic experiment confirmed that a tone elicited by the pressed touch was perceived softer than that by the struck touch. Conclusion The present findings suggest that manipulation of tone timbre depends on control of inter-segmental dynamics in piano keystroke.

  16. Design of Crop Growing Environment Monitoring and Control System Based On ARM and ZIGBEE%基于 ARM 和 ZigBee 的农作物生长环境监控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小玲; 唐四维; 陈立君; 郑龙

    2016-01-01

    The crop growth environment monitoring and control system consisted of host computer ARM and Zig-Bee wireless sensor and actuator network was developed in order to achieve the perception-decision-control of the agri-cultural production process.The ZigBee sensor and actuator network based on CC2530 is able to sample air temperature and humidity,soil temperature and moisture,light illumination intensity,carbon dioxide,water and soil pH,and water dissolved oxygen data,and adjust crop growth environment by means of actuators according to control command from ARM.ARM host computer system in which S5PV210 is used as control core and the corresponding monitoring soft-ware is programmed based on Linux,Qt and SQLite,can implement data transmission between ZigBee coordinator and ARM using UART/SPI serial communication,realize the processing,storage,and management of real-time data from sensor network nodes,and regularly send data to the remote computer center through 3G/LAN port.The test results show that the designed system can achieve the real-time monitoring and control of crop growing environment parame-ters and the data dynamic analysis,historical inquiry,and threshold warning,and the system has good stability and practicality.%为了实现农业生产过程的感知-决策-控制,开发了一套由 ARM 上位机和基于 ZigBee 的传感器/执行器网络构成的农作物生长环境监控系统。基于 CC2530的 ZigBee 传感器/执行器网络能实时采集空气温湿度、土壤温湿度、光照强度、二氧化碳、水质或土壤的 pH 值等数据,并根据 ARM 上位机指令控制执行器状态来调节农作物生长环境参数。以 S5PV210为控制核心、基于 Linux、Qt 和 SQLite 开发的 ARM 上位机系统能采用 UART/SPI 串口通信方式实现 ARM 与 ZigBee 协调器之间的数据传输,实时接收、处理、存储和管理来自传感器网络节点的数据,并定期将数据通过3G 或局域网口上传给远程计算

  17. Evaluation of Arm Processor-based Bionic Intelligent Controller for a Buck-boost Converte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on performance-comparison of different tuning methods for a PI controller applied to a buck-boost converter. Comparison between the controllers is made by analysis of design methodology implementation issues and empirically measured performance. Design of PI controller is based on frequency response of the converter. The optimization of PI controller is based on ant colony algorithm. Experimental results show that, tuning the PI controller using ACO algorithm gave better performance than the conventional algorithm. This is mainly due to the fact ACO is capable of reducing the overshoot without oscillation.

  18. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  19. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  20. Forces and moments generated by the human arm: Variability and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Terekhov, AV; Latash, ML; Zatsiorsky, VM

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the accurate endpoint force vector production by the human arm in isometric conditions. We formulated three common-sense hypotheses and falsified them in the experiment. The subjects (n=10) exerted static forces on the handle in eight directions in a horizontal plane for 25 seconds. The forces were of 4 magnitude levels (10 %, 20%, 30% and 40% of individual MVC). The torsion moment on the handle (grasp moment) was not specified in the instruction. The two force components and the grasp moment were recorded, and the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint torques were computed. The following main facts were observed: (a) While the grasp moment was not prescribed by the instruction, it was always produced. The moment magnitude and direction depended on the instructed force magnitude and direction. (b) The within-trial angular variability of the exerted force vector (angular precision) did not depend on the target force magnitude (a small negative correlation was observed). (c) Across the target force directions, the variability of the exerted force magnitude and directional variability exhibited opposite trends: In the directions where the variability of force magnitude was maximal, the directional variability was minimal and vice versa. (d) The time profiles of joint torques in the trials were always positively correlated, even for the force directions where flexion torque was produced at one joint and extension torque was produced at the other joint. (e) The correlations between the grasp moment and the wrist torque were negative across the tasks and positive within the individual trials. (f) In static serial kinematic chains, the pattern of the joint torques distribution could not be explained by an optimization cost function additive with respect to the torques. Plans for several future experiments have been suggested. PMID:23080084

  1. Scale-up for model verification; design, modeling and control of an elastic parallel kinematic 6-DOFs manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Huijts, Martijn; Brouwer, Dannis; van Dijk

    2009-01-01

    Manipulators with guidance constructions based on elastic mechanisms are of interest for the increasing number of precision vacuum applications. Previously, the design of an elastic MEMS-based 6-DOFs manipulator was presented. Characterization in six degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a manipulator the size of several square millimeters, however, is difficult. Therefore, a scaled-up version of the manipulator was built. This ‘macro’ version serves as a research platform for the verification of the ...

  2. Thoughts on Verification of Nuclear Disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, W H

    2007-09-26

    It is my pleasure to be here to day to participate in this Conference. My thanks to the organizers for preparing such an interesting agenda on a very difficult topic. My effort in preparing my presentation was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48. And as many of you know Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is now, as of Oct 1st, under contract to the Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC. There has been a long history of how to view verification of arms control agreements. The basis for verification during the days of SALT was that verification would be based on each country's national technical means. For treaties dealing with strategic missiles this worked well as the individual items subject to verification were of such a size that they were visible by the National Technical Means available at the time. And it was felt that the counting of missiles and launchers could be verified by our National Technical Means. For nuclear testing treaties the use of seismic measurements developed into a capability that was reasonably robust for all but the smallest of nuclear tests. However, once we had the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, there was a significant problem in that the fidelity of the measurements were not sufficient to determine if a test was slightly above the 150 kt limit or slightly below the 150 kt limit. This led some in the US to believe that the Soviet Union was not living up to the TTBT agreement. An on-site verification protocol was negotiated in 1988 and 1989 that allowed the US to make hydrodynamic yield measurements on Soviet tests above 50 kt yield and regional seismic measurements on all tests above 35 kt of yield; and the Soviets to make the same type of measurements on US tests to ensure that they were not over 150 kt. These on-site measurements were considered reasonably intrusive. Again the measurement capability was

  3. An initial study examining the feasibility of expert system technology for command and control of supporting arms in the United States Marine Corps

    OpenAIRE

    Albano, Michael C.; Gearhart, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The authors of this thesis propose the use of knowledge-based expert system technology to automate Marine Corps fire support command and control. It investigates the need for such support for the control of supporting arms and the ways to achieve it. The authors provide general information about artificial intelligence (specifically, expert system technology) and its potential use for automating command and control functions for Marine...

  4. 78 FR 6852 - Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900... a student's certification of actual attendance and verification of the student's...

  5. Active controlled muscles in numerical model of human arm for movement in two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budziszewski, P.; Nunen, E. van; Mordaka, J.K.; Kȩdzior, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of numerical model of human upper extremity able to perform movements and stabilization tasks in two degrees of freedom as a result of muscle activation controlled by a PID-based controller. These tasks are defined by functions of specified angle for every degree

  6. Position controller for the arm of a neutron diffractometer using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron diffractometer is an important instrument coupled to one of the radial outlets of the TRIGA-3-Salazar Reactor and is used mainly to analyze textures and crystal lattices. One of its main components is the velocity analysis goniometer which controls in a tangential way the movements of the sensor requiring for this a resolution of a hundredth of degree, but at the same time wide displacements are required. It is necessary to design and construct a system on the basis of a micro controller which control the long movements in a rapid way and with the needed accuracy. In this work, a proposition is presented: to replace the A.C. motor with a D.C. motor with a wide range of velocity and supplied with a card (DAC) to control the velocity by means of digital data. Moreover, a programmed micro controller with an algorithm based on fuzzy logic receiving data in BCD will be use. The use of micro controller will allow to set free the personal computer of the position of the goniometer; nevertheless, the system will report to the P C and its control program about the present position of the goniometer and the time when the desired position is reached. It is also consider that the user will be away from the system (a minimum of 15 meters) in order to avoid the zone with a high intensity of background radiation. (Author)

  7. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  8. Fatigue damage analysis and life prediction for vehicle control arm%车辆控制臂疲劳损伤分析与寿命预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永臣; 王国林; 孙丽

    2013-01-01

      为提高车辆结构疲劳耐久性、完善车辆结构设计方法,该文对车辆控制臂进行了的疲劳损伤分析与寿命预测研究。通过有限元分析法,建立控制臂有限元分析模型,分析其结构应力,确定疲劳损坏热点。实测获得试验场条件下控制臂的应变载荷,进行频谱分析与低通滤波等数据处理,利用雨流计数法,编制控制臂载荷谱。利用局部应力应变法与Miner准则,考虑结构应力集中修正,完成控制臂的疲劳损伤分析与寿命预估。结果表明,控制臂损伤热点主要分布在与转向节连接的过渡处,控制臂载荷信号频域能量主要集中在15 Hz以内,与车体结构的实际频率分布相符,控制臂的疲劳损伤分布与实际路况条件的受力状况相符,得出控制臂试验场预期寿命为3.96万h。研究结果可为车辆疲劳耐久研究提供重要参考。%In order to improve the vehicle structure fatigue durability, and to perfect vehicle structure design method, In this paper, fatigue damage analysis and life prediction on the vehicle control arm were done by three parts, namely, finite element modeling and analysis, load spectrum testing and establishment, fatigue damage analysis and life prediction. A fatigue life prediction method of vehicle control arm was put forward. Firstly, the finite element analysis model of the vehicle control arm was built in ANSYS software, and its construction stress was calculated and analyzed under the action of lateral and longitudinal forces respectively. Two hot points on the control arm were determined, which could bring about fatigue damage. The location of each hot point is respectively at the transition of the control arm connected to the steering knuckle and to the subframe. Both locations were identified as load testing points of P1 and P2 that strain gauges were pasted. Secondly, the strain load of the control arm was measured under the condition

  9. Coordinated control of a dual-arm dexterous robot using full immersion telepresence and virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Larry; Cox, Brian; Shelton, Susan; Diftler, Myron

    1994-01-01

    Telepresence is an approach to teleoperation that provides egocentric, intuitive interactions between an operator and a remote environment. This approach takes advantage of the natural cognitive and sensory motor skills of an on-board crew and effectively transfers them to a slave robot. A dual alarm dexterous robot operating under telepresence control has been developed and initial evaluations of the system performing candidate EVA, IVA and planetary geological tasks were conducted. The results of our evaluation showed that telepresence control is very effective in transferring the operator's skills to the slave robot. However, the results also showed that, due to the kinematic and dynamics inconsistencies between the operator and the robot, a limited amount of intelligent automation is also required to carry out some to the tasks. Therefore, several enhancements have been made to the original system to increase the automated capabilities of the control system without losing the benefits of telepresence.

  10. Parkinsonism reduces coordination of fingers, wrist, and arm in fine motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulings, H L; Contreras-Vidal, J L; Stelmach, G E; Adler, C H

    1997-07-01

    This experiment investigates movement coordination in Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Seventeen PD patients and 12 elderly control subjects performed several handwriting-like tasks on a digitizing writing tablet resting on top of a table in front of the subject. The writing patterns, in increasing order of coordination complexity, were repetitive back-and-forth movements in various orientations, circles and loops in clockwise and counterclockwise directions, and a complex writing pattern. The patterns were analyzed in terms of jerk normalized for duration and size per stroke. In the PD subjects, back-and-forth strokes, involving coordination of fingers and wrist, showed larger normalized jerk than strokes performed using either the wrist or the fingers alone. In the PD patients, wrist flexion (plus radial deviation) showed greater normalized jerk in comparison to wrist extension (plus ulnar deviation). The elderly control subjects showed no such effects as a function of coordination complexity. For both PD and elderly control subjects, looping patterns consisting of circles with a left-to-right forearm movement, did not show a systematic increase of normalized jerk. The same handwriting patterns were then simulated using a biologically inspired neural network model of the basal ganglia thalamocortical relations for a control and a mild PD subject. The network simulation was consistent with the observed experimental results, providing additional support that a reduced capability to coordinate wrist and finger movements may be caused by suboptimal functioning of the basal ganglia in PD. The results suggest that in PD patients fine motor control problems may be caused by a reduced capability to coordinate the fingers and wrist and by reduced control of wrist flexion. PMID:9225749

  11. Nonlinear modeling and identification of the electro-hydraulic control system of an excavator arm using BONL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Li, Bo; Guo, Gang; Zeng, Yonghua; Zhang, Meijun

    2013-11-01

    Electro-hydraulic control systems are nonlinear in nature and their mathematic models have unknown parameters. Existing research of modeling and identification of the electro-hydraulic control system is mainly based on theoretical state space model, and the parameters identification is hard due to its demand on internal states measurement. Moreover, there are also some hard-to-model nonlinearities in theoretical model, which needs to be overcome. Modeling and identification of the electro-hydraulic control system of an excavator arm based on block-oriented nonlinear(BONL) models is investigated. The nonlinear state space model of the system is built first, and field tests are carried out to reveal the nonlinear characteristics of the system. Based on the physic insight into the system, three BONL models are adopted to describe the highly nonlinear system. The Hammerstein model is composed of a two-segment polynomial nonlinearity followed by a linear dynamic subsystem. The Hammerstein-Wiener(H-W) model is represented by the Hammerstein model in cascade with another single polynomial nonlinearity. A novel Pseudo-Hammerstein-Wiener(P-H-W) model is developed by replacing the single polynomial of the H-W model by a non-smooth backlash function. The key term separation principle is applied to simplify the BONL models into linear-in-parameters structures. Then, a modified recursive least square algorithm(MRLSA) with iterative estimation of internal variables is developed to identify the all the parameters simultaneously. The identification results demonstrate that the BONL models with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities are able to capture the system behavior, and the P-H-W model has the best prediction accuracy. Comparison experiments show that the velocity prediction error of the P-H-W model is reduced by 14%, 30% and 75% to the H-W model, Hammerstein model, and extended auto-regressive (ARX) model, respectively. This research is helpful in controller design, system

  12. Split-brain monkeys : cerebral control of contralateral and ipsilateral arm, hand and finger movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkman (Jacoba)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, an investigation has been made of the visuomotor control exerted by one half of the brain over each of the two upper extremities in the rhesus monkey. The hypothesis that one half of the brain can steer movements of each of the two extremities relatively independent

  13. Feedback Control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKlauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. Potential users of this system are patients with high-level spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative neuromuscular diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich ataxia, and multiple sclerosis. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm due to upper motor neuron lesions after spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e. a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 seconds.

  14. Feedback control of arm movements using Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) combined with a lockable, passive exoskeleton for gravity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Christian; Schauer, Thomas; Reichenfelser, Werner; Karner, Jakob; Zwicker, Sven; Gandolla, Marta; Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Hack, Marco; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Gföhler, Margit; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Within the European project MUNDUS, an assistive framework was developed for the support of arm and hand functions during daily life activities in severely impaired people. This contribution aims at designing a feedback control system for Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) to enable reaching functions in people with no residual voluntary control of the arm and shoulder due to high level spinal cord injury. NMES is applied to the deltoids and the biceps muscles and integrated with a three degrees of freedom (DoFs) passive exoskeleton, which partially compensates gravitational forces and allows to lock each DOF. The user is able to choose the target hand position and to trigger actions using an eyetracker system. The target position is selected by using the eyetracker and determined by a marker-based tracking system using Microsoft Kinect. A central controller, i.e., a finite state machine, issues a sequence of basic movement commands to the real-time arm controller. The NMES control algorithm sequentially controls each joint angle while locking the other DoFs. Daily activities, such as drinking, brushing hair, pushing an alarm button, etc., can be supported by the system. The robust and easily tunable control approach was evaluated with five healthy subjects during a drinking task. Subjects were asked to remain passive and to allow NMES to induce the movements. In all of them, the controller was able to perform the task, and a mean hand positioning error of less than five centimeters was achieved. The average total time duration for moving the hand from a rest position to a drinking cup, for moving the cup to the mouth and back, and for finally returning the arm to the rest position was 71 s. PMID:25228853

  15. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    Hochberg, Leigh R.; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Simeral, John D.; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S.; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury, brainstemstroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to perform volitional movements. A neural interface system could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with long-standing tetraplegia can use a neural interface ...

  16. ARM Based Automatic Control System of Nano Positioning Stage for Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Naruka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A microcontroller based control system to drive the Physik Instrumente (PI piezoelectric ultrasonic nano-positioning (PUN sta ge for a micro-factory has been proposed by the author. The tuning parameters of th e PI Line Controller are chosen such that the PUN stage shows optimum step response . The microcontroller i.e. LPC2478R provides the user with the choices of oper ations on the 3.2” QVGA LCD screen and the choice can be made by a 5-key joysti ck. The PUN stage moves in different geometrical patterns as chosen by the use r. The stage is placed in the workspace of the Clark-MXRR,Inc. CPA-2101 femto-sec ond laser. Different patterns are made on the material in question. As compared t o the previous works in this area, the user is given the power for position control, r eal time tracking, and trajectory planning of the actuator. The user interface has be en made very easy to comprehend. The repeatability of tasks, portability of the as- sembly, the reduction in the size of the system , power consumption and the human involvemen t are the major achievements after the inclusion of a microcontroller

  17. Path Planning of Mobile Elastic Robotic Arms by Indirect Approach of Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharam Habibnejad Korayem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding optimal trajectory is critical in several applications of robot manipulators. This paper is applied the open-loop optimal control approach for generating the optimal trajectory of the flexible mobile manipulators in point-to-point motion. This method is based on the Pontryagin-s minimum principle that by providing a two-point boundary value problem is solved the problem. This problem is known to be complex in particular when combined motion of the base and manipulator, non-holonomic constraint of the base and highly non-linear and complicated dynamic equations as a result of flexible nature of links are taken into account. The study emphasizes on modeling of the complete optimal control problem by remaining all nonlinear state and costate variables as well as control constraints. In this method, designer can compromise between different objectives by considering the proper penalty matrices and it yields to choose the proper trajectory among the various paths. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed approach are demonstrated through simulation studies. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the simulation results obtained from the model are compared with the results of those available in the literature.

  18. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  19. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  20. Parametric motion control of robotic arms: A biologically based approach using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; D'Eleuterio, G. M. T.; Lipitkas, J.; Grodski, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A neural network based system is presented which is able to generate point-to-point movements of robotic manipulators. The foundation of this approach is the use of prototypical control torque signals which are defined by a set of parameters. The parameter set is used for scaling and shaping of these prototypical torque signals to effect a desired outcome of the system. This approach is based on neurophysiological findings that the central nervous system stores generalized cognitive representations of movements called synergies, schemas, or motor programs. It has been proposed that these motor programs may be stored as torque-time functions in central pattern generators which can be scaled with appropriate time and magnitude parameters. The central pattern generators use these parameters to generate stereotypical torque-time profiles, which are then sent to the joint actuators. Hence, only a small number of parameters need to be determined for each point-to-point movement instead of the entire torque-time trajectory. This same principle is implemented for controlling the joint torques of robotic manipulators where a neural network is used to identify the relationship between the task requirements and the torque parameters. Movements are specified by the initial robot position in joint coordinates and the desired final end-effector position in Cartesian coordinates. This information is provided to the neural network which calculates six torque parameters for a two-link system. The prototypical torque profiles (one per joint) are then scaled by those parameters. After appropriate training of the network, our parametric control design allowed the reproduction of a trained set of movements with relatively high accuracy, and the production of previously untrained movements with comparable accuracy. We conclude that our approach was successful in discriminating between trained movements and in generalizing to untrained movements.

  1. [Arm Motor Function Recovery during Rehabilitation with the Use of Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface: a Patient with Severe Brain Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukova, E V; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaya, M E; Bobrov, P D; Turbina, L G; Frolov, A A; Davydov, V I; Sil'tchenko, A V; Mokienko, O A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of motor function recovery in a patient with severe brain damage in the course of neurorehabilitation using hand exoskeleton controlled by brain-computer interface. For estimating the motor function of paretic arm, we used the biomechanical analysis of movements registered during the course of rehabilitation. After 15 weekly sessions of hand exoskeleton control, the following results were obtained: a) the velocity profile of goal-directed movements of paretic hand became bell-shaped, b) the patient began to extend and abduct the hand which was flexed and adducted in the beginning of rehabilitation, and c) the patient began to supinate the forearm which was pronated in the beginning of rehabilitation. The first result is an evidence of the general improvement of the quality of motor control, while the second and third results prove that the spasticity of paretic arm has decreased. PMID:27188144

  2. Design of a Pneumatic Robotic Arm for Solar Cell Tester System By using PLC controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif I. Al Mashhadany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell testers sort photovoltaic cells according to their electrical performance, tested under simulated sunlight. A variety of testers exist, but they all face a common challenge of handling cells that are very small and thin, which makes it difficult to transport the cells from the conveyer to the storage box. This paper presents a new design for a handling robot with vacuum end-effectors, which uses a PLC controller to govern the movement of the cells and the testing process. The design applies to solar cell testers for monocrystalline, polycrystalline, cadmium telluride (CdTe, and copper indium diselenide (CIS cells. Each cell is tested for efficiency and categorized accordingly into four groups (A to D. A Virtual Reality (VR model was built to simulate the system, keeping in mind real world constraints. Two photoelectric sensors were used to make detections for both the testing process and the robot movement. The PLC controller guides the trajectory of the robot according to the results of the efficiency testing. It was seen that the system worked very well, with the testing process and the robot movement interacting smoothly. The robot trajectory was seen to be highly accurate, and the pick and place operations were done with great precision.

  3. The effects of a home-based arm ergometry exercise programme on physical fitness, fatigue and activity in polio survivors: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Deirdre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Polio survivors have reduced mobility, pain and fatigue, which make access to conventional forms of aerobic exercise difficult. Inactivity leads to increased risk of health problems, many of which are prevalent among Polio survivors. Aerobic exercise programmes in Polio survivors should utilise stable muscle groups and should be designed to minimise exacerbation of pain and fatigue. A home-based arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme may represent an affordable and accessible exercise modality, incorporating exercise prescription principles in this group. Methods/design This is a prospective, single blinded, randomised controlled trial. There are two arms; exercise intervention using arm ergometers and control. Polio survivors meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a small arm ergometer and a polar heart rate monitor. They will carry out a home-based moderate intensity (50-70% HRMax aerobic exercise programme for eight weeks, following instruction by the treating physiotherapist. Assessments will occur at baseline and after eight weeks and will include tests of physical fitness, activity, energy cost of walking, fatigue and quality of life. Clinically feasible assessment tools including the Six Minute Arm Test, the Physical Activity Scale for People with Physical Disabilities questionnaire, the Physiological Cost Index, Fatigue Severity Scale and the SF-36v2 will be utilised. Discussion The efficacy of a home-based arm ergometry programme in Polio survivors will be examined. No previous trial has examined such a programme using a wide range of outcome measures pertinent to Polio survivors. This study will provide new information on the impact of arm ergometry on physical fitness, activity, body composition, fatigue, pain, muscle strength, and health related quality of life. Also, the study

  4. A hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies for meta-analysis of diagnostic tests: Accounting for partial verification bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoye; Chen, Yong; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao

    2014-05-26

    To account for between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies, bivariate random effects models have been recommended to jointly model the sensitivities and specificities. As study design and population vary, the definition of disease status or severity could differ across studies. Consequently, sensitivity and specificity may be correlated with disease prevalence. To account for this dependence, a trivariate random effects model had been proposed. However, the proposed approach can only include cohort studies with information estimating study-specific disease prevalence. In addition, some diagnostic accuracy studies only select a subset of samples to be verified by the reference test. It is known that ignoring unverified subjects may lead to partial verification bias in the estimation of prevalence, sensitivities, and specificities in a single study. However, the impact of this bias on a meta-analysis has not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies and correcting partial verification bias at the same time. We investigate the performance of the proposed methods through a set of simulation studies. Two case studies on assessing the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in detecting lymph node metastases and of adrenal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in characterizing adrenal masses are presented.

  5. APSTNG: Associated particle sealed-tube neutron generator studies for arms control. Final report on NN-20 Project ST220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Brunner, T.; Hess, A.; Tylinski, S.

    1994-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has performed research and development on the use of Associated Particle Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator (APSTNG) technology for treaty verification and non-proliferation applications, under funding from the DOE Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. Results indicate that this technology has significant potential for nondestructively detecting elemental compositions inside inspected objects or volumes. The final phase of this project was placement of an order for commercial procurement of an advanced sealed tube, with its high-voltage supply and control systems. Procurement specifications reflected lessons learned during the study. The APSTNG interrogates a volume with a continuous 14-MeV neutron flux. Each neutron is emitted coincident with an {open_quotes}associated{close_quotes} alpha-particle emitted in the opposite direction. Thus detection of an alpha-particle marks the emission of a neutron in a cone opposite to that defined by the alpha detector. Detection of a gamma ray coincident with the alpha indicates that the gamma was emitted from a neutron-induced reaction inside the neutron cone: the gamma spectra can be used to identify fissionable materials and many isotopes having an atomic number larger than that of boron. The differences in gamma-ray and alpha-particle detection times yield a coarse measurement of the distance along the cone axis from the APSTNG emitter to each region containing the identified nuclide. A position-sensitive alpha detector would permit construction of coarse three-dimensional images. The source and emission-detection systems can be located on the same side of the interrogated volume. The neutrons and gamma rays are highly penetrating. A relatively high signal-to-background ratio allows the use of a relatively small neutron source and conventional electronics.

  6. Verification Test of Movable Magnetic Coils Control Rod Drive Line%可动线圈控制棒电磁驱动线验证试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张之华; 钱达志; 邓勇军; 薄涵亮; 徐显启; 吴莘馨; 米向秒

    2011-01-01

    The movable magnetic coils control rod drive line, a new kind control rod drive line for reactors, regulates and controls reactor power by driving control rods with electromagnetic force. A series of verification tests were conducted to break through the key technology in development process. The theoretical basis of equipment development was verified by the principle test, making a breakthrough in the feasibility. The stroke test and life test not only verified the stability, reliability of the equipment, but also got its operation characteristic parameters. The anti-seismic test verified the security function in extreme conditions. The verification test data provide reference for the installation, regulation and safe operation of the drive line.%可动线圈控制棒电磁驱动线是新研制的一种反应堆用驱动线,靠电磁力驱动控制棒实现反应堆的开堆、停堆和功率调节.为突破其研制过程中的关键技术,进行了一系列的验证试验.通过原理性能试验,验证了设备研制的理论基础,实现了可行性的突破;通过行程试验和寿命考验,验证了设备的稳定性、可靠性,并得到了设备的运行特性参数;通过抗震试验,验证了设备在极端条件下的安全功能.性能试验得到的试验数据,可为该驱动线的安装、调试、安全运行提供依据.

  7. Design of Programmable Automation Controller Based on ARM and Linux%基于ARM-Linux的可编程自动化控制器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 陈富林; 李森; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the PAC s function and programming method, a kind of PAC proto-type is discussed in detail. The main structure is introduced first, and later the operation system is deduced thor-oughly , both in hardware and software. Its hardware platform is based on a ARM board, while its software is based on linux as OS, Qt as HMI and Sqlite as database. Finally, analysis indicates that this PAC is of great scalability and portability, and can meet the industry requirements sufficiently.%在理解PAC系统的功能、组成和编程方法基础上,从整体上介绍了一种PAC的实现方案.首先对PAC总体结构作了简要介绍,然后主要对运行系统的整体构架的设计做了详细研究,包括软件及硬件系统的设计.运行系统的硬件平台是基于ARM的嵌入式控制器,软件方面使用linux作为操作系统,Qt作为界面,并支持Sqlite数据库.最后对软PLC系统的性能进行分析,分析结果表明:系统具备了良好的扩展性和移植性,达到了工业领域中的控制要求.

  8. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  9. 基于 ARM 的桌面型3D打印机控制系统设计%Design of desktop 3D printer control system based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀腾; 郭小定; 李小龙; 余亮

    2014-01-01

    针对基于单片机为控制器的桌面型3D打印机控制系统中存在的处理速度慢、片外芯片多、电路复杂、打印质量不高等问题,设计了基于ARM为控制器的桌面型3D打印机控制系统。系统采用了NXP公司推出的基于ARM Cortex-M3内核的LPC1768微控制器,用它进行与上位机通信、数据处理、模拟量采集与处理、信号控制,选用A4988专用两相步进电机驱动器实现步进电机细分驱动,简化步进电机细分驱动的设计,行程开关电路采用GK152红外光电传感器。软件采用了PID方式调节加热床、挤出机加热温度。文中论述了控制系统主要硬件电路设计和软件的实现流程,系统测试表明性能良好。%The desktop 3D printer control systems with a sigle-chip controller have problems of slow processing speed, more pieces of outside chips, circuit complexity and poor quality of printing.To solve these problems, a desktop 3D printer control system with an ARM controller is designed.The system employs the LPC1768 microcon-troller based on ARM Cortex-M3 core which is introduced by the NXP and used to communicate with the host com-puter, data processing, analog acquisition and processing, signal control, used A4988 special two-phase stepper motor driver to implement stepper motor subdivision drive and to simplify the drive design for stepping motor.The travel switch circuit adopts GK152 infrared photoelectric sensor.The software adopted PID method in order to adjust the heating temperature of heating bed and extruder.This paper discusses the main hardware circuit design and soft-ware realization process of the control system.The System testing shows good performance.

  10. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial of vitamin E and pentoxifylline in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema and fibrosis after surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced arm lymphoedema is a common and distressing complication of curative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. A number of studies testing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and pentoxifylline suggest evidence of clinical regression of superficial radiation-induced fibrosis but there is only very limited evidence from randomised trials. Arm lymphoedema after lymphatic radiotherapy and surgery has been used in the present study as a clinical system for testing these drugs in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-eight eligible research volunteers with a minimum 20% increase in arm volume at a median 15.5 years (range 2-41) after axillary/supraclavicular radiotherapy (plus axillary surgery in 51/68 (75%) cases) were randomised to active drugs or placebo. All volunteers were given dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate 500 mg twice a day orally plus pentoxifylline 400 mg twice a day orally, or corresponding placebos, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was volume of the ipsilateral limb measured opto-electronically using a perometer and expressed as a percentage of the contralateral limb volume. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of arm volume. Absolute change in arm volume at 12 months was 2.5% (95% CI -0.40 to 5.3) in the treatment group compared to 1.2% (95% CI -2.8 to 5.1) in the placebo group. The difference in mean volume change between randomisation groups at 12 months was not statistically significant (P=0.6), -1.3% (95% CI -6.1 to 3.5), nor was there a significant difference in response at 6 months (P=0.7), where mean change in arm volume from baseline in the treatment and placebo groups was -2.3% (95% CI -7.9 to 3.4) and -1.1% (95% CI -3.9 to 1.7), respectively. There were no significant differences between randomised groups in terms of secondary endpoints, including tissue induration

  11. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05Pilates training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength. PMID:26630547

  12. The Use of Remote Sensing Satellites for Verification in International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettling, J. K.

    The contribution is a very sensitive topic which is currently about to gain significance and importance in the international community. It implies questions of international law as well as the contemplation of new developments and decisions in international politics. The paper will begin with the meaning and current status of verification in international law as well as the legal basis of satellite remote sensing in international treaties and resolutions. For the verification part, this implies giving a definition of verification and naming its fields of application and the different means of verification. For the remote sensing part, it involves the identification of relevant provisions in the Outer Space Treaty and the United Nations General Assembly Principles on Remote Sensing. Furthermore it shall be looked at practical examples: in how far have remote sensing satellites been used to verify international obligations? Are there treaties which would considerably profit from the use of remote sensing satellites? In this respect, there are various examples which can be contemplated, such as the ABM Treaty (even though out of force now), the SALT and START Agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Conventional Test Ban Treaty. It will be mentioned also that NGOs have started to verify international conventions, e.g. Landmine Monitor is verifying the Mine-Ban Convention. Apart from verifying arms control and disarmament treaties, satellites can also strengthen the negotiation of peace agreements (such as the Dayton Peace Talks) and the prevention of international conflicts from arising. Verification has played an increasingly prominent role in high-profile UN operations. Verification and monitoring can be applied to the whole range of elements that constitute a peace implementation process, ranging from the military aspects through electoral monitoring and human rights monitoring, from negotiating an accord to finally monitoring it. Last but not least the

  13. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPPs-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Sik; Lee, Byung Sun; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jang Soo; Um, Heung Sub; Kim, Jang Yul; Ryoo, Chan Hoh; Joo, Jae Yoon; Song, Soon Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    We collected and analyzed the domestic/international codes, standards and guidelines to develop high reliable software verification and validation methodology which is satisfied to our real situation. The three major parts of work are performed that is the construction of the frame for high reliable software development environment, establishment of high reliable software development methodology and study for the basic technology related to safety-critical software. These three parts are tightly coupled each other to achieve self-reliable software verification and validation technology for digital I and C in NPPs. The configuration of hardware and software are partly performed using requirements which is developed in first stage for the development of I and C test facility. In hardware part, expanded interface using VXI bus and driving software is completed. The main program for math, modelling and supervisor program for instructions are developed. 27 figs, 22 tabs, 69 refs. (Author).

  14. Automatic Control System for Refining Sugarcane Based on Embedded ARM-Linux and ZigBee%基于ARM-Linux和ZigBee的自动煮糖数据采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敦锋; 朱名日; 庾志衡; 周信东

    2011-01-01

    According to the special environment of refining; sugarcane production line,a RT data sugar-refine control platform of wireless sensor network based on Zigbee and arm-linux technology was built. The problems of traditional cable data acquisition system such as high cost.poor scalabiliiy of monitoring node,bad mobility were solved. A new way was achieved for the process automation of refinining sugar. The test result shows that the system runs well, and completely meets the requirements of produccion process.%针对糖厂煮糖制炼生产线的特殊环境,利用ZigBee和嵌入式ARM-Linux技术,构建了1个实时的蔗糖制炼无线传感器网络控制平台,有效解决传统的有线数据采集系统存在的成本较高、监控点扩充性差、移动性较差等问题,为实现煮糖过程的自动化提供了手段.测试表明,系统运行良好,能够满足工艺的要求.

  15. Hybrid neuroprosthesis for the upper limb: combining brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Grimm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related range of motion and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD and electromyography (EMG activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e. induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p=0.028 or EMG (p=0.021 modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related range of motion (p=0.009 and the movement-related brain modulation (p=0

  16. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?; Le rejet du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires par le Senat Americain: un revers pour l'arms control nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitt, B. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, 77 (France)

    2000-07-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  17. Brain-Computer Interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Keng eAng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG-based Motor Imagery (MI Brain-Computer Interface (BCI coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA score 10-50, recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 minutes per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 hour of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 hour of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 minutes of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 hours of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper-extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12 and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  18. Brain-computer interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Ephraim Joseph, Gopal J; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong; Chua, Karen Sui Geok

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 h of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 h of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 min of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 h of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12, and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  19. 基于ARM的单周期控制逆变电源研究%Study on One-Cycle Control Inverter Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚鹏超; 郑玉莲; 田晓燕; 孙频东

    2012-01-01

    One-cycle control is a kind of control strategy of analog power technology which is widely used. It has such merits as simple structure, rapid control speed and so on. Analog circuit is always used to form control circuit. In this paper ARM is used to realize one-cycle control. The components of one-cycle control circuit such as the integrator, comparator, RS flip-flop and other hardware circuits are realized by ARM. Finally, compared with one-cycle control which is realized by analog circuit, they are similar in the characteristics of dynamic performance.%单周期控制是模拟电源技术中一种被广泛使用的控制策略,它具有结构简单、调控速度快等优点,通常使用模拟电路构成控制电路,利用ARM控制芯片实现数字单周期控制,单周期控制电路中的积分器、电压比较器、RS触发器等硬件电路均用软件实现,最后与模拟电路构成的单周期电路相比较发现其在动态性能方面具有相似的特性.

  20. Study of factors controlling exposure dose and image quality of C-arm in operation room according to detector size of it (Mainly L-Spine AP study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Jo, Hwang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Time of operation has been reduced and accuracy of operation has been improved since C-arm, which offer real-time image of patient, was introduced in operation room. However, because of the contamination of patient, C-arm could not be used more appropriately. Therefore, this study is to know factors of controlling exposure dose, image quality and the exposed dose of health professional in operation room. Height of Wilson frame (bed for operation) was fixed at 130 cm. Then, Model 76-2 Phantom, which was set by assembling manual of Fluke Company, was set on the bed. Head/Spine Fluoroscopy AEC mode was set for exposure condition. According to detector size of C-arm, the absorbed dose per min was measured in the 7 steps OFD (cm) from 10 cm to 40 cm (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 cm). In each step of OFD, the absorbed dose per min of same diameter of collimation was measured. Moreover, using Nero MAX Model 8000, exposure dose per min was measured according to 3 step of distance from detector (20 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm). Finally, resolution was measured by CDRH Disc Phantom and magnification of each OFD was measured by aluminum stick bar. According to detector size of C-arm, difference of absorbed dose shows that the dose of 20 cm OFD is 1.750 times higher than the dose of 40 cm OFD. It means that the C-arm, which has smaller size of detector, shows the bigger difference of absorbed dose per min (p<0.05). In the difference of absorbed dose in the same step of OFD (from 20 cm to 40 cm), the absorbed dose of 9 inch detect or C-arm was 1.370 times higher than 12 inch' s (p<0.05). When OFD was set to 20 cm OFD, the absorbed dose of non-collimation case was approximately 0.816 times lower than the absorbed dose of collimation cases (p<0.05). When the distance was 20 cm from detector, exposed does includes first-ray and scatter-ray. When the distance was 60 cm and 100 cm from detector, exposed does includes just scatter-ray. So, there was the 2.200 times difference of absorbed

  1. Analog Video Authentication and Seal Verification Equipment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Lancaster

    2012-09-01

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy in support of arms control treaty verification activities, the Savannah River National Laboratory in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Idaho National Laboratory and Milagro Consulting, LLC developed equipment for use within a chain of custody regime. This paper discussed two specific devices, the Authentication Through the Lens (ATL) analog video authentication system and a photographic multi-seal reader. Both of these devices have been demonstrated in a field trial, and the experience gained throughout will also be discussed. Typically, cryptographic methods are used to prove the authenticity of digital images and video used in arms control chain of custody applications. However, in some applications analog cameras are used. Since cryptographic authentication methods will not work on analog video streams, a simple method of authenticating analog video was developed and tested. A photographic multi-seal reader was developed to image different types of visual unique identifiers for use in chain of custody and authentication activities. This seal reader is unique in its ability to image various types of seals including the Cobra Seal, Reflective Particle Tags, and adhesive seals. Flicker comparison is used to compare before and after images collected with the seal reader in order to detect tampering and verify the integrity of the seal.

  2. Working Group 3: Broader Perspectives on Non-proliferation and Nuclear Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working group (WG) focused on the technical topics related to international security and stability in global nonproliferation and arms control regimes and asked how nonproliferation tools and culture might facilitate verification of future nuclear treaties. The review of existing and future nonproliferation and disarmament regimes (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty - CTBT, UNSC Resolution 1540, UK/Norway/VERTIC exercise, Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty - FMCT) offered a view on challenges, possibilities, and limitations for future initiatives. The concepts that the WG considered, with potential use in implementing future nuclear verification treaties, are: Triple S Culture (Safety, Security, Safeguards), State-Level Approach, Safeguards-by-Design, risk-based approaches, managed access, inspections, and protection of sensitive information. Under these concepts, many existing tools, considered by the WG could be used for nuclear verification. Export control works to control sensitive technology and expertise. Global implementation is complicated and multi-faceted and would benefit from greater consistency and efficiency. In most cases, international cooperation and development international capability would supplement efforts. This document is composed of the slides and the paper of the presentation. (A.C.)

  3. Design of embedded intelligent home control system based on Arm-Linux%基于Arm-Linux的嵌入式智能家居控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭涛; 徐晓辉; 黄晓亮; 王盟; 温阳

    2011-01-01

    随着嵌入式技术、网络及信息技术的发展,针对人们对智能家居的追求.提出了一种基于ARM9的嵌入式智能家居控制系统的解决方案.介绍了嵌入式Linux系统的软硬件平台,结合实例阐述了嵌入式QT图形界面系统、嵌入式数据库SQLite等关键技术在嵌入式智能家居控制系统中的应用.该方案解决了控制系统的可视化操作问题,提高了系统数据管理效率,并具有通用性可移植到其他硬件或软件平台应用.%With the development of embedded technology,network and information technology,for the pursuit for the intelligent home,a projection of embedded intelligent home controlling systems is proposed based on ARM9.It describes the software and hardware platforms of embedded Linux systems,explains the appliance on embedded intelligent home controlling systems of key technologies such as embedded QT graphical interface system and embedded database SQLite with examples. The projection solves the problem of visual operations,and improve the efficiency of data management,what's more,it is universal portable to other hardware and software platforms to be applied.

  4. Numerical verification of geometry control method of the construction for super-span cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Can; Zhao Lei; Bu Yizhi

    2012-01-01

    Taking Sutong Bridge as the object investigated, the correctness of the geometry control method is verified by numerical simulation analysis. Taking the impact of geometric nonlinearity into account, the impacts of structural geo- metric profile induced by temporary loads and temperature field during the construction procedure are investigated. The simulation results indicate that only the stage state of the structure during construction is affected. Satisfied outcome of construction control can be achieved based on ~eometrv control method.

  5. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  6. “I Want That”: Human-in-the-Loop Control of a Wheelchair-Mounted Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Tsui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair-mounted robotic arms have been commercially available for a decade. In order to operate these robotic arms, a user must have a high level of cognitive function. Our research focuses on replacing a manufacturer-provided, menu-based interface with a vision-based system while adding autonomy to reduce the cognitive load. Instead of manual task decomposition and execution, the user explicitly designates the end goal, and the system autonomously retrieves the object. In this paper, we present the complete system which can autonomously retrieve a desired object from a shelf. We also present the results of a 15-week study in which 12 participants from our target population used our system, totaling 198 trials.

  7. Functional Verification of Enhanced RISC Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANKER NILANGI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design and verification of a 32-bit enhanced RISC processor core having floating point computations integrated within the core, has been designed to reduce the cost and complexity. The designed 3 stage pipelined 32-bit RISC processor is based on the ARM7 processor architecture with single precision floating point multiplier, floating point adder/subtractor for floating point operations and 32 x 32 booths multiplier added to the integer core of ARM7. The binary representation of the floating point numbers employed in the design eliminates the need for floating point registers and uses same set of registers thereby reducing the complexity, area and cost. Mask based data reversal barrel shifter performs parallel flag computations during shift or rotate and has least worst case delay of 0.94 ns compared to other barrel shifters. The hardware of the 32-bit RISC processor core has been modeled in Verilog HDL, simulated in VCS. Verification of a complex design such as 32-bit RISC is one of the major challenges as it consumes more time. In this work, a verification environment is being developed to verify the design RISC processor core.

  8. Configuration of the LCD Controller & Driver Analysis Based on ARM & Linux Platform%ARM Linux平台下LCD控制器的配置及驱动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金利

    2013-01-01

    The importance of LCD drive in Linux platform is introduced. The Samsung's 32-bit embed-ded microprocessor S3C2440A and LR043JC211 are presented for reference. By analyzing the interface circuit design of LCD display module and S3C2440 processor, this paper makes a detailed description of method and software configuration based on S3C-2440A the LCD controller. The LCD driver in the Linux is analyzed, and a verification method and the environment of experimental results are given as well.%介绍了linux平台下进行LCD驱动开发的重要性,以Samsung公司的32位嵌入式微处理器S3C2440A和LR043JC211为例,结合LCD显示模块与S3C2440处理器的接口电路设计,详细说明了基于S3C2440A处理器的LCD控制器的功能和软件配置方法,对Linux环境下LCD驱动进行分析,并给出了一种实验结果的验证环境与方法。

  9. Verification of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assure quality of safety critical software, software should be developed in accordance with software development procedures and rigorous software verification and validation should be performed. Software verification is the formal act of reviewing, testing of checking, and documenting whether software components comply with the specified requirements for a particular stage of the development phase[1]. New software verification methodology was developed and was applied to the Shutdown System No. 1 and 2 (SDS1,2) for Wolsung 2,3 and 4 nuclear power plants by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited(AECL) in order to satisfy new regulation requirements of Atomic Energy Control Boars(AECB). Software verification methodology applied to SDS1 for Wolsung 2,3 and 4 project will be described in this paper. Some errors were found by this methodology during the software development for SDS1 and were corrected by software designer. Outputs from Wolsung 2,3 and 4 project have demonstrated that the use of this methodology results in a high quality, cost-effective product. 15 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  10. Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification of A Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control for Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    in the synchronous reference frame, it is not straightforward to fine-tune the control parameters and evaluate the stability of the whole closed loop system. To overcome this problem, the stationary reference frame equivalent of the voltage loop is derived. Then, a step-by-step systematic design procedure based......-loop control strategy for single phase inverter-based islanded distributed generation (DG) systems. The proposed controller uses a synchronous reference frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the instantaneous output voltage, a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary reference frame to provide active...... damping and improve both transient and steady-state performances, a voltage decoupling feedforward to improve the system robustness, and a multi-resonant harmonic compensator to prevent low-order load current harmonics to distort the inverter output voltage. Since, the voltage loop works...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: NORTH AMERICAN SALT COMPANY'S DUSTGARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  12. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  13. 同步仿生机械臂设计%Design of Synchronous Bionic Arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 王超亮; 田文龙; 李擎

    2015-01-01

    针对目前机械臂的应用存在操作复杂、设计繁琐等不足,设计一套由MCU、加速度计、直流舵机和臂环等构成的同步仿生机械臂.介绍系统总体设计,通过信号转换算法使采集信号转换为驱动舵机转动的 PWM 控制信号,采用程序消抖算法进行优化,并进行实验验证.结果表明:该仿生机械臂控制灵活,使用简单,成本低廉,可推广应用于仿人手臂运动作业、主从机械臂系统的研究领域.%Aiming at the shortcomings of complex operation and excessively detailed design, design a synchronous motion bionic arm which is composed by the MCU, accelerometers, DC servos and arm rings. Introduce the system overall design, through signal change algorithm, change choosing signal into PWM control signal for driving actuator running. Carry out optimization by using program chattering elimination algorithm. Then, carry out test verification. The result shows that the bionic arm control is nimble, easy to use with low cost. It can be used fields such as bionic arm operation, master-slave manipulator system and so on.

  14. 基于ARM的四足机器人分层控制系统%Hierarchy Control System of Quadruped Robot Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭为; 蒋蓁; 董金秋

    2011-01-01

    For good control of the quadruped robot with walking and skating abilities and for implementation of expansibility of modularization and function of the robot, a hierarchy system is adopted to control the robot. A MCU is used for real time driving control of the actuator and ARM9 used for sensor information acquisition and processing. The design of graphic interfaces is carried out on the PC with the help of VC++.%为了实现时具有步行、滑行复合运动的四足机器人的良好控制.实现该机器人的模块化和功能的扩展性,采用了分层控制体系架构来实现机器人的控制.使用单片机来实现舵机的实时驱动控制.使用ARM9实现传感器的采集和信息的处理,在PC机上利用VC++实现图形界面的设计.

  15. Effects of Action Observational Training Plus Brain-Computer Interface-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paretic Arm Motor Recovery in Patient with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, TaeHoon; Kim, SeongSik; Lee, ByoungHee

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether action observational training (AOT) plus brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) has a positive influence on motor recovery of paretic upper extremity in patients with stroke. This was a hospital-based, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Thirty patients with a first-time stroke were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The BCI-FES group administered to AOT plus BCI-FES on the paretic upper extremity five times per week during 4 weeks while both groups received conventional therapy. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity, Motor Activity Log (MAL), Modified Barthel Index and range of motion of paretic arm. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks. All baseline outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 4 weeks, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity sub-items (total, shoulder and wrist), MAL (MAL-Activity of Use and Quality of Movement), Modified Barthel Index and wrist flexion range of motion were significantly higher in the BCI-FES group (p stroke rehabilitation. The limitations of the study are that subjects had a certain limited level of upper arm function, and the sample size was comparatively small; hence, it is recommended that future large-scale trials should consider stratified and lager populations according to upper arm function.

  16. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...

  17. Development of a Predictive Display Interface to assist control of a Robot Arm in a Telepresence System

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Eivind

    2012-01-01

    Operation and maintenance O&M is an expensive but necessary part of almost any industrial endeavor. This becomes even more expensive when the object in need of O&M is located in remote places. This will be the case if you have a wind farm at sea. To get the cost of this down research into using a robot or possibly a robotic arm to do remote O&M has been initiated. This Thesis deals with some of the challenges when it comes to remote presence or telepresence and the use of a roboti...

  18. Space station definitions, design, and development. Task 5: Multiple arm telerobot coordination and control: Manipulator design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed methodology applicable to the design of manipulator systems is described. The current design process is especially weak in the preliminary design phase, since there is no accepted measure to be used in trading off different options available for the various subsystems. The design process described uses Cartesian End-Effector Impedance as a measure of performance for the system. Having this measure of performance, it is shown how it may be used to determine the trade-offs necessary to the preliminary design phase. The design process involves three main parts: (1) determination of desired system performance in terms of End-Effector Impedance; (2) trade-off design options to achieve this desired performance; and (3) verification of system performance through laboratory testing. The design process is developed using numerous examples and experiments to demonstrate the feasability of this approach to manipulator design.

  19. Development and experimental verification of a robust active noise control system for a diesel engine in submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachau, D.; Jukkert, S.; Hövelmann, N.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of an ANC (active noise control)-system designed for a particular application in the exhaust line of a submarine. Thereby, tonal components of the exhaust noise in the frequency band from 75 Hz to 120 Hz are reduced by more than 30 dB. The ANC-system is based on the feedforward leaky FxLMS-algorithm. The observability of the sound pressure in standing wave field is ensured by using two error microphones. The noninvasive online plant identification method is used to increase the robustness of the controller. Online plant identification is extended by a time-varying convergence gain to improve the performance in the presence of slight error in the frequency of the reference signal.

  20. Characterization of and sensor-model verification and control of the properties of PMR-13 during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Prettyman, T.; Robillard, K.; Smith, J.; Nicoletti, A.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Koury, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This study presents an in situ sensor and a process-simulation model developed for monitoring and controlling the cure process of PMR-15. The time-temperature dependence of the buildup in the molecular network structure, extent of reaction, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during the cure of PMR-15 are discussed. The relationship of the time-temperature cycle used during imidization to the length of the endcapped chains formed is examined. The relationship of the time-temperature cure-processing cycle to the reaction kinetics, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during crosslinking is analyzed using frequency-dependent electromagnetic sensors and the Loos processing model. Application of the FDEMS sensing technique and the process-simulation model for quality assurance processing and automated on-line control of cure is discussed.

  1. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  2. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  3. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instr

  4. Development of the control system on ARM for semiconducting incubator%半导体培养箱的ARM嵌入式控制系统研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍琦; 许丽佳; 张开恒; 张珂铭; 尹新建; 孙磊

    2011-01-01

    针对传统培养箱加热制冷器件能耗高、体积大且温控精度不高的特点,应用热电半导体对培养箱的温度进行调节.采用ARM920T架构的S3C2440AL处理器并配合外围设备,在Linux嵌入式操作系统上进行核心程序研发,并加入模糊自适应PID算法,以实现对培养箱温度的精确控制.试验结果表明,该培养箱的控温相对误差达到±1.1%.%Aiming at the disadvantages of traditional incubator such as high energy consumption, big bulky and low precision, the thermoelectric semiconductor based on its Peltier effect is used to control incubator's temperature. This system is designed by using ARM920T processor S3C2440AL and the hardware driver programs developed on Linux embedded operating system, with aim of controlling temperature accurately. The experiment results show that the system can achieve the temperature relative error within ± 1.1%.

  5. Verification Account Management System (VAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Verification Account Management System (VAMS) is the centralized location for maintaining SSA's verification and data exchange accounts. VAMS account management...

  6. Brain-Machine Interface to Control a Prosthetic Arm with Monkey ECoGs during Periodic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro eMorishita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs are promising technologies to rehabilitate the function of upper limbs in severely paralyzed patients. We succeeded in developing a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG electrodes and trained in a reaching task. It had stability in preventing the misclassification of ECoG patterns. However, the latency was about 200 ms as a trade-off for the stability. To improve the response of this BMI prosthetic arm, the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity was adopted. It was performed to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs from the ECoGs. Experiments were conducted to verify the availability of this method, and the results confirmed that the proposed method was superior to the conventional one. In addition, a performance test of the proposed method with actually achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs was performed, and we found that the motor intention is finely expressed through estimated muscle activity from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity.

  7. Verification of applicability of the Trimble RTX satellite technology with xFill function in establishing surveying control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents the results of real time measurements of test geodetic control network points using the RTK GPS and RTX Extended technologies. The Trimble RTX technology uses the xFill function, which enables real measurements without the need for constant connection with the ASG EUPOS system reference stations network. Comparative analyses of the results of measurements using the methods were performed and they were compared with the test control network data assumed to be error-free. Although the Trimble RTX technology is an innovative measurement method which is rarely used now, the possibilities it provides in surveying works, including building geodetic control networks, are satisfactory and it will certainly contribute to improving the organisation of surveying works. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów w czasie rzeczywistym punktów osnowy testowej z wykorzystaniem technologii RTK GPS oraz RTX Extended. W technologii Trimble RTX wykorzystano funkcję xFill, która daje możliwości realnego wykonywania pomiaru bez konieczności stałej łączności z siecią stacji referencyjnych systemu ASG EUPOS. Wykonano analizy porównawcze wyników pomiaru między metodami oraz odniesiono je do danych osnowy testowej, przyjętych za bezbłędne. Choć technologia Trimble RTX jest innowacyjną metodą pomiaru i jeszcze rzadko stosowaną, to możliwości jakie daje w realizacjach prac geodezyjnych, w tym zakładaniu osnów pomiarowych, są bardzo zadawalające i z pewnością przyczyni się do jeszcze lepszej i bardziej ekonomicznej organizacji prac geodezyjnych.

  8. Intelligent Door Control System Based on FPGA + ARM%基于FPGA+ARM的智能图像门控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张挺飞; 樊永生; 孙凌云

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于图像的智能门控系统,成功改善了传统智能门控系统控制范围小、灵敏度低的缺点.系统采用FPGA+ARM双控制器的硬件结构,实现了系统的小型化和实时性.FPGA控制摄像头采集图像数据,并进行灰度预处理,通过2片SRAM乒乓操作实时缓存图像数据,采用总线的方式与ARM嵌入式系统进行通信,并通过移植OpenCV实现图像门控算法.实验结果表明该系统的准确率达到96%.%An intelligent door control system based on the image technology is proposed and implemented. Therefore, the shortcomings of the small range, low sensitivity of the traditional intelligent door control system are successfully improved. The system of miniaturization and real-time is realized by the hardware structure of double controller (FPGA + ARM). The image data is collected by a camera which is controlled by FPGA. And at the same time the grayscale is pretreated. Image data is cached in real time by two SRAM ping-pong operations. Using the bus and ARM embedded system to communicate and the image door control algorithm is achieved by transplanting OpenCV. Experimental results show that the accuracy rate is up to 96%.

  9. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  10. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinlu; Huang, Shanguo; Wei, Yongfeng; Zhai, Wensheng; Xu, Wenjing; Yin, Shan; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Wanyi

    2014-12-01

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  11. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xinlu [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Shanguo, E-mail: shghuang@bupt.edu.cn; Wei, Yongfeng; Zhai, Wensheng; Xu, Wenjing; Yin, Shan; Gu, Wanyi [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhou, Jing [Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  12. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system

  13. Projection on Proper elements for code control: Verification, numerical convergence, and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bufferand, H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.; Tamain, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to (1) checking the correct implementation of models, (2) determining the convergence of numerical methods, and (3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any number of dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify its ratio of cost to benefit. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.

  14. Tolerance Verification of Micro and Nano Structures on Polycarbonate Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Micro and nano structures are an increasing challenge in terms of tolerance verification and process quality control: smaller dimensions led to a smaller tolerance zone to be evaluated. This paper focuses on the verification of CD, DVD and HD-DVD nanoscale features. CD tolerance features are defi......Micro and nano structures are an increasing challenge in terms of tolerance verification and process quality control: smaller dimensions led to a smaller tolerance zone to be evaluated. This paper focuses on the verification of CD, DVD and HD-DVD nanoscale features. CD tolerance features...

  15. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  16. Design and verification of focal plane assembly thermal control system of one space-based astronomy telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-gang; Fan, Xue-wu; Wang, Chen-jie; Wang, Ying-hao; Feng, Liang-jie; Du, Yun-fei; Ren, Guo-rui; Wang, Wei; Li, Chuang; Gao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    One space-based astronomy telescope will observe astronomy objects whose brightness should be lower than 23th magnitude. To ensure the telescope performance, very low system noise requirements need extreme low CCD operating temperature (lower than -65°C). Because the satellite will be launched in a low earth orbit, inevitable space external heat fluxes will result in a high radiator sink temperature (higher than -65°C). Only passive measures can't meet the focal plane cooling specification and active cooling technologies must be utilized. Based on detailed analysis on thermal environment of the telescope and thermal characteristics of focal plane assembly (FPA), active cooling system which is based on thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and heat rejection system (HRS) which is based on flexible heat pipe and radiator have been designed. Power consumption of TECs is dependent on the heat pumped requirements and its hot side temperature. Heat rejection capability of HRS is mainly dependent on the radiator size and temperature. To compromise TEC power consumption and the radiator size requirement, thermal design of FPA must be optimized. Parasitic heat loads on the detector is minimized to reduce the heat pumped demands of TECs and its power consumption. Thermal resistance of heat rejection system is minimized to reject the heat dissipation of TECs from the hot side to the radiator efficiently. The size and surface coating of radiator are optimized to compromise heat reject ion requirements and system constraints. Based on above work, transient thermal analysis of FPA is performed. FPA prototype model has been developed and thermal vacuum/balance test has been accomplished. From the test, temperature of key parts and working parameters of TECs in extreme cases have been acquired. Test results show that CCD can be controlled below -65°C and all parts worked well during the test. All of these verified the thermal design of FPA and some lessons will be presented in this

  17. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  18. Dynamics of controlled mechanical systems; Proceedings of the IUTAM/IFAC Symposium, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Zurich, Switzerland, May 30-June 3, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, G.; Mansour, M.

    Theoretical and applications aspects of control systems are discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to modeling, design tools, graphical tools, the dynamics of controlled mechanical systems, sensors and actuators, aerospace applications, robotics, and vehicles. Particular attention is given to model verification using finite-effect sequences, hardware-software interfaces for dynamical simulations, graphical verification of complex multibody motion in space applications, a magnetic-bearing control system for compensating unbalance force, the orientation of large orbital stations, modeling and control of an elastic robot arm with a prismatic joint, a decomposed-parameter identification approach for robot dynamics, and Japanese research on biped robots.

  19. Study on the control system of automatic welding system based on ARM%基于ARM的机器人自动焊接控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段锦程; 石永华; 俞国庆; 梁斌

    2011-01-01

    Welding distortion emerges in three-dimensional seam welding.The teaching-playback robot can not correct the deviation real-timely by itself.Therefore,it is necessary to correct the deviation during welding process real-timely.Based on ARM9-S3C2440,by using RS-232 to communicate with welding robot,this control system can adjust the welding traveling path in real-time.lt can control the position of the welding torch to get rid of the side effect of hot deformation.Using this control system, it is guaranteed that not only the welding torch moves along the seam center,but also that the contact tube to workpiece distance(CTWD) is equal.In welding experiments, it produces good welding quality.%立体曲线焊缝焊接时会产生较大的焊接变形,如以示教方式进行机器人焊接将导致焊接路径的偏离,必须在焊接过程中进行实时纠偏.设计开发了一种焊接机器人控制系统,硬件以ARM9-S3C2440为核心,通过RS232与机器人进行通信,编写了控制软件,实现了焊接机器人的焊枪位置实时调整,有效应对了焊接热变形的影响.既保证了焊枪沿着坡口中心运动,又保证了导电嘴到工件的距离(CTWD),焊接工艺稳定,焊缝质量较好.

  20. SSN Verification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The SSN Verification Service is used by Java applications to execute the GUVERF02 service using the WebSphere/CICS Interface. It accepts several input data fields...

  1. Solar Automatic Tracking Double Fuzzy Control System Based on ARM%基于ARM的太阳自动跟踪双模糊控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景艳; 李玉东; 杨晓邦

    2012-01-01

    针对太阳自动跟踪系统采用常规的PID控制器存在着跟踪精度低,超调量大等缺点,提出了一种基于ARM的太阳自动跟踪双模糊控制系统的设计方案;以32位ARM嵌入式微处理器为核心,采用光电跟踪和太阳运动轨迹跟踪相结合的混合跟踪模式;在光电跟踪模式下.采用模糊控制;在太阳运动轨迹跟踪模式下,采用模糊PID分段式控制,并依据光强的大小自动切换控制器;采用两个同样规格的太阳能电池板,分别采用固定安装和太阳自动跟踪系统测试太阳能电池板的采光强度;实验结果表明,该系统具有较高的跟踪精度,实现了对太阳全天候的跟踪,有效地提高了光电转换效率.%The solar automatic tracking system adopting the conventional PID controller has low tracking precision and big overshoot. The solar automatic tracking double fuzzy control system based on ARM is put forward. Embedded microcontroller 32-bit ARM processor is the core. A kind of mixed tracking mode is adopted, and it combines photoelectric tracking mode and solar trajectory tracking mode. The double fuzzy control method is presented, the fuzzy control method is adopted in photoelectric tracking mode, and in solar trajectory tracking mode, the fuzzy PID segmented tracking control method is put forward. And the controller can be automatically switched control mode according to light intensity. The fixed installation and the automatic tracking system are respectively used to test the solar panels daylighting strength. The experimental results show that the solar automatic tracking system is possessed of high tracking precision, realizes the sun round-the-clock tracking and effectively improves the photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  3. Predicting land use and soil controls on erosion and sediment redistribution in agricultural loess areas: model development and cross scale verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Scherer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies soil and land use controls on sediment mobilisation and redistribution in cultivated loess soil landscapes, as these landscapes are frequently used for intensive cultivation and are highly susceptible to erosion. To this end we developed and verified a process based model named CATFLOW-SED at the plot, hillslope and catchment scales. The model relies on an explicit representation of hillslopes and their dominant physiographical characteristics which control overland flow formation, particle detachment and sediment redistribution (transport and sedimentation. Erosion processes are represented by means of the steady state approximation of the sediment continuity equation, their interaction is conceptualized based on the sediment transport capacity of overland flow. Particle detachment is represented by means of a threshold approach accounting for the attacking forces of rainfall and overland flow which need to exceed a threshold in soil erosion resistance to mobilize soil particles (Scherer et al., 2012. Transport capacity of overland flow is represented as proposed by Engelund and Hansen (1967. Top soil particles and aggregates are detached and transported according to their share in the particle size distribution. Size selective deposition of soil particles is determined based on the sink velocity of the various particle size classes. CATFLOW-SED was verified on the plot, hillslope and catchment scale, where either particle detachment or lateral redistribution or sedimentation is the limiting factor, to check whether the respective parameterizations are transferable for simulations at the next higher scale. For verification we used the Weiherbach data set providing plot scale rainfall simulation experiments, long term monitoring of sediment yields on a selected hillslope as well as observed sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet. Our findings corroborate that CATFLOW-SED predicted the sediment loads at all scales within

  4. Verification of post permanently manned configuration Space Station elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, E. J.; Edwards, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the techniques and ground systems designed to fulfill post permanently manned configuration (PMC) Space Station verification tasks. Consideration is given to analysis using computer math models and computer-aided interface verification systems, testing using simulators and interface mixtures, and special inspection. It is noted that an initial Space Station design that accommodates and facilitates verification is crucial to an effective verification program as well as proper instrumentation, built-in test capability, and a precise configuration management, control and record system. It is concluded that post PMC verification should be accounted for both in the initial Space Station design and in the subsequent development of initial assembly flight verification techniques and capabilities.

  5. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to

  6. Design and Research of Intelligent Control System for Fruit and Vegetable Packaging Machine-Based on Embedded ARM%果蔬包装机智控系统的设计与研究-基于嵌入式 ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗成; 刘志刚

    2016-01-01

    -tant.The AT91SAM9263 processor was used to design and research of the fruit and vegetable packing machine intelligent control system , the mechanical and electronic , intelligent test and a photoelectric sensor on various subjects based on ARM embedded .With a high degree of automation , high technology content , better accuracy and stability , high by fea-tures,it can greatly improve the quality of packaging , complete on different kinds of products packaging with strong adapt-ability .It not only improves the efficiency of packaging operations , but also savse the economic costand for farmers .

  7. Servo control system design based on ARM and CPLD%基于ARM与CPLD的伺服控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永停; 李洪文

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the complexity of hardware design and improve the real time of the servo control system,the servo controller has been designed based on Samsung's ARM chip S3C2440A and ALTERA's CPLD chip EPM570T144 as the control chip. The function and hardware structure of the controller and software flow has been given. To the turntable the experiment is finished and the controller has good performance through analyzing the experiment data. The experiment shows that the controller has the advantage of high integration,flexible and timing. The controller satisfies the real-time servo control.%为了降低伺服控制系统的硬件设计复杂程度和增强系统控制的实时性,设计了基于ARM和CPLD的多轴伺服电机控制器.该控制器选用三星公司的ARM芯片S3C2440A和ALTERA公司的CPLD芯片EPM570T144作为控制芯片,给出了该控制器的硬件结构和软件流程设计.利用伺服转台进行控制实验,通过对实验数据分析得出该控制器具有较好的控制性能;实验结果表明该伺服控制器能够较好的实现复杂控制算法,具有集成度高,灵活性强,实时性好的特点,满足多轴伺服控制系统实时控制的需要.

  8. Design of control for household cleaning robot based on ARM%基于arm的家用清洁机器人的控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 陈奕梅

    2014-01-01

    文章提出了一种基于ARM处理器的家用清洁机器人控制系统,包括硬件设计和软件设计。硬件部分包括主控器模块、电源及欠压检测模、传感器模块、人机交互模块、驱动模块以及清洁模块。软件部分设计了清洁机器人的主要控制流程。该控制系统以通用性和功能完备为目标,使机器人具备智能清洁能力。%This paper presents a kind of control system of home cleaning robot based on ARM processor which includes hardware and software design. The hardware part includes main controller module, power supply with undervoltage detection module, sensor module, human-computer interaction module, driving module and cleaning module. The software part designs the staple control procedure of cleaning robot. This control system aims at universal and integrated functions which ensure the robot have the ability to clean intelligently.

  9. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...

  10. Demonstration and Verification System for Artificial Intelligent Swarm Control%人工智能集群控制演示验证系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安梅岩; 王兆魁; 张育林

    2016-01-01

    为了对人工智能集群的自组织控制方法进行验证,提出了一种在实验室环境下低成本建立人工智能集群控制演示验证系统的方法。系统由演示场、多个移动个体、合作标识及识别单元、控制及信息分配单元共同组成。合作标识及识别单元能准确获取多个个体的身份信息和高精度的位姿信息。控制及信息分配单元对智能集群中个体间的信息交换和个体控制策略进行模拟。最后,以机动自组织探测集群为验证对象,在人工智能集群控制演示验证系统中对基于人工势场法的自组织控制策略进行演示验证。验证结果表明,该智能集群控制演示验证系统能够在实验室环境下对智能集群的运行过程进行演示和验证,可以更真实地体现智能集群的实际表现。%A low-cost demonstration and verification system is developed and established in laboratory condition to demon-strate and verify the self-organizing control strategy of an intelligent swarm. The system consists of an arena, multiple mobile individuals, the cooperative identification logo and the identification unit, and the control and information allocating unit. The cooperative identification and the identification unit provides the accurate identification and the high-precision position and direction data of the multiple mobile individuals. The control and information allocating unit simulates the rules of the infor-mation exchanging and control among the individuals of an intelligent swarm. Finally, the mobile self-organized detecting swarm is taken as a demonstration case, and the self-organizing control strategy based on artificial potential field is demon-strated and verified in the system. The demonstration results show that the proposed system can demonstrate and verify the operation process of an intelligent swarm in laboratory condition, and the demonstration can provide the actual performance of an intelligent

  11. Nuclear arms: ethics, strategy, politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolsey, R.J. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The range of debate over strategy and arms control today is broader than it was in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In part this is because the early 1980s debate has involved questioning of the fundamental notion of deterrence - by no less than the American Catholic bishops. Today's debate has also seen a national nuclear freeze campaign that, although its congressional supporters have held firmly to a bilateral approach, was tilted perceptibly towards unilateralism by noncongressional leaders at their national conference in February 1983. In one way or another the authors wrestle with different aspects of one central question: could the beginning steps for any consensus be possible, in today's climate, on strategic issues. Ethical issues are addressed in the first 3 papers: Charles Krauthammer, On Nuclear Morality; Patrick Glynn, The Moral Case for the Arms Buildup; and Michael Quinlarc, Thinking Deterrence Through. Three chapters on strategic considerations include: Brent Snowcroft, Understanding the US Strategic Arsenal; William J. Perry, Technological Prospects for US Strategic Forces; and Richard Burt, The Strategic and Political Lessons of INF. Arms control and politics is treated in chapters by: Walter B. Slocombe, Arms Control: Prospects; and Colin S. Gray, Arms Control: Problems. The nonnuclear dimensions of strategy are discussed in chapters by Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins, Reducing Vulnerability - The Energy Jugular; and Robert Kupperman, Vulnerable America. The chapters on space and defense are: Hans Mark, Arms Control and Space Technology; and Newt Gingrich and John Madison, Space and National Defense. The concluding chapters are by Sen. Sam Nunn, The Need to Reshape Military Stategy; and the editor, R. James Woolsey, The Politics of Vulnerability, 1980-1983.

  12. 21 CFR 120.11 - Verification and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 120.11 Verification and validation. (a) Verification. Each processor shall verify that the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is being implemented according to design. (1... processor to determine whether such complaints relate to the performance of the HACCP plan or...

  13. Regression Verification Using Impact Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, John; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha; Thachuk, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    versions [19]. These techniques compare two programs with a large degree of syntactic similarity to prove that portions of one program version are equivalent to the other. Regression verification can be used for guaranteeing backward compatibility, and for showing behavioral equivalence in programs with syntactic differences, e.g., when a program is refactored to improve its performance, maintainability, or readability. Existing regression verification techniques leverage similarities between program versions by using abstraction and decomposition techniques to improve scalability of the analysis [10, 12, 19]. The abstractions and decomposition in the these techniques, e.g., summaries of unchanged code [12] or semantically equivalent methods [19], compute an over-approximation of the program behaviors. The equivalence checking results of these techniques are sound but not complete-they may characterize programs as not functionally equivalent when, in fact, they are equivalent. In this work we describe a novel approach that leverages the impact of the differences between two programs for scaling regression verification. We partition program behaviors of each version into (a) behaviors impacted by the changes and (b) behaviors not impacted (unimpacted) by the changes. Only the impacted program behaviors are used during equivalence checking. We then prove that checking equivalence of the impacted program behaviors is equivalent to checking equivalence of all program behaviors for a given depth bound. In this work we use symbolic execution to generate the program behaviors and leverage control- and data-dependence information to facilitate the partitioning of program behaviors. The impacted program behaviors are termed as impact summaries. The dependence analyses that facilitate the generation of the impact summaries, we believe, could be used in conjunction with other abstraction and decomposition based approaches, [10, 12], as a complementary reduction technique. An

  14. An Inverter With New Topology and ARM-Based Control%基于ARM的新型拓扑结构的逆变电源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉莲; 田晓燕; 孙频东

    2012-01-01

    A new topological structure of photovohaic inverter is proposed. It has a simple structure, and has the ability to step up/down conversion and adapt to wide voltage range compared with the one-stage PV grid-connected inverter. Then, one-cycle control based on ARM is introduced with lower power consumption, smaller size and higher accuracy compared with the traditional one-cycle control. Finally, the control strategy is confirmed to be correct and effective by the results of simulation and experiment.%提出了一种光伏逆变电源的新型拓扑结构,该结构简单,相对于单级式并网逆变器具有升、降压的特性,能够适应较宽的电压范围.介绍了基于ARM实现的数字单周期控制,与传统的模拟单周期控制相比,具有功耗更低、体积更小、精确度更高等优点.最后通过仿真和实验验证了该方案的正确性与有效性.

  15. Design of LED-screen Display Control System based on ARM%基于ARM的LED屏显示控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任蓉; 吕强

    2012-01-01

    本文根据LED显示模块的结构特点,结合CPLD技术以实现LED显示屏动态扫描显示。设计出基于ARM+FPGA的LED屏显示系统。从硬件和软件两个方面设计,实现LED屏的显示。硬件方面采用ARM9芯片S3C2440A为主控制单元。FPGA为扫描控制单元。完成数据存储。更新以及与上位机的通信等。软件方面包括上位机应用软件和嵌入式控制软件。上位机软件编辑LED显示屏上显示的数据信息,实现与下位机的通信;嵌入式控制软件实现数据接收和存储,数据输出和图像显示,从而实现对LED屏的控制。%According to the structural features of the LED display module and CPLD technology to accomplish the dynamic scanning display of the LED screen, the ARM+FPGA LDE screen display system is designed. The dynamic display of the LED screen is carried out from two ways: hardware and soft'ware. Hardware wise, the ARM9 chip S3C2440A is the main control unit, FPGA is the scan control unit. They can store data, update and communication with the upper computer. Software including the upper computer application sotiware and embedded control software, are providing quality service. Upper computer complies the dates from the LDE screen to communication with the subordinate part. Embedded control software is able to receive and store the data, transmit the data and display the image.

  16. 基于ARM的智能家居控制系统设计%Design of smart home control system based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓迪; 廖昕; 古丽米拉·克孜尔别克; 孙中华

    2015-01-01

    针对传统智能家居采用有线组建布线繁琐,增减设备需要重新布线,影响美观,且系统中的家电需要依靠家庭内部的PC,升级和维护均不方便。在此将ZigBee无线通信技术及嵌入式ARM技术结合在一起,利用Qt技术通过触摸屏进行人机交互,设计了一种既能利用PC机又能利用手持终端对家居进行控制的智能家居控制系统。以现有嵌入式ARM微处理器的开发和控制水平,开展基于ZigBee的网点部署的研究,以无线网实施家居电器的控制和管理。测试表明,该系统具有良好的实用性、可靠性和可扩展性。%Since the cumbersome wired formation is used in traditional smart home,rewiring is needed when equipment changes,its appearance is affected,the appliances in the system rely on the PC in the house,and upgrades and maintenance are not convenient. Therefore,a smart home control system controlled by PC or hand⁃held terminal was designed by combining the ZigBee wireless communication technology with the embedded ARM technology and Qt technology for human⁃computer in⁃teraction via the touch screen. Based on developing level and control ability of existing embedded ARM microprocessor,the re⁃search on network deployment based on ZigBee was carried out. The control and management of household electrical appliances are implemented through wireless network. Test results show that the system has good practicability,reliability and scalability.

  17. Verification of the algorithm of sum of fluences for quality control in IMRT; Verificacion del algoritmo de suma de fluencias para control de calidad en IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela Rodriguez, F.; Camara Turbi, A.; Melchor Iniguez, M.; Martinez Rodriguez, D.

    2013-07-01

    In prior to each IMRT treatment quality control measures face are made to verify the match between the Royal treatment and details of the Planner. verified values of absolute dose at different points of a mannequin, the distribution of doses of all the fields (individual fluences), and the distribution of dose in the treatment full (global creep). This paper compares the distribution of doses for the full treatment measurement with that obtained by combining data from the fluences of the individual fields. (Author)

  18. Wind gust warning verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  19. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; D'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  20. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories

  1. A physical zero-knowledge object comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    CERN Document Server

    Philippe, Sébastien; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. In addition to the use of such a technique as part of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information, we provide definitive evidence that measuring sensitive data is not required to perform comparisons of physical properties.

  2. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  3. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  4. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  5. 77 FR 67737 - Proposed Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity: Comment Request...: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900-0465. Type of Review... of actual attendance and verification of the student's continued enrollment in courses leading to...

  6. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology. The development of verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found essential problems followed by digitalizing of instrumentation and control. A scheme is divided into hardware and software to resolve these problems. We have analyzed the hardware V and V methodologies about common mode failure, commercial grade dedication process and electromagnetic compatibility. We have developed several guidelines, the software classification guideline, the quality assurance handbook for the software in digital I and C, the software V and V planning guideline, and the software safety guideline. And then, we have established the integrated environment for the safety-critical software based on the Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. We have also surveyed a trend and application case of test facility for establishment of functional requirements. Input/output interface which connects among the host computer and developed target and panel are designed and manufactured using UXI bus. The developed functional test facility is used for test and validate the automatic start-up intelligent control system, the dynamic alarm system, the accident identification system using hidden Markov model, and the intelligent logic tracking system. The result of evaluation of the above systems shows the functional test facility performance is sufficient in normal operating and transient conditions. (author). 24 tabs., 59 figs

  7. Design of an Error-Based Adaptive Controller for a Flexible Robot Arm Using Dynamic Pole Motion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of an adaptive controller for complex dynamic systems is a big challenge faced by the researchers. In this paper, we introduce a novel concept of dynamic pole motion (DPM for the design of an error-based adaptive controller (E-BAC. The purpose of this novel design approach is to make the system response reasonably fast with no overshoot, where the system may be time varying and nonlinear with only partially known dynamics. The E-BAC is implanted in a system as a nonlinear controller with two dominant dynamic parameters: the dynamic position feedback and the dynamic velocity feedback. For illustrating the strength of this new approach, in this paper we give an example of a flexible robot with nonlinear dynamics. In the design of this feedback adaptive controller, parameters of the controller are designed as a function of the system error. The position feedback Kp(e,t and the velocity feedback Kv(e,t are continuously varying and formulated as a function of the system error e(t. This approach for formulating the adaptive controller yields a very fast response with no overshoot.

  8. Efficacy of a Multi-level Intervention to Reduce Injecting and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in Vietnam: A Four-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian F Go

    Full Text Available Injecting drug use is a primary driver of HIV epidemics in many countries. People who inject drugs (PWID and are HIV infected are often doubly stigmatized and many encounter difficulties reducing risk behaviors. Prevention interventions for HIV-infected PWID that provide enhanced support at the individual, family, and community level to facilitate risk-reduction are needed.455 HIV-infected PWID and 355 of their HIV negative injecting network members living in 32 sub-districts in Thai Nguyen Province were enrolled. We conducted a two-stage randomization: First, sub-districts were randomized to either a community video screening and house-to-house visits or standard of care educational pamphlets. Second, within each sub-district, participants were randomized to receive either enhanced individual level post-test counseling and group support sessions or standard of care HIV testing and counseling. This resulted in four arms: 1 standard of care; 2 community level intervention; 3 individual level intervention; and 4 community plus individual intervention. Follow-up was conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes were self-reported HIV injecting and sexual risk behaviors. Secondary outcomes included HIV incidence among HIV negative network members.Fewer participants reported sharing injecting equipment and unprotected sex from baseline to 24 months in all arms (77% to 4% and 24% to 5% respectively. There were no significant differences at the 24-month visit among the 4 arms (Wald = 3.40 (3 df; p = 0.33; Wald = 6.73 (3 df; p = 0.08. There were a total of 4 HIV seroconversions over 24 months with no significant difference between intervention and control arms.Understanding the mechanisms through which all arms, particularly the control arm, demonstrated both low risk behaviors and low HIV incidence has important implications for policy and prevention programming.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01689545.

  9. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  10. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor. PMID:25679364

  11. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  12. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  13. Four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles control system based on ARM%基于ARM的四旋翼无人飞行器控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乾; 孙志锋

    2011-01-01

    为改变传统以单片机为处理器的四旋翼无人飞行器的控制方式,提出了一种基于嵌入式ARM的飞行控制系统的设计和实现方案.详细介绍了控制系统的总体构成以及硬、软件设计方法,包括传感器模块、电机模块、无线通信模块.试验结果表明,该设计结合嵌入式实时操作系统,保证了系统的高可靠性和高实时性,能满足飞行器起飞、悬停、降落等飞行模态的控制要求.%In order to change the conventional control of four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles using microcontroller as the processor,a solution of flight control system based on embedded ARM was presented. The main function of the system, the hardware structure and the software design were discussed in detail, including the sensor module, the motor module, the wireless communication module. With embedded real time operating system to ensure the system' s high reliability and real-time performance, the experiments results show that the requirements of flight mode are satisfied,including taking off,hovering,and landing and so on.

  14. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  15. Design and ground verification of proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, A.; Ankersen, F.; Fehse, W.; Pauvert, C.; Pairot, J.

    This paper describes the approach to guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) design and verification for proximity operations. The most critical part of the rendezvous mission is the proximity operations phase when the distance between chaser and target is below approximately 20 m. Safety is the overriding consideration in the design of the GNC system. Requirements on the GNC system also stem from the allocation of performance between proximity operations and the mating process, docking, or capture for berthing. Whereas the design process follows a top down approach, the verification process goes bottom up in a stepwise way according to the development stage.

  16. [History of malaria control in the French armed forces: from Algeria to the Macedonian front during the first World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliani, R; Meynard, J-B; Milleliri, J-M; Verret, C; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    The French joint military health corps has long experience in malaria control. Many military physicians played an essential role in the 19th century: Maillot revolutionized malaria treatment by using quinine during the conquest of Algeria, and Laveran discovered the causal parasite (the genus Plasmodium) there. This experience continued under the direction of Laveran and the Sergent brothers on the eastern front in Greek Macedonia during World War I. The vast coordinated control plan established on this front from 1917 delivered the French infantrymen from malaria and led to victory over the Bulgarian forces, which capitulated in September 1918.

  17. 基于ARM7飞控系统多传感器数据融合方法及实现%Multi-sensor Data Fusion Method and Implementation of Unmanned Helicopter Control System Based on ARM7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙豫川; 裴海龙; 吴毅彬

    2013-01-01

    无人直升机控制系统是一个典型的多传感器系统,为了实现各传感器的优势互补,需要进行多传感器数据融合;可以采用十一阶扩展卡尔曼滤波器——EKF来实现数据融合滤波;这里介绍了十一阶扩展卡尔曼滤波器在基于arm7无人直升机飞控系统中的应用,卡拉曼滤波有效地去除了角度约的漂移量;为了降低十一阶kalman在ARM 7中的运算时间,可以将一个大系统拆分成若干小系统,然后分别对小系统进行滤波,同时对卡尔曼滤波里面的一些运算做优化处理;最终在主频是48 MHZ的ARM 7中的运算时间由70 ms减少到25 ms,成功实现了十一阶卡尔曼滤波在本系统中的高效运行.

  18. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; White, Timothy A.; Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.

    2011-09-01

    Future arms control treaties may push nuclear weapons limits to unprecedented low levels and may entail precise counting of warheads as well as distinguishing between strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Such advances will require assessment of form and function to confidently verify the presence or absence of nuclear warheads and/or their components. Imaging with penetrating radiation can provide such an assessment and could thus play a unique role in inspection scenarios. Yet many imaging capabilities have been viewed as too intrusive from the perspective of revealing weapon design details, and the potential for the release of sensitive information poses challenges in verification settings. A widely held perception is that verification through radiography requires images of sufficient quality that an expert (e.g., a trained inspector or an image-matching algorithm) can verify the presence or absence of components of a device. The concept of information barriers (IBs) has been established to prevent access to relevant weapon-design information by inspectors (or algorithms), and has, to date, limited the usefulness of radiographic inspection. The challenge of this project is to demonstrate that radiographic information can be used behind an IB to improve the capabilities of treaty-verification weapons-inspection systems.

  19. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  20. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  1. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  2. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  3. Integrated Java Bytecode Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Existing Java verifiers perform an iterative data-flow analysis to discover the unambiguous type of values stored on the stack or in registers. Our novel verification algorithm uses abstract interpretation to obtain definition/use information for each register and stack location in the program...

  4. Ten-dimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain-machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodlinger, B.; Downey, J. E.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Schwartz, A. B.; Boninger, M. L.; Collinger, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. In a previous study we demonstrated continuous translation, orientation and one-dimensional grasping control of a prosthetic limb (seven degrees of freedom) by a human subject with tetraplegia using a brain-machine interface (BMI). The current study, in the same subject, immediately followed the previous work and expanded the scope of the control signal by also extracting hand-shape commands from the two 96-channel intracortical electrode arrays implanted in the subject’s left motor cortex. Approach. Four new control signals, dictating prosthetic hand shape, replaced the one-dimensional grasping in the previous study, allowing the subject to control the prosthetic limb with ten degrees of freedom (three-dimensional (3D) translation, 3D orientation, four-dimensional hand shaping) simultaneously. Main results. Robust neural tuning to hand shaping was found, leading to ten-dimensional (10D) performance well above chance levels in all tests. Neural unit preferred directions were broadly distributed through the 10D space, with the majority of units significantly tuned to all ten dimensions, instead of being restricted to isolated domains (e.g. translation, orientation or hand shape). The addition of hand shaping emphasized object-interaction behavior. A fundamental component of BMIs is the calibration used to associate neural activity to intended movement. We found that the presence of an object during calibration enhanced successful shaping of the prosthetic hand as it closed around the object during grasping. Significance. Our results show that individual motor cortical neurons encode many parameters of movement, that object interaction is an important factor when extracting these signals, and that high-dimensional operation of prosthetic devices can be achieved with simple decoding algorithms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364480.

  5. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  6. 基于PMAC的仿人按摩机器人手臂控制系统设计%Design of arm control system for massage humanoid robotic based on PMAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张邦成; 韩跃营; 王占礼; 庞在祥; 张玉玲

    2012-01-01

    The arm of the humanoid massage robot is an important component of the massage robot, which control system is a key factor of the chinese massage robot for achieving precise position control of the massage position.To realize precise position control of the massage humanoid robot arm,the control system of the massage humanoid robot arm was designed based on PC+PMAC.Then the parameters of PMAC were set and the parameters of PID controller were optimized through the communication of PMAC and PC Based on VC++,the control system software was designed.The simulation and practical application results show that the control system of humanoid massage robot arm can fulfill the design requirements.%仿人按摩机器人手臂是按摩机器人的重要组成部分,其控制系统是中医按摩机器人完成按摩位置精确定位的关键因素.为了实现对仿人按摩机器人手臂精确控制,基于PC+PMAC运动控制卡设计了仿人按摩机器人手臂控制系统.通过PC与PMAC运动控制卡之间的通信对PMAC运动控制卡进行参数设置以及PMAC运动控制卡的PID控制器参数的优化.基于VC++软件开发平台设计了控制系统软件.仿真及实际应用效果表明,设计开发的仿人按摩机器人手臂控制系统实现了对手臂的控制,达到了设计要求.

  7. Research on the Design Verification and Test Scheme of AP1000 Instrument Control Protective System%AP1000仪控保护系统的设计验证与测试方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊威; 武维康

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the design verification and test scheme of AP1000 power station instrument control protective system from its laws and regulations system, design verification method, testing scope, integration strategy, test classification, and implementation process and other aspects, thus the complete frame structure from development to application orienting at the third generation non active nuclear station instrument control protective system is formed. It has very important referential significance for the subsequent project development, and also provides a reference standard for system localization propulsion later.%本文对AP1000电站仪控保护系统的设计验证与测试方案进行了深入研究,从其遵循的法规体系,设计验证方法,测试范围,集成策略,测试分级,实施过程等多个方面进行了分析,从而形成了一套针对于第三代非能动核电站仪控保护系统,自开发至应用的完整框架结构,对后续项目的开展有着十分重要的借鉴意义,也为后期系统国产化推进提供了参照标准。

  8. Adverse Events from a Randomized, Multi-Arm, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mebendazole in Children 12-24 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serene A; Montresor, Antonio; Casapía, Martín; Pezo, Lidsky; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale deworming interventions, using anthelminthic drugs, are recommended in areas where the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high. Anthelminthic safety has been established primarily in school-age children. Our objective was to provide evidence on adverse events from anthelminthic use in early childhood. A randomized multi-arm, placebo-controlled trial of mebendazole, administered at different times and frequencies, was conducted in children 12 months of age living in Iquitos, Peru. Children were followed up to 24 months of age. The association between mebendazole administration and the occurrence of a serious or minor adverse event was determined using logistic regression. There was a total of 1,686 administrations of mebendazole and 1,676 administrations of placebo to 1,760 children. Eighteen serious adverse events (i.e., 11 deaths and seven hospitalizations) and 31 minor adverse events were reported. There was no association between mebendazole and the occurrence of a serious adverse event (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47, 3.09) or a minor adverse event (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.41, 1.72). Results from our trial support evidence of safety in administering mebendazole during early childhood. These results support World Health Organization deworming policy and the scaling up of interventions to reach children as of 12 months of age in endemic areas. PMID:27139441

  9. A Parallel-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effects of a Far-Infrared-Emitting Collar on Neck Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a far-infrared-emitting collar (FIRC on the management of neck disorders. A neck disorder is generalized as neck muscle pain and its relative mental disorders because the etiologies of the neck’s multidimensional syndrome are either muscle impairment or psychiatric distress. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of a FIRC by evaluating objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and single-blinded design. In this trial, 60 participants with neck disorders were observed at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to the placebo group after a 30-min intervention, the FIRC demonstrated a statistically significant biological effect in elevating skin temperature and promoting blood circulation with p-values 0.003 and 0.020, respectively. In addition, FIRC application significantly reduced neck muscle tension, relieved pain, ameliorated fatigue, improved depression, and decreased anxiety. The FIRC could therefore be a potential treatment for neck disorders.

  10. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yinan; Wand, Vinzenz; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: yinan@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  11. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than 10 micrometers. The APCT Verification Center...

  13. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  14. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  15. 基于抽象和搜索空间划分的安全性判定方法%Security Analysis of Access Control Policy Based on Predicate Abstract and Verification Space Division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌达; 华明辉; 周从华; 宋香梅; 鞠时光

    2011-01-01

    In order to implement security analysis of access control policy rapidly, predicate abstract with verification space division was presented, I. E. Transfer pristine state machine model analysis to abstract state machine model which contains fewer states. Furthermore, verification space division was introduced to decrease the dimensions of model checking. Endorsed by both theoretic analysis and experiment,time and space requirement are effectively reduced. Compared with the known methods,our methodology is more efficiency and less human interacted.%为满足访问控制策略安全性快速判定的要求,提出一种基于谓词抽象和验证空间划分的访问控制策略状态空间约减方法,将在访问控制策略原始状态机模型上的安全性分析工作转移到包含较少状态的抽象模型上,并进一步划分抽象模型的验证空间,以提高效率.理论分析和实验数据均表明,其安全性分析所需的时间和空间都得到有效约减.与传统方法相比,它具有速度更快、自动化程度更高等优点.

  16. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  17. Validation and verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Manickam

    2007-01-01

    @@ The challenge of developing a reliable predictive code with complicated scientific models, includes a process of verification and validation. The process of simulating a physics phenomenon generally includes:1. identifying the key features of the underlying physics;2. determining a suitable model set of equations;3. writing a computer code, which can solve the set of equations, and4. running the code and comparing the results with experimental data.

  18. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    OpenAIRE

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN; Jeyalatha SIVARAMAKRISHNAN

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the...

  19. TFE verification program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TF Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive features of thermionic power conversion technology were recognized but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern. The general logic and strategy of the program to achieve its objectives is shown. Five prior programs form the basis for the TFE Verification Program: (1) AEC/NASA program of the 1960s and early 1970; (2) SP-100 concept development program; (3) SP-100 thermionic technology program; (4) Thermionic irradiations program in TRIGA in FY-88; and (5) Thermionic Program in 1986 and 1987.

  20. ARM-based Control System Design of Embedded Computerized Hosiery Machine%基于ARM的嵌入式电脑丝袜机控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张团善; 罗富文; 吴辉

    2014-01-01

    针对国内丝袜机计算机控制系统在稳定性、扩展性、可移植性等方面较差的问题,设计了一种基于ARM的嵌入式电脑丝袜机控制系统。在介绍控制系统的设计要求、基本原理及功能实现的基础上,提出了该系统采用ARM920T架构的32位工业级处理芯片S3C2440A作为主控制器,采用ARM Cortex-M3内核的32位微处理器STM32F103作为现场总线的从节点控制器;并详细分析控制系统的工作流程,以及主控制器和底层功能模块的软、硬件实现方法。实践证明,该控制系统具有集成度高、稳定性好、实时性强等优点。%In terms of the problem of bad stability, extensibility and transportability of control system of domes-tic hosiery machine, the paper designs a new kind of control system for embedded computerized hosiery machine based on ARM. Based on the introduction of design requirement, basic principle and function realization, it pro-vides that the 32-bit industrial-grade processing chip S3C2440A of ARM920T framework is the master controller, and the 32-bit microprocessor STM32F103 of ARM Cortex-M3 core is node controller of field bus; besides, it ana-lyzes in detail the working processing, as well as the achieving method of software and hardware of master con-troller and bottom function-realizing module. This control system presents some obvious advantages, such as high integration, good stability and strong real-time control and so on.

  1. 铝合金控制臂球头销旋铆工艺有限元分析%Simulation on the Ball Joint Sealing of Aluminum Control Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田浩彬; 李学磊; 刘晓航; 苑文婧; 鲁成伟

    2012-01-01

      汽车控制臂球头销封装是汽车底盘零件装配中的重要一环,其装配质量直接影响到汽车转向部件的寿命。采用有限元分析方法对铝合金控制臂球头销的旋铆封装技术进行了研究,对旋铆过程中铝合金控制臂的变形及受力情况进行了分析,并通过试验方法进行了验证,为汽车控制臂球头销的整体封装提供了有效的技术支持。%  Ball joint sealing of aluminum control arms is one of the key processes to the assembly of automobile chassis, which directly influents the life cycle of steering systems of automobiles. The revolving-reveting process for ball joint of control arms is studied by finite element method, and the deformation of housing is advanced and verified by experiments, which can provide technical support to the ball joint sealing of automobile control arms.

  2. Nuclear non-proliferation and arms control: Are we making progress? 7 November 2005, Washington, DC, Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, four developments have radically altered the security landscape - the emergence of clandestine nuclear supply networks, the spread of nuclear fuel cycle technology, the efforts by more countries to acquire nuclear weapons, and the declared ambition of terrorists to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction. Four 'yardsticks' are proposed against which to gauge the IAEA's recent performance and to set future goals: (1) the effectiveness of nuclear verification; (2) the control of sensitive nuclear technology; (3) the protection of nuclear material; and (4) compliance with commitments. The effectiveness of nuclear verification depends on the extend of access to information and locations in a given country and inspections can only verify what countries declare. The expanded access provided by the Additional Protocol to safeguards agreements enables the Agency to verify possible undeclared activities however both safeguards agreements are focused on nuclear material and therefore the Agency's authority to investigate possible parallel weaponization activity is limited. In addition only 70 countries have the additional protocol on force. Additional transparency measures' may be required. The IAEA is exploring innovative technologies (such as noble gas sampling) for detecting undeclared nuclear facilities and activities. The Agency has yet to establish a mechanism under which states systematically share information with the IAEA on the export of sensitive nuclear material and certain technology. The control of sensitive nuclear technology focuses on the control over activities that involve uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. A group of international experts proposes to 1) provide assurance of supply of reactor technology and nuclear fuel; 2) accept a time-limited moratorium (of perhaps 5-10 years) on new uranium enrichment and plutonium separation facilities - at the very least for countries that do not currently have such technologies; 3

  3. High Accuracy Temperature Control System in Cliniea Chemistry Analyzer Based on ARM9%基于ARM9的高精度生化分析仪温度控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克平; 曹书权; 李岩

    2008-01-01

    全自动生化分析仪开发研制中的一个重要组成部分是温控系统的设计,被检样品和试剂只有在指定的温度下检测才能保证生化检验结果的可靠性.设计了一种基于ARM9处理器的温控系统,结合嵌入式Linux操作系统,实现模糊自整定PID控制算法,具有控制精度高,响应快,稳定性、实时性好等优点.

  4. Intelligent Control System for Encapsulation Machine Based on ARM7%基于ARM7的表贴元件包装机智能控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岩; 马丽娟

    2008-01-01

    根据我国当前表帖元件包装机温度控制精度及封装效率都较低的现状,设计了基于ARM7处理器S3C44B0X的智能控制系统.介绍了该控制系统的硬件电路组成并给出了主程序流程,针对温度控制提出了带有加权因子的模糊控制算法.实际应用表明,该智能系统的控制效果优于常规控制系统.

  5. Protocol for a multicentre, parallel-arm, 12-month, randomised, controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery versus conservative care for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FASHIoN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R; Dickenson, E J; Wall, P D H; Donovan, J L; Foster, N E; Hutchinson, C E; Parsons, N; Petrou, S; Realpe, A; Achten, J; Achana, F; Adams, A; Costa, M L; Griffin, J; Hobson, R; Smith, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is a recognised cause of young adult hip pain. There has been a large increase in the number of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for FAI; however, a recent Cochrane review highlighted that there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating treatment effectiveness. We aim to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery versus best conservative care for patients with FAI syndrome. Methods We will conduct a multicentre, pragmatic, assessor-blinded, two parallel arm, RCT comparing arthroscopic surgery to physiotherapy-led best conservative care. 24 hospitals treating NHS patients will recruit 344 patients over a 26-month recruitment period. Symptomatic adults with radiographic signs of FAI morphology who are considered suitable for arthroscopic surgery by their surgeon will be eligible. Patients will be excluded if they have radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, previous significant hip pathology or previous shape changing surgery. Participants will be allocated in a ratio of 1:1 to receive arthroscopic surgery or conservative care. Recruitment will be monitored and supported by qualitative intervention to optimise informed consent and recruitment. The primary outcome will be pain and function assessed by the international hip outcome tool 33 (iHOT-33) measured 1-year following randomisation. Secondary outcomes include general health (short form 12), quality of life (EQ5D-5L) and patient satisfaction. The primary analysis will compare change in pain and function (iHOT-33) at 12 months between the treatment groups, on an intention-to-treat basis, presented as the mean difference between the trial groups with 95% CIs. The study is funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme (13/103/02). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is granted by the Edgbaston Research Ethics committee (14/WM/0124). The results will be disseminated through open access peer

  6. Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of melatonin in a human inflammatory pain model: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Gögenur, Ismail; Fenger, Andreas Q; Petersen, Marian C; Rosenberg, Jacob; Werner, Mads U

    2015-11-01

    Antinociceptive effects of melatonin have been documented in a wide range of experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic, antihyperalgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin using a validated burn injury (BI) model in healthy male volunteers. The design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study. Each volunteer participated in 3 identical study sessions with intravenous administration of placebo, melatonin 10 mg, or melatonin 100 mg. Sixty minutes after bolus injection of study medication, a BI was induced by a computerized contact thermode (47.0°C, 420 seconds, 5.0 × 2.5 cm). Pain ratings during the BI and quantitative sensory testing at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the BI were performed. Quantitative sensory testing included assessments of secondary hyperalgesia areas, mechanical and thermal thresholds in the BI area, and pressure algometry. Furthermore, markers of inflammation, skin-reflectance spectrophotometry, and high-resolution ultrasonography were applied to measure skin erythema and dermal thickness in the BI area. Pain during the BI and secondary hyperalgesia areas were defined as primary outcomes. Twenty-nine volunteers were randomized and completed the study. While the BI induced large secondary hyperalgesia areas and significantly increased the markers of inflammation, no significant effects of melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared with placebo. The administration of melatonin was not associated with any adverse effects. Melatonin did not demonstrate any analgesic, antihyperalgesic, or anti-inflammatory properties in the BI model.

  7. Efficacy and safety of bilateral continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus: design of a three-armed randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plontke Stefan K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound and noise in absence of an auditory stimulus, has been shown to be associated with maladaptive neuronal reorganization and increased activity of the temporoparietal cortex. Transient modulation of tinnitus by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS indicated that these areas are critically involved in the pathophysiology of tinnitus and suggested new treatment strategies. However, the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS in tinnitus is still unclear, individual response is variable, and the optimal stimulation area disputable. Recently, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS has been put forward as an effective rTMS protocol for the reduction of pathologically enhanced cortical excitability. Methods 48 patients with chronic subjective tinnitus will be included in this randomized, placebo controlled, three-arm trial. The treatment consists of two trains of cTBS applied bilaterally to the secondary auditory cortex, the temporoparietal associaction cortex, or to the lower occiput (sham condition every working day for four weeks. Primary outcome measure is the change of tinnitus distress as quantified by the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Secondary outcome measures are tinnitus loudness and annoyance as well as tinnitus change during and after treatment. Audiologic and speech audiometric measurements will be performed to assess potential side effects. The aim of the present trail is to investigate effectiveness and safety of a four weeks cTBS treatment on chronic tinnitus and to compare two areas of stimulation. The results will contribute to clarify the therapeutic capacity of rTMS in tinnitus. Trial registration The trial was registered with the clinical trials register of http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00518024.

  8. 基于H∞鲁棒控制和EA的平流层验证飞艇姿态控制器设计%Design of Attitude Controller of Stratospheric Verification Airship Based on Eigenstructure Assignment and Robust Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙烨; 陈澜; 王志峰

    2011-01-01

    H∞鲁棒控制理论在设计控制系统时,对系统的时域性能未加以考虑,不能保证设计的反馈系统满足期望的时域性能指标;特征结构配置可以依据实际系统的需要配置闭环系统的极点及对应的特征向量,可以满足系统设计对时域指标的要求;为此,基于H∞鲁棒控制和特征结构配置理论,进行了混合优化控制器的设计.将特征结构配置的输出反馈作为内环,将H∞鲁棒控制理论设计的跟踪控制器作为外环,同时兼顾时域与频域性能指标,满足系统对鲁棒性和对指定信号精确跟踪的要求;通过对某平流层飞艇的验证艇的纵向姿态跟踪控制的仿真,结果表明,当选取状态变量v,a,q,θe,δ,T,(θe)/s,δeo,To对应的性能指标系数为c1=0.001,c2=0.001,c3=0.001,c4=0.002,c5=0.002,c6=0.001,c7=0.003,c8=0.01,c9=0.001时,飞艇在有风干扰下仍然能够很好的跟踪输入指令,无稳态误差,调节时间短,仿真效果良好.%Robust control theory doesn' t consider the time-domain performance of the system in the design of control systems, which can not ensure the design of the feedback system meet the expectations of the time -domain performance. Eigenstructure assignment can place closed -loop system poles and the corresponding eigenvectors based on the needs of the actual system, which can satisfy the system design of time - domain specifications. Therefore, an hybrid optimization controller is designed based on robust control and eigenstructure assignment theory in this paper. Making eigenstructure assignment output feedback as the inner loop, the tracking controller designed of robust control theory as the outer loop, meet the requirements of system to robust and accurate tracking of the specified in the signal, which considers performance specifications of time domain and frequency domain simultaneously. In the end of the paper, a simulation of an stratospheric verification airship vertical attitude control

  9. Web-based screening and brief intervention for poly-drug use among teenagers: study protocol of a multicentre two-arm randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mid to late adolescence is characterised by a vulnerability to problematic substance use since the consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs is frequently initiated and increased in this life period. While the detrimental long- and short-term effects of problematic consumption patterns in adolescence pose a major public health concern, current prevention programs targeting alcohol- and other substance-using adolescents are scarce. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention aimed at reducing problematic alcohol use and promoting abstinence from illegal drugs in adolescents with risky substance use aged 16 to 18 years old in four EU-countries. Methods/design To determine the effectiveness of our web-BI, we apply a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT study design, with baseline assessment at study entry and a three month follow-up assessment. Adolescents aged 16 to 18 years from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Sweden will be randomly assigned to either the fully electronically delivered brief intervention group (N = 400 or an assessment only control group (N = 400 depending on their screening for risky substance use (using the CRAFFT. Recruitment, informed consent, randomization, intervention and follow-up will be implemented online. Primary outcomes are reductions in frequency and quantity of use of alcohol and drugs other than alcohol over a 30 day period, as well as consumption per typical occasion. Secondary outcomes concern changes in substance use related cognitions including the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, implementation intentions, and stages of change. Moreover the study addresses a number of moderator variables, including age of first use, general psychopathology and quality of parent–child relationship. Discussion The trial is expected to contribute to the growing literature on theory- and web-based brief interventions

  10. Java bytecode verification via static single assignment form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian W.; Franz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism...... that transforms JVM bytecode into Static Single Assignment Form (SSA) and thereby propagates definitions directly to uses. Type checking at control flow merge points can then be performed in a single pass. Our prototype implementation of the new algorithm is faster than the standard JVM bytecode verifier. It has...

  11. Preliminary Validation and Verification Plan for CAREM Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper, is to present a preliminary validation and verification plan for a particular architecture proposed for the CAREM reactor protection system with software modules (computer based system).These software modules can be either own design systems or systems based in commercial modules such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) redundant of last generation.During this study, it was seen that this plan can also be used as a validation and verification plan of commercial products (COTS, commercial off the shelf) and/or smart transmitters.The software life cycle proposed and its features are presented, and also the advantages of the preliminary validation and verification plan

  12. Nanotechnology and preventive arms control

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    "Nanotechnology (NT) is about analysis and engineering of structures with size between 0.1 and 100 nanometres (1 nm = 10 -9 m). At this scale, new effects occur and the boundaries between physics, chemistry and biology vanish. NT is predicted to lead to stronger but lighter materials, markedly smaller computers with immensely increased power, large and small autonomous robots, tools for manipulation of single molecules, targeted intervention within cells, connections between electronics and n...

  13. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  14. A Global Obstacle-avoidance Map for Anthropomorphic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more humanoid robots are used in human society, and they face a wide variety of complicated manipulation tasks, which are mainly to be achieved by their anthropomorphic arms. Obstacle avoidance for the anthropomorphic arm must be a fundamental consideration to guarantee the successful implementation of these tasks. Different from traditional methods searching for feasible or optimal collision-free solutions for the anthropomorphic arm, a global obstacle- avoidance map for the whole arm is proposed to indicate the complete set of feasible solutions. In this map, the motion of the arm can be appropriately planned to intuitively control the configuration of the arm in motion. First, the cubic spline function is adopted to interpolate some well-chosen path points to generate a smooth collision-free path for the wrist of the anthropomorphic arm. Second, based on the path function of the wrist, the time and the self-rotation angle of the arm about the “shoulder-wrist” axis are used to parameterize all possible configurations of the arm so that a global two- dimensional map considering the obstacle avoidance can be established. Subsequently, a collision-free self-rotation angle profile of the arm can be well planned. Finally, the joint trajectories of a specific anthropomorphic arm, which correspond to the planned path of the wrist and self-rotation angle profile of the arm, can be solved on the basis of the general kinematic analysis of the anthropomorphic arm, and the specific structure. Several simulations are conducted to verify that the proposed collision-free motion planning method for anthropomorphic arms has some advantages and can be regarded as a convenient and intuitive tool to control the configuration of the anthropomorphic arm in motion, without collision with obstacles in its surroundings.

  15. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report

  16. Control system of electric bike based on ARM%基于ARM的电动自行车控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华明; 陆玲霞; 陈海洋

    2012-01-01

    针对传统电动自行车功能难以满足市场多元化需求的问题,分析了电动自行车基本功能和潜在功能的需求,设计了以ARM微控制器LPC2214为主控芯片,以无刷直流电机驱动的电动自行车控制系统,在实现电动自行车基本功能的基础上增强了其功能的扩展性;同时重点介绍了系统主要功能的硬件和软件实现方案,该系统采取优良的控制策略改善了电动自行车基本功能,具有电动、巡航、助力等模式,并利用TFT显示运行状态,改善了用户体验.研究结果表明,该系统电机速度调节平稳、快速,人机交互友好,硬件电路简洁,保护措施可靠.%Aiming at the diversified demands for the functions of e-bikes, the basic and potential functions of the e-bikes were analyzed, and a control system embedded with ARM microcontroller LPC2214 was designed for the e-bikes driven by brushless DC motor. With the system, the basic functions of e-bikes were realized and extensibility of functions was enhanced. The hardware and software for the key functions were expounded. Appropriate control strategy was applied to improve the basic functions. The bike could be set to work in electric, cruise or boost mode and its operating states were displayed on the TFT, thus the user experience was improved. The results indicate that the speed regulation is steady and rapid, the man-machine interface is friendly, the hardware is concise and the protection functions are reliable.

  17. Firm exit and armed conflict in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Andriana; Rodriguez, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two unique panel data sets to study the causal effect that armed conflict has over entrepreneurial activity in Colombia. Using a fixed effect estimation methodology at the plant level and controlling for the possible endogeneity of armed conflict through the use of instrumental variables, we find that a one standard deviation in the number of guerrilla and paramilitary attacks in a municipality increases the probability of firm exit in 8.1 percentage points. This effect is str...

  18. Advanced formal verification

    CERN Document Server

    Drechsler, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Preface. Contributing Authors. Introduction; R. Drechsler. 1. Formal Verification. 2. Challenges. 3. Contributions to this Book. 1: What SAT-Solvers Can and Cannot Do; E. Goldberg. 1. Introduction. 2. Hard Equivalence Checking CNF Formulas. 3. Stable Sets of Points. 2: Advancements in Mixed BDD and SAT Techniques; G. Cabodi, S. Quer. 1. Introduction. 2. Background. 3. Comparing SAT and BDD Approaches: Are they Different? 4. Decision Diagrams as a Slave Engine in General SAT: Clause Compression by Means of ZBDDs. 5. Decision Diagram Preprocessing and Circuit-Based SAT. 6. Using SAT in Symbolic

  19. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  20. Verification of component mode techniques for flexible multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Gloria J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the modeling aspects of flexible multibodies undergoing large angular displacements. Models were to be generated and analyzed through application of computer simulation packages employing the 'component mode synthesis' techniques. Multibody Modeling, Verification and Control Laboratory (MMVC) plan was implemented, which includes running experimental tests on flexible multibody test articles. From these tests, data was to be collected for later correlation and verification of the theoretical results predicted by the modeling and simulation process.

  1. A survey on formal specification and verification of separation kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yongwang

    2015-01-01

    Separation kernels are fundamental software of safety and security critical systems, which provide to their hosted software applications high-assurance partitioning and information flow control properties. The application of separation kernels in critical domain demands the correctness of the kernel by formal verification. To the best of our knowledge, there is no survey paper on this topic. This paper presents an overview of formal specification and verification of separation kernels. We fir...

  2. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  3. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment in Testing the Effectiveness of an Alcohol Intervention: A Two-Arm Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. Methods Data were used from a two-arm paralle

  4. Movement Analysis and Servo Control of Exoskeleton Mechanical Arm%外骨骼机械手臂的运动分析及伺服控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 王世斌; 王利波

    2013-01-01

    用三维软件UG对外骨骼机械手臂的结构进行设计,根据外骨骼机械手臂结构进行力学分析以及稳定性研究,研制一套可穿戴的外骨骼机械手臂,可实现手臂的负重和残疾人手臂的康复训练;建立机械手臂的物理模型;研究平衡阀和伺服换向阀的工作稳定特性.对手臂控制的稳定性做一定分析.研究结果表明,设计的外骨骼机械手臂满足设计要求.%According to the fact that the United States and Japan developed exoskeleton robot features. The arm weight and disabled arm rehabilitation training can be achieved by designed Wearable exoskeleton robot; The physical model of the mechanical arm is established, which also studies the balance valve and servo valve working stability characteristic and makes some analysis on stability of the arm.

  5. A self-management program for employees with complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Staal, J.B.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Engels, J.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS) have a multifactorial origin and cause considerable work problems, including decreased work productivity, sickness absence, and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people with CANS. Self-management is an app

  6. 基于ARM的校园LED公告板远程控制系统设计%Design of Remote Controlling System of Campus LED Advertisement Board Based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽婷

    2012-01-01

    针对传统的单个LED显示屏的控制的问题.开发基于ARM器件使用触摸屏技术和Zig—Bee无线传输技术的校园LED公告板远程控制系统。%To solve the control problem of traditional single LED dispaly screen, develops the campus LED advertisement boord remote controlling system, which is based on ARM Device usage-purposed screen touching technique and ZigBee Wireless transmission technique.

  7. Clinical Verification of Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Van Wassenhoven

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing! This is certainly true regarding the homeopathic practice and access to homeopathic medicine. Therefore our first priority at the ECH-LMHI [1] has been to produce a yearly report on the scientific framework of homeopathy. In the 2010 version a new chapter about epidemic diseases has been added including the Leptospirosis survey on the Cuban population. A second priority has been to review the definition of the homeopathic medicines respecting the new framework generated by the official registration procedure and the WHO report. We are working now on a documented (Materia Medica and provings list of homeopathic remedies to facilitate the registration of our remedies. The new challenges are: first of all more good research proposals and as such more funding (possible through ISCHI + Blackie Foundation as examples [2]; international acceptance of new guidelines for proving and clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms (Proposals are ready for discussion; total reconsideration of the homeopathic repertories including results of the clinical verification of the symptoms. The world is changing, we are part of the world and changes are needed also for homeopathy!

  8. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  9. Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology Based Reusable Verification Environment for Efficient Verification of Image Signal Processing IPS/SOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology based Reusable Verification Environment for efficient verification of Image Signal Processing IP’s/SoC’s. With the tight schedules on all projects it is important to have a strong verification methodology which contributes to First Silicon Success. Deploy methodologies which enforce full functional coverage and verification of corner cases through pseudo random test scenarios is required. Also, standardization of verification flow is needed. Previously, inside imaging group of ST, Specman (e/Verilog based Verification Environment forIP/Subsystem level verification and C/C++/Verilog based Directed Verification Environment for SoC Level Verification was used for Functional Verification. Different Verification Environments were used at IP level and SoC level. Different Verification/Validation Methodologies were used for SoC Verification across multiple sites. Verification teams were also looking for the ways how to catch bugs early in the design cycle? Thus, Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology (UVM based Reusable Verification Environment is required to avoid the problem of having so many methodologies and provides a standard unified solution which compiles on all tools.

  10. Design of IPS System Control Based on ARM7 and DSP%基于ARM7和DSP双核控制的逆变电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐盛; 姚萌

    2011-01-01

    The main reason of underwater image degradation is backscattering effect of water for light. Backscattering noise elimination is one of the main works of underwater image processing. The causes of generating backscattering noise are analyzed and it is divided into random part and DC part through establishing backscattering noise model of light transmission. Performing Laplacian operation for eliminating the underwater image of DC noise and using Wiener adaptive filter to remove noise again. This method proves that the method can remove the backscattering noise and enhance the image contrast.%为了有效解决逆变电源中存在的因单一复杂控制而带来的系统运行高风险性、控制精度低,反馈调节时间长,系统可扩展性差等缺点,设计实现了一种基于ARM7 Cortex-M3内核的单片机STM32FI03和TI C2000系列DSP芯片TMS320F2808的双核控制逆变电源控制电路.通过在一台6kVA工频双变换纯在线式单相小功率逆变电源上进行控制和负载实验.结果表明,该设计方案有效解决了逆变电源系统中因控制核单一而导致的高复杂度高风险性的缺点,具有控制器模块化,抗干扰能力强,反馈调节速度快,内部接口扩展功能丰富等特点.

  11. 76 FR 79658 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act (U) (i... Other 10 million TOTAL 60 million * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii... Anti-Tank Guided Missiles, tripods, JAVELIN Weapon Effects Simulators, enhanced basic skills...

  12. 78 FR 26328 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (U) (i) Prospective Purchaser: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (ii) Total Estimated Value: * As defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. Major... NATO and furthering weapon system standardization and interoperability with U.S. forces. NATO...

  13. 78 FR 26326 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: United Kingdom (ii) Total Estimated Value: * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. Major Defense Equipment $0... Services under Consideration for Purchase: follow-on support for the Tomahawk Weapon System (TWS)...

  14. 76 FR 69707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... defeat perimeter security threats and readily employ counter- and anti-terrorism measures. The RSLF... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Kingdom of Saudi... million. Other 2 million. Total 33 million. *As defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control...

  15. 76 FR 72180 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... continues to be, an important force for political stability and economic progress in East Asia. The Royal... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Malaysia. (ii... Arms Export Control Act. Policy Justification Malaysia--AIM-9X-2 SIDEWINDER Missiles The Government...

  16. 77 FR 70153 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... in the region. The principal contractors will be Raytheon/Lockheed Martin Javelin Joint Venture in... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Oman (ii) Total... Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. POLICY JUSTIFICATION Oman--Javelin Missile The Sultanate...

  17. 77 FR 70151 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... region. The principal contractors will be Raytheon/Lockheed Martin Javelin Joint Venture (JJV) in Tucson... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Indonesia. (ii... defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii) Description and Quantity or Quantities...

  18. Hardware/software co-verification platform for EOS design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ethernet over SDH/SONET (EOS) is a hotspot in today's data transmission technology for it combines the merits of both Ethernet and SDH/SONET. However, implementing an EOS system on a chip is complex and needs full verifications. This paper introduces our design of Hardware/Software co-verification platform for EOS design. The hardware platform contains a microprocessor board and an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)-based verification board, and the corresponding software includes test benches running in FPGAs, controlling programs for the microprocessor and a console program with GUI (Graphical User Interface) interface for configuration, management and supervision. The design is cost-effective and has been successfully employed to verify several IP (Intellectual Property) blocks of our EOS chip. Moreover, it is flexible and can be applied as a general-purpose verification platform.

  19. 基于DSP平台的排爆机械臂控制系统设计%Design of Control System for Eod Robot Arm Based on DSP Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝大; 杜启亮; 秦传波; 田联房; 肖志远

    2014-01-01

    针对具有危险的特种环境,设计一个可以代替人工作业的排爆机器人控制系统。该系统以DSP为中央处理核心,用6个伺服电机配合铝制合金搭建机械臂硬件结构,利用DSP增强型PWM模块驱动伺服电机,上位机采用PC机进行控制。实现了串口测试软件向SCI模块发送指令的功能,从而控制机械臂,仿生模仿人手的各类运动。实验结果表明:控制系统精度高,调节快,该机械臂有强的承重能力,能准确握紧危险品并放于隔离箱中。%Aiming at dangerous special environment,a control system for eod robot which could be used to replace manual opera-tion was designed. In this system,DSP was used as central processing core,six servo motors with aluminum alloy were used to com-plete hardware structure of the mechanical arm. The DSP enhanced PWM module was used to drive the servo motor. Host computer was controlled by PC. Instruction was sent to SCI by the serial testing software,so as to control mechanical arm and can realize multi-an-gle movement. The experimental results show that the control system’s precision is high,the adjustment velocity is fast,the mechani-cal arm has strong bearing ability and can accurately hold dangerous goods and put them in isolation box.

  20. A modest proposal for dropping poor arms in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschan, Michael A; Dodd, Lori E

    2014-08-30

    This paper presents a simple procedure for clinical trials comparing several arms with control. Demand for streamlining the evaluation of new treatments has led to phase III clinical trials with more arms than would have been used in the past. In such a setting, it is reasonable that some arms may not perform as well as an active control. We introduce a simple procedure that takes advantage of negative results in some comparisons to lessen the required strength of evidence for other comparisons. We evaluate properties analytically and use them to support claims made about multi-arm multi-stage designs.

  1. A STUDY ON MANIPULATOR ARM OPTIMAL CONTROL AND LAGRANGE MULTIPLIER USING DCNLP%基于DCNLP的机器手臂最优化控制及拉格朗日因子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘修强; 梅成才; 陈军杰

    2013-01-01

    为使机器手臂圆满地完成医疗搀扶等既定看护工作的同时能耗达到最低,针对机器手臂在医疗看护时的两个基本动作(拦截接住,对接捕获),描述并建立机器手臂的动力学方程,构建案例模型,并分别引入最优化控制技术,对最优控制问题进行离散并数字求解,得到系统的最优解;并基于上述工作基础,针对详述能耗J和各个限制方程微小异动之间关系的拉格朗日因子,深入探讨该两案例中的拉格朗日因子的不同表现.从案例结果分析,相对于传统方法求解能耗最优化问题,DCNLP法表现出了较好的鲁棒性,对初始值的估算要求较低,探讨的结果能对机器手臂如何更好地完成要求操作给出积极建议.%In order to have the manipulator arm consummately complete the established caregiving works of medical arm supporting and propping while minimising the energy consumption,aiming at two basic motions of manipulator arm' s medical caregiving,the interception catch and the docking capture,we describe and establish the dynamics equation for manipulator arm,construct case model,and introduce optimal control technology respectively,we scatter the optimal control problem and make digital solution to obtain the optimal solution; Moreover,based on the above working basis,and aiming at the Lagrange multiplier which recounting the relationship between the energy consumption J and the tiny abnormal motion of each restriction equation,we thoroughly discuss the different performances of the Lagrange multipliers in two cases.Analyses derived from the cases results demonstrate that,DCNLP method performs well in robustness in contrast to the traditional method used for solving energy consumption optimisation,it has lower requirement on initial estimation.The discuss result can provide active suggestion for manipulator arm in terms of the way to better complete the required operation.

  2. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  3. A historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MonoMax® suture material for abdominal wall closure after primary midline laparotomy. ISSAAC-Trial [NCT005725079

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Annette

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several randomized controlled trials have compared different suture materials and techniques for abdominal wall closure with respect to the incidence of incisional hernias after midline laparotomy and shown that it remains, irrespective of the methods used, considerably high, ranging from 9% to 20%. The development of improved suture materials which would reduce postoperative complications may help to lower its frequency. Design This is a historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective trial to evaluate the safety of MonoMax® suture material for abdominal wall closure in 150 patients with primary elective midline incisions. INSECT patients who underwent abdominal closure using Monoplus® and PDS® will serve as historical control group. The incidences of wound infections and of burst abdomen are defined as composite primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints are the frequency of incisional hernias within one year after operation and safety. To ensure adequate comparability in surgical performance and recruitment, the 4 largest centres of the INSECT-Trial will participate. After hospital discharge, the investigators will examine the enrolled patients again at 30 days and at 12 ± 1 months after surgery. Conclusion This historically controlled, single-arm, multi-centre, prospective ISSAAC trial aims to assess whether the use of an ultra-long-lasting absorbable monofilament suture material is safe and efficient. Trial registration NCT005725079

  4. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  5. ARM7-kehityskortti

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa ARM-mikro-ohjain pohjainen kehityskortti. Kortin tuli olla soveltuva ARM-ohjelmoinnin opettamiseen. Työssä myös selvitettiin ARM-mikro-ohjaimen ohjelmointiympäristön käyttöönotto. Teoriaosassa käsitellään ARM-arkkitehtuuria, työssä käytettyjen Atmelin AT91R40008-mikro-ohjaimen sekä Philipsin LPC2105-mikro-ohjaimen ominaisuuksia. Erityisesti työssä keskitytään kehityskorttien suunnitteluun. Kehityskortin vaatimuksina oli, että se ...

  6. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  7. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing... § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications. (1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within...

  8. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  9. Numident Online Verification Utility (NOVU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — NOVU is a mainframe application that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform real-time SSN verifications. This program is called by other SSA online programs that serve as...

  10. TPS verification with UUT simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Meng, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Ruixian

    2006-11-01

    TPS's (Test Program Set) verification or first article acceptance test commonly depends on fault insertion experiment on UUT (Unit Under Test). However the failure modes injected on UUT is limited and it is almost infeasible when the UUT is in development or in a distributed state. To resolve this problem, a TPS verification method based on UUT interface signal simulation is putting forward. The interoperability between ATS (automatic test system) and UUT simulation platform is very important to realize automatic TPS verification. After analyzing the ATS software architecture, the approach to realize interpretability between ATS software and UUT simulation platform is proposed. And then the UUT simulation platform software architecture is proposed based on the ATS software architecture. The hardware composition and software architecture of the UUT simulation is described in details. The UUT simulation platform has been implemented in avionics equipment TPS development, debug and verification.

  11. Hemispace asymmetries and laterality effects in arm positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, K; Abernethy, B; Yamauchi, M; Funase, K; Nishihira, Y

    1995-12-01

    Hemispace asymmetries and laterality effects were examined on an arm positioning reproduction task. Sixteen male subjects were asked to reproduce both abductive and adductive positioning movements with the left or right arm within either the left or the right hemispace. Hemispace was manipulated using a 90 degrees head-rotation paradigm. A left hemispace advantage in positioning accuracy was predicted for both left and right arm movements on the grounds that the perceptual-motor control of positioning movements made in left hemispace is primarily mediated by the right hemisphere which is known to be advantageous for tasks which are spatial in nature (Heilman, Bowers, & Watson, 1984). No arm laterality effects were predicted to occur because the proximal musculature involved in the control of arm movements is innervated from both contralateral and ipsilateral cerebral hemispheres (Brinkman & Kuypers, 1973). Results showed that the predicted left hemispace advantage was evident for the right arm on the positioning variability measure alone, whereas it was absent for all other possible conditions on all error measures. Laterality (arm) effects were absent as predicted. The experiment also demonstrated a greater degradation of reproduction performance under the "crossed" arm-hemispace conditions than under the "uncrossed" conditions. A plausible explanation for the uncrossed advantage for the task is that under normal conditions, a single hemisphere is primarily responsible for both controlling the contralateral arm and directing attention to the contralateral hemispace, and consequently potential interhemispheric interference is minimized. A clear response bias effect in movement reproduction was also evident as a function of the direction of concurrent arm movement and head rotation. Arm movements made in the same direction as head rotation were systematically undershot in reproduction to a much greater degree than arm movements made in the opposite direction to head

  12. Video-Based Fingerprint Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Liu; Yilong Yin; Wei Qin

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fingerprint verification systems use only static information. In this paper, fingerprint videos, which contain dynamic information, are utilized for verification. Fingerprint videos are acquired by the same capture device that acquires conventional fingerprint images, and the user experience of providing a fingerprint video is the same as that of providing a single impression. After preprocessing and aligning processes, “inside similarity” and “outside similarity” are defined and...

  13. A Control Method of Runtime Verification Overhead Based on Prediction%一种基于预测的运行时验证开销控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 江国华

    2016-01-01

    For the problem that monitoring module affects the operating efficiency of the software system when runtime verifying, a method of control runtime verification overhead based on prediction was proposed.Chain Markov and Hidden Markov Model ( HMM) were used to predict the behavior of the software, and the risk of the constraint being violated would be controlled.Ac-cording to this, the monitoring behavior of the software was adjusted to achieve the goal of extra overhead produced in runtime ver-ifying being controlled in some ranges.This method can control the cost of monitoring effectively, but still needs improvement.%针对运行时验证中,监控模块对软件系统运行效率产生影响的问题,提出一种基于预测的控制运行时验证开销的方法。该方法主要是通过建立马尔可夫链(Markov Chain)和隐马尔可夫模型(Hidden Markov Model, HMM)对软件行为进行有限步的预测,并判断被验证的性质约束被违反的风险,依此对软件监控行为进行调整,从而实现将运行时验证所产生的额外开销控制在一定范围内的目标。这种方法能够有效地控制监控开销,但仍然需要进一步的研究。

  14. Fuzzy and Robust Control System of Intelligent RLED Arm Manipulators for Dynamic Obstacles%智能RLED动态目标中机器手的模糊鲁棒控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏武; Jean; Bosco; Mbede; 等

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy and robust close loop control system for nonlinear electromechanical systems of an electric motor actuating an arm robot. This control system is applied to the three basic navigation problems of intelligent robot systems in unstructured environments: autonomous planning, fast nonstop navigation without collision with obstacles, and dealing with structured and/or unstructured uncertainties. The stability of close loop control system is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory.%给出了一种电机驱动机器手中非线性机电模型的模糊鲁棒闭环控制系统,此控制系统可处理非结构环境下的三个主要的智能机器人导航问题:自动化规划、快速连续导航中的避障、处理结构和(或)非结构不确定性.

  15. Modeling, Simulation and Dynamics Analysis Issues of Electric Motor, for Mechatronics Applications, Using Different Approaches and Verification by MATLAB/Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Mahfouz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate control of motion is a fundamental concern in mechatronics applications, where placing an object in the exact desired location with the exact possible amount of force and torque at the correct exact time is essential for efficient system operation. An accurate modeling, simulation and dynamics analysis of actuators for mechatronics motion control applications is of big concern. The ultimate goal of this paper addresses different approaches used to derive mathematical models, building corresponding simulink models and dynamic analysis of the basic open loop electric DC motor system, used in mechatronics motion control applications, particularly, to design, construct and control of a mechatronics robot arm with single degree of freedom, and verification by MATLAB/Simulink. To simplify and accelerate the process of DC motors sizing, selection, dynamic analysis and evaluation for different motion applications, different mathematical models in terms of output position, speed, current, acceleration and torque, as well as corresponding simulink models, supporting MATLAB m.file and general function block models are to be introduced. The introduced models were verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. These models are intended for research purposes as well as for the application in educational process.This paper is part I of writers' research about mechatronics motion control, the ultimate goal of this research addresses design, modeling, simulation, dynamics analysis and controller selection and design issues, of mechatronics single joint robot arm. where a electric DC motor is used and a control system is selected and designed to move a Robot arm to a desired output position, θ corresponding to applied input voltage, V_(in and satisfying all required design specifications.

  16. The implementation and testing of a robotic arm on an autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Hyun Il.

    2007-01-01

    An articulated arm with three degrees of freedom is implemented and tested on an autonomous robot. Kinematic equations of motion for the arm are modeled and tested. A communication architecture is successfully implemented for wireless manual control of the arm. Visual and thermal cues are realized with an onboard camera and a collocated thermal sensor. Future work suggests investigations for full autonomous arm control without manual operator intervention based on sensor cues and visual s...

  17. 卷筒包装机折边臂控制系统研究%The Automatic Control System of the Cylinder Type Paper Roll Packaging Machine Ruffled Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 张波; 李碧琼

    2012-01-01

    针对卷筒包装机折边臂在工作过程中动作过大、不稳定、容易损坏的情况,提出一种将气动控制的方式改为液压控制的具体方案.详细介绍了PLC控制液压站系统的设计,包括控制系统主电路图的设计、硬件的选型、I/O点的分配等,以及液压系统的安全控制.通过改进,克服了原来控制系统的缺陷,使卷筒包装机折边臂在工作过程中更加稳定、安静,且不易损坏.%According to the situation that the the cylinder type paper roll packaging machine ruffled arms in the process of operation is not stable and easy to damage, this paper presents a scheme which transfers hy- draulic control into pneumatic control. This paper introduces the design of the PLC control hydraulic sta- tion system , including the design of the main circuit of the control system diagram , the selection of hard- ware, I/O point distribution, and the safety control of the hydraulic system . Through the improvement, defects of the original control system were overcame, and the cylinder type paper roll packaging machine ruffled arms was more stable, quieter, and not easily damaged.

  18. 基于ARM9的轨道油气润滑系统控制器设计%Oil-gas Lubrication System Controller Design for Rail Based on ARM9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡胜年; 李鑫; 庞宝麟; 徐承韬

    2015-01-01

    以三星公司生产的S3C2410作为控制系统核心,设计有轨机车轮缘油气润滑控制系统,介绍控制系统的主要功能和系统结构。根据有轨机车轮缘油气润滑系统的控制要求,完成系统的硬件设计和软件设计。通过实验验证控制系统的实用性。对影响油气润滑效果及润滑油消耗量等重要参数进行专项实验,实验结果对完善油气润滑控制系统的性能和进一步提高系统的实用性具有重要参考价值。%In this paper,the S3C2410 chip produced by Samsung company was used as a core of the control system to design the trolley locomotive wheel rim lubrication system of oil and gas,and the main functions and architecture of the system were introduced. Hardware design and software design were given by the control requests of the trolley locomotive wheel rim lubrication system of oil and gas. And the prac-ticability of control system was verified by the experiment. Special experiment was carried out for impor-tant parameters influencing oil-gas lubrication effect and lubricating oil consumption. The experimental re-sults had an important reference value for improving the performance of the oil and gas lubrication control system and further increasing the practicality of system.

  19. Manipulability measure of dual-arm space robot and its application to design an optimal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liang, Bin; Wang, Xueqian; Li, Gang; Chen, Zhang; Zhu, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    Coupling effect exists among different arms and the base in a multi-arm space robot. The manipulability measure of one arm can be affected by the base and the other arms, which has important effects on the configuration optimization, the singularity avoidance and the compliant control. The manipulability measure for a multi-arm space robot is more complex than that of a single-arm space robot. At present, the manipulability measure of a multi-arm space robot has not been studied. In the paper, a new concept of manipulability measure is applied to analyze the manipulability measure for a dual-arm space robot, especially for the manipulability measure of the mission arm subjecting to the influence from coupling effect of auxiliary arm and the base. Based on the manipulability measure of mission arm, a performance index is introduced and used to design and choose an optimization configuration for a dual-arm space robot. Finally, a plane dual-arm space robot is simulated, which is illustrated the influence of joint angles and the base attitude on mission arm's manipulability measure. Simulation results show that the proposed manipulability measure is useful for a multi-arm space robot and optimal configuration can be extended and applied to the coordinated soft rendezvous and docking and the target capture in the field of on-orbit servicing.

  20. Phoenix Stretches its Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation The Phoenix spacecraft is scheduled to begin raising its robotic arm up and out of its stowed configuration on the third Martian day, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008) of the mission. This artist's animation, based on engineering models, shows how Phoenix will accomplish this task. First, its wrist actuator will rotate, releasing its launch-restraint pin. Next, the forearm moves up, releasing the elbow launch-restraint pin. The elbow will then move up and over in small steps, a process referred to as 'staircasing.' This ensures that the arm's protective biobarrier wrap, now unpeeled and lying to the side of the arm, will not get in the way of the arm's deployment. The arm is scheduled to straighten all the way out on Sol 4 (May 29, 2008), after engineers have reviewed images and telemetry data from the spacecraft showing that the biobarrier material has been cleared. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.