WorldWideScience

Sample records for armoured vehicles

  1. Future Armoured Troop Carrying Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Balos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Present-day reliance on wheeled and tracked armour personnel carriers (APCs and infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs, may be changed in the future. Shaped charge grenades and impovised explosive devices (IEDsrepresent a considerable threat, even to well protected main battle tanks (MBTs. Paradoxically, the crew of wheeled and tracked troop-carrying vehicles is numerically three to four times larger than that of MBTs, however, their protection in all aspects is significantly lower. Therefore, heavier vehicles may get more attention in the future, where sharing the chassis and a number of components with MBTs could provide significant reductions in procurement costs and maintenance, as well as a simplified logistics in relation to the latest tracked. Obviously, the IFVs mobility of heavy vehicles would be lower than that of lighter vehicles. However, by applying various degrees of modular armour protection, a significant rise in strategic, operational, and tactical mobility could be achieved. Such heavy tracked vehicles, built on a common chassis as MBTs, may equip the future heavy brigades, which will be in contrast to the lighter wheeled vehicles included in rapid deployment brigades. As a result, tracked personnel carrying vehicles may extinct in the future.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(5, pp.483-490, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.550

  2. Armour Protection and Affordable Protection for Futuristic Combat Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Madhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Protection creates a shift in the internal paradigm of the soldier and leads to multiplied psychological stamina for moving fearlessly in the battlefield which generates a major force-multiplier effect. Hence, the mechanized forces are still likely to be one of the dominant forces on the futuristic battlefield and would be the primary target of enemy forces capable of engaging from tank guns up to 4-5 km in a direct fire mode and up to 8-10 km in an indirect fire modes. Increased protection is possible only using advanced armour technology. Throughout the history of warfare, materials technologies have had a significant impact on land-combat force capabilities. Armour materials have progressed through improvements in metallic systems and development of advanced, lightweight (low areal density composite materials. The advancements in ceramic systems have further improved the performance. Similarly, the advances in development of explosive reactive armour has generated efficient armour system against all contemporary high explosive antitank (HEAT ammunition and missile threats for armoured vehicles. Yet, to achieve armour performance exceeding that of the current light combat vehicles and main battle tanks for new vehicular systems, weighing significantly less than the present combat vehicles, advances in new armour materials, systems, and survivability technologies are required. This paper describes various approaches and advancements in the metallic, ceramic, and composite armour materials and new dynamic armour systems that are essential to improve the survivability of armoured vehicles in the futurisitic multi-spectral battlefied scenarios.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.394-402, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.365

  3. Evaluating the protection levels of armoured vehicles for KE, mine and IED threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on providing protection to the occupants of armoured vehicles a NATO standard is under implementation (STANAG 4569). The aim of this agreement is to standardize protection levels for armoured vehicle occupants to ensure that: a. Commanders in the field can select the right equipment to fulfil

  4. Finite Element and Experimental Analyses of an Armoured Vehicle Subjected to Landmine Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıl Erdik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Landmines severely threaten the armoured vehicles. The principal objective is to present a methodology for blast simulations of vehicles subjected to landmine explosions. First, free field blast experiment of 2 kg TNT charge in a steel pot is carried out to validate the blast parameters used in the numerical simulation. Overpressure-time history collected in the free field blast experiment is compared to the numerical simulation results. Numerical simulations are performed in LS-DYNA hydrocode that employs Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation enabling a fully coupled interaction between the blast wave, the detonation gases, and the vehicle. Second, the full-scale field test of an armoured vehicle exposed to 6 kg of TNT charge in a steel pot underneath the rear end of the vehicle is conducted. Maximum dynamic deformations measured inside the vehicle are compared to the results calculated in the numerical simulation. Results show that the numerical simulation is in good agreement with the full-scale field test.

  5. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  6. UNDER ARMOUR DOMINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    随着足球鞋种类的细分,以ADIDAS PREDATOR、NIKE TOTAL90、PUMA V-KONSTRUCT为代表的力量、功能型球鞋得到了很多球员的喜爱。UNDER ARMOUR DOMINATE PR0也是这种类型的球鞋。不过同样是偏重力量的足球鞋,UNDER ARMOUR却另辟蹊径。

  7. Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...

  8. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers......, and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study...

  9. Spatial Damage Distribution over Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Enrique Maciñeira; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    Different authors have studied and defined the most critical sector of the roundheads with respect to armour stability in order to calculate the mass needed in the units of the armour. This sector has been located between 90° and 135° relative to the orthogonal of the waves. Moreover, from these ...

  10. Fatigue in Breakwater Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of rubble mound breakwaters depends on the hydraulic stability and the mechanical strength of the armour units. The paper deals with the important aspect of fatigue related to the strength of concrete armour units. Results showing significant fatigue from impact tests with Dolosse...... made of unreinforced and steel fibre reinforced flyash concrete are presented. Moreover universal graphs for fatigue in armour units made of conventional unreinforced concrete exposed to impact load and pulsating load are presented. The effect of fibre reinforcement and the implementation of fatigue in...

  11. Computer Simulation of an Armoured Battalion Swarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jankovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarming is a tactical approach considered in modern armies combat activities conceptualisation. More intensive research of military application of swarming began after 2000, mostly in the areas of unmanned air, underwater, and ground vehicles, as well as in air force, navy and some special ground force units. In spite of relative inconveniences of contemporary main battle tanks to act as swarmers, some of initial results of the armoured mobile platforms swarming research have been presented. The motivation for the research is that adaptation of contemporary tanks for swarming could prolong their working life until the new generation comes, and could be the best investment in medium and smaller countries armies' modernisation. Brief survey of the till date research, description of the simulation model and the results of experiments simulating swarming of the battalion-sized group of armed mobile platforms, defending territory from superior adversary unit, have been considered in the paper.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(1, pp.36-43, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.49

  12. Stresses in Dolos Breakwater Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Breakage of slender unreinforced armour unite is the cause of many breakwater failures. Design diagrams to ensure structural integrity of armour unite such as dolosse and tetrapods have not been available. The article presents results of an analysis of the stresses in dolosse based on model tests...... with load-cell instrumented dolosse with masses of 200 kg and 200 g. A preliminary design diagram is presented as well....

  13. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2014-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...... increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead to the...

  14. Stability of Armour Units in Oscillatory Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Thompson, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a program to study the hydraulics of wave attack on rubble mound breakwaters tests were made on model armour units in a steady flow through a layer laid on a slope. The flow angle has little effect on stability for dolosse or rock layers. The head drop at failure across each type of la...

  15. Stability of Armour Units in Oscillatory Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Thompson, A. C.

    Despite numerous breakwater model tests very little is known today about the various phenomena and parameters that determine the hydraulic stability characteristics of different types of armour. This is because separation of parameters is extremely difficult in traditional tests.With the object of...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Ballistic Impact on Armour Plate with a Simple Plasticity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabaskar Narayanamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic impact of a steel projectile on armour steel plate is examined by numerical simulations using 3-D nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element code ANSYS LS-DYNA. Simulations are attempted using a simple strain rate dependent plasticity model that can capture large strain, strain rate hardening and fracture encountered at high velocity ballistic impacts. Initial simulations are carried out for a cylindrical bullet with a semi-spherical nose shape impacting a military vehicle door at two different velocities as a test problem. This is then extended to simulate a real problem of armour piercing shot impact on a thick armour steel plate at ordnance velocity regime. The former is compared with results reported in published literature while the latter is assessed with the experimental findings. The deformation pattern generated in the deformed armour plate, residual projectile velocity and displacement of the projectile are taken as the necessary parameters for evaluating the results of simulation. The study presented in this paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the adopted simple plasticity model to simulate a highly nonlinear phenomenon to reasonably predict the physically measurable impact parameters.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.4521

  17. New Formula for Stability of Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    Design of armour for rubble mound breakwater roundheads constitutes in many cases a problem due to the limitation of available data and guidelines. The objective of the paper is to present the results of a comprehensive model test study on the stability of cube armoured roundheads, resulting in a...... new stability formula...

  18. Influence of Core Permeability on Accropode Armour Layer Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Christensen, M.; Jensen, T.;

    1998-01-01

    Hedar and van der Meer studied the influence of core permeability on the stability of two layer rock armour. In both cases a significant influence was found. However, it is to be expected that for single layer armour there will be an even larger influence on the core permeability. This is because...

  19. Stability of Cubipod Armoured Roundheads in Short Crested Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Medina, Josep R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of the stability of concrete cube armour and Cubipod armour in a breakwater roundhead with slope 1:1.5, exposed to both 2-D (long-crested) and 3-D (short-crested) waves. The model tests were performed at the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg ...

  20. Thermal effects of runaway electrons in an armoured divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a numerical thermal analysis of the heat deposition of runaway electrons accompanying plasma disruptions in a armoured divertor. The divertor concepts studied are carbon on molybdenum and beryllium on copper. The conclusion is that the runaway electrons can cause melting of the armour as well as melting of the structure and can damage the divertor severely. (orig.)

  1. Study on Basic Mechanism of Reactive Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Yadav

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Two basic mechanisms which operate in the functioning of reactive armour are presented. Both the explosive effect and cutting of metal plates by a jet have been investigated. The angle of attack and the confinement of the explosive have been found most significant factors in reducing the penetrating power of the jet. The effect of detonating explosives has been investigated with radiography. Some of the significant effects, like detonation of explosive by the impact of the jet, expansion of covering plates, disturbance in coherence and reduction in the penetration of the jet have been observed. It is found that the jet penetration in a stack of mild steel plates is reduced to 30 per cent of its blank penetration in present set-ups. A theoretical model has been conceived to study the interaction of moving plates and the jet. The critical thickness and surface cut in plates have been calculated.

  2. A Design Method for Impact-Loaded Slender Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that the bigger a structural member like a beam, the relatively weaker it is. In the end it cannot even support its own weight. The same problem holds for slender armour units such as Dolosse.

  3. A Design Method for Impact-Loaded Slender Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    It is well known that the bigger a structural member like a beam, the relatively weaker it is. In the end it cannot even support its own weight. The same problem holds for slender armour units such as Dolosse....

  4. The Evolution of Splint Armour in Georgia and Byzantium: Lamellar and Scale Armour in the 10th-12th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuka TSURTSUMIA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Byzantine technology was part of the military technology that existed in vast areas of Eurasia; hence study of the armament of its neighbours is important.The purpose of the present paper is to add new data about Byzantium’s Caucasian neighbour (namely, Georgia. Besides that, it also includes certain views about the stages of the evolution and provenance of splint (scale and lamellar armour. This paper also attempts to clarify the difference between banded and linear suits of lamellar armour.There is no doubt that the Byzantine military machine exercised considerable influence on its neighbours, though an opposite phenomenon can also be noticed. The article shows that changes in armour were taking place almost simultaneously in the Byzantine Empire and the Georgian kingdoms and that some of the types of armour that were widespread in Byzantium may have originated in Georgia.

  5. Ultrasonic Imaging of Ballistically Impacted Composite Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Samant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Kevlar-Polypropylene composite armour to withstand the impact of projectile (calibre 7.62 mm is investigated using immersion type ultrasonic c- scan method. The Kevlar polypropylene composite laminate is made of 36 Kevlar and 74 polypropylene layers having thickness 20 mm and are subjected to bullet impact with different striking velocities. At each location of the probe ultrasonic features peak amplitude and signal amplitude are extracted from digitized data and stored in controlling PC. Using UPGMA clustering technique, c-scan images of impacted zones of Kevlar polypropylene composite plate has been generated. The extent of core damage zone in the laminates correlated to the impact velocities of projectile. It is observed that areas of core damage zone are found to increase with the energy loss of the bullet. The area of core damage zone increases rapidly in case of shot lodging. Also peak amplitude and signal energy features are more reliable and sensitive for evaluation of damage in composite laminates.

  6. Tissue simulant response at projectile impact on flexible fabric armour systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Volker, A.; Heiden, N. van der

    2006-01-01

    Behind Armour Blunt Trauma is a phenomenon which has been studied extensively for rigid personal protective armour systems. These systems used in e.g. bullet proof vests manage to defeat high velocity small arms projectiles. Tissue simulants are used to study behind armour effects. At high velocity

  7. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    measurements in the core material: (1) core material with an idealized armour layer made out of spherical objects that also allowed for detailed velocity measurements between and above the armour, and (2) core material with real rock armour stones. The same core material was applied through the entire...

  8. New Formula for Stability of Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new formula for the stability of cube armoured roundheads. The formula is based on physical model tests in Aalborg University which both long crested and short crested waves of different wave steepness were used. The slope of the radius of the head were varied in order to...... explore the influence of the geometry on the armour stability. Besides cubes with mass density 2.4 t/m3, cubes with mass density 2.80 t/m3 were used in order to include the effect of mass density in the formula. The damage predictions given by the formula have been compared with prototype hand...

  9. BERM BREAKWATERS WITH CONCRETE BLOCKS AS ARMOUR UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    Camara Aguilera, Altea

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to test the hydraulic stability of berm breakwaters with concrete armour units. To achieve this, five breakwater models were tested with the same wave program. All the models were modifications of the Sirevåg berm breakwater. The modifications consisted in the replacement of the class I stone form the armour layer by two different concrete units, cubes and cubipodsThe design waves were Hs,100=7.0 m, Tz=10.6 s. HoTo=48. The wave program consisted in 7 diffe...

  10. Armour Protection and Affordable Protection for Futuristic Combat Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    V. Madhu; T. Balakrishna Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Protection creates a shift in the internal paradigm of the soldier and leads to multiplied psychological stamina for moving fearlessly in the battlefield which generates a major force-multiplier effect. Hence, the mechanized forces are still likely to be one of the dominant forces on the futuristic battlefield and would be the primary target of enemy forces capable of engaging from tank guns up to 4-5 km in a direct fire mode and up to 8-10 km in an indirect fire modes. Increased protection i...

  11. Structural Integrity and Hydraulic Stability of Dolos Armour Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    A method for development of design diagrams to ensure structural integrity of slender unreinforced concrete breakwater armour units is presented. The method is based on experimental data from small scale flume tests as well as impact loading of prototype and small scale units. A prerequisite for ...

  12. Stability of Armour Units in Flow Through a Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; C. Thompson, Alex

    1984-01-01

    As part of a program to study the hydraulics of wave attack on rubble mound breakwaters tests were made on model armour units in a steady flow through a layer laid on a slope. The flow angle has little effect on stability for dolosse or rock layers. The head drop at failure across each type of...

  13. An Alternative Stability Equation For Rock Armoured Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    straight forward to assume, that a relation between the exerted wave loads and the stability of the armour layer would be of major interest, but the normal approach to the problem has simply been to relate easy accessible wave parameters, e.g. wave height and period, directly to the single unit weight....... Taking a closer look on the stability formulae large differences in the influence of the different parameters are observed although several points of resemblance are observed. Despite the major efforts in obtaining a reliable stability equation a large scatter between damage predicted by the stability......Rubble mound breakwaters are by far the most common type of breakwater, the importance of which is clearly reflected in the vast amount of published research. Especially, the hydraulic stability of the main armour layer has been studied in order to obtain reliable design equations. It should be...

  14. Hypervelocity impact of tungsten cubes on spaced armour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the experimental observations and simulation studies of damage potential of tungsten alloy cubes on relatively thin mild steel spaced armour target plates in the velocity regime 1300 – 4000 ms−1 using Two Stage Light Gas Gun technique. The cubes of size 9.5 mm and 12 mm having mass 15 g and 30 g respectively were made to impact normally on three target plates of size 300 mm × 300 mm of thickness 4, 4 and 10 mm at 100 mm distance apart. Flash radiography has been used to image the projectile-target interaction in the nitrogen environment at 300 mbar vacuum at room temperature. The results reveal clear perforation by 9.5 mm cube in all the three target plates up to impact velocity of about 2000 m/s. While 12 mm cube can perforate the spaced armour upto impact velocity of 4000 m/s. This shows that 9.5mm tungsten alloy cube is not effective beyond 2000 m/s while 12 mm tungsten alloy cube can defeat the spaced armour upto 4000 m/s. The simulation studies have been carried out using Autodyn 3D nonlinear code using Lagrange solver at velocities 1200 – 4000 m/s. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  15. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina

  16. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, C., E-mail: carla.martini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Chiavari, C., E-mail: cristina.chiavari@unibo.it [C.I.R.I. M.A.M (Advanced Applications in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Technology Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Ospitali, F., E-mail: francesca.ospitali@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Grazzi, F., E-mail: francesco.grazzi@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Scherillo, A., E-mail: antonella.scherillo@stfc.ac.uk [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Neutron Source, OX0QJ Didcot (United Kingdom); Soffritti, C., E-mail: chiara.soffritti@unife.it [TekneHub, Department of Architecture, University of Ferrara, Via Quartieri 8, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Garagnani, G.L., E-mail: gian.luca.garagnani@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina.

  17. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Debarati Bhattacharjee; Ajay Kumar; Ipsita Biswas

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of back face signature (BFS) or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing materia...

  18. Analitical Expression of Equivalent Transverse Magnetic Permeability for three-core Wire Armoured Submarine Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viafora, Nicola; Hansen, Chris Skovgaard; Dall, Laurids Bergholdt;

    2016-01-01

    As three-core wire-armoured submarine cables become progressively more relevant, the need for refined modelling techniques grows likewise. IEC Standard 60287 indications though are still widely recognized to be insufficiently accurate, since several effects due to the presence of the collective...... wire armour are ignored. This paper therefore offers an insight into the induced losses mechanism as a function of the armour wires electromagnetic properties. The analysis is focused on the influence of the armour transverse permeability, whose overall resultant value is estimated by means of a...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDINAL COMPONENT OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN FERROMAGNETIC WIRE OF SINGLE-CORE POWER CABLE ARMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kostiukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem of determination of effective longitudinal magnetic permeability of single core power cable armour is defined. A technique for experimental determination of longitudinal component of magnetic flux in armour spiral ferromagnetic wire is proposed.

  20. Comparison of losses in an armoured and unarmoured three phase cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Jensen, Christian F.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, measurements of a 245 kV 3x1x630 mm2 armoured and unarmoured cable is presented along with a description of the data processing of the measured quantities. The results of the measurements show that the losses in the armoured cable are larger than the losses in the unarmoured cabl...

  1. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lian-yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made part of the jet fracture. The carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour has good defence ablity especially when the nature rubber plate hybrid 15% volume percentage carbonfiber and the obliquity angle is 68°. The hybrid fiber reinforced rubber composite armour can be used as a new kind of light protective armour.

  2. User Friendly Explosives Reactive Armour a Long term Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : There is a strong need to develop explosive reactive armour (ERA for protecting battle tanks against an emerging threat of kinetic and chemical energy missiles. In this context, global trends, principle and limitations of ERA and threat perception-based types of ERA have been dwelt upon. User-friendly ERA is a long-term reality. User-friendly ERA system is thus defined to be an efficient and protective system that not only provide full protection to the tank crew, but is also harmless to the supporting infantory. The indigenously-developed ERA system is close to be termed as a user-friendly ERA.

  3. Design, Performance and Fit of Fabrics for Female Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of a new technique which enables a novel type of front panel for female body armour to be engineered, providing female contour,high level protection, and therefore comfort in wearing.The traditional cutting and stitching method can be used to form a dome shape toaccommodate the bust area but it gives rise to weakness against projectile impactat the seams.A novel type of fabric with the advantage in mouldability is needed as an alternative to the conventi...

  4. Effect of welding processes and consumables on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade quenched and tempered steel joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. MAGUDEESWARAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN; G. MADHUSUDHAN REDDY

    2014-01-01

    Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to its high strength to weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) in the heat affected zone (HAZ) after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel (ASS) consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. The use of stainless steel consumables for a non-stainless steel base metal is not economical. Hence, alternate consumables for welding Q&T steels and their vulnerability to HIC need to be explored. Recent studies proved that low hydrogen ferritic steel (LHF) consumables can be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. The use of ASS and LHF consumables will lead to distinct microstructures in their respective welds. This microstructural heterogeneity will have a drastic influence in the fatigue crack growth resistance of armour grade Q&T steel welds. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of welding con-sumables and welding processes on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade Q&T Steel joints. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) were used for fabrication of joints using ASS and LHF consumables. The joints fabricated by SMAW process using LHF consumable exhibited superior fatigue crack growth resistance than all other joints.

  5. Impulsive Loading of Armour by High Explosive Squash Head Munition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Deshpande

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by theoretical modelling studies involving classical stress-strain theories, duly validated by experimental investigation in understanding the mechanism of impulsive loading (scabbing and blast under dynamic and static conditions, are discussed. This concept has been used in designing a high explosive squash head ammunition being effective in defeating monolithic armour. Efforts have been made to carry out an in-depth study in understanding the mechanism of scabbing under static and dynamic (live firing conditions. For this purpose, a one-dimensional computer code has been used to predict the spread of explosive against time on the target. The simulations were carried out using a 2-D Lagrangian hydrodynamic code for scabbing effect. The blast effect that follows under static and dynamic conditions has also been studied. Blast parameters have been computed in terms of TNT equivalent and compared with experimental results. The events occurring during impulsive loading of 135 mm monolithic rolled homogenous armour have been illustrated.

  6. Material characterization of a novel new armour steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stumpf W.E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The material characterization of a novel new armour steel with comparison to a leading commercial benchmark alloy is presented. Direct ballistic and experimental comparison is drawn. The 5.56 × 45 mm [M193] and 7.62 × 51 mm [NATO Ball] projectiles were used in a cartridge type high pressure barrel configuration to evaluate the superior plugging resistance of the new steel over a range of plate thicknesses. To characterize the dynamic plasticity of the materials, quasi-static, notched and high temperature tensile tests as well as Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests in tension and compression were performed. The open source explicit solver, IMPACT (sourceforge.net is used in an ongoing numerical and sensitivity analysis of ballistic impact. A simultaneous multi variable fitting algorithm is planned to evaluate several selected numerical material models and show their relative correlation to experimental data. This study as well as micro-metallurgical investigation of adiabatic shear bands and localized deformation zones should result in new insights in to the underlying metallurgical and physical behavior of armour plate steels during ballistic perforation.

  7. The Influence of impact on Composite Armour System Kevlar-29/polyester-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation of high velocity impact responses of composite laminated plates using a helium gas gun has been presented in this paper. The aim of this study was to develop the novel composite structure that meets the specific requirements of ballistic resistance which used for body protections, vehicles and other applications. Thus the high velocity impact tests were performed on composite Kevlar-29 fiber/polyester resin with alumina powder (Al2O3). The impact test was conducted by using a cylindrical steel projectile of 7.62mm diameter at a velocity range of 160-400 m/s. The results (shown in this work) are in terms of varying plate thickness and the amount of energy absorbed by the laminated plates meanwhile we obtained that the 12mm thickness of composite plate suitable for impact loading up to 200m/s impact velocity. Therefore this composite structure (it is used to reduce the amount of Kevlar) considered most economical armoure products. We used the ANSYS AUTODYN 3D- v.12 software for our simulations. The results have been obtained a4.1% maximum errors with experimental work of energy absorption.

  8. The Influence of Waist Thickness of Dolosse on the Hydraulic Stability of Dolosse Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Brejnegaard-Nielsen, Torben

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents results from experiments with Dolosse having the same mass and volume but with different waist thickness to height ratios. The armour was exposed to irregular waves simulating one storm with increasing wave heights and the effect of waist to height ratio on the hydraulic...... stability was studied. A low packing density of approximately 0.65 was used corresponding to a two-layer armour with high porosity. From the results it is concluded that the hydraulic stability of Dolos armour is not very sensitive to variations in the waist to height ratio. Only for damage levels exceeding...... is concluded that design criteria solely based on movements of armour units as observed in hydraulic models are not adequate for the assessment of structural integrity of the units. The paper also presents the results of each stability test as well as the scatter and the distributions. The large...

  9. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour under ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall in the ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion, which determines the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Melting thresholds and melt layer depth of the Be armour under transient loads are estimated for different temperatures of the bulk Be and different shapes of transient loads. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the Lorentz force are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of FW under radiative loads arising during mitigated disruptions is numerically simulated.

  10. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for...... scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  11. Ballistic Performance of Coconut Shell Powder/Twaron Fabricagainst Non-armour Piercing Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Risby

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Body armour technologists over the years are seeking to develop protective systems whichare both effective and lightweight. However these hard armour materials are very expensive andhave certain weight constraints. From this point of view, natural fibres and fillers have attractedthe attention of researchers due to their low density with high specific strengths, abundance,availability, renewability and being environmental-friendly. This paper reports the potential useof coconut shell powder-epoxy composite (COEX panel bonded with Twaron CT716 fabric asa hard armour material and the characteristics of its fracture imprints from a specific threat levelwhen subjected to ballistic tests1 (NIJ Standard 0108.01. It was observed that the imprint patternson the particulate composite (COEX could be identified according to effectiveness in impactenergy dissipation. COEX/Twaron test panel was found to withstand impact equivalent to NIJLevel IIIA using 9 mm FMJ ammunition but perforated at NIJ Level III of 7.62 mm FMJ bulletimpacts. Test results showed that COEX panel do possess shock absorbance characteristics andcan be utilised as  an armour component in the hard-body armour system. Dependency onTwaron fabric layers as ballistic reinforcements has been reduced up to 3-time with 170 per centimprovement on energy-absorption capabilities when using COEX composite as the frontalcomponent of the armour.

  12. Vascularised endosteal bone tissue in armoured sauropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Cerda, Ignacio; Powell, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The presence of well-vascularised, endosteal bone in the medullary region of long bones of nonavian dinosaurs has been invoked as being homologous to medullary bone, a specialised bone tissue formed during ovulation in birds. However, similar bone tissues can result as a pathological response in modern birds and in nonavian dinosaurs, and has also been reported in an immature nonavian dinosaur. Here we report on the occurrence of well-vascularised endosteally formed bone tissue in three skeletal elements of armoured titanosaur sauropods from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina: i) within the medullary cavity of a metatarsal, ii) inside a pneumatic cavity of a posterior caudal vertebra, iii) in intra-trabecular spaces in an osteoderm. We show that considering the criteria of location, origin (or development), and histology, these endosteally derived tissues in the saltasaurine titanosaurs could be described as either medullary bone or pathological bone. Furthermore, we show that similar endosteally formed well-vascularised bone tissue is fairly widely distributed among nondinosaurian Archosauriformes, and are not restricted to long bones, but can occur in the axial, and dermal skeleton. We propose that independent evidence is required to verify whether vascularised endosteal bone tissues in extinct archosaurs are pathological or reproductive in nature. PMID:27112710

  13. Vitund og ímynd Adidas, Nike og Under Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Úlfarsdóttir 1991

    2016-01-01

    Ritgerð þessi fjallar um rannsókn á ímynd og vitund íþróttavörumerkjanna Adidas, Nike og Under Armour. Fyrirtæki sem hanna íþróttafatnað hafa undanfarin ár fært út kvíarnar og hafa nú hafið framleiðslu á íþróttafatnaði til daglegrar notkunar og jafnvel sem tískufatnað. Þetta kemur til af því að fólk er almennt farið að nota íþróttaföt dagsdaglega en ekki einungis við íþróttaiðkun. Markmið rannsóknarinnar byggir á því að kanna hvort íþróttavörumerkin séu að koma þeirri ímynd og vitund á fr...

  14. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  15. Ballistic Behaviour of Thick Steel Armour Plate under Oblique Impact : Experimental Investigation II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic behaviour of thick steel armour plate at different obliquities has been investigated. Ballistic experiments were conducted in the velocity range 300-800 mls at 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° obliquity .A steel, conical projectile or 6.1 mm diameter was impacted on a 10 mm thick steel armour plate. At 30° and 45° obliquity, the plate offers protection up to a striking velocity of 800 mls. At zero obliquity, the plate provides protection below 6~ m/s. The depth of penetration decreases with increasing obliquity. The plate resistance does not decrease at higher obliquity observed in an earlier work.

  16. On modelling of lateral buckling failure in flexible pipe tensile armour layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model which is capable of representing the physics of lateral buckling failure in the tensile armour layers of flexible pipes is introduced. Flexible pipes are unbounded composite steel–polymer structures, which are known to be prone to lateral wire buckling...... when exposed to repeated bending cycles and longitudinal compression, which mainly occurs during pipe laying in ultra-deep waters. On the basis of multiple single wire analyses, the mechanical behaviour of both layers of tensile armour wires can be determined. Since failure in one layer destabilises...

  17. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  18. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Bhattacharjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of back face signature (BFS or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing material in different loading conditions and prior history. This paper explains some of the studies carried out on the backing material used for ballistic evaluation in Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory, Chandigarh. It has been observed that the backing material is highly non-linear viscoelastic in nature. The depth of deformation is also linearly proportional to the impact energy and temperature. The effect of time on the depth of deformation is gradual and does not influence the BFS values during a standard ballistic evaluation comprising of 6-8 shots.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.462-466, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3821

  19. On the use of flat tile armour in high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to have a flat tile geometry for those high heat flux components subjected to a convective heat flux (namely the divertor dump target, lower vertical target, and the limiter) has been investigated. Because of the glancing incidence of the power load, if an armour tile falls off an extremely high heat flux hits the leading edge of the adjacent tile. As a result a rapid temperature increase occurs in the armour-heat sink joint. The heat flux to the water coolant also increases rapidly up to a factor of 1.7 and 2.3 for a beryllium and CFC armour, respectively, thus causing possible critical heat flux problems. Thermal stresses in the armour-heat sink joint double in less than 0.4 s and triplicate after 1 s thus leading to a possible cascade failure. Therefore the use of a flat tile geometry for these components does not seem to be appropriate. In this case a monoblock geometry gives a much more robust solution. (orig.)

  20. Biology of two species of Microcera associated with armoured scales on citrus in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcera coccophila has been regarded as an entomopathogen of armoured scales in Australia since the late 1800s. We confirmed its identity using morphological and molecular data. In addition, we report the related species M. larvarum for the first time in Australia. The sexual and asexual states of...

  1. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, M.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.

    2012-08-01

    The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1-4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5-7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two processes. The first is a

  2. Influence of the vacuum resin process, on the ballistic behaviour of lightweight armouring solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutellier D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The armour of vehicles against conventional threats is mainly composed with steel or aluminium panels. Efficient heavy solutions exist, but the involved industries require new lightweight structures. Moreover, unconventional threats as IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices may cause severe damages on these structural and protective panel solutions. Thus, combination of aluminium or steel plates with textile composite structures used as a backing, leads to the mass reduction and better performance under delamination behaviour against these new threats. This paper is a part of a study dealing with the impact behaviour of three warp interlocks weaving structures under Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP impact. During this research, several parameters has being studied as the influence of the yarns insertions [1–4], the degradation of the yarns during the weaving process [5–7], and the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic behaviour. The resin rate inside composite materials is dependant on the final application. In ballistic protection, we need to control the resin rate in order to have a deformable structure in order to absorb the maximum of energy. However, with the warp interlocks weaving structure, the yarns insertions induce empty spaces between the yarns where the resin takes place without being evacuated. The resin rate inside the warp interlocks structures is in the most of cases less than 50%, which lead to have brittle and hard material during the impact. Contrary to interlocks structures, the existing protection based on prepreg structure have a high fibres ratio around 88% of weight. That leads to have the best ballistic properties during the impact and good deformability of the structure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the resin rate on the ballistic results of the composites materials. For that, we have chosen two kinds of warp interlocks fabrics which were infused with epoxy resin following two

  3. Cold Cracking of Flux Cored Arc Welded Armour Grade High Strength Steel Weldments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Magudeeswaran; V.Balasubramanian; G.Madhusudhan Reddy

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the influence of welding consumables on the factors that influence cold cracking of armour grade quenched and tempered (Q&T) steel welds. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process were used making welds using austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and low hydrogen ferritic steel (LHF) consumables. The diffusible hydrogen levels in the weld metal of the ASS and LHF consumables were determined by mercury method. Residual stresses were evaluated using X-ray stress analyzer and implant test was carried out to study the cold cracking of the welds. Results indicate that ASS welds offer a greater resistance to cold cracking of armour grade Q&T steel welds.

  4. Arc welding of high strength aluminium alloys for armour systems applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pickin, Craig Graeme

    2011-01-01

    The ternary Al-Cu-Mg system 2xxx series aluminium alloys were examined as construction materials for armour system applications based upon comparable ballistic properties to the currently employed Al-7xxx series alloys. Utilising MIG welding solidification cracking was evident when welding constrained Al-2024 candidate base material using Al-2319 filler, the only available consumable wire for this series. A previously developed thermodynamic model suggested that an incompatible...

  5. Viability Study of Concept of Hybrid Antitank & Air Defence Armoured Vehicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Vizhakat

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, tanks have been developed into a highly effective weapon system, particularly useful in the shortj intense and highly dynamic scenario of modem warfare. However, with the advent of new jtechnology, tanks would definitely have to undergo improvements to remain cost-effective as well as combat-effective. Such evolutionjis already taking place with new designs being developed 31" well as those still on the drawing board of advanced nations. In the race for technolological domilnation, only those nations with a tradition of indigenous innovations and courage to tread new paths, can hope to remain dominant in the field of military technology.

  6. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of ...... loads on slender armour units can be studied by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents Dolos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability....... the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact...

  7. Characteristics of martensite as a function of the Ms temperature in low-carbon armour steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure, morphology, crystal structure and surface relief of martensite in a number of experimental armour steel plates with different Ms temperatures were analysed. Atomic force microscopy, thin foil transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy allowed the identification of three groups of low-carbon martensitic armour steels. The investigation showed that the size of individual martensite products (plates or packets, laths or blocks) increases as the Ms temperature increases. Comparison of ballistic performances suggests that the morphology (plate or lath) and size of the individual martensite products dictate the effective 'grain size' in resisting fracture or perforation due to ballistic impact.

  8. Note on Modern Trends in Heavy Vehicle Electrical Electronic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Sastry

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of some of the aerospace control systems that are being successfully adopted in the field of Armoured Fighting Vehicles. An automatic electronic transmission controller for an epicyclic gear box with a torque converter to select the forward and reverse speeds in a sequential logic has been developed. Transducers developed for monitoring various engine and transmission parameters are being used for Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI, variable valve timings and electronic governing.

  9. Comparison of armoured laryngeal mask airway with endotracheal tube for adenotonsillectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the reliability of armoured laryngeal mask airway for adenotonsillectomy and to compare the haemodynamic changes during anaesthesia with those of endotracheal tube. A total of 100 patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy between ages 10-35 years and ASA I status were enrolled for the study. Two groups with 50 patients in each group were formed. Group I patients underwent surgery with armoured laryngeal mask airway while group II underwent surgery with endotracheal intubation. Baseline heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were noted pre-operatively, one minute after insertion and every five minutes after induction in both the groups. A change in all these haemodynamic parameters from the baseline was noted. The effect of Boyle Davis Gag and adequacy of surgical access were also noted. Occurrence of cough, laryngospasm and stridor were noted at the time of recovery in both the groups. Baseline variables in both groups were identical. Surgical access was adequate in 48/50 patients in group I while it was adequate in 49/50 patients in group II. The frequencies of cough, laryngeal spasm and stridor were lower in group I. In group I, there was insignificant change from baseline in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at one, five and ten minutes after induction. In group II, significant change from baseline was observed in heart rate (p <0.01), systolic blood pressure (p <0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p <0.05). (author)

  10. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati\tBhattacharjee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The\tmeasurement\tof back face signature\t(BFS or\tbehind armour\tblunt trauma (BABT is\ta critical\taspect of ballistic evaluation of body\tarmour. BFS is the impact experienced by the\tarmour wearing body,\twhen subjected to\ta non-penetrating\tprojectile. Mineral\tor polymeric\tclay\tis used to measure the\tBFS. In addition to stopping the\tprojectile,\tthe body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within\tpermissible limits.\tThe\textent of\tthe BFS depends upon the\tbehavior\tof the backing material\tin different loading conditions and prior history.\tThis\tpaper explains some of the\tstudies carried out on the backing\tmaterial used for ballistic evaluation\tin Terminal Ballistics Research\tLaboratory, Chandigarh. It has been observed\tthat\tthe backing material is highly non-linear\tviscoelastic in nature. The depth\tof\tdeformation is also linearly\tproportional to the\timpact\tenergy\tand\ttemperature. The\teffect of time\ton the depth of deformation\tis gradual and does\tnot influence the BFS values during a\tstandard\tballistic evaluation comprising of 6-8\tshots.

  11. Simulation of tungsten armour cracking due to small ELMs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of tungsten armour cracking under small ELM-like plasma heat load, which does not cause surface melting, have been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code. A dedicated series of experiments have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 facility for measurements of the unknown tungsten thermophysical properties and for verification of the PEGASUS-3D simulation results. The simulations revealed that a cellular crack network with average mesh size Λ ∼ 0.5 mm formed after first ELMs and the pattern does not change further. With increasing number of repetitive ELMs loads, the average crack width Δ(n) has a maximum value Δm. The ratio of Δm/Λ is equal to the tungsten thermal expansion at the maximum surface temperature. Δ(n) tends to this value exponentially. The number of ELMs nm needed for Δ stabilization depends on the ELMs energy density and time duration, nm ∼ 300 for the simulated ELMs of 0.45 MJ/m2 and 0.25 ms duration. The PEGASUS-3D code is prepared for simulations of tungsten armour damage under action of ELMs of various energy deposition and time duration. These parameters of ELMs depend on ITER regimes of operation and on how successful will be the efforts on ELMs mitigation.

  12. Aspect of use of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (uhmwpe) as biomaterial and as armour material (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the known polymeric materials, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has unique properties as a biomaterial as well as armour material. Its high strength and very high modulus makes it an alternate candidate as body armour for example bullet proof vest. The drawn fibers from this material are best known for their break strength and compete with the steel and carbon fibers. On the other hand, its extremely high molar mass imparts outstanding wear resistance and impact toughness better than any other polymer which makes it a better choice as biomaterial used in hip and knee transplants. As a biomaterial, when body transplants are gamma sterilized, their shelf life depends upon the number and nature of free radicals produced during sterilization. These long-lived radicals ultimately affect the wear properties of hip and knee transplants. The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) technique used to determine the concentration and nature of free radicals in about 16 years old powder, fibers and ram-extruded bar samples shows that at low microwave power (0.01 mW), polyenyl radicals become prominent while at high microwave power (160 mW), oxygen-centered radicals show their identity. The ESR study also exhibits that the concentration of free radicals depends upon the crystallinities of different morphologies known i.e powder, extruded bars and drawn fibers. Differential scanning calorimetry shows the order of crystallinity as: fiber > extruded bars > powder. (author)

  13. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity) of...

  14. Affordable thermal imaging systems for the UK light-armored vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the background to the planned upgrade of the UK Light Armoured Vehicle fleet, focussing specifically on the introduction of Thermal Imaging and Tactical Navigation systems which meet the requirement to conduct 24 hour operations and enhance the situational awareness of the crew. The main bulk of the paper will concentrate on the Battle Group Thermal Imaging (BGTI) system(s) selected by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to be installed on the Warrior Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) and Scimitar Close Recce vehicle. In particular the paper will describe the Gunners Sight, the integrated Commanders Crew Station, the Tactical Navigation sub-system and the interfacing of the Thales Optronics BGTI system to the General Dynamics Bowman Radio and Battlefield Management System (BMS). Throughout the paper, the Author will make reference to the need to offer affordable solutions that ensure the total cost to the UK MoD is kept within their budget.

  15. Mechanical adaptability of the Bouligand-type structure in natural dermal armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schaible, Eric; Dave, Neil K N; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A; Ritchie, Robert O

    2013-01-01

    Arapaima gigas, a fresh water fish found in the Amazon Basin, resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armour. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in distinct lamellae. Here we show how the Bouligand-type (twisted plywood) arrangement of collagen fibril lamellae has a key role in developing their unique protective properties, by using in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering during mechanical tensile tests to observe deformation mechanisms in the fibrils. Specifically, the Bouligand-type structure allows the lamellae to reorient in response to the loading environment; remarkably, most lamellae reorient towards the tensile axis and deform in tension through stretching/sliding mechanisms, whereas other lamellae sympathetically rotate away from the tensile axis and compress, thereby enhancing the scale's ductility and toughness to prevent fracture. PMID:24129554

  16. Strain rate effects on mechanical properties in tension of aluminium alloys used in armour applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, E.; Dotta, M.; Forni, D.; Bianchi, S.; Kaufmann, H.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical properties in tension of two aluminium alloys (AA5059-H131 and AA7039-T651) used in armour applications were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on round specimens. The experimental research was developed in the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The target strain rates were set at the following four levels: 10-3, 30, 300 and 1000s-1. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electromechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. The required parameters by the Johnson-Cook constitutive law were also determined.

  17. Strain rate effects on mechanical properties in tension of aluminium alloys used in armour applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties in tension of two aluminium alloys (AA5059-H131 and AA7039-T651 used in armour applications were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on round specimens. The experimental research was developed in the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The target strain rates were set at the following four levels: 10−3, 30, 300 and 1000s−1. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electromechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. The required parameters by the Johnson-Cook constitutive law were also determined.

  18. Finite Element Analysis Of Large Deformation Of Articular Cartilage In Upper Ankle Joint Of Occupant In Military Vehicles During Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Klekiel T.; Będziński R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the load of lower limbs of occupants in the armoured military vehicle, which has been destroyed by detonation of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) charge under the vehicle. A simplified model of the human lower limb focused on upper ankle joint was developed in order to determine the reaction forces in joints and load in particular segments during the blast load. The model of upper ankle joint, include a tibia and an ankle bone with corresponding articul...

  19. In-situ change and repairing method of armour tile made of carbon fiber composite material in divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint portion of a damaged armour tile of a carbon fiber composite material and a divertor substrate is locally heated spontaneously to re-melt the soldering. Then, the damaged tile is removed and the portion where the tile is removed is heated again to melt the soldering, then a tile for exchange is joined. Alternatively, a thermosetting type adhesive is coated on the surface of the damaged armour tile made of carbon fiber composite material on the divertor, and a tile for repairing is adhered thereon then the joint surface is locally heated to cure the adhesive. For local heating, for example, high frequency heating or dielectric heating is used. It is preferably conducted by remote handling by using robot arms under vacuum in an vacuum vessel of the thermonuclear device. The operations of the heating and pressurization for the joint surface are preferably repeated for several times. (N.H.)

  20. Improvement of non destructive infrared test bed SATIR for examination of actively cooled tungsten armour Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non destructive infrared techniques for control ITER like PFCs. • Reflective surface such as W induce a measurement temperature error. • Numerical data processing by evaluation of the local emissivity. • SATIR test bed can control metallic surface with low and variable emissivity. -- Abstract: For steady state (magnetic) thermonuclear fusion devices which need large power exhaust capability and have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10–20 MW m−2, advanced Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been developed. The importance of PFCs for operating tokamaks requests to verify their manufacturing quality before mounting. SATIR is an IR test bed validated and recognized as a reliable and suitable tool to detect cooling defaults on PFCs with CFC armour material. Current tokamak developments implement metallic armour materials for first wall and divertor; their low emissivity causes several difficulties for infrared thermography control. We present SATIR infrared thermography test bed improvements for W monoblocks components without defect and with calibrated defects. These results are compared to ultrasonic inspection. This study demonstrates that SATIR method is fully usable for PFCs with low emissivity armour material

  1. Effect of Flyer Plate Velocity and Rate of Crater Expansion on Performance of Explosive Reactive Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Yadav

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available "The reduction in the penetration power of the jet due to its interaction with an obliquely moving plate of explosive reactive armour (ERA sandwich has been studied. It has been assumed that the length of the jet, which gets disturbed due to its interaction with the edge of the hole made by the impact of the tip of the jet when the plate was stationary, does not contribute to penetration in the target. The jet length, which comes out of the hole undisturbed, penetrates the target. This length of the jet has been calculated considering the variation in plate velocity and rate of expansion of the crater in the plate with time. The time taken by the jet to shift its position from the centre to the wall of the hole has been determined for different velocities of the sandwich plate and varying expansion rates of the hole produced by the jet in the plate, corresponding to a constant velocity of the jet. This analysis has been used to obtain the length of undisturbed jet coming out of the hole and its penetration in the target. The present study establishes the effect of the plate velocity and rate of crater expansion on the performance of the ERA. It has been found that both these parameters affect the performance of the ERA, and the metal plates of lower density and higher strength make the ERA more effective.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V; Davy, Marcus W; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D; Rikkerink, Erik H

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A' is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis 'Hort16A' canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase-leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis 'Hort16A' plants in two laboratory experiments. PMID:26571404

  3. Flat tile armour cooled by hypervapotron tube: a possible technology for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) flat tile armours for actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC's) are an important challenge for controlled fusion machine. Flat tile concepts, water cooled by tubes, were studied, developed, tested and finally experienced with success in Tore Supra. The components were designed for 10 MW/m2 and mock-ups were successfully fatigue tested at 15 MW/m2, 1000 cycles. For ITER, a tube-in-tile concept was developed and mock-ups sustained up to 25 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without failure. Recently flat tile armored mock-ups cooled by Hypervapotron tube successfully sustained a cascade failure test under a mean heat flux of 10 MW/m2 but with a doubling of the heat flux on some tiles to simulate missing tiles (500 cycles). This encouraging results lead to reconsider the limits for flat tile concept when cooled by Hypervapotron tube. New tests are now scheduled to investigate these limits notably in regards to the ITER requirements. The concept could also be experimented in Tore Supra by installing a new limiter into the machine. (authors)

  4. Uncovering three-dimensional gradients in fibrillar orientation in an impact-resistant biological armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Paris, O.; Terrill, N. J.; Gupta, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex hierarchical structure in biological and synthetic fibrous nanocomposites entails considerable difficulties in the interpretation of the crystallographic texture from diffraction data. Here, we present a novel reconstruction method to obtain the 3D distribution of fibres in such systems. An analytical expression is derived for the diffraction intensity from fibres, explaining the azimuthal intensity distribution in terms of the angles of the three dimensional fibre orientation distributions. The telson of stomatopod (mantis shrimp) serves as an example of natural biological armour whose high impact resistance property is believed to arise from the hierarchical organization of alpha chitin nanofibrils into fibres and twisted plywood (Bouligand) structures at the sub-micron and micron scale. Synchrotron microfocus scanning X-ray diffraction data on stomatopod telson were used as a test case to map the 3D fibre orientation across the entire tissue section. The method is applicable to a range of biological and biomimetic structures with graded 3D fibre texture at the sub-micron and micron length scales.

  5. Ballistic Performance of Alumina and Zirconia-toughened Alumina Against 7.62 Armour Piercing Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G. Savio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare the ballistic performance of high purity alumina and zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA using depth of penetration (DoP test configuration against 7.62 mm armour piercing (AP ammunition. The effect of tile thickness on the differential efficiency factor (DEF was studied for tile thickness in the range of 3 mm to 6 mm for alumina tiles and 3 mm to 5 mm for ZTA tiles. The DEF is found to increase as tile thickness increases. An analysis on the failed shots showed that the residual shot weight does not follow a single linear relationship with ceramic tile thickness unlike the residual DoP for all thicknesses of tiles. Post-ballistic analysis on ceramic powder for particle size distribution was carried out and the results are presented.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.477-483, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6745

  6. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae. PMID:20569136

  7. Body armour: the effect of load, exercise and distraction on landing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Handcock, Phil J; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of added load and intense exercise on jump and landing performance and ground reaction force (GRF) during landings where attentional demand was varied. Fifty-two males (37 ± 9.2 years, 180.7 ± 6.1 cm, 90.2 ± 11.6 kg, maximal aerobic fitness (VO(₂max)) 50 ± 8.5 ml (.) kg(-1 .) min(-1), BMI 27.6 ± 3.1, mean ± s) completed a VO(₂max) test. Experimental sessions were completed (≥4 days in between) in a randomised counterbalanced order, one while wearing body armour and appointments (loaded) and one without load (unloaded). A vertical jump, a drop landing concentrating on safe touchdown, a drop jump and a drop landing with an attentional distraction were performed. These were repeated 1 min after a 5-min treadmill run. Mean jump height decreased by 12% (P task. Peak GRFs were increased by 13-19% with loading (P task demands and a further by 4-9% following intense exercise. The distracted drop landing had significantly higher GRFs compared to all other landings. Results demonstrate that added load impacts on jumping and landing performance, an effect that is amplified by prior intense exercise, and distraction during landing. Such increases in GRF apply to police officer performance in their duties and may increase the risk of injury. PMID:24050682

  8. Simulations of material damage to divertor and first wall armour under ITER transient loads by modelling and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of ITER at high fusion gain is assumed to be the H-mode. A characteristic feature of this regime is the transient energy release (TE) from the confined plasma onto plasma facing components (PFCs), which can play a determining role in lifetime of these components. The expected fluxes on the ITER PFCs during transients are: Type I ELM Q = 0.5 - 4 MJ/m2 in timescales t = 0.3 - 0.6 ms, and thermal quench Q = 2 - 13 MJ/m2 with t = 1 - 3 ms. CFC and tungsten macrobrush armour are foreseen as PFCs for ITER divertor and Be - as FW armour. During the intense TE in ITER the evaporation (CFC, W, Be) and surface melting and melt splashing (W and Be) are seen as the main mechanisms of PFC erosion. A noticeable erosion of CFC PAN fibres and rather intense crack formation for the W targets were observed in plasma gun experiments at rather small heat loads at which the melt damage to W armour is not substantial. The expected erosion of the ITER PFCs TE can be properly estimated by numerical simulations validated against erosion experiments at the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T, MK- 200UG and QSPA-Kh50. Within collaboration between EU fusion programme and Russian Federation, CFC and W macrobrush targets manufactured in EU were exposed to multiple ITER TE-like loads with Q = 0.5 - 2.2 MJ/m2 and t = 0 .5 ms at the QSPA-T. The measured erosion was used to validate the modelling codes developed in FZK (PEGASUS, MEMOS, and others), which are then applied to model the erosion of the divertor and main chamber ITER PFCs under expected transient loads in ITER. Numerical simulations performed for the expected ITER-like loads predicted: a significant erosion of the CFC target for Q > 0.5 MJ/m2 was caused by the inhomogeneous structure of the CFC; the W macrobrush structure is effective in preventing gross melt layer displacement. Optimization of macrobrush geometry to minimize melt splashing is done. Different mechanisms of melt splashing are compared with the results obtained in QSPA

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis of the dynamic behaviour in tension of an armour steel for applications in defence industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadoni Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour of armour steel in tension was investigated over a wide range of strain-rates on round specimens. The experiments were carried out by means of a Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar device and by a Hydro Pneumatic Machine. The target strain rate were set at the following six levels: 10−3, 5, 25, 100, 500 and 1000 s−1. Two material models were calibrated and used to replicate the experiments and to simulate blasting event on steel plate. Finally, the two responses are compared.

  10. Large-scale scour of the sea floor and the effect of natural armouring processes, land reclamation Maasvlakte 2, port of Rotterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, S.; Elias, E.; Aarninkhof, S.; Roelvink, D.; Vellinga, T.

    2007-01-01

    Morphological model computations based on uniform (non-graded) sediment revealed an unrealistically strong scour of the sea floor in the immediate vicinity to the west of Maasvlakte 2. By means of a state-of-the-art graded sediment transport model the effect of natural armouring and sorting of bed material on the scour process has been examined. Sensitivity computations confirm that the development of the scour hole is strongly reduced due to the incorporation of armouring processes, suggesting an approximately 30% decrease in terms of erosion area below the -20m depth contour. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  11. Optimization of armored fighting vehicle crew performance in a net-centric battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeen, William P.; Espenant, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Traditional display, control and situational awareness technologies may not allow the fighting vehicle commander to take full advantage of the rich data environment made available in the net-centric battle field of the future. Indeed, the sheer complexity and volume of available data, if not properly managed, may actually reduce crew performance by overloading or confusing the commander with irrelevant information. New techniques must be explored to understand how to present battlefield information and provide the commander with continuous high quality situational awareness without significant cognitive overhead. Control of the vehicle's many complex systems must also be addressed the entire Soldier Machine Interface must be optimized if we are to realize the potential performance improvements. Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and General Dynamics Canada Ltd. have embarked on a joint program called Future Armoured Fighting Vehicle Systems Technology Demonstrator, to explore these issues. The project is based on man-in-the-loop experimentation using virtual reality technology on a six degree-of-freedom motion platform that simulates the motion, sights and sounds inside a future armoured vehicle. The vehicle commander is provided with a virtual reality vision system to view a simulated 360 degree multi-spectrum representation of the battlespace, thus providing enhanced situational awareness. Graphic overlays with decision aid information will be added to reduce cognitive loading. Experiments will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual control systems. The simulations are carried out in a virtual battlefield created by linking our simulation system with other simulation centers to provide a net-centric battlespace where enemy forces can be engaged in fire fights. Survivability and lethality will be measured in successive test sequences using real armoured fighting vehicle crews to optimize overall system effectiveness.

  12. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse are...

  13. A study of the German ‘Gothic’ 15th-century equestrian armour (A21 in the Wallace Collection, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The most famous, indeed iconic, armour in the Wallace Collection, London, is the late 15th century German armour for man and horse (inventory number A21. Unfortunately for the historian of armour, it is also one of the most composite, having been assembled in its present form in the 19th century from elements of at least five armours. Archival research in the Wallace Collection has been combined with metallography in the Conservation Department to attempt to cast some further light upon its origins.

    La armadura más famosa y emblemática de la Wallace Collection de Londres es un arnés para hombre y caballo de finales del siglo XV (inv. A.21. Desafortunadamente para la historia del arte de la armadura es también una de las más heterogéneas, compuesta en el siglo XIX con piezas procedentes de al menos otras cinco armaduras. La investigación archivística en la Wallace Collection se ha compaginado con el estudio metalográfico del Departamento de Conservación para intentar arrojar algo más de luz sobre sus orígenes.

  14. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  15. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sudhakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  16. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. SUDHAKAR; V. MADHU; G. MADHUSUDHAN REDDY; K. SRINIVASA RAO

    2015-01-01

    Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  17. Origins of bone repair in the armour of fossil fish: response to a deep wound by cells depositing dentine instead of dermal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya; Kearsley, Anton; Pilecki, Peter; Mark-Kurik, Elga; Howard, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The outer armour of fossil jawless fishes (Heterostraci) is, predominantly, a bone with a superficial ornament of dentine tubercles surrounded by pores leading to flask-shaped crypts (ampullae). However, despite the extensive bone present in these early dermal skeletons, damage was repaired almost exclusively with dentine. Consolidation of bone, by dentine invading and filling the vascular spaces, was previously recognized in Psammolepis and other heterostracans but was associated with ageing...

  18. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    P Sivaraj; KANAGARAJAN D.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features....

  19. The First South African Armoured Battle in Italy during the Second World War: The Battle of Celleno – 10 June 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Kleynhans

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of 6 South African Armoured Division (6 SA Armd Div, during February 1943, afforded the Union Defence Force (UDF the chance to expand its military capabilities to that of armoured warfare.  An armoured division further offered South Africa the opportunity to equip the UDF with modern fighting equipment and to master the art of combined warfare.  Actual deployment in Italy differed vastly from the training which the division received in North Africa, for Italy was arguably, largely “untankable”.  The Division’s first battle occurred at Celleno, on 10 June 1944, where it was able to “prove” itself by securing its first victory.  As far as secondary sources are concerned, the Battle of Celleno is only superficially covered.  Primary sources are however abundant, thus adding to the rich history which is available on the Division.  This article analyses the Battle of Celleno, fought by 11 SA Armoured Brigade, in the context of the notion of “first battles”.[i] Emphasis will be placed on the training received prior to deployment, the Battle of Celleno, the lessons that were learned by the division at Celleno, and the way these influenced future operations in Italy.  The Division’s combined-arms approach is also evaluated, with specific emphasis on changing patterns of leadership, command, and employment of the Division after Celleno. [i] CE Heller & WA Stofft (eds. America’s first battles 1776–1965. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1986, ix–xiii.

  20. Not armour, but biomechanics, ecological opportunity and increased fecundity as keys to the origin and expansion of the mineralized benthic metazoan fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a new biotic interaction hypothesis for the Cambrian 'explosion' of mineralized, benthic, metazoan diversity. It proposes that organic-mineral composite structures (e.g. shells and muscle lever-arms) originated in Proterozoic lineages of primary larva-like, but reproductively competent, pelagic bilaterians because mineralization was both mechanically and energetically favourable, not because it provided armour against predation. Increased strength and rigidity of composite s...

  1. An experimental investigation of the early dynamic impact behaviour of textile armour systems: Decoupling material from system response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepus, Elvis

    This work focuses on the early impact response of textile armour systems. A relatively new data acquisition system, the Enhanced Laser Velocity Sensor (ELVS), was refined and used to generate a large database of results for a 5.57 mm diameter, 3 gram, non-deforming projectile impacting single-ply configurations of Ballistic Nylon, two weaves of Kevlar 129, and Zylon (PBO) over a range of velocities from 61 m/s to 248 m/s. In addition, one Kevlar 129 material was tested in configurations of 2, 3, 4, 8 and 16 plies over a range of strike velocities from 90 m/s to 481 m/s. ELVS results consisted of high-resolution timehistories of displacement, velocity and energy for each system tested. The strain wave velocity and ballistic performance of each system was also determined. Results taken from during the impact event were analysed up to just prior to the strain-wave rebounding from the boundary and returning to the impact point---effectively removing boundary influences. Regardless of system type, a constant rate of energy absorption within the pre-rebound timeframe was found to exist, which scales with the strike velocity to approximately the 8/3-power. Well-established single fibre theory was modified and applied to woven materials. It was assumed that three primary energy absorption mechanisms exist; elastic strain, in-plane kinetic and out-of-plane kinetic. This simple model yields the experimentally observed 8/3 exponent and parametrically predicts the difference between the different single-ply material systems, but underpredicts the observed behaviour by a factor of 2 and cannot address the performance reduction with increasing ply count. This combined experimental and analytical work confirms the long-held assumption that single fibre wave physics is applicable to multi-ply woven systems. More significantly, for the first time, it decouples material response from overall system response and provides the experimental tools and methodology required to analyse

  2. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... connectivity, mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network...

  3. Developments toward the use of tungsten as armour material in plasma facing components promoted by Euratom-CEA Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten is increasingly considered as a prime candidate armour material facing the plasma in fusion experiments (ASDEX, JET, ITER). This material is, however, a challenge for the engineers due to its brittleness at room temperature. Its bonding to structural or cooled substrates is a critical issue. The Euratom-CEA Association promotes the development of evolutionary techniques aiming to produce high performance assemblies between tungsten and various substrates. These are 1) functionally graded tungsten to copper, 2) direct electron beam welding of tungsten to Mo-alloy TZM and 3) the characterisation of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon fibre composite by high energy deposition processes. 1) A functionally graded material eliminates the singular point which weakens the heterogeneous assembly, reducing the stresses and allowing a better behaviour. The sintering of submicronic W-Cu powders is investigated. The green shape is processed from W-CuO powder, which is reduced by a hydrogen flow. The compaction and sintering of layers of various compositions (10 to 30 % Cu) produces an assembly (density of ∼ 94%) with a good cohesion. However, the gradient is not effectively controlled, because of the migration of melt copper during the sintering. Future work aims to improve the process by using spark or microwave assisted sintering. 2) Electron beam welding of Mo-alloy TZM is investigated, to produce high temperature components required by radiation cooled PFCs. They require only mechanical properties and no vacuum sealing. The driving line is to use simple tungsten shapes to reduce the milling cost. In spite of low weldable properties of the refractory alloys, a good bonding up to a depth of 5 mm is obtained. Hardness measurements show that the melt area and the heat affected zone are harder than TZM, the weakest materials at 230 Hv. Quench tests in water from up to 2000oC are done without apparent crack formation. 3) Finally, characterisation techniques are

  4. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  5. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919, Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828 and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758. All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.

  6. Optimisation of Kinematics for Tracked Vehicle Hydro Gas Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridhar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern-day armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs are basically tracked vehicles equippedwith hydro gas suspensions, in lieu of conventional mechanical suspensions like torsion barand coil spring bogie suspensions. The uniqueness of hydro gas suspension is that it offersa nonlinear spring rate, which is very much required for the cross-country moveability of atracked vehicle. The AFVs have to negotiate different cross-country terrains like sandy, rocky,riverbed, etc. and the road irregularities provide enumerable problems during dynamic loadingsto the design of hydro gas suspension system. Optimising various design parameters demandsinnovative design methodologies to achieve better ride performance. Hence, a comprehensivekinematic analysis is needed. In this study, a methodology has been derived to optimise thekinematics of the suspension by reorienting the cylinder axis and optimising the loadtransferringleverage factor so that the side thrust on the cylinder is minimised to a greaterextent. The optimisation ultimately increases the life of the high-pressure and high-temperaturepiston seals, resulting in enhanced system life for better dependability.

  7. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. Robotic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  9. Armouring of well cement in H2S–CO2 saturated brine by calcite coating – Experiments and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active acid gas (H2S–CO2 mixture) injection operations in North America provide practical experience for the operators in charge of industrial scale CO2 geological storage sites. Potential leakage via wells and their environmental impacts make well construction durability an issue for efficiency/safety of gas geological storage. In such operations, the well cement is in contact with reservoir brines and the injected gas, meaning that gas–water–solid chemical reactions may change the physical properties of the cement and its ability to confine the gas downhole. The cement-forming Calcium silicate hydrates carbonation (by CO2) and ferrite sulfidation (by H2S) reactions are expected. The main objective of this study is to determine their consequences on cement mineralogy and transfer ability. Fifteen and 60 days duration batch experiments were performed in which well cement bars were immersed in brine itself caped by a H2S–CO2 phase at 500 bar–120 °C. Scanning electron microscopy including observations/analyses and elemental mapping, mineralogical mapping by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and water porosimetry were used to characterize the aged cement. Speciation by micro-Raman spectroscopy of brine trapped within synthetic fluid inclusions were also performed. The expected calcium silicate hydrates carbonation and ferrite sulfidation reactions were evidenced. Furthermore, armouring of the cement through the fast creation of a non-porous calcite coating, global porosity decrease of the cement (clogging) and mineral assemblage conservation were demonstrated. The low W/R ratio of the experimental system (allowing the cement to buffer the interstitial and external solution pH at basic values) and mixed species diffusion and chemical reactions are proposed to explain these features. This interpretation is confirmed by reactive transport modelling performed with the HYTEC code. The observed cement armouring, clogging and mineral assemblage

  10. Cosmeceutical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Consumers will pay a premium for high-performance skin and hair care products. The demand exists, and in return for the high cost, consumers expect the product to perform as claimed and to meet aesthetic standards beyond many products found in the mass market. To be successful in this highly competitive market, products must function as claimed or consumers will not repurchase. Effective contemporary high-end products must be properly formulated in nonirritating vehicles that consumers will perceive as elegant. PMID:19695476

  11. Development of a new version of the Vehicle Protection Factor Code (VPF3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Terrance J.

    1990-10-01

    The Vehicle Protection Factor (VPF) Code is an engineering tool for estimating radiation protection afforded by armoured vehicles and other structures exposed to neutron and gamma ray radiation from fission, thermonuclear, and fusion sources. A number of suggestions for modifications have been offered by users of early versions of the code. These include: implementing some of the more advanced features of the air transport rating code, ATR5, used to perform the air over ground radiation transport analyses; allowing the ability to study specific vehicle orientations within the free field; implementing an adjoint transport scheme to reduce the number of transport runs required; investigating the possibility of accelerating the transport scheme; and upgrading the computer automated design (CAD) package used by VPF. The generation of radiation free field fluences for infinite air geometries as required for aircraft analysis can be accomplished by using ATR with the air over ground correction factors disabled. Analysis of the effects of fallout bearing debris clouds on aircraft will require additional modelling of VPF.

  12. Finite Element Analysis Of Large Deformation Of Articular Cartilage In Upper Ankle Joint Of Occupant In Military Vehicles During Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klekiel T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the load of lower limbs of occupants in the armoured military vehicle, which has been destroyed by detonation of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED charge under the vehicle. A simplified model of the human lower limb focused on upper ankle joint was developed in order to determine the reaction forces in joints and load in particular segments during the blast load. The model of upper ankle joint, include a tibia and an ankle bone with corresponding articular cartilage, has been developed. An analysis of the stress distribution under the influence of forces applied at different angles to the biomechanical axis of a limb has been performed. We analyzed the case of the lower limb of a sitting man leaning his feet on the floor. It has been shown that during a foot pronation induced by a knee outward deviation, the axial load on the foot causes significantly greater tension in the tibia. At the same time it has been shown that within the medial malleolus, tensile stresses occur on the surface of the bone which may lead to fracture of the medial malleolus. It is a common case of injuries caused by loads on foot of passengers in armored vehicles during a mine or IED load under the vehicle. It was shown that the outward deviation of the knee increases the risk of the foot injury within the ankle joint.

  13. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  14. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative fuels Advanced gas and diesel vehicles Explaining EVs and PHEVs Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles GHG emissions ... gas emissions Routes to a lower GHG transportation future What if: Ideas for reducing transportation GHG We' ...

  15. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  16. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  17. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  18. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  19. VEHICLE FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Lindberg, J.F.

    1962-01-30

    A reeling device is designed for an electrical cable supplying power to the slave slde of a remote control manipulator mounted on a movable vehicle. As the vehicle carries the slave side about in a closed room, the device reels the cable in and out to maintain a variable length of the cable between the vehicle and a cable inlet in the wall of the room. The device also handles a fixed length of cable between the slave side and the vehicle, in spite of angular movement of the slave side with respect to the vehicle. (AEC)

  20. Study for Key Technology of Light Kevlar Non-Woof Cloth Body Armour%轻质芳纶无纬布防弹衣关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中伟; 刘元坤; 常浩

    2014-01-01

    本研究采用单因素实验设计的方法,以及采用添加压敏胶粘剂及固化剂的方法,研究了一种新型防凹陷芳纶无纬布。该无纬布无需进行二次上胶即可压制成防凹陷材料,并通过对防凹陷材料结构设计、压制工艺的优化,开发出了一种轻薄、穿着舒适的防弹衣产品。与传统的防弹衣产品相比,该结构防弹衣产品防弹性能达到NIJ IIIA级要求,防凹陷材料制备的防弹芯片面密度更低,产品重量降低了20%以上,产品的厚度由12mm减少至5.5mm,可明显减轻作战人员的负荷,芯片结构更加隐形,穿着更加舒适,满足了目前市场的发展需求。%In this study, a novel preventing depression of aramid non-woof cloth was prepared by adding pressure-sensitive adhesives and curing agent based on single factor experimental design methods. This non-woof cloth can be pressed into preventing depression materials without the secondary using adhesive. And a lightweight and comfortable body armour was developed by structural design of preventing depression material and optimization of pressing process. Compared to traditional body armour, the product could reach NIJ IIIA level requirements, and had the lower the density of the bullet-proof chip. The weight of product was decreased by more than 20%, and the thickness of product was reduced from 12mm to 5.5mm. These can significantly reduce the load, meanwhile, chip structure was more invisible and wearing more comfortable, these could meet current market trends.

  1. The Vehicle Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Jonas

    Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

  2. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle control

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Morató, Jordi; Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the system control design stages for an autonomous underwater vehicle are presented. The vehicle must be able to sail on sea surface, following a path without losing its route and once a position is reached, a dive following a perpendicular path to the surface is carried out. A two level system control are proposed. The primary level will control the navigation of the vehicle where a linear controllers are proposed. Whereas in secondary level guidance system, collision system, s...

  3. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccini, B; Alderigi, C

    1989-09-01

    The present review is concerned with some essential formulative and therapeutic aspects of semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. The history and the most recent developments of the traditional lipophilic vehicles (ointments) are first outlined. The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined. Some recent formulations of particular type are finally described. PMID:2699716

  4. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  5. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  6. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  7. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  8. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Yingqi, Liu; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development of elect...

  9. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  10. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  11. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  12. Smart Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Kamble

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to know how simple ideas can give a whole new dimension to the tracking and navigation industry and smart vehicle tracking system is used for tracking the vehicles. You can optimize driver routes, save petrol or gas and time, reduce theft and control the vehicle functions. Many a times it is not required to track your vehicle or target globally. In majority of cases tracking is more restricted to local purposes only, such as tracking movement of vehicle within city, tracking the raw materials within industrial estate or to know the present position of your daughter or son within city. But unfortunately in the pursuit of making things complex this simple idea is forgotten. This simple yet powerful idea forms the basis of this revolutionary project. All this coupled with a very low cost, a robust design and tremendous market potential makes this model even more attractive.

  13. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  14. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  15. Methane emissions from vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

    2004-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

  16. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Van der Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic information system may comprise a plurality of these traffic information units. The invention further comprises a vehicle management system (C) for a target vehicle (70B, 70E) that is capable of receiv...

  17. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  18. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  19. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  20. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  1. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  2. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  3. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  4. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  5. Electric drive, motor vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the diverse mineral oil crises and the always increasing gasoline prices, more and more attention is paid to the electric car. The development of power economy necessitates more and more using mineral oil more economically and to replace it by other vehicles of energy wherever possible. This is especially true of highway traffic where the Federal Republic is 100% dependent on mineral oil imports. Prototypes of test vehicles of the different firms are presented.

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Selivanov; V. Filenko; А. Bazhynov; E. Budianskaya

    2009-01-01

    The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  8. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  9. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  10. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  11. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  12. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  13. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  14. Green vehicle : slippery turn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the many challenges facing the development and commercialization of environmentally friendly vehicles in Canada from scooters, to bicycles to motorcycles, as experienced by Zapworld, a leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of electric bicycles and power-assist kits. There are many environmental advantages to small electric vehicles, however, the distribution network for this new product is virtually non-existent. Zap-Quebec, a subsidiary of Zapworld, has made efforts to bring notoriety to the product by targeting aging cycle enthusiasts and promoting the electric bicycle as viable transportation means for short commutes, for camping, to get around factories, and for security guards. Since September 2000 independent dealers in Montreal have participated in a pilot project in which more than 15,000 electric bikes have been made available for rent as a pleasure vehicle for tourists. No accidents have ever been reported and the feedback has been positive. It was emphasized that legislators must understand the value behind small electric vehicles and draft legislation accordingly. tabs., figs

  15. ITS / Commercial Vehicle Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Pratyush

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) utilize information, communication, sensor, and control technologies to achieve improved levels of performance. The U.S. DOT has developed a National ITS Program Plan that includes seven major elements. One of them addresses the ITS technologies which uniquely support Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO).

  16. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple. The...

  17. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  18. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  19. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions. The...

  20. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  1. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  2. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  3. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  4. Development of radiation shielding materials and NBC pads for infantry combat vehicle and tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanks have special lining materials inside, providing a certain degree of radiation protection for operation in nuclear scenario's. At present these special lining materials in the form of sheets are imported and are fitted into armoured vehicles. Three types of polymer compositions; PE(M)SE, PEC-ISE and PEC-IISE were formulated based on polymer matrix, specific fillers and anti-ageing additives. Prototype NBC pads based on polymer composition PEC-ISE was finalized for moulding of NBC pads for use in ICVs and composition PE(M)SE was finalized for T-90 tanks. The physico-mechanical properties for NBC pads have been evaluated. Radiography of test samples was conducted to ensure homogeneity of specific fillers in the polymer matrix. Radiation shielding factors against nuclear radiation sources (60Co, I37Cs and 252Cf) were evaluated at DL Jodhpur and found to be better than imported Russian Pads designed for ICVs and T-90 Tanks. Drawings for twelve types of NBC pads for ICVs and one hundred eighteen types of pads for T-90 tank were generated with the help of design tool, Auto Desk Inventor-II and metallic moulds for moulding of NBC pads were fabricated. Prototype NBC pads were moulded through compression moulding process. Radiation protection factors of prototype NBC pads, after fitment in ICVs, were also evaluated against neutron and gamma (primary and secondary) radiation sources. Prototype NBC pads for ICVs have shown 20% improvement in overall protection level and NBC pads for T-90 tanks have been developed as per design requirements. Manufacturing facility for NBC shielding pads have been established in association with industries. (author)

  5. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  6. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  7. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  8. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  9. Electric Vehicle Simulation and Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Range anxiety is a chief concern for all electric vehicles (EVs). Range anxiety summarizes the fear of being stranded in an electric vehicle due to insufficient battery. Therefore, we need a way to simulate and animate use and charging of battery for electric vehicles to assure users of the range of EVs. The application we designed can provide simulation and animation of EVs energy use and charging based on the physical characteristics of specific vehicles, terrain information, and driving ro...

  10. Prototype design for autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehander, Jacob; Persson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanical design of a prototype vehicle developed for a company located in California. The project was based on an earlier vehicle located at KTH, Transport Labs, and investigated if the existing concept for the vehicle would work as a concept for an autonomous prototype, with focus on component layout and increased forces. The design of the vehicle is based on a concept with a carbon fiber bottom plate, two separate suspension modules with electric hub motors and s...

  11. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  12. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  13. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  14. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  15. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  16. Towards urban driverless vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benenson, Rodrigo; Petti, Stéphane; Fraichard, Thierry; Parent, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of autonomous navigation of a car-like robot evolving in an urban environment. Such an environment exhibits an heterogeneous geometry and is cluttered with moving obstacles. Furthermore, in this context, motion safety is a critical issue. The proposed approach to the problem lies in the design of perception and planning modules that consider explicitely the dynamic nature of the vehicle and the environment while enforcing the safety constraint. The main contrib...

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  19. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  20. Material, Structural Design of Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Stone and concrete are two materials generally used for the construction of rubble mound breakwaters. This paper deals with concrete only.......Stone and concrete are two materials generally used for the construction of rubble mound breakwaters. This paper deals with concrete only....

  1. The Armour of Hope and other works

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The series of work entitled The Skin of Hope was produced during a 2012 Australia Council for the Arts studio residency in Barcelona, where I was accompanied by my partner Paula and our adopted daughter, Hope. Blurring the usual divide between familial life and art practice, the residency inspired a series of hand knitted sculptures and photographs weaving an account of the ways that Hope and I acknowledge, bond and imprint each other at skin level. Materialising our past wounds and present, ...

  2. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  3. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  4. Vehicle WiFi

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol Contreras, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    El projecte presenta el disseny d'un vehicle a motor elèctric construït sobre el sistema microcontrolador LPC1769 amb comunicacions sense fils via xarxes WiFi i detecció d'obstacles per sonar. El proyecto presenta el diseño de un vehículo a motor eléctrico construido sobre el sistema microcontrolador LPC1769 con comunicaciones inalámbricas vía redes WiFi y detección de obstáculos para sonar.

  5. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  6. Vehicle Classification by Lane Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification of vehicles from video is used for analysis of traffic, self-driving systems or security systems. This analysis is based on shape, size, velocity and track of vehicles. These features characterize vehicle in background subtraction and feature extraction methods. Extraction is done by active contours and morphological operations. Extracted vehicles are classified by applying various classification techniques. The combination of features and classification techniques varies with the application. Proposed system, Uses combination of K Nearest Neighbor (KNN and Decision Tree techniques to overcome constraints. These constraints are instances of an object, overlapping of objects, and scaling factor. KNN is utilized to classify vehicle by size and lane. Decision tree manipulates the combination of these two features to classify accurately which results increased performance. This system classifies objects into three classes. These classes are four wheeler, bikers and heavy duty vehicle extracted from video.

  7. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  8. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  9. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. Whe...

  10. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLES RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    PAWE£ SMOLNIK

    2014-01-01

    Fast development of automotive industry in Poland in recent years involves the need for rational waste management from the destruction and exploitation of vehicles. Rising number of new cars in Poland and existing age structure of the domestic park of vehicles will contribute to the increase number cars withdrawn from use. The way to solve the growing problem of waste recycling is the development of vehicles recycling system which contributes to the economic management of natural resources an...

  12. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  13. Optimal routing of electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Andelmin, Juho

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a vehicle routing problem (VRP) variant tailored for plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is studied. The studied problem involves a fleet of identical BEVs located at a central depot, a set of customers that must be serviced within given time windows, and a set of charging stations where the vehicles can recharge their batteries. The objective is to design a set of vehicle routes, each starting and ending at the depot, so that each customer is serviced exactly once and th...

  14. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  15. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  16. Vehicle Security System Using CAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kavya, N.; B.Santhosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding the Vehicle Theft is making real buzz in the present automobile industry. For the design and development of a theft control system, it can be done by making use of GPS feature of mobile phone. The Engine control module is interfaced by using Control Area Network. The developed system is placed in the vehicle which communicates with the Engine control module, by using the GPS. Stolen vehicles can be stopped. Whenever the vehicle owner sends a predefined text from his mobile phone to t...

  17. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  18. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  19. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  1. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Limited Vehicle Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Taracena Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem (VRP has been an important research topic during the last decades because of his vital role in the productive systems efficiency. Most of the work done in this area has been directed to solve large scale problems which may not apply for small companies which are a very important engine of the world economy. This paper approaches the problem when limited vehicle resources are present and road transportation is used. This study assumes variable customer orders. Variable volume and weight vehicle capacities are considered and the proposed algorithm develops the vehicle delivery routes and the set of customer orders to deliver per vehicle minimizing a cost objective function. In sampling small company’s logistics costs, big cost savings are found when using the proposed method.

  2. Vehicle type choice and differentiated registration taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered as a useful tool for promoting environmental friendly vehicles. Such a tax was introduced in Denmark in 2007. During 2007, the pattern in new vehicle purchases in Denmark changed toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. We analyse t...

  3. String stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, highway capacity has become a limiting factor, regularly causing traffic jams. Obviously, the road capacity can be increased by decreasing the inter-vehicle following distance di . As a consequence, however, vehicle automation in longitudinal direction is required in order to still

  4. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension ki

  5. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  6. Solar powered model vehicle races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  7. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  8. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  9. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  10. Driverless vehicles; Automatisches Fahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetting, H.H. [MSEE, Goetting KG, Lehrte (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    New sensor systems, radiocommunication and computer technology have speeded up progress in automation. Driverless vehicles are now feasible. They offer maximum mobility and driving comfort, arrival on time and with minimum environmental effects. Germany should make use of its technological advantage and start trial projects on public roads now. [German] Mit der neuen Sensor-, Funk- und Rechnertechnik ist Bewegung in die Automatisierung gekommen. Automatisches Fahren hat grosse Vorteile fuer unser Wirtschafts- und Sozialleben. Es bietet fuer uns alle ein hoechstes Mass an Mobilitaet, entspannter Bewegung, puenktlicher Ankunft, geringster Belastung fuer die Umwelt (weniger Kraftstoff, weniger Laerm, weniger Platzbedarf). Es ist jetzt entscheidend, dass wir unseren technologischen Vorsprung in Deutschland nutzen, und die ersten Erprobungsprojekte auf oeffentlichen Strassen starten. (orig.)

  11. Marketing of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substituting electric vehicles for traditional ones could reduce local pollution and greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the owner of the EV in terms of price, driving range, availability, loading capacity, speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for recharging. Such a product hardly sells itself to potential customers. Besides supportive national policies, skillful marketing is needed to get it accepted and diffused throughout society. This paper outlines a two-phase strategy for the marketing of EVs based on a discussion of current and expected future characteristics of EVs and on a review of research on early adopters. (author)

  12. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  13. Aggregate vehicle travel forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; Chin, Shih-Miao; Gibson, R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a model for forecasting total US highway travel by all vehicle types, and its implementation in the form of a personal computer program. The model comprises a short-run, econometrically-based module for forecasting through the year 2000, as well as a structural, scenario-based longer term module for forecasting through 2030. The short-term module is driven primarily by economic variables. It includes a detailed vehicle stock model and permits the estimation of fuel use as well as vehicle travel. The longer-tenn module depends on demographic factors to a greater extent, but also on trends in key parameters such as vehicle load factors, and the dematerialization of GNP. Both passenger and freight vehicle movements are accounted for in both modules. The model has been implemented as a compiled program in the Fox-Pro database management system operating in the Windows environment.

  14. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  15. 77 FR 40921 - Communication With Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Communication With Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... withdrawing Regulatory Guide 5.32, Revision 1, ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May..., ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May 1975. This RG describes radiotelephone...

  16. An Approach to Driverless Vehicles in Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés, Vicente; Onieva, Enrique; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Godoy, Jorge; Villagra, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper presents AUTOPIA program results towards autonomous vehicles in highways. Based on our previous experience in automatic driving systems, a high-speed controller has been developed to perform vehicle's guidance autonomously. The map is generated in real time by the leading vehicle via vehicle-to-vehicle communications, permitting the vehicle equipped with the automatic system driving in any real circumstance in highways as can be lane-change maneuver. The s...

  17. Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (Inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

  18. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  19. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  20. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  1. The Scout Launch Vehicle System

    OpenAIRE

    Tanck, Pamela; Williams, James

    1988-01-01

    SCOUT, a four-stage, solid-rocket launch vehicle originally developed by LTV Missiles and Electronics Group, is completing its third decade of service. NASA-Langley started the program in 1958 with the intent of providing a simple, low-cost, reliable launch vehicle for orbital, probe and re-entry missions. On July 1, 1960, the first SCOUT vehicle was launched. Since SCOUT became operational in 1963, there have been 88 launches of which 84 were successful, representing a reliability record of ...

  2. The Scout Launch Vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

  3. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro;

    2014-01-01

    A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric...

  4. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  5. TWO WHEELER VEHICLE SECURITY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Prashantkumar R.; Sagar V. C.; Santosh S.; Siddharth Nambiar

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle security system has been a topic of great interest over the years due to the increasing vehicle theft cases reported all over the world. Most of the advanced vehicle security systems best suit the four wheelers. As of the security system for two wheelers is concerned, the systems available in market are of no match to the well equipped thieves. When under attack, these systems can only immobilize the engine and sound a loud alarm. It is a serious limitation. In this paper we propose a...

  6. Vehicle License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  7. The Falcon I Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...

  8. Vehicle Coordinated Strategy for Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuzzy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-shi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem with fuzzy demands (VRPFD is considered. A fuzzy reasoning constrained program model is formulated for VRPFD, and a hybrid ant colony algorithm is proposed to minimize total travel distance. Specifically, the two-vehicle-paired loop coordinated strategy is presented to reduce the additional distance, unloading times, and waste capacity caused by the service failure due to the uncertain demands. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  9. Rescue vehicle Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hainsworth; Pete Nicolay [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2001-03-15

    The aim of this project was to develop a proof-of-concept Stirling engine and heat cell for use in the mining industry, primarily for underground applications. In particular, the Stirling engine, being an external combustion engine, offers the potential to operate on stored heat in low-oxygen or inert underground atmospheres. This makes it attractive for rescue vehicles, which are required to operate in such environments. A prototype Stirling engine with power output in the 15kW range was constructed and tested. Experimental measurements showed that this output was not achieved. While the basic thermodynamic principles of the design were valid, achieved output was well below the required value. The conclusion is that, because of the lack of commercial Stirling cycle-based products and the difficulty experienced in this project in overcoming the problem of high temperature seal implementation to produce a working prototype, the short term potential of the Stirling engine for mine rescue applications is limited.

  10. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation that can replace robotic vehicles in field studies. This proxy simulation will model the...

  11. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  12. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  13. Sparse representation for vehicle recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnig, Nathan D.; Sakla, Wesam

    2014-06-01

    The Sparse Representation for Classification (SRC) algorithm has been demonstrated to be a state-of-the-art algorithm for facial recognition applications. Wright et al. demonstrate that under certain conditions, the SRC algorithm classification performance is agnostic to choice of linear feature space and highly resilient to image corruption. In this work, we examined the SRC algorithm performance on the vehicle recognition application, using images from the semi-synthetic vehicle database generated by the Air Force Research Laboratory. To represent modern operating conditions, vehicle images were corrupted with noise, blurring, and occlusion, with representation of varying pose and lighting conditions. Experiments suggest that linear feature space selection is important, particularly in the cases involving corrupted images. Overall, the SRC algorithm consistently outperforms a standard k nearest neighbor classifier on the vehicle recognition task.

  14. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  15. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation to replace robotic vehicles in field studies. It will model the dynamics, terrain interaction,...

  16. Non-cable vehicle guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugela, G.C.; Willott, A.M.; Chopiuk, R.G.; Thornton, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose is to determine the most promising driverless mine vehicle guidance systems that are not dependent on buried cables, and to plan their development. The project is presented in two phases: a preliminary study and literature review to determine whether suitable technologies exist to justify further work; and an in-depth assessment and selection of technologies for vehicle guidance. A large number of guidance elements are involved in a completely automated vehicle. The technologies that hold the best potential for development of guidance systems for mine vehicles are ultrasonics, radar, lasers, dead reckoning, and guidance algorithms. The best approach to adaptation of these technologies is on a step by step basis. Guidance modules that are complete in themselves and are designed to be integrated with other modules can provide short term benefits. Two modules are selected for development: the dragline operations monitor and automated machine control for optimized mining (AMCOM). 99 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. Energy efficient vehicles technology II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeker, Bernard; Morawietz, Lutz (eds.) [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Vehicle Mechatronics

    2012-11-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 2{sup nd} International Energy Efficient Vehicles Conference (EEVC 2012) which took place from June 18{sup th}-19{sup th} in Dresden, Germany. The special conference program for EEVC 2012 contained contributions and presentations by researchers, developers, product planners and managers of the main German and international vehicle manufacturers, system suppliers and research institutes. So all the main topics related to energy efficient vehicles could be covered, as there are for example new development and optimization strategies, battery management systems, different power net topologies and hybridization concepts (e.g. hydraulic power trains). A special focus lies on different aspects of electric vehicles as there are charging strategies, light weight construction and also the point of view from an energy supplier. (orig.)

  18. The Promotion of Solar Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfried Puwein

    1991-01-01

    Solar vehicles, which do not rely on the public electricity system, significantly ease the ecological problems connected with individual automotive transportation. If the public electricity system is to be used to reload the batteries the ecological benefits are reduced. The high costs of producing batteries and the generation of electricity in photovoltaic facilities presumably lower the benefits of promoting solar vehicles below that of promoting public transportation.

  19. Smart electric vehicle charging system

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; João L Afonso; Silva, Alberto R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures, based on intelligent process. Due to the electrical power distribution network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed in a balanced way, taking into account past experience, weather information based on data mining, and simulation approaches. In order to allow information exchange and to help user ...

  20. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  1. Light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Today electrical vehicles are again considered seriously. However, one is not yet used to their performance. An overview is given in what one can expect from electric vehicles, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical SUV. Special attention is given to the possibility of ultralight electric cars and the elbev concept, “Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle”. Together with high efficiency power plants, a CO2 emissions of about 10gr/km could be obtained.

  2. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  3. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  4. APPLICATION OF MOUNTING FRAMES IN SPECIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz SZCZĘŚNIAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design solutions and fastening mounting frames in special vehicles. Special Vehicles is an interesting and growing market in the production of heavy vehicles. Due to the nature of the use of these vehicles of their design solutions require constant change and adaptation, which opens up the possibility of a utilitarian research

  5. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  6. Electric vehicle performance in 1994 DOE competitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, S.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.; LeBlanc, N.; Gonzales, R.; Buitrago, C.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through Argonne National Laboratory sponsored and recorded energy data of electric vehicles (EVs) at five competitions in 1994. Each competition provided different test conditions (closed-track, on-road, and dynamometer). The data gathered at these competitions includes energy efficiency, range, acceleration, and vehicle characteristics. The results of the analysis show that the vehicles performed as expected. Some of the EVs were also tested on dynamometers and compared to gasoline vehicles, including production vehicles with advanced battery systems. Although the EVs performed well at these competitions, the results show that only the vehicles with advanced technologies perform as well or better than conventional gasoline vehicles.

  7. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  9. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    The M. Nguyen; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technolo...

  10. Motor vehicle stocks, scrappage, and sales

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Greenspan; Darrel Cohen

    1996-01-01

    This paper offers a new framework for analyzing aggregate sales of new motor vehicles that incorporates separate models for the change in the vehicle stock and for the rate of vehicle scrappage. Because this approach requires only a minimal set of assumptions about demographic trends, the state of the economy, consumer "preferences," new vehicle prices and repair costs, and vehicle retirements, it is shown to be especially useful as a macroeconomic forecasting tool. In addition, a new histori...

  11. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  12. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  13. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  14. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  15. Reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    This thirteenth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413), referred to as the Act, complies with the reporting requirements established in section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. During FY 1989, significant progress was made in this program. There has been continuing interest shown by both the automobile manufacturers and supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. The three major domestic automobile manufacturers all are devoting some effort towards electric vehicles. Their participation includes cost-shared contracts with Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute as well as independently funded activities. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components continue to achieve significant progress in providing industry with technology that will result in vehicles that will be more economically competitive.

  17. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  18. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  19. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  20. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  2. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system wa...

  3. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  4. Electric Vehicle : The Future Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Goyal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A lot is said and heard about global warming and its causes. But still the global situation is the same and nothing much changes. This paper intends to bring, what is considered as the potential savior of the world today, ELECTRIC VEHICLES in the lime light. Provided the EV are known for their non-emission of air pollutants and zero noise workings, EVs may be the first step towards the clean and sophisticated world. This paper aims to discuss the past, the present and the future of the vehicles which seems to be the solution of the desperate situation. This paper also provides brief simulation of electric vehicle in MATLAB environment.

  5. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  6. Vehicle and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1997-02-01

    Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is comprised of a 1 Curie 137Cs gamma-ray source in a shield and collimator which produces a fan-shaped beam designed to intercept a vertical array of gama-ray detectors contained in a tower structure. The source and detector modules straddle the vehicle or container being inspected and are mounted on self-propelled trolleys which travel in synchronization along two parallel tracks covering the length of the scanned object. The signals from the gamma-ray detector array are processed and displayed so as to produce a 2D gamma-radiographic image of the object. Testing of the system on a variety of empty and lightly-loaded vehicles and containers has demonstrated the effectiveness of VACIS in detecting hidden contraband. For example, a small sample of cocaine only 1.5 inches thick was readily detected in a container.

  7. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  8. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.

    2009-07-01

    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  9. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  10. INTER VEHICLE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lende

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented wireless communication between two or more number of vehicles. Wireless communication can also be used within safety, efficiency and infotainmentareas by using the IEEE- and ASTMadopted Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC standard. The paper first gives an overview of automotive applications relying on wireless communications, with particular focus on telemetric. Along with a description of the DSRC architecture, we introduce the concept of CCA and its implementation requirements in the context of a vehicle to-vehicle wireless network, primarily at the Medium Access Control (MAC and the routing layer. An overview is then provided to establish that the MAC and routing protocols from traditional Mobile Ad Hoc networks are not directly applicable for CCA and similar safety-critical applications.

  11. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  12. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  13. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  14. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth; Lozano, Alberto; Sleimovits, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price s...

  15. Light duty vehicle driveability investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulmin, H.A. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the results of an automobile driveability, emission, fuel economy and performance testing program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A total of twenty-two 1977 and 1978 model vehicles were subjected to a series of tests when adjusted to the manufacturers' recommended settings and when adjusted to simulate maladjustments found on in-use vehicles in an earlier EPA Restorative Maintenance Evaluation Project. The CRC driveability tests were performed on a weather controlled large roll chassis dynamometer at 16C and the emissions and fuel economy tests were conducted according to the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, except that evaporative emissions tests were not conducted.

  16. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  17. SAFETY FACTOR IN VEHICLE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ELDOĞAN

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary conciderations in vehicle design is safety. Safety criteria in the broadest sense have been with the car from its inception. Once you are moving at more than ten kilometers per hour, the problems of turning and stopping become immediately apparent. Designing for accident avoidance, therefore, is in one sense merely an extension of designing for normal function, and improvements have been introduced in an ad hoc manner over many years in this area. This paper traces very briefly the evolution of some safety aspects of vehicle design. Some studies and safety parameters are introduced too.

  18. IEA Vehicle Efficiency Workshops Drive New Vehicle Policy Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Fuel economy is not only about getting more performance from the engine. Components outside the engine are also large fuel consumers. If fuel-economy test methods always remembered that, vehicle manufacturers would optimise component performance. A number of initiatives addressing component test standards and related policies have been triggered by IEA's recent workshops.

  19. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some traditional uses of metals in vehicle component and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon-fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while maintaining structural integrity. The aerospace and aircraft industries have adopted this approach. The auto or motor vehicle industries have explored the use of composites, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns over manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ∼ 750 kilos would weigh only ∼ 155 kilos if replaced with carbon-fiber composites. Structural members, as the vehicle chassis, could also be fabricated out of carbon-fiber composites. With only 20% of the body weight, smaller, lower horse-power and more fuel efficient engines could be used to power such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers that have adopted carbon-fiber structures in lieu of aluminum (a 40% weight savings) estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These are still made with conventional materials being used for motors, tires, interiors, and the like. A fuel efficient auto now running at ∼ 10 kilometers/liter would more than double its fuel efficiency given the nearly 80% weight savings attainable by use of carbon-fiber composites just for the vehicle body. As with aircraft, conventional systems for propulsion (motors), braking, tires and interiors could still be used. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon-fiber composite vehicle components. Highly penetrating X-rays derived from high current, high energy electron beam (EB) accelerators can be used to cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure cycles, eliminating heat transfer concerns and concerns over potentially hazardous emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile

  20. Eindrapport Transumo Project Intelligent Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Klunder, G.

    2009-01-01

    De centrale doelstelling van het project Intelligent Vehicles was om in-car telematica als een baanbrekende technologie te gebruiken om de kwaliteit van reizen en duurzaam wegverkeer te verbeteren en de waarde van de mogelijkheden van in-car telematica te waarderen in termen van veiligheid, doorstro

  1. The natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  2. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  3. Energy efficient vehicles technology I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeker, Bernard [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Automotive Technology Dresden - IAD; Morawietz, Lutz (eds.) [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Vehicle Mechatronics; IAM GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ongoing demand for optimization of today's (auto-)mobility concepts towards increased efficiency and customer perceivable functionality can only be realized using novel mechatronic sensor, control and actuator systems. This development trend is especially evident in the field of alternative or hybrid/full electric powertrain systems of vehicles. This book originates from the 1{sup st} International Energy Efficient Vehicles Conference (EEVC 2011) which took place from June 30{sup th} - July 1{sup st} in Dresden, Germany. The special conference program for EEVC 2011 contained contributions and presentations by researcher, developers, product planners and managers of all main German and international OEMs, system suppliers and research institutes. So all the main topics related to energy efficient vehicles could be covered, as there are for example aerodynamics and thermal management, renewable energy management linked to mobile systems, hybrid power trains, semiconductors and driver assistance systems. Different types of vehicles such as cars, trains and even fork lift trucks were also discussed.

  4. Generic hypersonic vehicle performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated computational model of a generic hypersonic vehicle was developed for the purpose of determining the vehicle's performance characteristics, which include the lift, drag, thrust, and moment acting on the vehicle at specified altitude, flight condition, and vehicular configuration. The lift, drag, thrust, and moment are developed for the body fixed coordinate system. These forces and moments arise from both aerodynamic and propulsive sources. SCRAMjet engine performance characteristics, such as fuel flow rate, can also be determined. The vehicle is assumed to be a lifting body with a single aerodynamic control surface. The body shape and control surface location are arbitrary and must be defined. The aerodynamics are calculated using either 2-dimensional Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory and approximate high-Mach-number Prandtl-Meyer expansion theory. Skin-friction drag was also accounted for. The skin-friction drag coefficient is a function of the freestream Mach number. The data for the skin-friction drag coefficient values were taken from NASA Technical Memorandum 102610. The modeling of the vehicle's SCRAMjet engine is based on quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamics for the engine diffuser, nozzle, and the combustor with heat addition. The engine has three variable inputs for control: the engine inlet diffuser area ratio, the total temperature rise through the combustor due to combustion of the fuel, and the engine internal expansion nozzle area ratio. The pressure distribution over the vehicle's lower aft body surface, which acts as an external nozzle, is calculated using a combination of quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamic theory and Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory. The exhaust plume shape is determined by matching the pressure inside the plume, calculated from the gas dynamic equations, with the freestream pressure, calculated from Newtonian or Modified Newtonian theory. In this manner, the pressure distribution along the vehicle after body

  5. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  6. An Autonomous Vehicle for Farming Using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Rup Prakash

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the automatic steering control of farming vehicle using GPS receiver. Automatic steering devices for farming vehicles like tractors, seeding vehicle, weed control vehicle, spraying machine vehicle etc. have the task to relieve the driver from the physical and mental stress of monotonous steering work. Simultaneously, they are intended to help him to exploit machines and farming vehicle closer to their full performance and improve the quality of work. Vehicles frequently have to be steered in and exact straight line and along rows in the farm land.GPS receiver fetches the information of positions (latitude and longitude of the farm land which needs to be cultivated. With the help of GPS and microcontroller (Arm9 we calculate the boundary of farm land, slope of straight line and angle of movement with the help of slope changes. The microcontroller generates the control signals to stepper motor for steering of vehicle.

  7. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

  8. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  9. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  10. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  11. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  12. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  13. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  14. The Electric Vehicle Lithium Battery Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Lin; Yuankai Liu; Wang Ping; Fang Hong

    2013-01-01

    With the global increase in the number of vehicles, environmental protection and energy issues had become increasingly prominent. People paid more and more attention to the electric vehicle as the future direction of the vehicle, but because the battery technology was relatively backward, it had become the bottleneck in the development of electric vehicles. So in the existing conditions, a perfect battery Monitoring technology had become more and more important. This paper firstly analyzed th...

  15. Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Strömberg, Emma

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are considered to be an important part of the future vehicle industry, since they decrease fuel consumption without decreasing the performance compared to a conventional vehicle. They use two or more power sources to propel the vehicle, normally one combustion engine and one electric machine. These power sources can be arranged in different topologies and can cooporate in different ways. In this thesis, dynamic models of parallel and series hybrid powertrains are deve...

  16. Vehicle parameter identification using population based algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKDAĞ, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with parameter identification of a vehicle using population based algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Full vehicle model with seven degree of freedom (DoF) is employed, and two objective functions based on reference and computed responses are proposed. Solving the optimization problem vehicle mass, moments of inertia and vehicle center of gravity parameters, which are necessary for later app...

  17. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  18. Decentralized Coordination of Autonomous Vehicles at intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Laleh; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the decentralized coordination of point-mass autonomous vehicles at intersections using navigation functions is considered. As main contribution, the inertia of the vehicles is taken into account to enable on-board energy optimization for crossing. In such a way, heavier vehicles that need more energy and time for acceleration or breaking are given an indirect priority at intersections. The proposed decentralized coordination scheme of autonomous vehicles at intersection is com...

  19. Electric Vehicles in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power mark...

  20. Autonomous vehicle development for vertical submarine observation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Prat Tasias, Jordi; Arbós, Alejandro; Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Pallares, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an ocean observation vehicle. This vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV) moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain the profiles of a water column according to a pre-established plan. Its design provides lower production cost and higher efficiency. GPS navigation allows the platform to move along the surface of the water while a radio-modem provid...

  1. Social Internet of Vehicles for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Maglaras, Leandros A.; Ali H. Al-Bayatti; Ying He; Isabel Wagner; Helge Janicke

    2016-01-01

    Digital devices are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and interconnected. Their evolution to intelligent parts of a digital ecosystem creates novel applications with so far unresolved security issues. A particular example is a vehicle. As vehicles evolve from simple means of transportation to smart entities with new sensing and communication capabilities, they become active members of a smart city. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) consists of vehicles that communicate with each other and with pu...

  2. Lightweight Design of Vehicle Side Door

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing environmental concern about emission of Green House Gas and government regulations on vehicle safety, vehicle manufacturers, and their suppliers, must turn to new technologies. This is the main way to help them to achieve the goals of making vehicles lighter and safer. These two targets seem to be in deep contrast one with the other as increasing expectations from car consumers and the crashworthiness requirements. Nowadays a lot of innovative vehicle technologies are being ...

  3. 2012 U.S. Vehicle Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Ho Yeung Michael

    2012-01-01

    By 2010, the United States has about 250 millions registered vehicles - roughly 800 motor vehicles per 1000 people. According to a report by Environmental Defense in 2006, American cars are responsible for nearly half of the greenhouse gases emitted by automobiles globally, despite the fact that the nation's vehicles only made up just 30% of the total cars in use in the worldwide. Intuitively, the idea of replacing low fuel-efficient vehicles with high fuel-efficient ones could significantly ...

  4. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  5. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  6. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs) for...

  7. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  8. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  9. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual vehicles

  10. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Tasaki, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Y. Yasuda

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose the demands on cooling power density, temperature difference between hot and cold side, transient properties and COP, will be high.

  11. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  12. Modeling of in-vehicle magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose the...

  13. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose the...

  14. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... quality control reasons; (d) Law enforcement vehicles; (e) Emergency motor vehicles; (f) Motor...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  17. 77 FR 32712 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement: Effectiveness of the Primary and Secondary Energy-Absorbing Structures on Pickup Trucks and...

  18. Comparative economics of natural gas vehicles and other vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of alternative fuels for transportation applications is now a certainty. The only real questions that remain to be answered involve the type of fuel (or fuels) to be adopted most extensively. While some alternative fuel advocates suggest that a niche will exist for all alternative fuels, the most likely scenario will involve widespread use of only a few major fuel types. Undoubtedly, reformulated gasoline will be a major force as an interim fuel, due to inertia and a predominant bias toward liquid fuels. The prospects for utilization of ethanol, methanol, MTBE, and ETBE appear to be most promising in the area of blending with gasoline to meet the needs of reformulated gasoline and flexible fueled vehicles (FFV's). Propane fueled vehicles will continue to grow in popularity, especially with fleets, but will never become a major force in the transportation market in the U.S. due to unresolvable supply limitations. The clear winner in the alternative fuels transportation market appears to be natural gas. Either in compressed or liquefied form, natural gas enjoys low costs, tremendous availability, and impressive environmental benefits. As shown in this analysis, natural gas competes favorably with gasoline in terms of economics. Natural gas is also preferential to other alternative fuels in terms of safety and heath issues as well as operational issues. Adoption of natural gas as a standard transportation fuel will probably require market segmentation characterized by compressed natural gas utilization in light-duty vehicles and liquefied natural gas utilization in heavy-duty vehicles. The most significant barrier to natural gas utilization will continue to be the creation of a refueling infrastructure. As these problems are resolved, however, natural gas will emerge as the transportation fuel of the future

  19. GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashood Mukhtar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Security systems and navigators have always been a necessity of human‟s life. The developments of advanced electronics have brought revolutionary changes in these fields. In this paper, we will present a vehicle tracking system that employs a GPS module and a GSM modem to find the location of a vehicle and offers a range of control features. To complete the design successfully, a GPS unit, two relays, a GSM Modem and two MCU units are used. There are five features introduced in the project. The aim of this project is to remotely track a vehicle‟s location, remotely switch ON and OFF the vehicle‟s ignition system and remotely lock and unlock the doors of the vehicle. An SMS message is sent to the tracking system and the system responds to the users request by performing appropriate actions. Short text messages are assigned to each of these features. A webpage is specifically designed to view the vehicle‟s location on Google maps. By using relay based control concept introduced in this paper, number of control features such as turning heater on/off, radio on/off etc. can be implemented in the same fashion.

  20. Control of multiple robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul

    1999-07-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover' (RATLERTM) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, expect additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  1. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  2. Effects of Vehicle Speed and Engine Load on Motor Vehicle Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Kean, Andrew J.; Harley, Robert A.; Kendall, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory studies have provided a foundation of knowledge regarding vehicle emissions, but questions remain regarding the relationship between on-road vehicle emissions and changes in vehicle speed and engine load that occur as driving conditions change. Light-duty vehicle emissions of CO, NOx, and NMHC were quantified as functions of vehicle speed and engine load in a California highway tunnel for downhill and uphill traffic on a _4% grade. Emissions were measured throughout the day; averag...

  3. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  4. Radiation curing of composites for vehicle component and vehicle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some ordinary uses of metals in vehicle components and vehicle manufacture, such as steel (specific gravity 7.8) or aluminum (specific gravity 2.7), can be replaced by carbon fiber composites (specific gravity 1.6) to provide significant weight savings while still maintaining structural integrity. The aircraft and aerospace industries have adopted this concept. The motor vehicle industry is using composite materials for some nonstructural components in automobiles, but have been reluctant to widely adopt this technology because of concerns about thermal curing times and other issues in high-volume manufacturing processes. A typical steel auto body weighing ∼750 kilograms would weigh only ∼155 kilograms if replaced with carbon fiber composites. Structural members, such as the vehicle chassis and body frame, could also be made out of carbon fiber composites. With only 20% of the typical body weight, smaller, lighter, less powerful and more fuel efficient engines could be used in such vehicles. Commercial aircraft manufacturers have adopted large carbon fiber structures in lieu of aluminum for a 40% weight reduction and estimate a 20% savings in fuel costs for large planes. These aircraft still use conventional materials for motors, tires and interior components. The fuel efficiency of an automobile could be doubled with an 80% weight reduction. As with aircraft, conventional motors, tires and interior components could be used in automobiles. Radiation curing can simplify the manufacture of carbon fiber composites. Penetrating X-rays generated with high-energy, high-power electron beam (EB) accelerators can cure structural composites while they are constrained within inexpensive molds; thus reducing cure times, eliminating heat transfer concerns and potentially hazardous volatile emissions during the curing process. Since X-rays can penetrate mold walls, the curing process is quite versatile, enabling diverse components with varying designs to be cured using a

  5. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  6. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for CVT Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the simple continuously variable transmission (CVT) driveline model, the design of adaptive fuzzy control system for CVT vehicle is presented. The adaptive fuzzy control system consists of a scaling factor self-tuning fuzzy-PI throttle controller, and a hybrid fuzzy-PID CVT ratio and brake controller. The presented adaptive fuzzy control strategy is vehicle model independent, which depends only on the instantaneous vehicle states, but does not depend on vehicle parameters. So it has good robustness against uncertain vehicle parameters and exogenous load disturbance. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy strategy has good adaptability and practicality value.

  7. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  8. Vision-based industrial automatic vehicle classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanipov, Timur; Koptelov, Ivan; Grigoryev, Anton; Kuznetsova, Elena; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes the automatic motor vehicle video stream based classification system. The system determines vehicle type at payment collection plazas on toll roads. Classification is performed in accordance with a preconfigured set of rules which determine type by number of wheel axles, vehicle length, height over the first axle and full height. These characteristics are calculated using various computer vision algorithms: contour detectors, correlational analysis, fast Hough transform, Viola-Jones detectors, connected components analysis, elliptic shapes detectors and others. Input data contains video streams and induction loop signals. Output signals are vehicle enter and exit events, vehicle type, motion direction, speed and the above mentioned features.

  9. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  10. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  11. Aerodynamic data of space vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...

  12. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  13. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  14. Insurance for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, G; N Bose; Ferguson, J.; Blidberg, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The background and practice of insurance for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are examined. Key topics include: relationships between clients, brokers and underwriters; contract wording to provide appropriate coverage; and actions to take when an incident occurs. Factors that affect cost of insurance are discussed, including level of autonomy, team experience and operating environment. Four case studies from industry and academia illustrate how AUV insurance has worked in practice. The p...

  15. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Bjørn; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.

  16. Vehicle SNM monitors: Results of an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of radiation monitors, designed to search motor vehicles for special nuclear materials at area exit gates, were constructed and evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These monitors consist of stationary radiation detection equipment or portable, hand-held instruments. The stationary monitors have either a detector portal through which vehicles pass or an underground detector array to measure radiation intensity from below a parked vehicle. Portal monitors straddle a vehicle path where they monitor vehicles in motion (at an ideal speed of 8 km/h) as they approach the exit gate, whereas the underground detector array is located in the roadbed at an exit station where vehicles stop for inspection. Roadbed monitors require a monitoring period of about one minute; hand-held monitors require several minutes. The sensitivity of the monitors depends on the size of the vehicle being monitored, the position and type of the nuclear material inside the vehicle, and the type and position of the radiation detectors. For small vehicles, adequate sensitivity can be obtained with any of the monitors. For slow moving vehicles up to 3.4 m high, the vehicle portal offers low-cost performance. The best performance, however, at a higher installation cost, is offered by the roadbed monitor supplemented with overhead detectors

  17. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  18. An applications guide to vehicle SNM monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications guide introduces its readers to the vehicle special nuclear material (SNM) monitors that are becoming part of safeguards and security measures for nuclear material control at DOE facilities. Building on the foundation provided by an applications guide to pedestrian SNM monitors published in 1986 and a technical report on vehicle monitoring published in 1982, the guide provides an overview of vehicle monitoring in Part 1, a discussion of technical aspects of vehicle monitoring in Part 2, and a catalog of vehicle SNM monitors available to DOE facilities in Part 3. Vehicle monitor upkeep, calibration, testing, and performance are important topics in Part 1. The short technical discussion in Part 2 is devoted to new developments and unique features of vehicle monitors

  19. Biodegradable lubricants for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This presentation outlined the characteristics of biolubricants and their use in vehicles. Experiments with compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) engines were also presented. Biolubes can be used in 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines, bearing compressors and hydraulic equipment. Studies have shown that biolubes do not cause unusual engine wear. They are produced from biomass, with the base material being vegetable oils and synthetic esters. Conventional lubricants are produced from fossil fuels, with the base material being mineral oils, polyglycol or synthetic ester. This presentation rated the characteristics of various lubricants in terms of viscosity temperature behaviour, low temperature behaviour, liquid range, oxidation stability, thermal stability, volatility, fire resistance, hydrolytic stability, corrosion protection, seal material compatibility, paints compatibility, miscibility with mineral oil, solubility of additives, lubricating properties, toxicity, and biodegradability. The environmental impacts of biolubes regarding emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and particulate matter were discussed along with the impact of combining biolubes with alternative fuels. The future beneficial applications include outboard engines, off road vehicle engines and road vehicle engines. Currently, vegetable oil based biolubricants are 2 to 3 times more expensive than mineral based oils, and synthetic lubricants are even more expensive. It was suggested that future studies should examine the biodegradability of used lubricants, the performance of biodegradable lubricants, alternative fuels and fuel economy. tabs., figs.

  20. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  1. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  2. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  3. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: Importance of vehicle fleet and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.

  4. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  5. Social Internet of Vehicles for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital devices are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and interconnected. Their evolution to intelligent parts of a digital ecosystem creates novel applications with so far unresolved security issues. A particular example is a vehicle. As vehicles evolve from simple means of transportation to smart entities with new sensing and communication capabilities, they become active members of a smart city. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV consists of vehicles that communicate with each other and with public networks through V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle, V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure and V2P (vehicle-to-pedestrian interactions, which enables both the collection and the real-time sharing of critical information about the condition on the road network. The Social Internet of Things (SIoT introduces social relationships among objects, creating a social network where the participants are not humans, but intelligent objects. In this article, we explore the concept of the Social Internet of Vehicles (SIoV, a network that enables social interactions both among vehicles and among drivers. We discuss technologies and components of the SIoV, possible applications and issues of security, privacy and trust that are likely to arise.

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  8. Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford Motor Company

    2005-03-01

    The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

  9. The conception of the experimental rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Doleček

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article deals with the advance configuration and the installation of vehicle components to the experimental rail vehicle powered by the traction battery. Particularly the paper focus on the research problems of the construction of the experimental rail vehicle (bogie, the structure of electrical equipment of experimental rail vehicle (traction drive, control system, power supply system and the research problems of the influence between the different systems placed on the experimental rail vehicle are mentioned as well.Design/methodology/approach: The design of the experimental rail vehicle which has a foursome mechanically independent drives and each drive has own DSP controller, is specific. The mentioned configuration ensures the coordination of the traction forces between traction drives, which create one bogie with independently rotating wheels, provides the necessary energy flows. For the reason of the effects of the control to running characteristics the experimental rail vehicle has a lot of sensors and the other measuring devices.Findings: The problems of EMC - influence elimination of traction drive with PMSMs, control and measurement are solved. The sophisticated structure of the conception of the vehicle, which is expected to minimization of influence to the sensitive precision measuring equipment from, was designed during the development of the experimental rail vehicle (the minimization was achieved by LCD and LC filter modules.Research limitations/implications: The vehicle with four PMSMs form the whole traction vehicle drive with the total nominal power of 5 kW because of the budget is limited.Originality/value: The special conception of rail vehicle, which is mechanically designed by Rolling Stock Research Institute, is constructed at the JPTF for the purposes of experimental research on vehicles with independently rotating wheels.

  10. Bidirectional battery charger with grid-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-grid and vehicle-to-home technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J. G.; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Gonçalves, Henrique; Exposto, Bruno Fernandes; Pedrosa, Delfim Duarte Rolo; Couto, Carlos; João L Afonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of na on-board bidirectional battery charger for Electric Vehicles (EVs) targeting Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V), Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) technologies. During the G2V operation mode the batteries are charged from the power grid with sinusoidal current and unitary power factor. During the V2G operation mode the energy stored in the batteries can be delivered back to the power grid contributing to the power system stability. In the V2H operat...

  11. Vehicles Vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Christlieb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present text attempts to do a description as well as a reflection of the cities from the point of departure of its means of transport and the urban being who uses them. In other words, it tries to show the city as a tissue made of vehicles.El presente texto pretende hacer una descripción y una reflexión de la ciudad a partir de sus medios de transporte y del ser urbano que los utiliza. Intenta mostrar a la ciudad como un tejido o un entramado de vehículos en movimiento.

  12. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand...... instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

  13. Particles Emission from Gasoline Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-fang; GE Yun-shan; TAN Jian-wei; HE Chao; YOU Ke-wei; YOU Qiu-wen

    2009-01-01

    Number concentration and size distribution from gasoline cars are investigated at transient modes on the chassis dynamometers,which are measured using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for the ECE15 and EUDC cycles.Results indicate that,during cold start,particle number emission is higher than that under hot start.It is found that the number of particles increases with the vehicle speeds.Furthermore,particles with diameter smaller than 200 nm constitute the predominant part of total emission in the entire cycle.In addition,the tentative information about composition of emitted particles is also discussed.

  14. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  15. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  16. Visual Odometry for Tracked Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dornhege, Christian; Kleiner, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Localization and mapping on autonomous robots typically requires a good pose estimate, which is hard to acquire if the vehicle is tracked. In this paper we describe a solution to the pose estimation problem by utilizing a consumer-quality camera and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The basic idea is to continuously track salient features with the KLT feature tracker over multiple images taken by the camera and to extract from the tracked features image vectors resulting from the robot’s mo...

  17. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  18. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper is to......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  19. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  20. INTEGRATED VEHICLE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OCHIENGWY; NORTHRJ; QUDDUSM; NOLANDRB; POLAKJW

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle performance and emission monitoring system (VPEMS) capable of interfacing with either a vehicle engine management system (EMS) or a sensor array fitted to the vehicle. It also describes the procedures used to validate the data generated by both diesel and petrol powered vehicles. These include the results of bench and field experiments using two instrumented vehicles and of experiments on a chassis dynamometer emissions test facility. The prototype VPEMS attains the specified performance levels for each of the subsystems, with aggregate mass emissions agreeing with the reference to within 11.5%, 8.1% and 17.7% for CO, CO2 and NO, respectively. The collation of these data to produce coherent spatially and temporally referenced databases of vehicle performance and the emission is demonstrated.

  1. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  2. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  3. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, F. J.; Almeida, P.M. Rocha Almeida; Lopes, J.A. Pecas;

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  4. Vehicle Monitoring And Diagnostic Using IMS Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Sayyad,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Convergence of technologies is important in this era to make progress in any field. The need to converge technologies arises from the concept of improvisation. This paper proposes a system architecture which is used to diagnose vehicle parameters and then relay the data via a feasible next generation network based on IMS architecture to a central server. Vehicles are to be equipped with a simple portable scan tool (PST device which will interface with the OBD-II port of the vehicle and record the diagnostic data and relay them to the server. Further if the vehicle owner wants real time remote updates of the vehicle then it can be done by using his/her cellular device. IMS architecture simplifies the process of user registration and help in achieving faster transmission speed. Lastly various secondary applications can be generated by this system as by using thissystem the vehicles are getting connected on a grid.

  5. Vehicle Tracking and Locking System Based on GSM and GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, R.; Valarmathy, S.; N. Suthanthiravanitha; S.Selvaraju; M.Thiruppathi; R.Thangam

    2013-01-01

    Currently almost of the public having an own vehicle, theft is happening on parking and sometimes driving insecurity places. The safe of vehicles is extremely essential for public vehicles. Vehicle tracking and locking system installed in the vehicle, to track the place and locking engine motor. The place of the vehicle identified using Global Positioning system (GPS) and Global system mobile communication (GSM). These systems constantly watch a moving Vehicle and report the status on demand....

  6. Modification of an Aquila unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, John E. C.

    1995-01-01

    The requirement exists at the Naval Postgraduate School Unmanned Air Vehicle Laboratory for an air vehicle capable of carrying a 60 pound payload. To that end, an air vehicle from the canceled Army Aquila program was modified to become the payload carrier. The modifications involved designing and building landing gear and an empennage. The landing gear design consisted of determining the anticipated loads and designing a structure to withstand those loads. The construction process was compris...

  7. Inertial Navigation and Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Navigation and mapping in unknown environments is an important building block for increased autonomy of unmanned vehicles, since external positioning systems can be susceptible to interference or simply being inaccessible. Navigation and mapping require signal processing of vehicle sensor data to estimate motion relative to the surrounding environment and to simultaneously estimate various properties of the surrounding environment. Physical models of sensors, vehicle motion and external influ...

  8. Management of Electric and Hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lilien, Jean-Louis; H Yuan

    2003-01-01

    The battery management system (BMS) is an important feature for electric (EVs) and hybrid (HVs) vehicles. The BMS has close connections with the vehicle control and command and gives access to real time power available and remaining autonomy. Such information is dramatic and comprises major inputs of the hybrid vehicle strategy on the road. The BMS is obviously related to battery modeling. Electrochemical modeling would be based on the qualification of the intrinsic chemical reactions and ...

  9. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Heather; Park Haram; Paolini Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  10. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  11. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  12. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  13. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Redmer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS) and...

  14. Vehicle Safety Enhancement System: Sensing and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Huihuan Qian; Yongquan Chen; Yuandong Sun; Niansheng Liu; Ning Ding; Yangsheng Xu; Guoqing Xu; Yunjian Tang; Jingyu Yan

    2013-01-01

    With the substantial increase of vehicles on road, driving safety and transportation efficiency have become increasingly concerned focus from drivers, passengers, and governments. Wireless networks constructed by vehicles and infrastructures provide abundant information to share for the sake of both enhanced safety and network efficiency. This paper presents the systematic research to enhance the vehicle safety by wireless communication, in the aspects of information acquisition through vehic...

  15. Interception and Rendezvous Between Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Crispin, Yechiel J.

    2008-01-01

    The interception and rendezvous problems between two autonomous vehicles moving in an underwater environment has been treated using an optimal control formulation with terminal constraints. The vehicles have a constant thrust propulsion system and use the direction of the thrust vector for steering and control. We use a genetic algorithm to determine directly the control history of the vehicle by evolving populations of possible solutions of initial value problems. In order to fulfill the fin...

  16. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Liana M. Cipcigan; Jenkins, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  17. Modeling and Optimization for Critical Vehicle Maneuvers

    OpenAIRE

    Lundahl, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    As development in sensor technology, situation awareness systems, and computational hardware for vehicle systems progress, an opportunity for more advanced and sophisticated vehicle safety-systems arises. With the increased level of available information---such as position on the road, road curvature and knowledge about surrounding obstacles---future systems could be seen utilizing more advanced controls, exploiting at-the-limit behavior of the vehicle. Having this in mind, optimization metho...

  18. Dynamics and Control of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamics of a Maglev vehicle was analyzed and controls utilizing an optimized damping and an LQR algorithms were designed to stabilize the vehicle. The dynamics of magnetically levitated and propelled Maglev vehicle are complex and inherently unstable. Moreover, 6-DOF system dynamics is highly nonlinear and coupled. The proposed control schemes provide the dynamic stability and controllability, which computer simulations confirmed the effectiveness.

  19. Autonomous vehicle control systems for safe crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Ruiz, Javier; Milanés Montero, Vicente; Pérez, Joshué; Onieva Caracuel, Enrique; González Fernández-Vallejo, Carlos; Pedro Lucio, María Teresa de

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a cooperative manoeuvre among three dual mode cars – vehicles equipped with sensors and actuators, and that can be driven either manually or autonomously. One vehicle is driven autonomously and the other two are driven manually. The main objective is to test two decision algorithms for priority conflict resolution at intersections so that a vehicle autonomously driven can take their own decision about crossing an intersection mingling with manually driven cars without th...

  20. Cooperating sentient vehicles for next generation automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaharan, Thirunavukkarasu; Blair, Gordon S.; Friday, Adrian; Wu, Maomao; Duran-Limon, Hector; Okanda, Paul; Sørensen, Carl-Fredrik; , EU FET (Funder)

    2004-01-01

    It is becoming clear that location-aware intelligent transportation systems will be one of the most promising upcoming applications for next generation vehicles. The driving force behind this is the introduction of pervasive high performance wireless networks and location sensing technologies, such as GPS and roadside detection systems. Intelligent transportation systems utilise inter-vehicle cooperation without human assistance to provide autonomous vehicle navigation from a given source to ...

  1. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-12

    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  2. Sustainable vehicle fuels - do they exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Pål; Ericsson, Karin; Di Lucia, Lorenzo; Nilsson, Lars J; Åhman, Max

    2009-01-01

    Our aim with this report is to discuss vehicle fuels from a wide perspective of sustainability. Biofuels and electricity are analyzed and compared to fossil vehicle fuels. Our goal is to try to point out the circumstances under which vehicle fuels can be reasonably perceived as sustainable, and which systems we should develop and which we should avoid. The all-embracing conclusion of this study is that one can not establish how sustainable fuels will develop in the future without simultaneous...

  3. Hybrid Wind/Electric Powered Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Atieh; Samir Al Shariff

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid wind/electric powered vehicle is built and demonstrated. The vehicle uses bank of batteries to drive it. The batteries drive 3-phase brushless DC motor which moves the vehicle. The motor can rotate up to 2900 revolution per minute (RPM) at 3HP. A wind turbine, which is mounted at 1.5m on the vehicle, uses wind energy to generate electricity and charges the battery bank. A smart charging subsystem is proposed to enable efficient charging of the batteries. The minimum required wind speed...

  4. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, Jonathan R.; Buttz, James H.; Garretson, Justin; Hayward, David R.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  5. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  6. Design of Scale Intelligent Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junliang; Zhang, Zufeng; Jia, Peng; Luo, Shaohua; Zhang, Zufeng

    Nowadays, intelligent vehicle is widely studied all over the world. On considering cost and safety of test on real vehicle, it takes scale intelligent vehicle as a carrier platform, which uses visual sensors to capture the environmental information in a Wi-Fi wireless communication network environment, and creates a system including video surveillance system, monitoring command terminal, data server and three-dimensional simulating test traffic environment. The core algorithms, such as road recognition perception, image data processing, path planning and the implementation of motion control, have been completely designed and applying on the vehicle platform. The experimental results verified its good effects and the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

  7. Distributed Control in Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Avery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest Research Institute (SwRI Mobile Autonomous Robotics Technology Initiative (MARTI program has enabled the development of fully-autonomous passenger-sized commercial vehicles and military tactical vehicles, as well as the development of cooperative vehicle behaviors, such as cooperative sensor sharing and cooperative convoy operations. The program has also developed behaviors to interface intelligent vehicles with intelligent road-side devices. The development of intelligent vehicle behaviors cannot be approached as stand-alone phenomena; rather, they must be understood within a context of the broader traffic system dynamics. The study of other complex systems has shown that system-level behaviors emerge as a result of the spatio-temporal dynamics within a system's constituent parts. The design of such systems must therefore account for both the system-level emergent behavior, as well as behaviors of individuals within the system. It has also become clear over the past several years, for both of these domains, that human trust in the behavior of individual vehicles is paramount to broader technology adoption. This paper examines the interplay between individual vehicle capabilities, vehicle connectivity, and emergent system behaviors, and presents some considerations for a distributed control paradigm in a multi-vehicle system.

  8. Systems and methods for vehicle speed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek Anand; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Forst, Howard Robert

    2016-03-01

    Controlling a speed of a vehicle based on at least a portion of a route grade and a route distance divided into a plurality of route sections, each including at least one of a section grade and section length. Controlling the speed of the vehicle is further based on determining a cruise control speed mode for the vehicle for each of the plurality of route sections and determining a speed reference command of the vehicle based on at least one of the cruise control speed mode, the section length, the section grade, and a current speed.

  9. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  10. Navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A.; Soehnitz, I.; Becker, J.C.; Schumacher, W. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Control Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the fusion of sensor data for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle as well as two lateral control concepts to track the vehicle along a desired path. The fusion of navigation data is based on information provided by multiple object-detecting sensors. The object data is fused to increase the accuracy and to obtain the vehicle's state from the relative movement w.r.t. the objects. The presented lateral control methods are an LQG/H{sub 2}-design and an input-output linearizing algorithm. These control schemes were both implemented on a test vehicle. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic Analysis of a Military- Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available 'The ride dynamic characteristics of a typical medium weight, high speed military-tracked vehicle for negotiating rough cross-counlry terrain have been studied. The vehicle is modelled using finiteelement simulation method with beam and shell elements. An eigenvalue analysis has been done to estimate natural modes ofNibration of the vehicle. The dynamic response of certain salient locations is obtained by carrying out a transient dynamic analysis using implicit Newmark beta method. A constant forwar vehicle speed and non-deformable sinusoidal terrain profile are assumed.

  12. Vehicle test report: Battronic pickup truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Freeman, R. J.; Pompa, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    An electric pickup truck was tested to characterize certain parameters and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other vehicles.

  13. Control of Energy Regeneration for Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; MAO Xiao-jian; LI Li-ming; ZHUO Bn

    2008-01-01

    To extend electric vehicle (EV) running distance, the vehicle energy regeneration (ER) method and vehicle control strategy were designed based on the original vehicle braking system. The ER principle of direct current (DC) brushless motor was studied, the motor mathematical model and PI control method with torque close-loop were built. This control method was applied to pure EV and the real road tests were evaluated.The ER control does not make any significant uncomfortable influence brake feeling and can save about 10% battery energy based on 3 times economic commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles.

  14. Introducing dual suspension system in road vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicles stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively. (author)

  15. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  16. Delay of Vehicle Motion in Traffic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, A; Bando, Masako; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nakanishi, Ken; Nakayama, Akihiro

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that in Optimal Velocity Model (OVM) delay times of vehicles coming from the dynamical equation of motion of OVM almost explain the order of delay times observed in actual traffic flows without introducing explicit delay times. Delay times in various cases are estimated: the case of a leader vehicle and its follower, a queue of vehicles controlled by traffic lights and many-vehicle case of highway traffic flow. The remarkable result is that in most of the situation for which we can make a reasonable definition of a delay time, the obtained delay time is of order 1 second.

  17. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  18. Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources.New business mo

  19. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  20. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  1. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  2. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each e...

  3. Vehicle trajectory optimization for hybrid vehicles taking into account battery state-of-charge

    OpenAIRE

    MENSING, Felicitas; TRIGUI, Rochdi; Bideaux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles are found to be one solution to reduce fuel consumption in the transportation sector. Eco-driving is a concept that is immediately applicable by drivers to improve the efficiency of their vehicle. In this work the potential of eco-driving for hybrid drive train vehicles is discussed. The operation of hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on their energy management and therefore on battery state-of-charge. Here, the velocity trajectory will be optimized taking into account b...

  4. Relationship between Vehicle Manufacturers Recommended Tyre Pressure and Tyre Pressure Used by Vehicle Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Alhassan; Prince Y. Andoh; Prince Owusu-Ansah; Justice Alex Frimpong

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between the tyre pressures used by drivers and the vehicle manufacturers recommended tyre pressure. First of all, a survey of vehicles on Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus was done to ascertain how tyre pressures of these vehicles deviate from the vehicle manufacturers recommended tyre pressures. Then the survey was extended to other four places namely, Kumasi Polytechnic campus, Asafo, Roman Hill and Kejetia bus depots. The ...

  5. Emissions from light and medium goods vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The article analyses atmospheric pollution of light goods vehicles (i.e. freight vehicles lighter than 6 tonnes) and medium goods vehicles (i.e. 6-24 t delivery trucks) in Denmark, and evaluated the scope for emission reductions. Light goods vehicles are very inefficient vehicles, and moreover have...... inappropriate utilisation patterns, while medium goods vehicles, in comparison, are more efficient with regard to both construction and utilisation. An emission inventory of these vehicles is produced, covering fuel consumption and a range of emissions, and including heavy goods vehicles (i.e. vehicles over 24...

  6. 75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... crashes than other vehicles. Table 3 illustrates that pickup trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles... (including minivans) and 13 pickup trucks. For cases in which an estimated speed for the backing vehicle was... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit...

  7. Ride Dynamics of a Tracked Vehicle with a Finite Element Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on tracked vehicle dynamics is by and large limited to multi-rigid body simulation. For realistic prediction of vehicle dynamics, it is better to model the vehicle as multi-flexible body. In this paper, tracked vehicle is modelled as a mass-spring system with sprung and unsprung masses of the physical tracked vehicle by Finite element method. Using the equivalent vehicle model, dynamic studies are carried out by imparting vertical displacement inputs to the road wheels. Ride characteristics of the vehicle are captured by modelling the road wheel arms as flexible elements using Finite element method. In this work, a typical tracked vehicle test terrain viz., Trapezoidal blocks terrain (APG terrain is considered. Through the simulations, the effect of the road wheel arm flexibility is monitored. Result of the analysis of equivalent vehicle model with flexible road wheel arms, is compared with the equivalent vehicle model with rigid road wheel arms and also with the experimental results of physical tracked vehicle. Though there is no major difference in the vertical bounce response between the flexible model and the rigid model, but there is a visible difference in the roll condition. Result of the flexible vehicle model is also reasonably matches with the experimental result.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 19-25, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9201

  8. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  9. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  10. 32 CFR 935.140 - Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. 935.140... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.140 Motor vehicle maintenance and equipment. (a) Each person who has custody of a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall present that vehicle...

  11. Technological perspectives of clean vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of the different technologies of available commercially cars were studied (now or in the halfway through time limit) of smaller contaminants gases generation, with the objective to carry out a comparative evaluation of their competitiveness and feasibilities of real insertion.They were studied thus the self-electric 'pure' and hybrid, from motors of conventional combustion and of cells of fuels with reformers; as well as them fed by hydrogen, utilized in motors of combustion and in direct conversion fuels cells. It is appreciated that the cars hibridos conventional present large advantages that are permitting their effective insertion in the market. Of the remainders, only the conventional motor of hydrogen does not present technological obstacles and has real potentiality in the medium time limit.The electric cars have strong limitations owed al poor performance of the batteries set against the liquid fuels, that have shown do not they permit him to be inserted in the real market in spite of the enormous efforts carried out.The fuel cells continue being very costly. Being that the technologies selected for electric vehicles (of polimer membrane) use essentially hydrogen as fuel, which (besides other disadvantages) has a prohibitive cost set against the hydrocarbons, their possibility of massive insertion is little probable, still low environmental incentives.There are several reasons to think that the EVs with fuel cells of hydrogen (PEM) can run the same luck that the EVs of batteries.The use of internal converters of gasoline or the cells of metanol direct appear with an interesting horizon, although they will need still strong investments in basic investigations associates to be competitive.The hydrogen is a vector energy, not a resource, and being its main producing market and consumer the industry of the petroleum, very with difficulty this return competitive before an increase in the oil price.Their use in vehicles way the adaptation

  12. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  13. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  14. Scout launch vehicle, phases 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccracken, D. C.; Leiss, A.; Horrocks, E. R.; Turpen, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    The historical data of the Scout launch vehicle program for Phases IV and V (vehicles 138 through 177) is presented for the FY 1966 through FY 1971 time period. Technical data and accounting information are detailed to provide a total picture of the program.

  15. Electric-powered passenger vehicle program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B.H.

    1977-05-04

    The program plan is presented for developing an electric vehicle incorporating a flywheel regenerative power system with design considerations and goals for safety and for vehicle body construction using lightweight fiber-reinforced composite material. Schedules are included for each of the major steps in the program. (LCL)

  16. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  17. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the T

  18. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...... systems based on their degree of dynamism and the system objective....

  19. Optimization Tools For Automated Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Zvi

    1995-01-01

    This work focuses on computing time-optimal maneuvers which might be used to develop strategies for emergency maneuvers and establishing the vehicle' s performance envelope. The problem of emergency maneuvers is addressed in the context of time optimal control. Time optimal trajectories are computed along specified paths for a nonlinear vehicle model, which considers both lateral and longitudinal motions.

  20. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  1. Engineering students sweep international intelligent vehicle competition

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Autonomous Vehicle Team swept the international Intelligent Ground Vehicles Competition (IGVC), placing first, second, and third, and winning eight out of nine event categories along with $15,000 in prizes. The event took place June 11-13 in Traverse City, Mich.

  2. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  3. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  4. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The operator... storage tank or loading flange. (b) During transfer operations, no person may— (1) Stop or park a...

  5. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles....

  6. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees to be carried. (9) Seat belts and anchorages meeting the requirements of 49 CFR part 571... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and...

  7. Re-entry vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, F. J.

    The present book has the objective to provide the practicing engineer with a senior-level introduction to the dynamics of reentry vehicles. A description is provided of an atmospheric model, and the earth's form and gravity field are examined, taking into account basic atmospheric relationships, the development of an analytic atmospheric model, a simple atmospheric model for closed-form solutions, the geocentric position vector, the deviation of the vertical, the earth's radius, and a computer program for calculating the gravitational acceleration. Force equations are considered along with aspects of Keplerian motion, reentry body particle mechanics, moment equations, axis transformations, a flowfield description, moment equations in a constant density atmosphere, boost trajectories, angular motion during the Keplerian phase, angular motion during reentry, and the inverse method. Attention is also given to first-order linear differential equations with variable coefficients, ring laser gyros and pendulous accelerometers, the calculation of the real roots of a polynomial, quaternions.

  8. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2014-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students in mechanical and automotive engineering. The contents in this book are presented at a theoretical-practical level. It explains vehicle dynamics concepts in detail, concentrating on their practical use. Related theorems and formal proofs are provided, as are real-life applications. Students, researchers and practicing engineers alike will appreciate the user-friendly presentation of a wealth of topics, most notably steering, handling, ride, and related components. This book also: Illustrates all key concepts with examples Includes exercises for each chapter Covers front, rear, and four wheel steering systems, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different steering schemes Includes an emphasis on design throughout the text, which provides a practical, hands-on approach

  9. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  10. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  11. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.105 - Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove? 102-34.105 Section 102-34.105 Public Contracts... Vehicle Identification § 102-34.105 Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification...

  13. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... cars, light-duty trucks, medium- duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty vehicles. This...

  14. "Can Vehicle-to-Grid Revenue Help Electric Vehicles on the Market?"

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, George R.; Hidrue, Michael K.; Willett Kempton; Meryl P. Gardner

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles can return power stored in their batteries back to the power grid and be programmed to do so at times when power prices are high. Since providing this service can lead to payments to owners of vehicles, it effectively reduces the cost of electric vehicles. Using data from a national stated preference survey (n = 3029), this paper presents the first study of the potential consumer demand for V2G electric vehicles. In our choice experiment, 3029 responden...

  15. Vehicle test report: Electric Vehicle Associates electric conversion of an AMC Pacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.; Pompa, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the EVA Pacer and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other electric and hybrid vehicles. The Pacer performance was approximately equal to the majority of those vehicles assessed in 1977.

  16. Unmanned Vehicle Material Flammability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T’ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam; Rouvreau, Sebastian; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grande

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity combustion phenomena have been an active area of research for the past 3 decades however, there have been very few experiments directly studying spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample and environment sizes typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. All previous experiments have been limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. Terrestrial fire safety standards for all other habitable volumes on earth, e.g. mines, buildings, airplanes, ships, etc., are based upon testing conducted with full-scale fires. Given the large differences between fire behavior in normal and reduced gravity, this lack of an experimental data base at relevant length scales forces spacecraft designers to base their designs using 1-g understanding. To address this question a large scale spacecraft fire experiment has been proposed by an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status and concept of this collaborative international project to examine spacecraft material flammability at realistic scales. The concept behind this project is to utilize an unmanned spacecraft such as Orbital Cygnus vehicle after it has completed its delivery of cargo to the ISS and it has begun its return journey to earth. This experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This will be

  17. Vehicle and fuel demand in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the Moroccan transport sector and its energy demand for the period 1970-1996. During the period studied, consumption of diesel has grown rapidly while gasoline consumption has been rather stable. Furthermore, diesel and gasoline prices have increased by 58 and 26 percent, respectively. At the same time, fuel intensity has decreased considerably for diesel and gasoline vehicles largely because of shorter distance/vehicle. Since the demand for fuels depends on the choice of vehicles a simultaneous equation system is used. Comparing the results of vehicle stock to the ones for fuel demands the impact of income and fuel prices are stronger when individuals decide to acquire a vehicle of either kind i.e., gasoline or diesel driven. (Author)

  18. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  19. Practicality study on air-powered vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIU; Xiaoli YU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and outlook of air-powered vehicles including compressed air-powered vehicle and liquid nitrogen-powered vehicle, thermodyn-amic analysis and experiment data were used to analyze the energy density, performance, safety, running effi-ciency, fuel circulation economy and consumer accep-tance, etc. The results show that compressed air and liquid nitrogen have similar energy density as Ni-H battery; the characteristics of an air-powered engine is suitable for driving a vehicle; the circulation efficiency of liquid nitrogen is 3.6%-14% and that of compressed air is 25%-32.3% in practice, and existing technology can assure its safety. It is concluded that though the performance of an air-powered engine is inferior to that of the traditional inert combustion engine, an air-powered vehicle is fit for future green cars to realize the sustainable development of society and environment.

  20. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  1. Vehicles in hostile environment and service robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article concerns the R. and D. activities of the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.) during the last years. The vehicles already in operation or still under study are described. Some for use in C.E.A.: VIRGULE, a wheeled vehicle of great mobility, CENTAURE and OSCAR, smaller tracked vehicles, VERI, derived from a commercial vehicle, MERITE, MIR and MAM, devised for the inspection of central parts of powerplants; others are devoted to various activities: PLA (Autonomous free pick-up) for collecting nodules in the bottom of oceans, autonomous cleaners for the tunnels, platforms and cars of underground railways. The constraints and various problems related to the design of such vehicles are then examined

  2. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based Relay Vehicle Selection for Electric Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale electric vehicle integration into power grid and charging randomly will cause serious impacts on the normal operation of power grid. Therefore, it is necessary to control the charging behavior of electric vehicle, while information transmission for electric vehicle is significant. Due to the highly mobile characteristics of vehicle, transferring information to power grid directly might be inaccessible. Relay vehicle (RV can be used for supporting multi-hop connection between SV and power grid. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making (MADM-based RV selection algorithm, which considers multiple attribute, including data transfer rate, delay, route duration. It takes the characteristics of electric vehicle communication into account, which can provide protection for the communication services of electric vehicle charging and discharging. Numerical results demonstrate that compared to previous algorithm, the proposed algorithm offer better performance in terms of throughput, transmission delay.

  3. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Philips, Alan D.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center undertook a study to define candidate early heavy lift demonstration launch vehicle concepts derived from existing space shuttle assets. The objective was to determine the performance capabilities of these vehicles and characterize potential early demonstration test flights. Given the anticipated budgetary constraints that may affect America's civil space program, and a lapse in U.S. heavy launch capability with the retirement of the space shuttle, an early heavy lift launch vehicle demonstration flight would not only demonstrate capabilities that could be utilized for future space exploration missions, but also serve as a building block for the development of our nation s next heavy lift launch system. An early heavy lift demonstration could be utilized as a test platform, demonstrating capabilities of future space exploration systems such as the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle. By using existing shuttle assets, including the RS-25D engine inventory, the shuttle equipment manufacturing and tooling base, and the segmented solid rocket booster industry, a demonstrator concept could expedite the design-to-flight schedule while retaining critical human skills and capital. In this study two types of vehicle designs are examined. The first utilizes a high margin/safety factor battleship structural design in order to minimize development time as well as monetary investment. Structural design optimization is performed on the second, as if an operational vehicle. Results indicate low earth orbit payload capability is more than sufficient to support various vehicle and vehicle systems test programs including Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle articles. Furthermore, a shuttle-derived, hydrogen core vehicle configuration offers performance benefits when trading evolutionary paths to maximum capability.

  4. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  5. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  6. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  7. 1997 update for the applications guide to vehicle SNM monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years have elapsed since the publication of the original applications guide to vehicle special nuclear material (SNM) monitors. During that interval, use of automatic vehicle monitors has become more commonplace, and formal procedures for monitor upkeep and evaluation have become available. New concepts for vehicle monitoring are being explored, as well. This update report reviews the basics of vehicle SNM monitoring, discusses what is new in vehicle SNM monitoring, and catalogs the vehicle SNM monitors that are commercial available

  8. Integrating Social Network Services with Vehicle Tracking Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed ElShafee; Mahmoud ElMenshawi; Mena Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives design, and implementation of a newly proposed vehicle tracking system, that uses the popular social network as a value added service for traditional tracking system. The proposed tracking system make use of Google maps service to trace the vehicle, each vehicle has an account that contains a posts of Google maps that display the vehicle location on real time mode. A hardware module is inside the vehicle that uses Global Positioning System (GPS) – to detect vehicle location- ...

  9. RFID, GPS & GSM Based Vehicle Tracing & Employee Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.S.S. Pethakar, Prof. N. Srivastava, Ms.S.D. Suryawanshi

    2012-01-01

    A RFID, GPS & GSM Based Vehicle Tracking and Employee Security System combine the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, with purpose-designed computer software to enable the company to track the vehicle's location. In vehicle tracking systems we use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology for locating the vehicle. Vehicle information can be viewed on electronic maps via the Internet or specialized software. Due to recently happened mishaps such as burglary, rape cases etc., t...

  10. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  11. Analysis and improvement of vehicle information sharing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hang; He, Kun; Qu, Yingchun; Wang, Pu

    2016-06-01

    Based on large-scale mobile phone data, mobility demand was estimated and locations of vehicles were inferred in the Boston area. Using the spatial distribution of vehicles, we analyze the vehicle information sharing network generated by the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Although a giant vehicle cluster is observed, the coverage and the efficiency of the information sharing network remain limited. Consequently, we propose a method to extend the information sharing network's coverage by adding long-range connections between targeted vehicle clusters. Furthermore, we employ the optimal design strategy discovered in square lattice to improve the efficiency of the vehicle information sharing network.

  12. Vehicle Modifications for Persons with Disabilities - Modifier List

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contain information that identifies, and provides contact information for, businesses modifying vehicles to enable persons with disabilities to operate the vehicle,...

  13. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  14. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  15. Autonomous Vehicle Transportation Using Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ragul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of a vehicle in several industries and is capable of reducing extra strenuous and/or time consuming activities of humans. The main concentration of this work was onvehicle navigation, tracking, obstacle detection, weight overload, battery power measuring and also be able to locate the respective service station goods. Vehicle navigation employs RFID technology. TheRFID reader is installed in the vehicle and reads the tags which are placed along its route. Whenever a vehicle reaches a service station it sends a message to the workers. Upon receiving a message, the workers can collect the respective service station goods using RFID. If the wrong goods are taken out of the vehicle, the buzzer gets activated. The obstacle detection can be done by ultrasonic sensors. If any obstacle in the route is detected, the message is sent to the control station of the industry using the GSM module. The load cell is used to indicate the weight overload to the workers. Two batteries have been together utilized to measure the required power by this developed vehicle. As soon as Battery1 becomes dry, the battery2 is made the main source of power and a message is sent to the control station through GSM. The control station having a GSM module receives the message and the result will be displayed in hyper terminal window on the PC (personal computer. The vehicle transportation uses PICmicrocontroller, sensors and wireless technology.

  16. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  17. Pilot project for vehicle scrapping in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Accelerated vehicle scrappage programs have been suggested as a possible means to clean the air in urban areas by allowing sponsoring entities to generate emissions credits through the purchase and scrapping of older, high-emitting vehicles. Although two previous car scrapping projects had been executed, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) decided that doing another project would be productive. The authors wanted to further explore certain aspects of vehicle scrappage and concentrate on specific characteristics of the local vehicle fleet to determine how such programs should be considered for credit generation in Illinois. The IEPA, in conjunction with two contractual consultants and a combined team from General Motors and the Environmental Defense Fund, designed a pilot project that would investigate the feasibility of a large scale vehicle scrappage program in the Chicago area. The Illinois Cash for Clunkers project introduced several attributes that had not been part of previous scrappage efforts. The project purchased 207 vehicles from southern Chicago and the southern suburbs. All vehicles were tested using an IM 240 test procedure with a purge and pressure analysis of evaporative emissions. The total average emissions per car in grams per mile for testable cars were found to be: Hydrocarbons (HC), 16.09; Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 4.81; Carbon Monoxide (CO), 62.42; and Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 496.3.

  18. Image-based Vehicle Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Jun Yee

    2012-01-01

    Electronic toll collection (ETC) system has been a common trend used for toll collection on toll road nowadays. The implementation of electronic toll collection allows vehicles to travel at low or full speed during the toll payment, which help to avoid the traffic delay at toll road. One of the major components of an electronic toll collection is the automatic vehicle detection and classification (AVDC) system which is important to classify the vehicle so that the toll is charged according to the vehicle classes. Vision-based vehicle classification system is one type of vehicle classification system which adopt camera as the input sensing device for the system. This type of system has advantage over the rest for it is cost efficient as low cost camera is used. The implementation of vision-based vehicle classification system requires lower initial investment cost and very suitable for the toll collection trend migration in Malaysia from single ETC system to full-scale multi-lane free flow (MLFF). This project ...

  19. Vehicle speed control transition module and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, E.L.; Conklin, B.

    1986-12-16

    An apparatus is described for automatically controlling the speed of a driverless vehicle comprising a stationary frame supporting first, second and third aligned drive tubes between tracks on the frame and which are adapted to support a driverless vehicle. A means is included for independently driving the first, second and third drive tubes such that each tube, when driven, rotates about its longitudinal axis, sensor means disposed along the frame for actuation by a driverless vehicle. The means for independently driving the drive tubes includes variable speed drive means responsive to the sensor means fro driving the second tube between first and second speeds. A method is described of automatically controlling the speed of a driverless vehicle which travels along first, second and third aligned drive tubes by frictional contact therewith. It maintains the first, second, and third drive tubes out of mechanical engagement with each other at all times, sensing the location of the driverless vehicle, driving the first drive tube at a first speed, driving the third drive tube at a second at a second speed. It also varies the speed of the second drive tube from the first speed to the second speed based on the sensed location of the driverless vehicle while the vehicle is driven by contact with the second drive tube.

  20. Impact of Tax Cuts on the Purchasing Behavior of Low-Pollution Vehicles, Fuel-Efficient Vehicles (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Toru

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on anti-warming measures in the passenger vehicle sector and estimates the impacts of three policies in the green car taxation plan on consumer behavior with respect to car purchases. The three policies refer specifically to, first, preferential taxation for green vehicles; second, special treatment of the vehicle acquisition tax when acquiring fuel-efficient vehicles; and third, special treatment of the vehicle acquisition tax when acquiring low-pollution vehicles. Our est...

  1. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  2. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  3. Analysis of Vehicle-Based Security Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jason M [ORNL; Paul, Nate R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications promises to increase roadway safety by providing each vehicle with 360 degree situational awareness of other vehicles in proximity, and by complementing onboard sensors such as radar or camera in detecting imminent crash scenarios. In the United States, approximately three hundred million automobiles could participate in a fully deployed V2V system if Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) device use becomes mandatory. The system s reliance on continuous communication, however, provides a potential means for unscrupulous persons to transmit false data in an attempt to cause crashes, create traffic congestion, or simply render the system useless. V2V communications must be highly scalable while retaining robust security and privacy preserving features to meet the intra-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication requirements for a growing vehicle population. Oakridge National Research Laboratory is investigating a Vehicle-Based Security System (VBSS) to provide security and privacy for a fully deployed V2V and V2I system. In the VBSS an On-board Unit (OBU) generates short-term certificates and signs Basic Safety Messages (BSM) to preserve privacy and enhance security. This work outlines a potential VBSS structure and its operational concepts; it examines how a vehicle-based system might feasibly provide security and privacy, highlights remaining challenges, and explores potential mitigations to address those challenges. Certificate management alternatives that attempt to meet V2V security and privacy requirements have been examined previously by the research community including privacy-preserving group certificates, shared certificates, and functional encryption. Due to real-world operational constraints, adopting one of these approaches for VBSS V2V communication is difficult. Timely misbehavior detection and revocation are still open problems for any V2V system. We explore the alternative approaches that may be

  4. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  5. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  6. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  7. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  8. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  9. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhuan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional–integral–derivative (PID controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle.

  10. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle. PMID:27110793

  11. Unscented transformation of vehicle states in SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Cetto, J.; Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A.; Sanfeliu, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    In this article we propose an algorithm to reduce the affects caused by linearization in the typical EKF approach to SLAM. The technique consists in computing the vehicle prior using an Unscented Transformation. The UT allows a better nonlinear mean and variance estimation than the EKF. There is no need however in using the UT for the entire vehicle map state, given the linearity in the map part of the model. By applying the UT only to the vehicle states we get more accurate covariance estima...

  12. Inter-Vehicle Communication with Platooning

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Today’s way of driving works very well, but there can be substantial improvements made in the road systems and in the vehicles themselves. Many of the disadvantages of current road systems and vehicles can be removed in the future by using appropriate information and communication technology. A disadvantage that has been considered to be a major problem for many years is the fossil fuel-consumption of vehicles. Hybrid-cars and all-electric cars are being developed to reduce the use of fossil-...

  13. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  14. Look-ahead Control of Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Trucks are responsible for the major part of inland freight and so, they are a backbone of the modern economy but they are also a large consumer of energy. In this context, a dominating vehicle is a truck with heavy load on a long trip. The aim with look-ahead control is to reduce the energy consumption of heavy vehicles by utilizing information about future conditions focusing on the road topography ahead of the vehicle. The possible gains with look-ahead control are evaluated by performing...

  15. Cooperative sentry vehicles and differential GPS leapfrog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDDEMA,JOHN T.; LEWIS,CHRISTOPHER L.; LAFARGE,ROBERT A.

    2000-06-07

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter, perform a surround task, and travel extended distances. This paper describes the authors most recent activities. In particular, this paper highlights the development of a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) leapfrog capability that allows two or more vehicles to alternate sending DGPS corrections. Using this leapfrog technique, this paper shows that a group of autonomous vehicles can travel 22.68 kilometers with a root mean square positioning error of only 5 meters.

  16. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position

  17. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail by...... varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  18. Research on Virtual Vehicle Driven with Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youquan Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a traffic-oriented modeling and simulation framework. With this tool, users can create a traffic scene quickly and easily, and then drive the vehicle in the created scene with physics simulated. Especially, the vehicle could be driven with vision technology, which is equipped with a webcam and a paper printed with controlling markers. And the paper is used as the virtual wheel to control the motion of the vehicle. At such low cost, many people can enjoy the driving fun; it also provides an easy and interesting way for driving video games with promising business values.

  19. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  20. Rocket Propulsion Engineering Company Small Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, James; Pavia, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Rocket Propulsion Engineering (RPe) is developing the first in a family of two low-cost, two stage, small rocket vehicles suitable for target, suborbital, and small-sat orbital applications. The first of these two launch vehicles, the Prospect LV-1 will have an orbital payload of 300-400 lb. The larger vehicle, the Prospect LV-2, uses about 80% of the components and technology of the LV-1 and will orbit payloads of 1500-1700 lb. Two engines are being developed. A first stage 30,000 lbf class ...

  1. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  2. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  3. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  4. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  5. Usability Analysis of Collision Avoidance System in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional intelligent vehicles have performance limitations owing to the short road and obstacle detection range of the installed sensors. In this study, to overcome this limitation, we tested the usability of a new conceptual autonomous emergency braking (AEB system that employs vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication technology in the existing AEB system. To this end, a radar sensor and a driving and communication environment constituting the AEB system were simulated; the simulation was then linked by applying vehicle dynamics and control logic. The simulation results show that the collision avoidance relaxation rate of V2V communication-based AEB system was reduced compared with that of existing vehicle-mounted-sensor-based system. Thus, a method that can lower the collision risk of the existing AEB system, which uses only a sensor cluster installed on the vehicle, is realized.

  6. Electric vehicles - The clear winner in the race to reduce vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US automakers are dedicating significant resources to developing electric vehicles, which should be commercially available within the next three to five years. One of the greatest drivers for this development push is national, state, and regional legislation to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants. This paper will show that electric vehicles - the cleanest of the alternative-fuel vehicle options - have enormous potential to reduce emission from the transportation sector despite nationwide differences in the generation mix used for generating electricity to power the vehicles. Emissions reductions will be even greater in the future as power plants are required to use more stringent controls and as electric vehicle energy efficiency increases. Thus, widespread use of electric vehicles could help many urban areas reduce emissions and achieve air quality goals

  7. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  8. GPS Attitude Determination for Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude...

  9. Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs reliable, accurate navigation for launch vehicles and other missions. GPS is the best world-wide navigation system, but operates at low power making it...

  10. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  11. Frequency-based Vehicle Idling Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chao Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increases in fuel prices and environmental awareness have raised the importance of reducing vehicle emissions, with many national governments passing anti-idling laws. To reduce air pollution and fuel consumption, we propose a frequency-based vehicle idling detection method to remind drivers to turn off the engine vehicle idling exceeds a certain time threshold. The method is implemented in existing handheld devices without any modification to the car or engine, making the solution cheap and simple to implement in any type of motor vehicle. Experimental results show the proposed method can effectively differentiate idling, engine-off, and moving conditions. Two implementation cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method.

  12. Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS)...

  13. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft...

  14. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  15. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  16. Automation for Vehicle and Crew Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern space systems such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the proposed Constellation vehicles and habitats are complex entities with hundreds of...

  17. Robotic technologies for outdoor industrial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony

    2001-09-01

    The commercial industries of agriculture, mining, construction, and material handling employ a wide variety of mobile machines, including tractors, combines, Load-Haul-Dump vehicles, trucks, paving machines, fork trucks, and many more. Automation of these vehicles promises to improve productivity, reduce operational costs, and increase safety. Since the vehicles typically operate in difficult environments, under all weather conditions, and in the presence of people and other obstacles, reliable automation faces severe technical challenges. Furthermore, the viable technology solutions are constrained by cost considerations. Fortunately, due to the limited application domain, repetitive nature, and the utility of partial automation for most tasks, robotics technologies can have a profound impact on industrial vehicles. In this paper, we describe a technical approach developed at Carnegie Mellon University for automating mobile machines in several applications, including mass excavation, mining, and agriculture. The approach is introduced via case studies, and the results are presented.

  18. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  19. Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the...

  20. Remotely piloted vehicles; A selective bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, R. [comp.

    1975-12-01

    This report is a bibliography from the International Aerospace Abstracts and the Scientific and Technical Aerospace Abstracts on remotely piloted vehicles. Most of the applications of these RPV`s are military in nature.