Sample records for armored vehicles

  1. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan (United States)


    analysis0 SS 94 GHz TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MODULE Provide low cost transciever modules for pulsed, FMCW or FSK radars at 35-100 Gfz. STAC!LTZATTOU...prepared by TACOM. 3 !. ... Ill11111iilIl 0 1 lPI IPIt’IlA BEST AVAILABLE.COPY The Armored Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Base Development program...classes of Army Systems including Radar , E-O, AD. Communications, Missiles and EW. NETWORK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION - BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION

  2. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  3. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces. (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai


    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed.

  4. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs wearing personal body armor (PBA in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing.

  5. Magnesium Technology and Manufacturing for Ultra Lightweight Armored Ground Vehicles (United States)


    Bruce Davis and Rick DeLorme Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc. A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science Conference...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES *Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc., 1001 College St., Madison, IL 62060 A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science...initial emphasis on the Elektron WE43 alloy system for lightweight armored ground vehicle applications. Engineering design factors are reviewed and

  6. Medium Tactical Vehicle Underbody Armor Development (United States)


    death through means of mechanical trauma resulting from blast, fragmentation, and secondary projectiles. IEDs can also be implemented to incapacitate...tests. Wood cribbing was used to level the vehicle, creating a standoff distance from the ground to the crew compartment equal to that of an actual

  7. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts (United States)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.


    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  8. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    for armor and mechanized infantry units. 1 Known as the M-113, it entered production in 1960 and saw extensive wartime service in Vietnam. Considered...Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 4 Table 2. 2013 Projected ABCT AMPV Production , by Variant...September 14, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R43240 The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues

  9. The Impact of Armor on the Design, Utilization and Survivability of Ground Vehicles: The History of Armor Development and Use (United States)


    Figure 20. Graph Depicting Increase of Armor Thickness through Time (After Steeb, Brendley, Norton, Bondanella, Salter and Covington, 1991, 3...Vehicle (From Steeb, Brendley, Norton, Bondanella, Salter and Covington, 1991, 12) ....................61 Figure 46. Probability of Hit on Two-Man MBT...from Tank Gun at 1km Range (From Steeb, Brendley, Norton, Bondanella, Salter and Covington, 1991, 21) .........61 Figure 47. Typical Hull Dimensions

  10. M1117 "Guardian" Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) Employment in Peace Operations (United States)


    welded steel armor hull that has been fitted with advanced ceramic armor to provide the crew with a higher level of protection against heavy machine guns...PowerPoint Presentation: CGSC_TTP (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Command and General Staff College, 2000), 4. 8 Christopher F. Foss, ed., Jane’s Armour and... steel hull with a spall liner on the interior surfaces.11 The vehicle carries a crew of three with an optional seat for a fourth passenger. Compared

  11. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk


    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  12. 坦克装甲车辆装甲防护发展研究%Armor Protection Development of Tank & Armored Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房凌晖; 郑翔玉; 马丽; 汪伦根


    This article first discusses the advances and the applications of main armor materials,including armour steel,aluminum alloys,titanium alloy,ceramic and composite materials. Then,the basical theory and research status of some typical armor protection technologies are introduced in detail,such as explosive reactive armor,composite armor,grille armor,electromagnetic armor and so on. And on this basis,the future development trend of armor protection technology is also discussed,which is important to improve the protection ability and viability of armored vehicle.%阐述了装甲钢、铝合金、钛合金、陶瓷和复合材料等主流装甲防护材料的研究现状和应用情况,并对爆炸反应装甲、复合装甲、格栅装甲和电磁装甲等几种典型装甲防护技术的基本原理和研究现状进行了介绍;分析了未来装甲防护技术的发展方向和趋势,对提高装甲车辆的防护能力和战场生存能力具有重要意义。

  13. Fuzzy Control Based on Neural Networks for Armored Vehicle Electric Drive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-jun; LI Hua; ZHANG Jian; ZHANG Yu-nan


    In order to meet rigorous demands of control of electric motors in armored vehicle electric drive system and make the system of strong robustness and antijamming capability, a fuzzy control method based on neural networks is put forward. The simulation model of the armored vehicle electric drive system is built up to test the validity of the control. Simulation experiments show that when load is increased or decreased suddenly, the system adopting fuzzy control based on neural networks is insensitive to parameter change and has little overshooting and oscillation compared with PID control.

  14. Intelligent Layout Method of the Powerhouse for Tank & Armored Vehicles Based on 3-Dimensional Rectangular Packing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-long; MAO Ming; LU Yi-ping; BIE Jie-min


    Probes into a new and effective method in arranging the powerhouses of tank & armored vehicles. Theory and method of 3-dimensional rectangular packing are adapted to arrange effectively almost all the systems and components in the powerhouse of the vehicle, thus the study can be regarded as an attempt for the theory's engineering applications in the field of tank & armored vehicle design. It is proved that most parts of the solutions attained are reasonable, and some of the solutions are innovative.

  15. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei


    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  16. Peace Operations: Is There a Need for Wheeled Armored Vehicles? (United States)


    stressed that "Peacekeeping forces and observers do not employ violence, except in self defense."-23 Such restrictions on the applications of force differ...are noisy, and often cause damage to roads in areas where the infrastructure is already limited.57 Ironically , heavy tracked vehicles can cause damage...Company. 1995. Legum , Colin. The Battlefronts of Southern Africa. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1988. Simpkin, Richard E. Race to the Swift

  17. Procurement and Delivery of Joint Service Armor Protected Vehicles (United States)


    vehicles should not ha ve bcen compared to each othcr 0 1’ to a singlc IG E. F8Jl 8FFISMb l!IS6 8PlbY 29 An M S orti eial stated that thc IGCE was thi s casc. Adcquate competition can be cxpccted to result in fail’ and rcasonable contract prices. However, an M S orti cial statcd that comments concerning the fa ir and reasonable con tract price determination from the Ortiee of Defense Procurement Acq ui sit ion Po li cy (D PAP

  18. The Armored Vehicle Fire Control System Reliability Modeling%装甲火控可靠性建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉生; 梁宝生; 武云鹏; 张永昌


    装甲武器是陆军及其两栖机械化部队实施地面突击的主要兵器,也是海军陆战部队实施抢滩登陆、岛屿攻防的主要兵器。装甲火控是装甲武器的重要组成部分,其可靠性直接影响装甲武器的打击效能。两栖装甲武器肩负海上、陆上的作战使命,使用环境更加恶劣,可靠性问题更加突出。描述了装甲火控的一般组成、功能及工作方式,基于两栖装甲武器的使用特点,分析了装甲火控基本任务、工作方式和作战环境的关系,建立了不同任务剖面的可靠性模型,为装甲火控可靠性设计、分析提供了一种参考。%Mechannized armored vehicles army weapon system and its amphibious force key groud assault weapons,and Marine forces key onboard,islands of offensive and defensive weapon.Fire control system is an important part of armored vehicle weapons system,its reliabilitiy directly affect armored vehicle combat efficiency of weapon system.Amphibious armored vehicle combat mission of weapon system on sea and land,using the environment worse,reliability problems become more prominent. Describes the armored vehicle fire control system,the general composition,function and working mode, based on the operating characteristics of amphibious armored vehicles,the basic task of the armored vehicle fire control system are analyzed,the relationship between work and operational environment,set up different task profile,the reliability of the model for the reliabilitiy design of the armored vehicle fire control system,analysis provides a reference.

  19. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow


    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  20. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha


    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  1. Mitigation Systems for Confined Blast Loading - Crew Protection in Armored Vehicles (United States)


    reactants; this volume contains about 80 percent of the original reactants by weight. Sintered bronze barriers were found to be effective in...Effects of Tungsten Alloy Property Variations on Penetrator Performance for Spaced Armors.” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials

  2. Overcoming the Battlefield Stalemate: The Introduction of Armored Fighting Vehicles and Tactics in the British Army During the First World War (United States)


    depressions (such as artillery shell craters.)25 In addition, the vehicles were to be armored I 24Swinton, "The Necessity For Machine Gun Destroyers," June 1...traditional operation and innovative Ithinking . The general plan of attack was to dispense with the traditional long duration artillery bombardment

  3. Analysis of recurring sinking events of armored tracked vehicles along dirt roads in the agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip (United States)

    Roskin, Joel


    The second (Al-Aqsa) intifada (Arab violent uprising) which erupted across Israel in 2000 eventually led the Israel Defense Forces to deploy armored tracked vehicles (ATVs) (tanks, armored personal carriers, and D-9 bulldozers) within Israel's agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip, following daily attempts by Arab terrorists and guerillas to penetrate Israel. Combat movement of the ATVs was mainly concentrated to dirt roads, between agricultural fields, wherever possible. As a result of semi-arid Mediterranean (climate) winter rains, annually averaging 250 - 350 mm, it was reported that ATVs often sank in muddy terrain. This study investigated what caused ATVs to sink. The main data collected concerning the types of vehicles that sank related to: land-use characteristics, soil type, and daily rainfall. Interviews with commanders were also conducted for additional details. Between the fall and spring, surveys and weekly / bi-weekly field soil cone penetrometer tests were conducted at ten sites with different pedological and land-use characteristics. The loess soils, especially in agricultural fields, were generally found to be conducive to ATV traffic, even shortly after rainstorms of 10-30 mm. However, following several rainfall events exceeding 10 mm, ATVs and tanks regularly sank into local topographic depressions in the undulating landscape. These consisted of short segments of dirt roads where runoff and suspended sediment collected. After the early rains in late fall, tank ruts fossilize and become conduits of concentrated runoff and fine particles eroded by ATV activity during the summer months. Tank track ruts that formed in mud, compacted the soil, drastically altered drainage patterns by directing significant surface flow, and suspended sediment into these depressions, creating "tank-traps" whose trafficability ranged from "untrafficable" to "trafficable with constraints." This study shows that intense, routine, defensive military activity operated

  4. Sensor Enhanced Armor Non Destructive Evaluation Laboratory (United States)


    multiple layers) Phased Array Ultrasonic Scanning in H20 Handheld Prototype Testing Device Embedded sensors Unclassified X-ray and mm wave image of...NDT/ NDE Laboratory Unclassified Vehicle Display Views – Healthy Armor Unclassified NDE of Transparent Materials Phased Array Ultrasound Image...Provide ultrasonic , x-ray and mmwave imaging for armor damage analysis. • Explore various NDE options to support all armor recipies Objective: • Provide

  5. 装甲车辆动力性能联合仿真技术研究%Dynamical Performance Co-Simulation Technology of the Armored Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆清国; 王旭东; 张更云; 龚正波; 司东亚


    The Armored vehicle is taken as the subject,based on the working process simulation theory of turbo-charged diesel,multibody system dynamic theory and co-simulation technology,the power performance simulation model was built including the power unit,driven unit,running unit and random road model.Interact with the storage of the data between different software is implemented based on Simulink platform, and dynamic performance co-simulation of the armored vehicle is realized.The model simulated the influence of the operation of the drive and the transient operation condition of the engine, and the model is validated by the experiment.%以某型装甲车辆为研究对象,基于涡轮增压柴油机工作过程数值模拟理论、多体动力学理论和联合仿真技术,建立了包括动力装置、传动装置、行动装置以及随机路面模型的整车动力性能仿真模型.采用Simulink平台实现了不同软件之间的数据交互与存储,实现了装甲车辆整车动力性能联合仿真.该模型模拟了车辆在实际行驶过程中驾驶员操作和发动机动态工况对整车动力性能的影响,并通过实车实验进行了验证,为装甲车辆动力性能研究提供了一种新方法.

  6. Research on Usability Evaluation Index of Armored Vehicle Computer System%车载计算机系统可用性评价指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明; 王洪艳; 金传洋


    针对目前车载计算机系统可用性研究中缺少可用性评估指标体系的问题,进行了深入地分析与研究,首先研究了构建车载计算机系统可用性评估体系的基本原则,分析了可用性评估的主要内容,最后提出了可用性评估的指标体系。研究结果表明:可用性评价一方面能从用户角度反映车载计算机系统存在的问题,为设计者决策提供依据,另一方面也能为供应商改进系统性能提供参考。%This paper conducted in-depth analysis and research of the problem of the lack of armored vehicle computer system usability evaluation index system.This paper firstly studied the basic principles of building the usability evaluation index system of armored vehicle computer system, then analyzed the main contents of usability evaluation, finally it brought forwards the usability evaluation index system of armored vehicle computer system from the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction aspects. The research shows that usability evaluation can not only find usability problems of armored vehicle computer system to provide basis for designer, but also improve system to give reference for the seller..

  7. 装甲车辆乘员心理健康状况调查%A survey of mental health status in armored vehicle crew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巧丽; 考希宾; 兀光波; 郭书文; 柴渭莉; 陈亚妮; 姬丽静; 王延琦


    目的 调查装甲车辆乘员(车长、炮长、驾驶员)心理健康状况,掌握其心理健康水平并进行教育干预.方法 于2009年4月,选取120名车龄大于2年的男性装甲车辆乘员作为作战组,70名相同年龄段的男性非装甲车辆操作人员作为对照组.采用症状自评(SCL-90)量表对190名测试对象进行心理测评.结果 作战组装甲士兵强迫症状(t=2.323)、人际关系敏感(t=3.250)、忧郁(t=3.158)、焦虑(t=2.712)、恐怖(t=2.391)、偏执(t=2.137)5个因子以及总分(t=4.128)、阳性项目数(t=4.357)、阳性症状均分(t=4.632)得分均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).作战组装甲士兵各因子得分均低于军人参考值,差异均有统计学意义(躯体化:t=4.364;强迫症状:t=5.127;人际关系敏感:t=5.280;忧郁:t=3.783;焦虑:t=7.127;敌对:t=5.361;恐怖:t=4.369;偏执:t=6.167;精神病性:t=6.476;其他:t=3.558;总分:t=6.357;阳性项目数:t=4.379;阳性症状均分:t=6.763;均P<0.05).结论 应开展装甲车辆乘员强迫症状、人际关系敏感、忧郁和焦虑等心理健康状况调查,加强乘员心理卫生服务工作,提高乘员的心理素质.%Objective To investigate the mental health status in armored vehicle crew (commanders,gunners,and drivers),to know the level of mental health in them,and to provide educational intervention.Methods In April 2009,120 male armored vehicle crew with >2 driving years were enrolled as battle group,and 70 male persons within the same age group who were not engaged in armored vehicle operation were enrolled as control group.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to evaluate the mental status of the 180 subjects.Results Compared with the control group,the battle group showed significantly higher scores on the subscales of obsessive-compulsive symptom,interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety,phobic anxiety,and paranoid ideation (t=2.323,3.250,3.158,2.712,2.391,and 2.137,all P<0.05),as well as

  8. 装甲车辆热管理试验台的建模与试验%Modeling and Test of Thermal Management Test Bench of Armored Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    为研究装甲车辆的热管理系统,搭建了具有高、低温双循环的装甲车辆热管理试验台,在 Matlab 中建立了热管理试验台各部件的流动和传热模型,并针对模型的稳态特性和动态特性分别进行了仿真计算和试验验证。结果表明:所建立的流动和传热模型能够准确反映试验台特性,为进一步利用热管理试验台进行热管理技术研究奠定了基础。%To study the thermal management system of armored vehicles,a thermal management test bench with high and low dual cycle is fabricated.The models of flow and heat transfer are built in Mat-lab.A series of laboratory tests and simulation are conducted aiming at the steady state characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the thermal test bench.The results show that the mathematical models are ac-curate and reliable,and could reflect real features of the test bench which provide a basis for further re-search.

  9. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  10. Research on Armored Vehicle Fire Control System Performance Test Method%装甲车辆火控系统性能测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 魏洁英


    为了解决装甲车辆火控系统性能测试精度低、测试方法复杂、耗时长的问题,本文提出了一种装甲火控系统性能测试的自动化测试系统。该测试系统是一种针对新型总线化火控系统定量性能指标的测试系统,实现了从激励信号的注入、信号的采集到信号处理整个过程的自动化。通过使用该系统可以提高火控系统性能测试的精度,同时缩短测试时间,节约人力和物力资源,给系统测试提供了很大的方便,具有一定的实用性价值。%In order to make up the disadvantage of armored vehicle fire control system performance test as being of low precision, being complicate test system focuses on new bus fire control system quantitative performance index, and realizes the automation covering from excitation signal input, signal collection to signal processing. It promotes the precision of fire control system performance test, saves the testing time, and also saves both human and material resources, bringing huge convenience to the system performance test.

  11. The armored vehicles optoelectronic devices battlefield laser threat and protection%装甲车辆光电设备的战场激光威胁与防护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彪; 胡明侠; 张辽宁


    随着激光在战场上的使用,就出现了战场激光威胁与战场激光防护的问题;本文分析了战场激光对装甲车辆光电设备存在的威胁;利用激光与材料相互作用物理学,分析了激光对装甲车辆光电设备的损伤机理,在此基础上给出了激光对光电设备损伤程度的估算公式,说明了装甲车辆光电设备的战场激光防护方法。%Appeared with the use of laser battlefield a battlefield laser threat and battlefield laser protection problems ;This paper analyzes the existence of the threat of the battlefield laser of armored vehicles photoelectric devices ;using laser material interaction physics ,laser armoredthe vehicle damage mechanism of optoelectronic devices , the laser photoelectric equipment damage extent estimation formula given on this basis , battlefield laser protection armored vehicles optoelectronic devices .

  12. 基于“蝇眼”网络模糊控制的装甲车避障系统研究%Armored Vehicle Obstacle Avoidance System Research Based on“Fly's Sye”Network Fuzzy Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 张科


    Armored car body weight,body length there such as congenital disadvantage,in the process of vehicle walking vision less than 180degrees,the body and the distance between the obstacles only by the human eye estimating,appear visual blind area,in turn and reverse often appear collision.This paper puts forward a based on the“fly's eye”network fuzzy control technology of armored vehicle obstacle avoid-ance system research,the armored car around the obstacles 360degree detection,real-time display bearing and distance,vehicle body of da-ta transmission using high stability of CAN bus technology,to realize the sensor information fusion based on neural network with fuzzy con-trol obstacle avoidance technology on armored vehicles to walk for intelligent obstacle avoidance control.In different environment of system test the obstacle avoidance method can make the obstacles bearing and distance measurement accuracy assurance in 95% and 98% above, have very strong practicability.%装甲车车身重,存在车体长宽等先天劣势,在车辆行走的过程中视野不到180度,车身与障碍物之间的距离只能通过人眼进行估测,驾驶员出现视觉盲区,在转弯与倒车时经常出现碰撞;提出一种基于“蝇眼”网络模糊控制技术的装甲车避障系统研究,对装甲车周围的障碍物进行360°的探测,实时显示方位与距离,车辆本体中的数据传输使用稳定性较高的 CAN 总线技术实现,对传感器的信息融合后使用基于神经网络模糊控制的避障技术对装甲车行走进行智能避障控制;在不同环境下的系统测试中本文的避障方法能够将障碍物的方位与距离测量准确率保证在95%与98%以上,具有很强的实用性。

  13. Real-time Simulation Method for Movements of Amphibious Armored Vehicles on the Ocean%两栖装甲车辆海上运动实时仿真方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 贾永前; 周子锐; 乔小蒙; 张聪


    为了在两栖装甲车辆驾驶训练模拟器中复现车辆在海浪中的运动,提出了一种海浪及车体运动实时协同仿真方法。首先,根据海浪浪高和风速设定的参数构造海浪时域波面方程;其次,按照车辆结构外型参数将车体表面分割为尺寸相同的网格,并通过当前时刻车辆的运动参数和海浪状态,在虚拟场景中利用碰撞检测算法获得车辆表面网格处海浪波面的位置,这一相对位置将用于计算此处海浪对车体的作用力;最后,解算车辆动力学方程,获得下一时刻车辆的运动参数。通过仿真结果与试验结果的对比验证了该方法的有效性,为实现模拟器对车辆海上运动的实时仿真提供了一种途径。%A new method for real-time coordination simulation of vehicle movements and ocean wave is put forward for recurrence of vehicle movement in driver training simulator of amphibious armored vehicle on the ocean wave.Firstly, the ocean wave time domain equation is set up according to wave height and wind velocity .Secondly , the body of the simulated vehicle is divided to meshes with same size according to the structure parameters of the vehicle , and according to the current movement parameters of the vehi-cle and wave state , the relative position between water and tiny meshes of the vehicle changes can be a-chieved by collision detection algorithms in virtual scene .The relative positions are used to compute ap-plied force of waves to the vehicle .Finally, the movement parameters of the vehicle at next step can be worked out by solving dynamic equations .The effectiveness of the method is validated by comparing sim-ulation results with experiment data , which provides a mean for real-time simulation of amphibious ar-mored vehicle dynamic movements on the ocean wave with training simulator .

  14. Smart Armor Conceptual Design (United States)


    related issues and design of controller systems. (d) Actuator design and optimization of location. 6. Evaluation of electrorheological fluid systems...5 III.2 Smart Actuation to Preserve Armor Integrity . . 16 111.3 Microactuators and their Application to Smart Armors ........ ... o...Contour After 100 Cycles With Smart Actuation . .. ............ 30 Figure 111.2.10 Stress Contour After 100 Cycles With Smart Actuation

  15. Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) (United States)


    Combat Team (ABCT). It will mitigate current and future capability gaps in force protection, mobility, reliability , and interoperability across the...stakeholders from OSD, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Armaments Research, Development and Engineering Center , and Army Test and Evaluation Command. The...all electronic equipment with a 50% spare electrical capacity for all variants. The AMPV will consume fuel at, or better than, the level

  16. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles (United States)


    the courtesies extended to the staff. Questions should be directed to Ms. Deborah L. Carros at (703) 604-9217 (DSN 664-9217) or Ms. Beth K. Schaefer...Inspector General who contributed to the report are listed below. Richard B. Jolliffe Bruce A. Burton Deborah L. Carros Beth K. Schaefer Linh

  17. 装甲车辆与地面背景的热交互作用及红外仿真%Thermal interactions and infrared simulation of armored vehicles and ground background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉阁; 成志铎; 任登凤; 宣益民


    为了全面揭示装甲车辆与地面背景之间热交互作用对地面背景温度以及红外辐射特性的影响,建立了装甲车辆和地面背景的温度和红外辐射特性的模型,重点考虑了装甲车辆与地面之间的传热.通过对地面和履带相关力学关系的引入,建立运动车辆和地面之间热学以及力学的模型,采用了动网格方法对车辆目标在运动后对地面所产生的沉陷现象及在地面上留下的热痕迹进行模拟仿真.基于红外辐射理论,综合考虑自身辐射、反射辐射以及大气传输特性,计算了车辆在3种不同状态下与地面背景之间的热交互作用及红外辐射特征分布,并比较了模拟温度与实验测量温度的误差,验证了模型的精度.仿真结果表明:该方法对地面目标的隐身设计和隐身技术评估具有十分重要的意义.%In order to fully reveal the influence of thermal interactions between the armored vehicles and ground background on ground background temperature and infrared radiation characteristics, the temperature and infrared signature model of armored vehicles and ground background were established, with focus on heat transfer between armored vehicles and ground.By introducing mechanical relationship between the road and the track, thermal and mechanical models between the moving vehicle and the road were established.Using method of the moving mesh, the subsidence phenomenon and thermal trace on the road after target vehicle moving were simulated.Based on the infrared radiation theory, considering the radiation, reflective radiation and atmospheric transmission characteristic, the thermal interactions and infrared radiation characteristics distribution of armored vehicles and terrain background under three different conditions were calculated.The simulated temperature and measured temperature in the experiment were compared.The model's precision was validated.The simulation results show that this method is

  18. Design and Test of Pneumatic AMT Control Device for Tracked Armored Vehicle%履带式装甲车气动 AMT 机构设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 王兴野; 张进秋; 张磊


    针对某型履带式装甲车换挡操纵费力、驾驶员劳动强度大等问题,分析了该型装甲车变速操纵装置的结构和原理,根据该型车辆的结构特点和换挡过程中对换挡机构的要求,设计了气动 AMT 操纵机构,给出了关键元件的确定原则。对该型装甲车进行了实车改装与试验,试验结果表明:该气动 AMT 操纵机构工作稳定可靠,能够快速实现平稳、准确换挡,满足了车辆自动变速系统的要求。%In allusion to that it is strenuous to shift gears for a certain type of tracked armored vehicle, and the labor intensity is high for the drivers,the structure and work principle of the vehicle’s gearshift control device is analyzed.According to its structure characteristics and the request in the process of gearshift,a pneumatic AMT control device is designed and the designating principle of the key component is presented.After having a modification on the tracked armored vehicle and conducting a test,it is veri-fied that the new designed device works stably and reliably,achieves the target to shift gears stably and precisely,satisfies the request of the vehicle’s automatic transmission system.

  19. Armor in Vietnam (United States)


    AD-A 171 390 Y" I E T NO A Ima ELET SThIB doowievnnt has been approved for publico release and sale , it. diotribution is unlimitod. - 86 7~ 15 069...a 1,000-man advance party, the entire division was transported by sea; therefore, deployment time did not prevent the division from taking armor with...arrange for transportation F to get the items to their unit. Compounding this problem for, the armor units was a lack of proper maintenance support by the

  20. Embedded-monolith armor (United States)

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.


    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  1. Co-simulation Research of Dual-steering Control for Multi-in-wheel Motors Drive Armored Vehicle%电驱动装甲车辆双重转向控制联合仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建强; 马晓军; 项宇; 阳贵兵


    To improve the steering agility and off-road mobility of multi-in-wheel motors drive armored wheeled vehicle,the dual-steering control is adopted corresponding to the tracked vehicle steering way. The target of control system is the vehicle yaw rate,and active disturbance rejection controller is designed. Yaw moment torque is produced by adjusting the both sides of the in-wheel motor torque output to achieve the target of reference yaw rate. The vehicle kinetics model is built in the Adams,and the co-simulation model is designed base on the Adams and Matlab. At last co-simulation is carried out. The results of simulation demonstrate that the dual-steering control increased the vehicle outboard power output and decreased the steering radius. The method could improve the steering performance.%为了提高轮毂电机驱动装甲车辆转向的灵活性及越野机动性能,借鉴履带车辆滑移转向思想,采用双重转向控制策略。以车辆的横摆角速度为控制目标,设计了自抗扰控制器,通过调整两侧轮毂电机转矩输出产生直接横摆力矩,进而调节车辆横摆角速度,实现装甲车辆双重转向。在Adams中建立车辆动力学模型的基础上,构建Adams与Matlab环境中的联合仿真模型,并进行了联合仿真,结果表明,基于直接横摆力矩控制的双重转向增大了外侧动力输出,减小了车辆在中低速转向时转向半径,提高了车辆的转向性能。

  2. Research on Gear's Contacting Fatigue Life Prediction of Side Reducer in Armored Vehicle%装甲车辆侧减速器齿轮接触疲劳寿命预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐东红; 崔玉莲; 张炳喜; 赵永东


    通过对根据典型路面实车试验获得的载荷数据进行雨流计数处理,编制了装甲车辆侧减速器齿轮所承受的扭矩谱和应力谱;充分考虑残余应力对齿轮接触疲劳极限的影响,通过强度和硬度之间的转换关系以及疲劳强度与残余应力的作用关系,得到了齿面沿深度方向的静强度以及接触疲劳强度分布;结合疲劳寿命分析技术,进行了齿轮疲劳寿命预测,其预测结果与实际规律相符合。%By dealing with the load data from vehicle test on typical terrain, this paper obtains the torque and stress spectrum bearing by the side reducer gear in armored vehicle. Considering the influence of the residual stress on the contacting fatigue limit, the distribution of strength and contacting fatigue limits in different depths were obtained by means of the distribution of residual stress and hardness as well as the relationship between strength and hardness. The gear's fatigue life was predicted by combining the fatigue life prediction technique. The prediction result is accorded with the actual rule.

  3. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.


    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  4. The Light Armored Cavalry Regiment -- Reconnaissance Force of the Future (United States)


    appli- que armor made this possible. The Bradely Scout Vehicle, armed with a 25 mm cannon and a wire guided missile system, could now engage and destroy...University Press. 1986 Palmer, David Richard, Summons of the Trumpet. Novato. CA. Presidio Press. 1978. Palmer, Bruce Jr., The 25 Year War. America’s Military

  5. Survivability Armor Ballistic Laboratory (SABL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SABL provides independent analysis, ballistic testing, data collection, data reduction and qualification of current and advanced armors. Capabilities: The SABL...

  6. Electromagnetic Armor Based on the Principles of Reconnection Electromagnetic Launcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Haiqing; Li Weitao; Gao Haizhen


    Active electromagnetic armor is the latest concept of defense system, and it is highly probable for this technology to be applied to many domains such as future tanks, armored vehicles and the armor of warships. The studies on active electromagnetic defense technology in the world have a history of decades. But, there still exist bottlenecks and the interceptor is one of them. This paper studies the problem of interceptors based on the principles of reconnection electromagnetic launcher and presents a kind of simulation model of it. A small scale laboratory model is made, and related experimental researches and theoretical analyses have been carried out when the projectiles are different kinds of material and shape. Satisfactory results are reached and agree with the theoretical analyses.

  7. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.


    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  8. Armored garment for protecting (United States)

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.


    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  9. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang


    Full Text Available Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes force enhancement and results in much worse crew injury. An isolating layer between the aluminum foam and the vehicle floor is introduced to remediate this drawback. The results show that the blast-resistant capability of the innovative sandwich armor structure with the isolating layer increases remarkably.

  10. Armor and Anesthesia (United States)

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.


    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  11. Boron Rich Solids Sensors, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor

    CERN Document Server

    Orlovskaya, Nina


    The objective of this book is to discuss the current status of research and development of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel biological and chemical sensors made of stiff and light-weight boron-rich solids are very exciting and efficient for applications in medical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism agents. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites exhibit excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic vehicle applications. Boron-rich solids are also promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is another very important application of boron-rich solids, since most of them exhibit very high hardness, which makes them perfect candidates with high resistance to ballistic impact. The following topical areas are presented: •boron-rich solids: science and technology; •synthesis and sintering strategies of boron rich solids; •microcantileve...

  12. Dynamics analysis of planar armored cable motion in deep-sea ROV system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全伟才; 张竺英; 张艾群


    The armored cable used in a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) may undergo large displacement motion when subjected to dynamic actions of ship heave motion and ocean current. A novel geometrically exact finite element model for two-dimensional dynamic analysis of armored cable is presented. This model accounts for the geometric nonlinearities of large displacement of the armored cable, and effects of axial load and bending stiffness. The governing equations are derived by consistent linearization and finite element discretization of the total weak form of the armored cable system, and solved by the Newmark time integration method. To make the solution procedure avoid falling into the local extreme points, a simple adaptive stepping strategy is proposed. The presented model is validated via actual measured data. Results for dynamic configurations, motion and tension of both ends of the armored cable, and resonance-zone are presented for two numerical cases, including the dynamic analysis under the case of only ship heave motion and the case of joint action of ship heave motion and ocean current. The dynamics analysis can provide important reference for the design or product selection of the armored cable in a deep-sea ROV system so as to improve the safety of its marine operation under the sea state of 4 or above.

  13. A Computational Investigation of the Multi-Hit Ballistic-Protection Performance of Laminated Transparent-armor Systems (United States)

    Grujicic, Mica; Pandurangan, B.; Coutris, N.


    Multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of a prototypical laminated glass/polycarbonate transparent armor is investigated using a series of transient nonlinear dynamics analyses of armor impact with a sequence of four M2AP full metal jacket (FMJ) armor-piercing bullets. All calculations were carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit commercial finite element program (ABAQUS Version 6.7, User Documentation, Dessault Systems, 2007), and the computational results obtained were compared to their experimental counterparts obtained by Dolan (Ballistic Transparent-armor Testing Using a Multi-hit Rifle Pattern, Bachelors, Thesis, Kettering University, December 2007). The comparison revealed that (a) The proposed computational procedure can reasonably well account for the observed multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of the laminated transparent armor; (b) The role of prior bullet hits in reducing armor's ballistic-protection performance is clearly revealed; (c) The role of polycarbonate lamina in preventing glass fragments from entering the vehicle interior is clearly demonstrated; and (d) Experimentally observed inability of the transparent armor to defeat 0.50-caliber Fragment Simulating Projectiles (FSPs) is confirmed.

  14. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study (United States)


    calculated using the method of Priestley and Taylor (1972) and ERDC TR-15-6 17 solar radiation and air temperature. A wet- dry cycle is counted when the...jetties. Armor rocks are impacted by natural elements such as seasonal weather and repeated cycles of temperature, flowing water, wetting and drying ...14 2.6 Estimation of freeze-thaw cycles by Arnold method .................................................. 16 2.7 Estimation of wet- dry index

  15. The Army Needs a Strategic Armored Gun System--Now (United States)


    the AGS ROC. IVECO- Fiat, The Italian firm o4 IVECO- Fiat has proposed three variants as candidates for the AGS! - The Centauro 9x8 wheeled light...armored vehicle with OTO Melana, i05mm turret. - The Centauro SxO with the Cadillac-Gage 105mm turret mounting the Royal Ordnance L-7 105mm gun. - The... Centauro 6x6 with the LAV-i10mm turret and EX-35 gun. The three systems cannot meet many of the AGE requirements# primarily weightp since the heaviest

  16. Ballistic performance and microstructure of four armor ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Carton, E.P.


    The ballistic behavior of four different armor ceramic materials with thicknesses varying from 3 mm to 14 mm has been investigated. These are two types of alumina Al2O3 armor grades and two types of SiC armor grades produced by different armor ceramic producers. The ballistic study has been performe


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛书凯; 陈建梅; 成敏苏


    The composite of fiber-reinforced resin matrix is comprehensively used in armor protection scopes for its great defence performance, lower density and easy craft. The effect of three-dimensional fabrics of different fiber and ceramics thickness on the performance of ballistic composite materials was studied. The result revealed that when designing and developing ballistic composite materials, the relationship between ballistic performance, mass and cost should be taken into account. Only all of these factors keep balance, a ballistic composite material which meet practical demands was designed.%树脂基复合材料以其防护性能好、密度低及制备工艺简单等优点广泛应用于装甲防护领域.本文研究了不同纤维三维织物与陶瓷片厚度等因素对防弹复合材料性能的影响.最后指出,在进行防弹复合材料设计与开发时,应考虑防弹性能、重量与成本之间的关系,只有三者达到平衡,才能设计出满足实际使用要求的防弹复合材料.

  18. Note on Armor Steel Design: A proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Potay


    Full Text Available A theoretical approach to the ballistic penetration and armor development has been made and a single phase material with a computer evaluated optimum hardness has been proposed to give a superior performance as an armour.

  19. Idling Reduction for Emergency and Other Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a fact sheet about reducing idling for emergency and service vehicles. Emergency vehicles, such as police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks, along with other service vehicles such as armored cars, are often exempt from laws that limit engine idling. However, these vehicles can save fuel and reduce emissions with technologies that allow them to perform vital services without idling.

  20. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting AGENCY...-day High Strength Fiber and Body Armor Research Needs Meeting. The Meeting will provide a forum to... Body Armor Research Needs Meeting will be held June 15, 2010. The workshop will be held from 9 a.m....

  1. Power Matching Computation and Simulation Analysis of Multi-Wheel Drive Armored Vehicle%多轮驱动履带车辆功率匹配计算与仿真分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆含; 杨波; 刘春光; 杨宗民


    In order to overcome the difficulty of motor integration in electric drive tracked vehicle under traditional scheme,a new multi-wheel drive EV design scheme which can reduce requirement of motor power is developed. First,performance parameters matching compute of the drive motor and mechanical transmission device is put forward according to the design parameters and performance index of this tracked vehicle. Then,the drive motor system was built based on control system analysis software Matlab/Simulink and the tracked vehicle running gear on multi-body dynamics analysis software RecurDyn/Track-HM. And ,the collaborative simulation model based on interface technology of these two software was also built. The collaborative simulation results about the dynamic characteristics showed that this scheme can achieve the expected target ,the computing method and matching parameters are right,which lays the foundation for further research.%  传统电传动设计方案下同时满足车辆大扭矩和宽调速范围的电机体积、重量大,难以集成在车辆有限空间内,针对这一难题,提出了一种新型多轮驱动电传动车辆设计方案。结合该方案,以原车性能指标为依据,进行了电机驱动系统的性能匹配计算,建立了基于Matlab/Simulink的驱动电机模块和基于RecurDyn/Track-HM车辆动力学仿真模块,并利用接口技术构建了机电一体联合仿真模型,而后通过车辆动力性能的仿真,对设计方案及功率匹配结果进行验证。仿真结果表明,匹配算法正确,所选参数合理,设计方案基本可行,为进一步研究奠定了基础。

  2. Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile (United States)


    Final Technical Status Report For DOTC 10-01-INIT-017 Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile Reporting Period: 13 May 2015 Ordnance...Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report: Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OTA # W15QKN-09-9...1001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Herbst /Diana-Lynn 5d. PROJECT NUMBER DOTC-11-01-INIT017 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  3. Production and characterization of ceramics for armor application; Producao e caracterizacao de ceramicas para blindagem balistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, J.T.; Lopes, C.M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Mecanica-Aeronautica; Assis, J.M.K.; Melo, F.C.L., E-mail: cmoniz@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais


    The fabrication of devices for ballistic protection as bullet proof vests and helmets and armored vehicles has been evolving over the past years along with the materials and models used for this specific application. The requirements for high efficient light-weight ballistic protection systems which not interfere in the user comfort and mobility has driven the research in this area. In this work we will present the results of characterization of two ceramics based on alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramics were produced in lab scale and the specific mass, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure, Vickers hardness, flexural resistance at room temperature and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Ballistic tests performed in the selected materials showed that the ceramics present armor efficiency. (author)

  4. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor (United States)


    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  5. A Crashworthy Armored Pilot Seat for Helicopters (United States)


    Configuration 14 III Resoons, of F/A &Mmbars 17 IV Summay of Drop Tests 29 V Summary of Horizontal Sled Test 32 VI AcmY Armored E/A Cram=n Swot , Test Results...and 3. !st Conditions: 3 hours of vibration, resonance search, dwell and cycling in each of three (3) axes, 5 to 500 Hz maxi - mum of +2.5 g. ;sults: No

  6. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN


    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  7. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN


    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  8. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard


    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  9. Vehicle Armor Structure and Testing for Future Combat System (United States)


    studied the out-of-plane tensile strength of CFRP laminates using the direct tensile method with specimens of various size and geometry. In for a particular laminate . Test methods must be established to obtain these properties and to therefore understand the complete material...This is the only material in which fibers were oriented along the z-axis. This product was developed by Textile Engineering and Manufacturing and

  10. Analysis of Light Armored Vehicle Depot Level Maintenance (United States)


    5-S/Visual, TPM, VSM, flow, Kaizen, Kanban (pull), were the primary focus for thinking lean, and are all addressed here. The process of creating...The natural system shift that went along foundationally with the above tenets was the shift to more of a pull system using Kanban . The disassembly...constraints imposed by the Marine Corps supply system. Ultimately, although this pull, or Kanban , system has reduced inventory 10 in the workbays and

  11. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests. (United States)


    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Human Reliability of Armored Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-ping; CAO Wei-guo; REN Jing


    Human errors of seven types of armored equipment, which occur during the course of field test, are statistically analyzed. The human error-to-armored equipment failure ratio is obtained. The causes of human errors are analyzed. The distribution law of human errors is acquired. The ratio of human errors and human reliability index are also calculated.

  13. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading. (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D


    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  14. Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study (United States)

    Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.


    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6 , the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.

  15. Hydrodynamics Research on Amphibious Vehicle Systems:Modeling Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Nai-jun


    For completing the hydrodynamics software development and the engineering application research on the amphibious vehicle systems, hydrodynamic modeling theory of the amphibious vehicle systems is elaborated, which includes to build up the dynamic system model of amphibious vehicle motion on water, gun tracking-aiming-firing, bullet hit and armored check-target, gunner operating control, and the simulation computed model of time domain for random sea wave.

  16. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security Phase-II (SPIDERS-II) • Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) and V2G Power services 2. Tactical...Charging Stations: Coritech, Princeton Power , Eaton, and Aerovironment LAAFB* (34 vehicles)  13 Nissan LEAFs sedans (California Energy Commission...advanced vehicle systems such as e- armor, e-weapons, and advanced C4: Utilizing mixed power generation system such as solar arrays, Plug in electric

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae) (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  18. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)


    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  19. Numerical simulation of armor capability of AI2O3 and SiC armor tiles (United States)

    Rashid, T.; Aleem, M. A.; Akbar, S.; Rauf, A.; Shuaib, M.


    Alumina and Silicon Carbide armor plates have been tested numerically against 7.62x51 (mm x mm) armor piercing (AP) projectiles. A 2-D problem with axial symmetry has been designedand the simulations were carried out using commercial software ANSYS AUTODYN. Experiments were modeled for Alumina (99.5%), Alumina (99.7%) and SiC with a range of tile thicknesses (5, 10, 15 and 20 mm). The projectile was chosen as 7.62 x 51AP bullet (initial velocity 810 m/sec)with two different core materials Steel 4340 and WC, however, casing material was copper for both cores. SiC showed better defense against AP bullet as compared to Al2O3. The residual velocity and momentum of the bullet were found to decrease with increasing tile thickness. SiC tiles with thickness 15mm and 20 mm successfully sustained penetration against steel 4340 and WC core bullets, respectively. However none of the Alumina targets succeeded in stopping the bullet.

  20. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable. (United States)


    ... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the installation requirements of Section 25 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (United States)


    ... or armor ground resistance measurements shall be made on completed lengths of copper cable and wire... miles (km) of the cable or wire under test. (4)(i) The objective shield or armor ground resistance may... armor to ground resistance due to temperature. The variations can, however, be substantial for...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. (United States)


    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  3. 面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障HTPN过程建模%Modeling of Armored Equipment Autonomic Logistics HTPN Process Facing Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会奇; 陈春良; 毕占东; 刘峻岩; 张咏清


    In order to realize armored equipment autonomic logistics and advance the transformation of the armored equipment support mode, the models of the armored equipment autonomic logistic system mission faced are established. The conception model of the armored equipment autonomic logistics system is constructed applying the UML using case chart, and the process of the armored equipment autonomic logistics is analyzed, got the main activities as well as the sequence relation of the armored equipment autonomic logistics mission faced. Applying the HTPN modeling method, the logic and sequence model of the armored equipment autonomic logistics process mission faced is established. By means of calculating the input data of the model, the time indexes of the armored equipment autonomic logistics process mission faced are gained, and the analysis of the instance is given. The analysis result proves that the model could be used for the calculation of the armored vehicle driving training mission autonomic logistics process time indexes, which provides an available method for researching the armored equipment autonomic logistics process.%为实现装甲装备主动式保障、促进装甲装备保障模式转变,对面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障系统进行建模。应用UML用例图构建装甲装备主动式保障系统概念模型,分析面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障过程,得到面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障的主要活动及其时序关系;应用 HTPN 建模方法,构建面向任务的主动式保障过程逻辑时序模型,通过对模型输入数据测算,得到面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障过程时效性指标,并进行实例分析。分析结果证明:该模型能得到某型装甲车辆驾驶训练任务主动式保障过程时效性指标,为定量研究装备主动式保障提供了有效方法。

  4. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    capabilities.The structure of flexible pipes consists of several concentric layers, each with a specific purpose. The most common used flexible pipe is the type III, which contains a central component, made from an interlocking stainless steel structure that provides collapse strength. The central component...... armor layer is made from steel. However, as oil exploitation goes to deeper and deeper waters, the strength/weight ratio of steel armor become sunfavorable. In order to achieve higher tensile strength and to reduce the overall weight of the pipe, in the future, the tensile armor must be made...... of composite materials. One of the problems related to the substitution of tensile steel members is that anchoring in the metallic end fittings of the pipe is very challenging.The purpose of this thesis is to ensure the transfer of tensile loads between a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer and a metallic...

  5. Experimental Observations on Dynamic Response of Selected Transparent Armor Materials (United States)


    scanner windows (Point of Sale (POS) windows). The challenge for transpar- ent armor materials is to provide protection, some structural integrity...Detailed graphs are then created plotting crack, damage, and compression and shear stress wave velocities. Nomenclature for EOI tests Since two different

  6. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.


    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  7. River-bed armoring as a granular segregation phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Houssais, Morgane; Jerolmack, Douglas J


    Gravel-river beds typically have an "armored" layer of coarse grains on the surface, which acts to protect finer particles underneath from erosion. River bed-load transport is a kind of dense granular flow, and such flows are known to vertically segregate grains. The contribution of granular physics to river-bed armoring, however, has not been investigated. Here we examine these connections in a laboratory river with bimodal sediment size, by tracking the motion of particles from the surface to deep inside the bed, and find that armor develops by two distinct mechanisms. Bed-load transport in the near-surface layer drives rapid segregation, with a vertical advection rate proportional to the granular shear rate. Creeping grains beneath the bed-load layer give rise to slow but persistent segregation, which is diffusion dominated and insensitive to shear rate. We verify these findings with a continuum phenomenological model and discrete element method simulations. Our results suggest that river beds armor by gra...

  8. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects (United States)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.


    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  9. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities. Supplement 1 (United States)


    directed the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to initiate an examination of Zylon ®-based bullet-resistant armor1 (both new and used), to analyze...upgrade kits2 provided by manufacturers to retrofit Zylon ®- based bullet-resistant armors, and to review the existing process by which bullet-resistant...development, standards and testing, and also reviewed information about NIJ’s preliminary evaluation of Zylon ®- based armor. NIJ continues to conduct

  10. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor. (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna


    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  11. A new world find of european scale armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers, Hugh C.


    Full Text Available A group of armor scales found in New Mexico (USA is critically examined from an archeological and historical point of view. The rarity of the find and its importance are demostrated, both for the history of Spanish exploration in New Mexico and for the development of scale armor in Europe.

    Estudio crítico, desde un punto de vista histórico y arqueológico, de un grupo de placas de armadura hallados en Nuevo Méjico (USA. La rareza del hallazgo es manifiesta para la historia de las expediciones españolas en Nuevo Méjico y para la evolución de las armaduras de placas en Europa.

  12. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genesca, J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Dept. Ingenieria Metalurgica; Perez, T. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico; Lara, C. [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato (Mexico)


    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  13. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier


    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  14. Modeling of Defects in Transparent Ceramics for Improving Military Armor (United States)


    on a transparent magnesium aluminate spinel, MgAl2O4, striking-ply backed by polycarbonate. Finite element modelling is used to predict unsuccessful...edge-form-growth sapphire, magnesium aluminate spinel, aluminium oxynitride — one was selected for the current pursuit, magnesium aluminate spinel...ballistic testing to validate armor designs based on a transparent magnesium aluminate spinel, MgAl2O4, striking-ply backed by polycarbonate

  15. Development of a New Armor Steel and its Ballistic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hakan Atapek


    Full Text Available In this study, a boron added armor steel was developed according to standard rolled homogenous armor steel, MIL-A-12560, and metallographic-fractographic examinations were carried out to understand its deformation characteristics and perforation mode after interaction with a 7.62 mm armor piercing projectile. The microstructure of the developed steel was characterized by light and scanning electron microscope to evaluate its matrix after application of several heat treatments consisting of austenization, quenching and tempering. The mechanical properties of the developed steel were determined by tensile test at room temperature and notched impact test at -40 ºC. The ballistic performance of developed steel was determined by its V50 ballistic protection limit according to MIL-STD-662F standard and it was found to be higher than that of MIL-A-12560 steel. After perforation deformation induced adiabatic shear bands, that have an important role on the crack nucleation, were observed close to the penetration in the etched steel and perforation occurred by typical ductile hole enlargement with certain radial flows.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.271-277, DOI:

  16. Estimation of Peak Wave Stresses in Slender Complex Concrete Armor Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, G.L.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rhee, Joon R


    Recent methods for the structural design of concrete armor units divide the forces into static loads, impact loads, and wave or pulsating loads. Physical model technology is being developed at several laboratories to measure wave loads on model armor units. While this technology represents...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  18. Parallel genetic basis for repeated evolution of armor loss in Alaskan threespine stickleback populations. (United States)

    Cresko, William A; Amores, Angel; Wilson, Catherine; Murphy, Joy; Currey, Mark; Phillips, Patrick; Bell, Michael A; Kimmel, Charles B; Postlethwait, John H


    Most adaptation is thought to occur through the fixation of numerous alleles at many different loci. Consequently, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes is predicted to occur through different genetic mechanisms. The genetic basis of adaptation is still largely unknown, however, and it is unclear whether adaptation to new environments utilizes ubiquitous small-effect polygenic variation or large-effect alleles at a small number of loci. To address this question, we examined the genetic basis of bony armor loss in three freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that evolved from fully armored anadromous populations in the last 14,000 years. Crosses between complete-armor and low-armor populations revealed that a single Mendelian factor governed the formation of all but the most anterior lateral plates, and another independently segregating factor largely determined pelvic armor. Genetic mapping localized the Mendelian genes to different chromosomal regions, and crosses among these same three widely separated populations showed that both bony plates and pelvic armor failed to fully complement, implicating the same Mendelian armor reduction genes. Thus, rapid and repeated armor loss in Alaskan stickleback populations appears to be occurring through the fixation of large-effect variants in the same genes.

  19. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. (United States)


    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  20. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system. (United States)

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French


    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball.

  1. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics (United States)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.


    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  2. Shock tube design for high intensity blast waves for laboratory testing of armor and combat materiel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from w1 MPa to w5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods are experimentally investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral prim-ing section which supports a deflagration to detonation transition. This approach increases the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (near Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increases the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. A 103 mm driving section is used to increase peak pressure to 2.64 MPa. The third method, adding solid fuel to the driving section with the oxy-acetylene, results in a peak pressure increasing to 1.70 MPa.

  3. Shock tube design for high intensity blast waves for laboratory testing of armor and combat materiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Courtney


    Full Text Available Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ∼1 MPa to ∼5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods are experimentally investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which supports a deflagration to detonation transition. This approach increases the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (near Friedlander waveform. The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increases the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. A 103 mm driving section is used to increase peak pressure to 2.64 MPa. The third method, adding solid fuel to the driving section with the oxy-acetylene, results in a peak pressure increasing to 1.70 MPa.

  4. Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael


    Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

  5. Formation of Temperature Mode in Internal Spaces of Armored Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Dziachek


    Full Text Available An algorithm and a program  have been developed for calculation of temperature mode in a T-72 tank tower while using numerical methods. The paper reveals a satisfactory convergence of calculated and experimental data. The results pertaining to investigation of influence of various factors on the processes of temperature mode formation in the internal surfaces of the studied object are presented in the paper. The obtained results make it possible to develop technical solutions in respect of protection against condensation of water vapor on the internal surfaces of armored machinery.

  6. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.


    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  7. A Discrete Element Model of Armor Glass Fragmentation and Comminution Failure Under Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354; Sun, Xin [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354


    Because of its exceptional compressive resistance and crystal-clear appearance, lightweight glass has been traditionally used in transparent armor applications. However, due to its brittle nature, glass fails differently from ductile materials in the sense that glass fragmentation occurs instantly ahead of the projectile tip upon penetration. The effective residual strength of the armor glass then inevitably relies on the damaged glass strength within such comminuted zones with confinement from the surrounding intact materials. Physical understanding of damaged glass strength therefore becomes highly critical to the further development of armor designs. In the present study, a discrete element based modeling framework has been developed to understand and predict the evolution of compressive damages and residual strength of armor glasses. With the characteristic fragmentation and comminution failures explicitly resolved, their influences on the mechanical degradation of the loaded glass materials have been evaluated. The effects of essential loading conditions and material properties have also been investigated.

  8. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke


    the structure toe. The main goal of the present paper is to provide an estimation technique based on this physical principle to predict the deformation of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The proposed method is verified by comparison with model test data. It is found that by using the maximum wave......This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance...

  9. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.


    We present findings from an experimental study of laser-induced cavitation within a liquid drop coated with a granular material, commonly referred to as “armored droplets” or “liquid marbles.” The cavitation event follows the formation of plasma after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from the spaces between particles on the surface of the drop. These fine jets break up into droplets with a relatively narrow diameter range, on the order of 10 μm. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Ballistic Evaluation of rolled Homogeneous Steel Armor with Tungsten Carbide and Titanium Carbide Facing. (United States)


    LABORATORIES BALLISTIC EVALUATION OF ROLLED HMtOGE14EOUS STEEL ASWKR f VITH TUNGSTEN CARBIDE AND TITANIUM CARBIDE FACING (U) TECHNICAL REPORT NO. WAL...carbide steel and titanium carbide steel composite armor when attacked by cal. .40 H19B WC cores, cal. .0 AP W2 projectiles, ZOIN fragment simulating...determine the effectiveness of tungsten car- bide (WC) and titanium carbide (TIC) facing on steel armor for the defeat of steel and tungsten carbide

  11. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army (United States)


    will go in harm’s way, the Army should get in front of the certain bow wave of press reports finding fault with acquisition of these items. (Sahlin...for that specific ceramic armor panel , and is removed for temperature conditioning as necessary. (3) The process for mounting the clay form to the...are utilized with hard armor panels in lieu of tactical vests, the shoot pack should be positioned such that approximately [redacted] of shoot

  12. Dynamic Behavior and Optimization of Advanced Armor Ceramics: January-December 2012 Annual Report (United States)


    and Optimization of Advanced Armor Ceramics : January–December 2012 Annual Report edited by RA Haber Recipient Program Manager Director, Center...for Ceramic Research Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 and JW McCauley (Emeritus...Excellence Dynamic Behavior and Optimization of Advanced Armor Ceramics : January–December 2012 Annual Report edited by RA Haber Recipient

  13. Nacre-like ceramic/polymer laminated composite for use in body-armor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mica Grujicic


    Full Text Available Nacre is a biological material constituting the innermost layer of the shells of gastropods and bivalves. It consists of polygonal tablets of aragonite, tessellated to form individual layers and having the adjacent layers as well as the tablets within a layer bonded by a biopolymer. Due to its highly complex hierarchical microstructure, nacre possesses an outstanding combination of mechanical properties, the properties which are far superior to the ones that are predicted using the techniques such as the rule of mixture. In the present work, an attempt is made to model a nacre-like composite armor consisting of boron carbide (B4C tablets and polyurea tablet/tablet interfaces. The armor is next investigated with respect to impact by a solid right-circular-cylindrical rigid projectile, using a transient non-linear dynamics finite element analysis. The ballistic-impact response and the penetration resistance of the armor is then compared with that of the B4C monolithic armor having an identical areal density. Furthermore, the effect of various nacre microstructural features (e.g. surface profiling, micron-scale asperities, mineral bridges between the overlapping tablets lying in adjacent layers, and B4C nano-crystallinity on the ballistic-penetration resistance of the composite-armor is investigated in order to identify an optimal nacre-like composite-armor architecture having the largest penetration resistance. The results obtained clearly show that a nacre-like armor possesses a superior penetration resistance relative to its monolithic counterpart, and that the nacre microstructural features considered play a critical role in the armor penetration resistance.

  14. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.


    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  15. Research on Protection Capability of Flying-Whip Multifunctional Explosive Reactive Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎生; 张宝(金平); 张庆明; 刘长林


    The experimental research on protection capability of the flying-whip multifunctional explosive reactive armor (ERA) was performed, in which the comparison experiment was made on the damage effect of the flying-whip's geometrical figuration, material property and driven velocity on the long-rod armor-piercing-projectile. The moving velocity of the flying-whip driven by different explosives and the pressure attenuation law of shock wave travelling in the back plate were measured respectively with the electric probe method and the manganin piezoresistive gauge technique. The following conclusions based on a great quantity of experimental data were drawn: compared with the sandwich ERA the flying-whip multifunctional ERA has very good protection function against the long-rod armor-piercing-projectile, the shaped charge warhead and the anti-armor tandem warhead. In addition, the composite plate made of the armor-steel and rubber plate can lessen the vibration and shock of the main armor caused by the explosion of the charge.

  16. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk


    , mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications......As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...

  17. The Armys Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics, from Rep. Mike Rogers et al., April 3, 2014. 25 Tony Bertuca, “, June 27, 2014. 27 Rules Committee Print 113-58, House Amendment to the Text of S. 1847, [Showing the text of the Carl Levin and

  18. Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Training Equipment Survey for the U.S. Marine Corps LAV-25. (United States)


    unit *un dispositif de dtection des mouvements .a weapon motion sensing device de l’drme .a control unit * unbotier o cmmano .a TV monitor, used by the... fouling from the receiver. 9.2.7 Use clean, dry cloth to wipe buffer. 9.2.8 Mbve feed lever and cover labels to check spring tension. 9.2.9 Look for bent

  19. Reactive Structure and Smart Armor for Army’s Future Ground Vehicles (United States)


    For increasing the accuracy of the location detection, there are two methods can be considered. One is increase the density of the distribution of...needed to realize the objective of this aproach . It is seen that with further development of the new technology, it is possible to utilize the

  20. Vulnerability/Lethality Modeling of Armored Combat Vehicles - Status and Recommendations (United States)


    Agency Adelphi, MD 20783-1145 ATTN: OIA ( Barbara A. Kroggel) (Monica McGuinn) 1 Commander Washington, DC 20505 U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN...Roy A. Lucht, MS J960 James Ellis Group M-B Barbara J. Harris Los Alamos, NM 87545 Constance P. Rollins Tom Wasmund Director Code G13 Sandia National...and Technology Columbus, OH 43201-2693 ATTN: RADM Thomas M. Hopkins USN (Ret) 1 Bat telle 1113 Carper Street ATTN: Bernard J. Tullington McLean, VA

  1. Armored Family of Vehicles (AFV). Phase 1 Report. Book 7. Volume 11 (United States)


    Corporation , a company specializing in high-performance computer display boards and systems. Funding currently provides for the purchase of about 15,000...a-: the U.S. Army ’n.ineer School revised 5: C standards, nct necessarily as a result of this survey, but to make t.e standards more comnatible with

  2. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian. (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua


    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  3. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body. (United States)

    MacLeish, Kenneth T


    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  4. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback (United States)

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.


    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of (United States)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence


    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  6. Effect of Multi-Shot X-Ray Exposures in IFE Armor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Schmitt, R C; Bell, B K


    As part of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program the performance of tungsten as an armor material is being studied. While the armor would be exposed to neutrons, x-rays and ions within an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, the thermomechanical effects are believed to dominate. Using a pulsed x-ray source, long-term exposures of tungsten have been completed at fluences that are of interest for the IFE application. Modeling is used in conjunction with experiments on the XAPPER x-ray damage facility in an effort to recreate the effects that would be expected in an operating IFE power plant. X-ray exposures have been completed for a variety of x-ray fluences and number of shots. Analysis of the samples suggests that surface roughening has a threshold that is very close to the fluences that reproduce the peak temperatures expected in an IFE armor material.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Tungsten Alloy Rods Penetration into Alumina Ceramic/Armor Steel Composite Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-zhu; HUANG Feng-lei; ZHANG Lian-sheng


    The Johnson-Holmquist constitutive ceramic model is re-implemented into the LS-DYNA3D program to simulate the penetration of long rod projectile into ceramic/armor steel composite targets.The damage evolution,fracture propagation,and spall damage in the ceramic/armor targets is represented during the simulation procedure and the accuracy of the penetration depth comparing between the simulating and experimental results is reliable with an error less than 8%.The relationship between the mass efficiency factor.differential factor and ceramic tiles thickness is given out for the penetration results with/without a cover plate.

  8. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance.The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance.Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo and vapor permeability indexes (im were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert, hot/humid (jungle, and temperate environmental conditions.In nearly still air (0.4 m/s, IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA.Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance.

  9. Comparison of Biophysical Characteristics and Predicted Thermophysiological Responses of Three Prototype Body Armor Systems Versus Baseline U.S. Army Body Armor Systems (United States)


    4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply...Biophysical Assessments Biophysical testing was conducted using a twenty zone sweating thermal manikin ( Newton , 20 zone, Measurement...Mitchell KB. Range of Motion and Reaches of Warfighters in Body Armor. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol

  10. Electric vehicles (United States)


    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  11. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor (United States)



  12. MEMS, Nanotechnology and Spintronics for Sensor Enhanced Armor, NDE and Army Applications (United States)


    Crew Interface and Automation • Robotic Follower ATD • ARV Robotic Technologies Program SMART ARMOR Battery Pack w/ Integrated Heat Exchanger CONDITION...of MI, Prof. Wise ACTIVE STENTS : Wireless Readout of Intra-Arterial Pressure and Flow Suitable for the carotid arteries; not yet small enough for the

  13. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. (United States)


    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  14. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. (United States)


    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  15. The Application of Compulational Fluid Dynamics to Design of Vehicle Cooling Wind Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-hui


    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation model for the airflow and heat transfer in an armored vehicle cooling wind tunnel is established. A practical method to determine computation region outside power train compartment, produce grid and ensure grid quality is put forward. A commercial software FLUENT can be used to obtain solutions numerically in 3-D space. Precision of CFD calculation results is verified. The CFD model is used in designing a vehicle cooling wind tunnel, and air flow resistance of fan blast baffle is calculated. The calculated results show feasibility of the CFD model and the method.

  16. A Concurrent Product-Development Approach for Friction-Stir Welded Vehicle-Underbody Structures (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Hariharan, A.; Pandurangan, B.


    High-strength aluminum and titanium alloys with superior blast/ballistic resistance against armor piercing (AP) threats and with high vehicle light-weighing potential are being increasingly used as military-vehicle armor. Due to the complex structure of these vehicles, they are commonly constructed through joining (mainly welding) of the individual components. Unfortunately, these alloys are not very amenable to conventional fusion-based welding technologies [e.g., gas metal arc welding (GMAW)] and to obtain high-quality welds, solid-state joining technologies such as friction-stir welding (FSW) have to be employed. However, since FSW is a relatively new and fairly complex joining technology, its introduction into advanced military-vehicle-underbody structures is not straight forward and entails a comprehensive multi-prong approach which addresses concurrently and interactively all the aspects associated with the components/vehicle-underbody design, fabrication, and testing. One such approach is developed and applied in this study. The approach consists of a number of well-defined steps taking place concurrently and relies on two-way interactions between various steps. The approach is critically assessed using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

  17. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory


    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  18. A Kind of Hybrid Scheduling Algorithm for Armored Vehicles’CAN Bus%一种装甲车辆CAN总线混合调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小庆; 陈永星; 赵梓旭; 张健; 朱昀癤


    For the shortage of information transmission for integrated electronic system of current armored vehicles,such as a node message transmission is not fair and an urgent message transmission is not time-ly,a kind of hybrid scheduling algorithm of“hierarchical decision and dynamic equilibrium”is proposed in accordance with message emergency degree and deadline of a certain type of vehicle,and the bus proto-col is improved based on the principle of hierarchical processing.The algorithm is verified by experiments to be practicable and effective.%针对当前装甲车辆综合电子系统节点消息传输不公平、紧急消息传输不及时等缺点,结合某型车辆消息紧急度和截止期,按照分层处理原则对总线协议进行了改进,提出了“分级决策动态均衡”的混合调度算法,并通过试验验证了算法的可行性和有效性。

  19. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service ( before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  20. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments (United States)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.


    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  1. Histopathological evaluation of seven Amazon species of freshwater ornamental armored catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto


    Full Text Available Fish commonly known as acaris or plecos are freshwater armored catfish economically important as a food resource and as ornamental fish. Most of these species are captured in the Amazon region. However, despite its economic importance, there is a lack of knowledge about their biological aspects. Thus, this study aimed to characterize and evaluate the histopathological aspects of important organs as gills, liver, integument and kidney of seven species of armored freshwater ornamental catfish fromGuamáRiver,Pará State,Brazil. All organs showed typical characteristics of organs of other teleosts. In some species, gills and liver showed slight histopathological changes: telangiectasis, edema and morphological changes related to the presence of parasites (Monogenea and Digenea in the gills, and changes in the arrangement of hepatocytes rows, and vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver. Thus, the knowledge of the normal structure of organs and changes found can be used as tools for environmental and health monitoring of animals.

  2. Flow and Turbulence at Rubble-Mound Breakwater Armor Layers under Solitary Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu;


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the flow and turbulence at the armor layer of rubble-mound breakwaters during wave action. The study focused on the details of the flow and turbulence in the armor layer and on the effect of the porous core on flow and stability....... To isolate the processes involved with the flow in the porous core, experiments were conducted with increasing complexity. Specifically, three parallel experiments were performed including (1) an impermeable smooth breakwater slope, (2) an impermeable breakwater slope with large roughness elements added...... to the breakwater, and (3) a porous breakwater where the porous core was added below the breakwater front. One breakwater slope of 1:1.5 was applied. In this paper the focus is on the details of a single sequence of wave approach, run-up, and rundown. To isolate this sequence the experiments were performed applying...

  3. An Advanced Probabilistic Neural Network for the Design of Breakwater Armor Blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this study, an advanced probabilistic neural network (APNN) method is proposed to reflect the global probability density function (PDF) by summing up the heterogeneous local PDF which is automatically determined in the individual standard deviation of variables. The APNN is applied to predict the stability number of armor blocks of breakwaters using the experimental data of van der Meer, and the estimated results of the APNN are compared with those of an empirical formula and a previous artificial neural network (ANN) model. The APNN shows better results in predicting the stability number of armor blocks of breakwater and it provided the promising probabilistic viewpoints by using the individual standard deviation in a variable.

  4. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod. (United States)

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine


    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new analytical model was established to describe the complex behavior of ceramic/metal armor under impact of deformable projectile by assuming some hypotheses.Three aspects were taken into account: the mushrooming deformation of the projectile,the fragment of ceramic tile and the formation and change of ceramic conoid and the deformation of the metal backup plate. Solving the set of equations, all the variables were obtained for the different impact velocities: the extent and particle velocity in rigid zone; the extent, cross-section area and particle velocity in plastic zone; the velocity and depth of penetration of projectile to the target; the reduction in volume and compressive strength of the fractured ceramic conoid; the displacement and movement velocity of the effective zone of backup plate. Agreement observed among analytical result, numerical simulation and experimental result confirms the validity of the model, suggesting the model developed can be a useful tool for ceramic/metal armor design.

  6. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions (United States)


    Sheet) Continuation for Block 13 ARO Report Number Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Alumin Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2013 . Published in...nose, steel jacketed, hard tungsten core (1400 Hv), armor piercing (AP) projectile (Ref 1). As mentioned above, this failure mechanism is often...zones being impacted with blunt, lower hardness projectiles [e.g., 20-mm caliber, 53 g, blunt, chamfered right circular cylindrical steel fragment

  7. The Capabilities That Medium-Armored Forces Bring to the Full Spectrum of Operations (United States)


    fi repower required to extricate soldiers trapped in Mogadishu during a raid to capture a clan warlord. During Operation Just Cause in Panama (1989... repower , and a rapid-reaction capability that foot soldiers or truck-borne infantry do not possess. Medium-Armored Forces Have Performed Well over...ferring their greater deployability compared with heavy forces and their greater mobility and fi repower compared with light forces. In Panama, air

  8. Relationship between Ballistic Coefficient and Static Mechanical Properties for Armor Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The relationship between the ballistic coefficient and the static mechanical properties of armor materials was studied. The results show that the ballistic coefficient is determined by the strength, hardness and the toughness of materials. According to the Martel rule, the equation of the relationship between ballistic coefficient and static mechanical properties satisfies the following formula: . From the mixture law of composite, the prerequisite, for which ballistic coefficient has maximum to reinforcement volume fraction, is obtained by the following equation: .

  9. Defeat at Kasserine: American Armor Doctrine, Training, and Battle Command in Northwest Africa, World War II (United States)


    the modern Army avoid comparable mistakes in the future. 1Orr Kelly, Meeting the Fox (New York, NY: John ...was joined. The battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel John K. Waters, ordered a tank destroyer section forward to attack the 11 approaching the enemy of change.1 Edward L. Katzenbach Jr. The 1st Armored Division was activated on 15 July 1940 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky. It was the first of

  10. An Overview of CNT-Kevlar Nanocomposites in the Application of Body Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The superlative mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been considered to be one of the most researched materials of the 21st century. In this paper, carbon nanotubes reinforced Kevlar composite and its application in personal armor has been analyzed as well as the processing cost being evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanocomposite for the application were shortlisted. Current and future developmental trends for this application were discussed.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Material to Reduce Crazing in Transparent Armor (United States)



  12. Research of the Effects of Integration into Armor on the Performanec of Spintronic Microwave Detectors (United States)


    PERFORMANCE OF SPINTRONIC MICROWAVE DETECTORS Elena Bankowski, PhD E-mail: Thomas Meitzler, PhD Tomas Pesys TARDEC...prototypes of novel nano-sized spintronic sensors of microwave radiation for battlefield anti-radar and wireless communications applications are...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Research of the Effects of Integration into Armor on the Performanec of Spintronic Microwave Detectors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  13. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor (United States)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.


    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  14. Cratering experiments on the self armoring of coarse-grained granular targets (United States)

    Güttler, C.; Hirata, N.; Nakamura, A. M.


    Recently published crater statistics on the small Asteroids 25143 Itokawa and 433 Eros show a significant depletion of craters below approx. 100 m in diameter. Possible mechanisms that were brought up to explain this lack of craters were seismic crater erasure and self armoring of a coarse, boulder covered asteroid surface. While seismic shaking has been studied in this context, the concept of armoring lacks a deeper inspection and an experimental ground truth. We therefore present cratering experiments of glass bead projectiles impacting into granular glass bead targets, where the grain sizes of projectile and target are in a similar range. The impact velocities are in the range of 200-300 m s-1. We find that craters become fainter and irregular shaped as soon as the target grains are larger than the projectile sizes and that granular craters rarely form when the size ratio between projectile and target grain is around 1:10 or smaller. In that case, we observe a formation of a strength determined crater in the first struck target grain instead. We present a simple model based on the transfer of momentum from the projectile to this first target grain, which is capable to explain our results with only a single free parameter, which is moreover well determined by previous experiments. Based on estimates of typical projectile size and boulder size on Itokawa and Eros, given that our results are representative also for km s-1 impact velocities, armoring should play an important role for their evolution.

  15. Ballistic Studies on TiB2-Ti Functionally Graded Armor Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the results of the ballistic testing of the spark plasma sintered TiB2-Ti based functionally graded materials (FGMs with an aim to assess their performance in defeating small-calibre armor piercing projectiles. We studied the efficacy of FGM design and compared its ballistic properties with those of TiB2-based composites as well as other competing ceramic armors. The ballistic properties are critically analyzed in terms of depth of penetration, ballistic efficiency, fractographs of fractured surfaces as well as quantification of the shattered ceramic fragments. It was found that all the investigated ceramic compositions exhibit ballistic efficiency (η of 5.1 -5.9. We also found that by increasing the thickness of FGM from 5mm to 7.8 mm, the ballistic property of the composite degraded. On comparing the results with available armor systems, it has been concluded that TiB2 based composites show better ballistic properties except B4C. SEM analysis of the fragments showed that the FGM fractured by mixed mode of failure.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(6, pp.382-389, DOI:

  16. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado. (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard


    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  17. A study on the nondestructive test optimum design for a ground tracked combat vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Byeong Ho; Seo, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyeon Jun [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hyeong [Hanwha Techwin Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sang Chul [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, a nondestructive test (NDT) is performed to inspect the optimal design of a ground tracked combat vehicle for self-propelled artillery, tank, and armored vehicles. The minimum qualification required for personnel performing the NDT of a ground tracked combat vehicle was initially established in US military standards, and then applied to the Korean defense specifications to develop a ground tracked combat vehicle. However, the qualification standards of an NDT inspector have been integrated into NAS410 through the military and commercial specifications unification project that were applied in the existing aerospace/defense industry public standard. The design method for this study was verified by applying the optimal design to the liquid penetrant testing Al forging used in self-propelled artillery. This confirmed the reliability and soundness of the product.

  18. Armor: An {alpha}{beta}{gamma} assembly for irradiated fuel analysis; Armor: Chaine {alpha}{beta}{gamma} pour l'analyse des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraud, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The assembly ARMOR which was built with a view to carrying out research on irradiated fuels consists of an {alpha}{beta}{gamma} enclosure made up of 11 cells in line. After a general description of the assembly in its present form, the various functions are reviewed: introduction of the samples, chemical de-canning, dissolution of the irradiated uranium pellets, preparation of solutions for mass spectrometric analyses, disposal of the effluents and of the solid waste. The assembly-has been working since 1961. During the 5 to 6 years operation, various improvements have been made and a certain number of observations have been collected concerning the work. (author) [French] Construite en vue de repondre a un programme d'etudes de combustibles Irradies, la chaine Armor est une enceinte {alpha}{beta}{gamma} composee de 11 cellules en ligne. Apres une description generale de la chaine dans son etat actuel, les differentes fonctions sont passees en revue: entree des echantillons, degainage chimique, dissolution des pastilles d'uranium irradie, preparation des solutions pour les analyses par spectrometrie de masse, rejet des effluents et des dechets solides. La chaine est en service depuis 1961. Au cours des cinq a six annees d'exploitation, differentes ameliorations ont ete apportees et un ensemble d'observations sur le travail a ete recueilli. (auteur)

  19. The turbulent structures around clusters formed under a range of armoring shear stresses and grain size distributions (United States)

    Curran, J. C.; Tan, L.


    In gravel bed rivers, low flows generate shear stresses less than what is needed to entrain the largest particles but large enough to transport the fines. During sustained low flows, fine sediment winnows from the bed surface and an armored surface layer forms. As the surface armor forms, a surface structure develops that increases bed roughness and flow resistance and can be characterized by the presence of clusters. Individual clusters are known to exert a significant influence over the spatial and temporal flow processes acting in the vicinity of the bed. A series of flume experiments investigated the turbulent structures formed around clusters naturally developed during bed armoring. The series of experiments created armored beds using four different flow rates and four different bulk grain size distributions which progressively increased in the percent sand in the bed sediment. Following an initial run segment that established equilibrium sediment transport and full bed mobility, the flow rate in the flume was reduced and the bed surface fully armored. Once armored, clusters were identified using a combination of bed DEM, vertical profile, and visual analysis. Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were measured around the clusters using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, and these values were used to calculate Reynolds shear stresses, turbulence intensities, and turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. Results show a significant change in the flow profiles over a cluster when compared to an open area of the armored bed. Reynolds shear stresses doubled over the cluster and turbulence intensity reached a peak value right above the single cluster. The results also suggest the effects of the single cluster on the surrounding flow dynamics are quite localized and limited to 30cm in lateral orientation. Quadrant analysis showing large ejection and sweep events around clusters indicates vortex formation at the cluster crest. The magnitude of the coherent

  20. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  1. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee


    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  2. Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase processing (United States)

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.; Blue, Craig A.


    Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) were coated on silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a refractory armor using a high power plasma arc lamp at powers up to 23.5 MW/m 2 in an argon flow environment. Both tungsten powder and molybdenum powder melted and formed coating layers on silicon carbide within a few seconds. The effect of substrate pre-treatment (vapor deposition of titanium (Ti) and tungsten, and annealing) and sample heating conditions on microstructure of the coating and coating/substrate interface were investigated. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical properties of the coated materials were evaluated by four-point flexural tests. A strong tungsten coating was successfully applied to the silicon carbide substrate. Tungsten vapor deposition and pre-heating at 5.2 MW/m 2 made for a refractory layer containing no cracks propagating into the silicon carbide substrate. The tungsten coating was formed without the thick reaction layer. For this study, small tungsten carbide grains were observed adjacent to the interface in all conditions. In addition, relatively large, widely scattered tungsten carbide grains and a eutectic structure of tungsten and silicon were observed through the thickness in the coatings formed at lower powers and longer heating times. The strength of the silicon carbide substrate was somewhat decreased as a result of the processing. Vapor deposition of tungsten prior to powder coating helped prevent this degradation. In contrast, molybdenum coating was more challenging than tungsten coating due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch as compared to tungsten and silicon carbide. From this work it is concluded that refractory armoring of silicon carbide by Infrared Transient Liquid Phase Processing is possible. The tungsten armored silicon carbide samples proved uniform, strong, and capable of withstanding thermal fatigue testing.

  3. Origin of the 44-mm Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma Standard (United States)


    relate it to tissue damage. Gelatin blocks, 20 % ballistic gelatin , were used in the study to determine the loading rate (impulse) of deformation using...Deformation of the gelatin was mea- sured frame-by-frame with a focus on the depth and diameter of deformation. It was determined by Metker et al that BFS...appli- cation , the model also provided the ability to compare previous blunt-trauma data to the body-armor work that was going on at the time. 14•15•23

  4. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-jin; LIU Hua; WU Wei; ZHANG Jiu-shan


    A new mathematical model for the overtopping against seawalls armored with artificial units in regular waves was established. The 2-D numerical wave flume, based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the standard k-ε turbulence model, was developed to simulate the turbulent flows with the free surface, in which the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used to handle the large deformation of the free surface and the relaxation approach of combined wave generation and absorbing was implemented. In order to consider the effects of energy dissipation due to the armors on a slope seawall, a porous media model was proposed and implemented in the numerical wave flume. A series of physical model experiments were carried out in the same condition of the numerical simulation to determine the drag coefficient in the porous media model in terms of the overtopping discharge. Compared the computational value of overtopping over the seawall with the experimental data, the values of the effective drag coefficient was calibrated for the layers of blocks at different locations along the seawalls.

  6. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.


    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  7. Cratering Experiments on the Self Armoring of Coarse-Grained Granular Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Güttler, Carsten; Nakamura, Akiko M


    Recently published crater statistics on the small asteroids 25143 Itokawa and 433 Eros show a significant depletion of craters below approx. 100 m in diameter. Possible mechanisms that were brought up to explain this lack of craters were seismic crater erasure and self armoring of a coarse, boulder covered asteroid surface. While seismic shaking has been studied in this context, the concept of armoring lacks a deeper inspection and an experimental ground truth. We therefore present cratering experiments of glass bead projectiles impacting into granular glass bead targets, where the grain sizes of projectile and target are in a similar range. The impact velocities are in the range of 200 to 300 m/s. We find that craters become fainter and irregular shaped as soon as the target grains are larger than the projectile sizes and that granular craters rarely form when the size ratio between projectile and target grain is around 1:10 or smaller. In that case, we observe a formation of a strength determined crater in ...

  8. 3D CFD Modeling of Local Scouring, Bed Armoring and Sediment Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely T. Török


    Full Text Available 3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used empirical models is, however, often limited in terms of hydraulic and sedimentological features and therefore the numerical model can hardly be applied to complex situations where different kinds of morphological processes take place at the same time, such as local scouring, bed armoring and aggradation of finer particles. As a possible solution method for this issue, we present the combined application of two bedload transport formulas that widens the application range and thus gives more appropriate simulation results. An example of this technique is presented in the paper by combining two bedload transport formulas. For model validation, the results of a laboratory experiment, where bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition processes occurred, were used. The results showed that the combined application method can improve the reliability of the numerical simulations.

  9. Enhancement in ballistic performance of composite hard armor through carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibson


    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes in composite hard armor is discussed in this study. The processing techniques to make various armor composite panels consisting of Kevlar®29 woven fabric in an epoxy matrix and the subsequent V50 test results for both 44 caliber soft-point rounds and 30 caliber FSP (fragment simulated projectile threats are presented. A 6.5% improvement in the V50 test results was found for a combination of 1.65 wt% loading of carbon nanotubes and 1.65 wt% loading of milled fibers. The failure mechanism of carbon nanotubes during the ballistic event is discussed through scanning electron microscope images of the panels after the failure. Raman Spectroscopy was also utilized to evaluate the residual strain in the Kevlar®29 fibers post shoot. The Raman Spectroscopy shows a Raman shift of 25 cm−1 for the Kevlar®29 fiber utilized in the composite panel that had an enhancement in the V50 performance by using milled fiber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Evaluating both scenarios where an improvement was made and other panels without any improvement allows for understanding of how loading levels and synergistic effects between carbon nanotubes and milled fibers can further enhance ballistic performance.

  10. Medical Evaluation of Nonfragment Injury Effects in Armored Vehicle Live Fire Tests: Instrumentation Requirements and Injury Criteria (United States)


    Effects. In: Handbook of Human Vulnerability Criterion. Edgewood Arsenal Special Publication EB-SP-76011-7, May 1976. 35. Knox FS. Mathematical Models... Handbook Supplement HSJ885 APR80, 1900 Edition Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA 69. Mertz HJ. Injury Assessment Values Used to Evaluate...these matters. Mati::lers of the cx:mnittee in:::hrled Drs. Jdln D:lull, Arthur Dlbois arrl Gareth Green. ’Ihe ad hQ;;: cxmnittee foond the draft

  11. Development of a Blast Event Simulation Process for Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Armor for Light Weight Vehicles (PREPRINT) (United States)


    the constitutive micro-level like fiber failures, matrix damage , inelasticity, interfacial debonding to the global structural response level. The MAC...micromechanical analysis establishes the overall elastoplastic behavior of the multiphase inelastic composite. This is expressed as an effective elastic-plastic...fiber failures, matrix damage , interfacial debonding, throughout the structural response. This fully coupled multi-scale simulation frame will be

  12. Effects of Cold Weather upon Armored Combat Vehicles during the First Winter Campaign, Eastern Front, World War II (United States)


    German "Army Group". The Northwest Front was commanded by Field Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, the Western Front by Marshal Semen Timoshenko, and the...Southwest Front by Marshal Semen Budenny. E:ach front included two or more armies; the dispositon of armies and divisions within the fronts varied...tarpaulin firstly because the heavy material acted as a windshield and secondly, because we had to hide the light from the .ittle Russian Rata aircraft which

  13. Weldability of 2219-T851 and 2519-T87 Aluminum Armor Alloys for Use in Army Vehicle Systems (United States)


    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Thomas D. Wolfe and Steven A. Gedeon S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION N•AME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM FLEMENT PROJECT. TASK AREA ...the desired configur- ation and then impacting the welded area (direct hit on the weld for flat plates, and 2 inches from the weld for a corner joint...whereas in the 7XXX series the copper remains in a relatively uniform distribucion . Also, no discrete particles of Al-Zn-Mg are found in 7XXX series

  14. Research on Welding Processes of Armor Steels%装甲钢焊接技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭俊; 张勇


    装甲钢是一种用于作战装备的保护性合金材料,装甲钢的焊接是装甲钢结构的主要连接方式.从装甲钢的裂纹类别、特点以及其形成原因出发,介绍了装甲钢焊接材料、焊接工艺和提高焊接接头性能的措施.主要包括奥氏体焊条、铁素体焊条及奥氏体/铁素体双向焊条;电弧焊、CO2气体保护焊、熔化极气体保护焊、修复装甲钢裂纹的铝热焊、机器人焊,激光焊等焊接工艺;焊后热处理、超声波冲击法、焊趾砂轮打磨法与钨极电弧焊法.并在装甲钢焊接技术研究现状分析的基础上,提出装甲钢焊接技术今后的改进措施与发展方向.%The armor steel is a kind of protective alloy material which is used in a variety of combat equipment. The welding is a main joining method of armor steel structure. On the base of crack category, characteristics and formation causes of armor steel, the welding materials and welding processes of armor steel, and the measures taken to improve the properties of welded joint were introduced. Those include austenite welding electrode, ferrite and austenite/ferrite dual phase welding electrodes, the processes of arc welding, CO2 gas protection welding and thermit welding of armor steel crack repairing, and the measures taken to improve the properties of the welded joint of heat treatment after welding, ultrasonic impact, toe grinding and tungsten arc welding. The improving measures and development direction of armor steel welding were put forward by analyzing the armor steel welding processes.

  15. Vehicle Development Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  16. Vehicle Development Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  17. Armored brain in patients with hydrocephalus after shunt surgery: review of the literatures. (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M


    Armored brain or chronic calcified subdural hematoma is a rare complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion with few cases reported in the literature. Seventeen patients with this pathology have been published. A complete review of the literatures regarding this topic has been collected and discussed. The author also presents a 12- year old boy with triventricular hydrocephalus who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal medium pressure shunt system since birth. The patient presented to our clinic with a 2-year history of seizures. The patient was conscious and without neurological deficits on examination. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral high density mass with surface calcification. X ray skull and MRI confirmed the calcified subdural hematoma bilaterally. We preferred conservative treatment and the patient continued his antiepileptic treatment. At one year follow up, the patient had the same neurological state. The case highlights the importance of frequent follow up CT brain after shunt surgery.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang


    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes.

  19. Numerical simulation of high-speed penetration-perforation dynamics in layered armor shields

    CERN Document Server

    Ayzenberg-Stepanenko, Mark


    Penetration models and calculating algorithms are presented, describing the dynamics and fracture of composite armor shields penetrated by high-speed small arms. A shield considered consists of hard (metal or ceramic) facing and multilayered fabric backing. A simple formula is proved for the projectile residual velocity after perforation of a thin facing. A new plastic-flow jet model is proposed for calculating penetration dynamics in the case of a thick facing of ceramic or metal-ceramic FGM materials. By bringing together the developed models into a calculating algorithm, a computer tool is designed enabling simulations of penetration processes in the above-mentioned shields and analysis of optimization problems. Some results of computer simulation are presented. It is revealed in particular that strength proof of pliable backing can be better as compared with more rigid backing. Comparison of calculations and test data shows sufficient applicability of the models and the tool.

  20. DNA barcodes for two scale insect families, mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). (United States)

    Park, D-S; Suh, S-J; Hebert, P D N; Oh, H-W; Hong, K-J


    Although DNA barcode coverage has grown rapidly for many insect orders, there are some groups, such as scale insects, where sequence recovery has been difficult. However, using a recently developed primer set, we recovered barcode records from 373 specimens, providing coverage for 75 species from 31 genera in two families. Overall success was >90% for mealybugs and >80% for armored scale species. The G·C content was very low in most species, averaging just 16.3%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 10.7%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.97%. However, the latter value was inflated by high intra-specific divergence in nine taxa, cases that may indicate species overlooked by current taxonomic treatments. Our study establishes the feasibility of developing a comprehensive barcode library for scale insects and indicates that its construction will both create an effective system for identifying scale insects and reveal taxonomic situations worthy of deeper analysis.

  1. Finite Element Modeling of the Behavior of Armor Materials Under High Strain Rates and Large Strains (United States)

    Polyzois, Ioannis

    For years high strength steels and alloys have been widely used by the military for making armor plates. Advances in technology have led to the development of materials with improved resistance to penetration and deformation. Until recently, the behavior of these materials under high strain rates and large strains has been primarily based on laboratory testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. With the advent of sophisticated computer programs, computer modeling and finite element simulations are being developed to predict the deformation behavior of these metals for a variety of conditions similar to those experienced during combat. In the present investigation, a modified direct impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus was modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS 6.8 for the purpose of simulating high strain rate compression of specimens of three armor materials: maraging steel 300, high hardness armor (HHA), and aluminum alloy 5083. These armor materials, provided by the Canadian Department of National Defence, were tested at the University of Manitoba by others. In this study, the empirical Johnson-Cook visco-plastic and damage models were used to simulate the deformation behavior obtained experimentally. A series of stress-time plots at various projectile impact momenta were produced and verified by comparison with experimental data. The impact momentum parameter was chosen rather than projectile velocity to normalize the initial conditions for each simulation. Phenomena such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands caused by deformation at high strains and strain rates were investigated through simulations. It was found that the Johnson-Cook model can accurately simulate the behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals such as steels. The maximum shear stress was calculated for each simulation at various impact momenta. The finite element model showed that shear failure first occurred in the center of the cylindrical specimen and

  2. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  3. 基于预防性维修的车辆调度优化仿真研究%Research on Optimization of Vehicle Scheduling Simulation Based on Preventive Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕占东; 张磊; 刘义乐; 张建; 王兴野


    以装甲车辆调度优化为研究目标,通过分析我军现行预防性维修制度的规律、种类和维修规划,采用离散型建模技术构建了基于预防性维修的装甲车辆调度模型,并结合典型案例应用Anylogic仿真软件对装甲车辆合理调度进行优化研究,为部队装甲车辆使用合理规划提供了参考依据。%The paper aimed at researching the optimization of armored vehicle scheduling. Through analyzing the current law,types and maintenance plan of the preventive maintenance system,the paper used discrete modeling technology to establish an armored vehicle scheduling model based on preventive maintenance. And combined with a typical case,the paper used simulation software named Anylogic to optimize the scheduling of armored vehicles,which provides references for our army to use military equipment more reasonably.

  4. A Preliminary Report on the Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Weld Joint Between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness Steel Armor (United States)


    bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness steel armor. ABSTRACT One half inch thick plates of 6061-T6 aluminum...alloy and High Hardness steel armor (MIL- STD-46100) were successfully joined by the friction stir welding (FSW) process using a tungsten-rhenium...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A preliminary report on the strength and metallography of a bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL

  5. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL


    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  6. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier


    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  7. The Examination of the Aluminum Alloy 7017 as a Replacement for the Aluminum Alloy 7039 in Lightweight Armor Systems (United States)


    any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tyrone L Jones and Brian E Placzankis 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ABSTRACT The aluminum alloy (AA) 7039 has been recognized as a serviceable armor plate alloy for years. However, the inherent stress corrosion

  8. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation (United States)


    P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process Modeling; Ballistic Limit; Welded All-metal Armor REPORT...THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Clemson University 300 Brackett Hall Box 345702 Clemson, SC 29634 -5702 ABSTRACT Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc ...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the conventional Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) joining process was

  9. High levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding USDA-APHIS' phytosanitary risk assessment. (United States)

    Morse, J G; Rugman-Jones, P F; Watson, G W; Robinson, L J; Bi, J L; Stouthamer, R


    Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be present in California were detected on 'Hass' avocados entering the state from Mexico. Initially, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) prevented avocados infested with these scales from entering the state or required that they be fumigated with an approved treatment such as methyl bromide. After a Science Advisory Panel meeting in May 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) reaffirmed its position that armored scales on shipments of fruit for consumption (including avocados) pose a "low risk" for pest establishment. In compliance with APHIS protocols, as of 18 July 2007, CDFA altered its policy to allow shipments of scale-infested avocados into the state without treatment. Here, we report on sampling Mexican avocados over an 8-mo period, September 2007-April 2008. An estimated 67 million Mexican Hass avocados entered California over this period. Based on samples from 140 trucks containing approximately 15.6% of this volume of fruit, we estimate that approximately 47.6 million live, sessile armored scales and an additional 20.1 million live eggs and crawlers were imported. We found eight probable species of armored scales in the samples, seven of these are not believed to occur in California; 89.3% of the live scales were Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson and Miller, a recently described species. In contrast to the USDA-APHIS opinion, we believe the volume of shipments and levels of live scales they contain present a significant risk to California's US$300 million avocado industry and to other crops that might become infested by one or more of

  10. Bone histology sheds light on the nature of the "dermal armor" of the enigmatic sauropod dinosaur Agustinia ligabuei Bonaparte, 1999 (United States)

    Bellardini, Flavio; Cerda, Ignacio A.


    Agustinia ligabuei is an Early Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur from the northwest of Patagonia that is currently the topic of debate with respect to its phylogenetic position and atypical dermal armor. The presence of four morphotypes of laminar and transversely elongated putative osteoderms was used to consider Agustinia as an armored sauropod. Regarding the different hypotheses about the identity of the bony structures of Agustinia (e.g., osteoderms, cervical or dorsal ribs, hypertrophied elements), a comparative histological analysis has been carried out. Histological evidence is presented herein and reveals that none of the morphotypes of Agustinia shows a primary bone tissue formed by structural fiber bundles as in other sauropod dinosaur osteoderms. Furthermore, on the basis of their gross morphology and microstructure, the bony structures originally classified as types 1 + 4 and 3 are more comparable respectively with dorsal and cervical ribs than any other kind of dermal or bony element. Due to poor preservation, the nature of the type 2 cannot be assessed but is here tentatively assigned to a pelvic girdle element. Although a phylogenetic reassessment of Agustinia is not the purpose of this paper, our paleohistological analyses have broader implications: by not supporting the dermal armor hypothesis for Agustinia, its inclusion in Lithostrotia is not justified in the absence of other diagnostic features.

  11. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure. (United States)

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G


    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer.

  12. Combat body armor and injuries to the head, face, and neck region: a systematic review. (United States)

    Tong, Darryl; Beirne, Ross


    There has been a reported increase in combat-related head, face, and neck (HFN) injuries among service personnel wearing combat body armor (CBA) that have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Modern ceramic plate CBA has decreased the incidence of fatal-penetrating injuries to the torso but offers no protection to the limbs and face which remain exposed to gunshot wounds and fragments from explosive devices. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize the literature reporting on HFN injuries sustained by combat personnel wearing CBA and to highlight recommendations for increased protection to the facial region. Three major contributing factors were identified with this proportional increase in HFN injuries, namely the increased survivability of soldiers because of CBA, fragments injuries from explosive devices, and the lack of protection to the face and limbs. There appears to be no evidence to suggest that by virtue of wearing CBA the likelihood of sustaining an HFN injury increases as such, but a higher incidence of fragment injuries to the HFN region may be due to the more common use of improvised explosive devicess and other explosive devices. Further development of lightweight protection for the face is needed.

  13. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling


    Grahn, Pia


    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  14. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.


    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set, ha

  15. Electric vehicles: Driving range (United States)

    Kempton, Willett


    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  16. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Yingqi, Liu; Kokko, Ari


    in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... government`s leading role, improving low-awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles and focusing on user requirements....

  17. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.


    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  18. Electric Vehicle Technician (United States)

    Moore, Pam


    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  19. 贵金属铠装热电偶的发展及应用%The Development and Application of Armored Thermocouple of Precious Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健康; 刘毅; 李伟; 虞坤; 许昆; 罗锡明


    贵金属铠装热电偶具有特殊的结构和特性,对套管、偶丝、绝缘材料进行了介绍,列出了贵金属铠装热电偶相关标准,并介绍了其应用领域。对贵金属铠装热电偶的发展方向进行了展望。%The armored thermocouple of precious metals have special structures and properties. The thermowell, thermocouple wires, insulation material were introduced, the standards were listed and the applications of armored thermocouple of precious metals were described. Lastly, the development trends of armored thermocouple of precious metals were proposed.

  20. Neural network modeling to evaluate the dynamic flow stress of high strength armor steels under high strain rate compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravindranadh BOBBILI; V. MADHU; A.K. GOGIA


    An artificial neural network (ANN) constitutive model is developed for high strength armor steel tempered at 500 ?C, 600 ?C and 650 ?C based on high strain rate data generated from split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. A new neural network configuration consisting of both training and validation is effectively employed to predict flow stress. Tempering temperature, strain rate and strain are considered as inputs, whereas flow stress is taken as output of the neural network. A comparative study on JohnsoneCook (JeC) model and neural network model is performed. It was observed that the developed neural network model could predict flow stress under various strain rates and tempering temperatures. The experimental stressestrain data obtained from high strain rate compression tests using SHPB, over a range of tempering temperatures (500e650 ?C), strains (0.05e0.2) and strain rates (1000e5500/s) are employed to formulate JeC model to predict the high strain rate deformation behavior of high strength armor steels. The J-C model and the back-propagation ANN model were developed to predict the high strain rate deformation behavior of high strength armor steel and their predictability is evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). R and AARE for the JeC model are found to be 0.7461 and 27.624%, respectively, while R and AARE for the ANN model are 0.9995 and 2.58%, respectively. It was observed that the predictions by ANN model are in consistence with the experimental data for all tempering temperatures.

  1. Dose rate effect on internal friction and structural transformations in electron-irradiated carbon-armored composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaikin, Yu.A. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail:; Aimuratov, D.B. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Sheikhly, M. [University of Maryland, College Park (United States)


    Temperature dependence of internal friction and specific electric resistance of multi-layer carbon-armored epoxy-based composites is experimentally studied in the temperature range of 20-300 deg. C before and after irradiation with 2 MeV electrons. It is shown that carbon penetration into the polymer matrix causes intense polymer cross-linking in the basic layers of the composite even at low irradiation doses. The strong effect of dose rate on radiation-induced structural transformations was observed.

  2. History of the Subcommittee on Welding of Armor Ferrous Metallurgical Advisory Board Ordnance Department U.S. Army (United States)


    have t o m k e too many X- reye aud mg~dXuxinga.~’ The empha~,ia on prodwtion of armor welaments was indicated b1. Bit#ie: "I am sure we &n’t...and ather factors which might enter into the picture. T h a t may have t o depend on a particular declsion in each case." Testa of butt welds in 1...nddi t ion al l testa hnd t o be wit- nessed by an Ordnance inspector and arrangcmente mndo through the o r d n ~ ~ l c c District Offico for

  3. Development of a Meso-Scale Material Model for Ballistic Fabric and Its Use in Flexible-Armor Protection Systems (United States)


    these analyses are those carried out by Kawabata et al. (Ref 15-17) who introduced simple analytical models to capture the uniaxial, biaxial, and shear...Performance of Soft Body Armor, Composites B, 2008, 39, p 476–489 15. S. Kawabata , M. Niwa, and H. Kawai, The Finite-deformation Theory of Plain-weave...Fabrics Part I: The Biaxial-deformation Theory, J. Text. Inst., 1973, 64, p 21–46 16. S. Kawabata , M. Niwa, and H. Kawai, The Finite-deformation Theory of

  4. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety (United States)


    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  5. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics (United States)


    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  6. Ground Vehicle Robotics (United States)


    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  7. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System



    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  8. Investigation of Diesel Fuel Fire Vulnerability Parameters in Armored Personnel Carriers due to Ballistic Penetration (United States)



  9. Whither electric vehicles?


    Shukla, AK


    In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) were poised to become the prime movers of the twentieth century.

  10. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, William G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.


    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can determi

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  12. Motor Vehicle Safety (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  13. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić


    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  14. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.


    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  15. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven


    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  16. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2


    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  17. Armored scale insect endosymbiont diversity at the species level: genealogical patterns of Uzinura diasipipdicola in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). (United States)

    Andersen, J C; Gwiazdowski, R A; Gdanetz, K; Gruwell, M E


    Armored scale insects and their primary bacterial endosymbionts show nearly identical patterns of co-diversification when viewed at the family level, though the persistence of these patterns at the species level has not been explored in this group. Therefore we investigated genealogical patterns of co-diversification near the species level between the primary endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola and its hosts in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex. To do this we generated DNA sequence data from three endosymbiont loci (rspB, GroEL, and 16S) and analyzed each locus independently using statistical parsimony network analyses and as a concatenated dataset using Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions. We found that for two endosymbiont loci, 16S and GroEL, sequences from U. diaspidicola were broadly associated with host species designations, while for rspB this pattern was less clear as C. heterophyllae (species S1) shared haplotypes with several other Chionaspis species. We then compared the topological congruence of the phylogenetic reconstructions generated from a concatenated dataset of endosymbiont loci (including all three loci, above) to that from a concatenated dataset of armored scale hosts, using published data from two nuclear loci (28S and EF1α) and one mitochondrial locus (COI-COII) from the armored scale hosts. We calculated whether the two topologies were congruent using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. We found no significant differences (P = 0.4892) between the topologies suggesting that, at least at this level of resolution, co-diversification of U. diaspidicola with its armored scale hosts also occurs near the species level. This is the first such study of co-speciation at the species level between U. diaspidicola and a group of armored scale insects.

  18. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  19. 谐振致装甲步兵椎间盘源性下腰痛的调查与分析%The epidemiological investigation and analysis of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain caused by syntony in armored infantry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维高; 黄昌林


    Objective To investigate the incidence of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain caused by long-last syntony situation among armored infantry and the improvement of low back muscle after relative strength exercise. Methods With the forms and the diagnostic standard of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain , authors conducted a investigation of 402 armored infantry in long-last syntony situation and compared the incidence of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain and the degree of pain. By teaching relative strength exercise of low back muscle,authors expected to improve the severity of their low back pain. Results There were 37 cases of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain patients among the 402 armored infantry accounted for 9.2%. Among them,27 were the staff working on vehicles with accounted for 73.0% and 10 were the carried passengers with accounted for 27.0%. And there was significant difference between both (P0.05).Ⅰ度疼痛共发生25例,Ⅱ度疼痛发生12例,Ⅰ度疼痛明显高于Ⅱ度疼痛(P<0.05).通过8周的腰背肌锻炼后,载员的有效率明显高于乘员(P<0.05);锻炼前与锻炼后比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 某部装甲步兵椎间盘源性下腰痛发生率较高,乘员发生率高于载员,≥2年军龄发生率最高,疼痛程度多为Ⅰ、Ⅱ度,通过适当的腰背肌相对肌力训练,对Ⅰ、Ⅱ度疼痛的缓解有效,可作为治疗并预防Ⅰ、Ⅱ度椎间盘源性下腰痛患者的常规措施.

  20. The epidemiological investigation and analysis of bone-derived low back pain in armored infantry%装甲步兵骨关节源性下腰痛调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宪卫; 黄昌林


    analysis on bone-derived low back pain of armored infantry based on the diagnostic criteria provided by the military servicemen diagnostic criteria and principles of prevention and control (WSB38-2001). Results Of all 402 armored infantry,113 participants had low back pain,accounted for 28.11%. Among the armored infantry bothered by low back pain,24 were bothered by bone-derived low back pain,accounted for 5.97% of all participants and 21.24% of all participants with low back pain. The bone-derived low back pain incidence in 2-years-after-enrolled-into-army group was 10.93%,which was much higher than 1-year with 5.19% and 1-2-years group with 4.76%(P<0.05). Of 24 soldiers with bone-derived low back pain,17 were staff working on vehicles accounted for 70.83% while 7 were the carried soldiers accounted for 29.17%. Obviously ,the staff working on vehicles had higher incidence than the carried soldiers (P<0.05). Of 24 cases with bone-derived low back pain,who with Ⅰdegree of pain were higher patient(3.98%),significantly higher than Ⅱ degree(1.49%)(P<0.05). The incidence ofⅢ degree pain was extremely low,only accounted for 0.50%. There was significant difference among three groups (P<0.05). In addition,Authors taught the soldiers relative strength exercise of low back muscle and not only there was no new soldiers with low back pain emerging ,but also 7 soldiers with low back pain was in relief. Conclusions Low back pain has a high incidence in armored infantry. Bone-derived back pain could not be ignored. The years enrolled into army mainly focused on 2 or more years. And the incidence of staff working on vehicles is significantly higher than that of carried soldiers. The relative muscle strength exercise is very effective for prevention and treatment of bone-derived low back pain. So it should be better to enhance the relative strength exercise of low back muscle for reducing bone-derived low back pain.

  1. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems


    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri


    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  2. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B


    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  3. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu


    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  4. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.


    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  5. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C


    A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  6. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto


    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  7. Cracking behavior of tungsten armor under ELM-like thermal shockloads II: A revised prediction for crack appearance map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyuan Li


    Full Text Available In this work, the surface cracking features of tungsten armor under thermal shock loads by edge-localized mode (ELM were investigated by means of computational fracture mechanics analysis. For the simulation it was assumed that a small crack was initiated at low temperature after the shut-off of thermal load in contrast to the previous studies where the presence of a crack before thermal loading was assumed. The threshold power density for surface cracking was predicted to range between 0.3 and 0.6GW/m2 while the threshold of base temperature lay between 200 and 400°C. The theoretically predicted damage map agreed well with the experimental data from electron beam irradiation tests. The current simulation model turned out to match better to the real experimental observation than the previous predictions where the threshold base temperature lies roughly between 400 and 600°C.

  8. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.


    In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process was introduced. The model is of a modular type and comprises five modules, each designed to handle a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: (i) electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; (ii) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric-arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; (iii) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (iv) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and (v) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties. In the present work, the GMAW process model has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic-limit (i.e., penetration-resistance) of the weld. The model is upgraded through the introduction of the sixth module in the present work in recognition of the fact that in thick steel GMAW weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor may become controlled by the (often inferior) ballistic limits of its weld (fusion and heat-affected) zones. To demonstrate the utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel, MIL A46100. The model predictions concerning the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic-limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with prior observations and general expectations.

  9. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7% were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL. In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection

  10. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh


    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  11. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.


    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  12. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot ( Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (, the display and user interface (, and the program command line and configuration file parameters ( The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  14. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service ( before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service ( before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service ( before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  17. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server


    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  18. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor (United States)


    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  19. Electric vehicles in action


    Wikström, Martina


    This thesis analyses the political and practical conditions for introducing electric vehicles in Swedish public authorites and discusses the potential for using electric vehicles in public transport and public fleets. The work has been carried out using an interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach brings new insights to energy studies; the combination of technical methods and methods from social science allows the technology to be studied in its societal context. Local self-govern...

  20. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation (United States)


    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko


    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  2. Nuclear air cushion vehicles. (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.


    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  3. What is the Role of Heavy Armor in the Army of 2020? (United States)


    heavy machine gun. Taken from Federation of American Scientist Military Analysis Network, “M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank,” 8 Federation of American Scientist Military Analysis Network, “M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle,” Operational Concept,” Army Magazine, June 2001, 12-19. Federation of American Scientist Military Analysis Network, “M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank

  4. Finite Element Analysis Of Large Deformation Of Articular Cartilage In Upper Ankle Joint Of Occupant In Military Vehicles During Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klekiel T.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the load of lower limbs of occupants in the armoured military vehicle, which has been destroyed by detonation of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED charge under the vehicle. A simplified model of the human lower limb focused on upper ankle joint was developed in order to determine the reaction forces in joints and load in particular segments during the blast load. The model of upper ankle joint, include a tibia and an ankle bone with corresponding articular cartilage, has been developed. An analysis of the stress distribution under the influence of forces applied at different angles to the biomechanical axis of a limb has been performed. We analyzed the case of the lower limb of a sitting man leaning his feet on the floor. It has been shown that during a foot pronation induced by a knee outward deviation, the axial load on the foot causes significantly greater tension in the tibia. At the same time it has been shown that within the medial malleolus, tensile stresses occur on the surface of the bone which may lead to fracture of the medial malleolus. It is a common case of injuries caused by loads on foot of passengers in armored vehicles during a mine or IED load under the vehicle. It was shown that the outward deviation of the knee increases the risk of the foot injury within the ankle joint.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov


    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  6. 装甲装备器村保障应急物流初探%Primary Research on the Emergency Logistics of Armored Equipment Material Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆全; 杨宏伟; 卢庆龄; 黄定政


    对装甲装备器材保障应急物流概念内涵、基本特征、保障环节、主要职能、建设内容等理论问题进行了初步研究探讨,旨在为我军掏建科学、合理的装甲装备器材保障应急物流体系提供理论参考。%This article preliminarily studies some theoretical issues about armored equipment support emergency logistics, such as conception, main characteristic, support Chain, functions, construction contents of emergency logistics. It aims at providing theoreti- cal references for our military to establish a scientific and reaso~iable armored equipment support emergency logistics system.


    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes


    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  8. Methylotroph cloning vehicle (United States)

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.


    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  9. Armored CAR T-cells: utilizing cytokines and pro-inflammatory ligands to enhance CAR T-cell anti-tumour efficacy. (United States)

    Yeku, Oladapo O; Brentjens, Renier J


    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells that have been genetically modified to express an artificial construct consisting of a synthetic T-cell receptor (TCR) targeted to a predetermined antigen expressed on a tumour. Coupling the T-cell receptor to a CD3ζ signalling domain paved the way for first generation CAR T-cells that were efficacious against cluster of differentiation (CD)19-expressing B-cell malignancies. Optimization with additional signalling domains such as CD28 or 4-1BB in addition to CD3ζ provided T-cell activation signal 2 and further improved the efficacy and persistence of these second generation CAR T-cells. Third generation CAR T-cells which utilize two tandem costimulatory domains have also been reported. In this review, we discuss a different approach to optimization of CAR T-cells. Through additional genetic modifications, these resultant armored CAR T-cells are typically modified second generation CAR T-cells that have been further optimized to inducibly or constitutively secrete active cytokines or express ligands that further armor CAR T-cells to improve efficacy and persistence. The choice of the 'armor' agent is based on knowledge of the tumour microenvironment and the roles of other elements of the innate and adaptive immune system. Although there are several variants of armored CAR T-cells under investigation, here we focus on three unique approaches using interleukin-12 (IL-12), CD40L and 4-1BBL. These agents have been shown to further enhance CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in the face of a hostile tumour microenvironment via different mechanisms.

  10. Proceedings of a Conference on Wraparound Visual Displays Held in Waltham, Massachusetts on 14-15 January 1988 (Motion Sickness, Visual Displays, and Armored Vehicle Design) (United States)


    Kleinman 1 Leonard M. Pakman University of Connecticut Temple University Medical School Electrical Engineering and Computer Department of Microbiology...Institute of Technology UCSD Psychology Dept. Division of Biology La Jolla, CA 92093-0001 Pasadena, CA 91125 1 Tomaso Poggio Arthur F. Kramer M.I.T

  11. The Latest Developing Situation of World Armored Vehicles(Ⅱ)%世界装甲车辆最新变动大盘点(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 捷克:偏爱"掠劫者Ⅱ" 2006年,捷克国防部在对奥地利斯泰尔公司"掠劫者Ⅱ"装甲车和芬兰帕特里亚(Patria)公司模块化装甲车考察后,决定选择"掠劫者Ⅱ"型8×8轮式装甲车,以替代陆军从20世纪60年代开始使用的OT-64两栖装甲车,并签署了购买199辆和有权追加35辆同型装甲车的合同,总价值约10亿美元.

  12. Applicability Analysis of Performance Based Logistics Implementation for the U.S. Army Stryker Armored Vehicle to Improve Turkish Army Weapon System Support (United States)


    and Joan B. McWilliams . 2004. Defining and implementing performance based logistics in government(RESEARCH). Defense AR Journal. Bozkurt, Atilla...Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 44, (6) (June): 58. Labuschagne, Carin, and Alan C. Brent. 2005. Sustainable

  13. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus


    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  14. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas


    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  15. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.


    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  16. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.


    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  17. Algorithms for vehicle navigation


    Storandt, Sabine


    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  18. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  19. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.


    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  20. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex


    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  1. Autonomous Vehicle Navigation (United States)


    obtain the new estimate of vehicle position and position uncertainty. 13. Matti Pietikainen and David Harwood, "Edge Information in Color Images Based on...of correspondence. 10. Matti Pietik:inen and David Harwood, "Multiple-Camera Contour Stereo." CAR-TR-151. CS-TR-1559. September 1985. ABSTRACT: A

  2. Implementing Vehicle Routing Algorithms (United States)


    Multiple Depot Vehicle Dispatch Problem," presented at the URSA/TIMS meeting San Juan, Puerto Rico, Oct. 1974. 28. Gillett, B., and Miller, L., " A Heuristic Algorithm for...45. Lam, T., "Comments on a Heuristic Algorithm for the Multiple Terminal Delivery Problem," Transportation Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, Nov. 1970, p. 403

  3. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla


    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  4. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James


    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  5. The Electric Vehicle Challenge (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  6. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel


    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  7. The Vehicle Rescheduling Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractThe capacitated vehicle routing problem is to find a routing schedule describing the order in which geographically dispersed customers are visited to satisfy demand by supplying goods stored at the depot, such that the traveling costs are minimized. In many practical applications, a long

  8. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions...

  9. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  10. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  11. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.


    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  12. Target Assembly Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  13. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.


    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  14. Method of steering a vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Penna, M.; Van Passen, M.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.


    Vehicle and method of steering such a vehicle, wherein the vehicle has a steering wheel and steerable driving wheels and a transfer system for converting steering wheel actions to a steering angle of the steerable driving wheels, and wherein the transfer system is provided with a predefined stiffnes

  15. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.


    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  16. Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, A.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Montgomery, J. S.


    A conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) butt-joining process has been modeled using a two-way fully coupled, transient, thermal-mechanical finite-element procedure. To achieve two-way thermal-mechanical coupling, the work of plastic deformation resulting from potentially high thermal stresses is allowed to be dissipated in the form of heat, and the mechanical material model of the workpiece and the weld is made temperature dependent. Heat losses from the deposited filler-metal are accounted for by considering conduction to the adjoining workpieces as well as natural convection and radiation to the surroundings. The newly constructed GMAW process model is then applied, in conjunction with the basic material physical-metallurgy, to a prototypical high-hardness armor martensitic steel (MIL A46100). The main outcome of this procedure is the prediction of the spatial distribution of various crystalline phases within the weld and the heat-affected zone regions, as a function of the GMAW process parameters. The newly developed GMAW process model is validated by comparing its predictions with available open-literature experimental and computational data.

  17. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding. (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony


    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  18. Biochemical responses in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends. (United States)

    Nogueira, Lílian; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Oliveira, Thiago Yukio Kikuchi; da Rosa, Joel Maurício Correa; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves


    Biodiesel fuel is gradually replacing petroleum-based diesel oil use. Despite the biodiesel being considered friendlier to the environment, little is known about its effects in aquatic organisms. In this work we evaluated whether biodiesel exposure can affect oxidative stress parameters and biotransformation enzymes in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, Loricariidae), a South American endemic species. Thus, fish were exposed for 2 and 7d to 0.01mLL(-1) and 0.1mLL(-1) of pure diesel, pure biodiesel (B100) and blends of diesel with 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) biodiesel. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) levels and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in liver and gills. Also, DNA damage (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) levels in gills and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver were assessed. Pure diesel, B5 and B20 blends changed most of the enzymes tested and in some cases, B5 and B20 induced a higher enzyme activity than pure diesel. Antioxidant system activation in P. anisitsi was effective to counteract reactive oxygen species effects, since DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were maintained at basal levels after all treatments. However, fish gills exposed to B20 and B100 presented increased lipid peroxidation. Despite biodiesel being more biodegradable fuel that emits less greenhouse gases, the increased lipid peroxidation showed that biofuel and its blends also represent hazards to aquatic biota.

  19. Titanosaur osteoderms from the Upper Cretaceous of Lo Hueco (Spain and their implications on the armor of Laurasian titanosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vidal

    Full Text Available Titanosaurs are the only sauropod dinosaurs known to bear a dermal armor. Their osteoderms are relatively rare finds, with few more than a hundred specimens recovered worldwide. Also, little is known about their intra-individual, intra-specific or inter-specific variability. The macrovertebrate site of Lo Hueco (Upper Cretaceous; Cuenca, Spain has yielded several complete specimens of osteoderms, some associated with fairly articulated specimens. They are all variations of the morphotype known as bulb and root. The presence of only this morphotype in Europe, which is considered as the primitive condition among titanosaurs, seems to indicate that the known Upper Cretaceous Laurasian titanosaurs only bore these referred bulb and root osteoderms. An eliptic Fourier analysis on the outline of complete specimens from this morphotype reveals: i that they truly are part of a morphological cline; and ii the existence of a consistent correlation between the outline and the morphology of the bulb. Such variation along a cline is more consistent with intra-individual rather than inter-specific variation. The osteoderms associated with a single titanosaur individual from Lo Hueco reinforce this hypothesis.

  20. Obtaining spheroplasts of armored dinoflagellates and first single-channel recordings of their ion channels using patch-clamping. (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, Ilya; Matantseva, Olga; Negulyaev, Yuri; Skarlato, Sergei


    Ion channels are tightly involved in various aspects of cell physiology, including cell signaling, proliferation, motility, endo- and exo-cytosis. They may be involved in toxin production and release by marine dinoflagellates, as well as harmful algal bloom proliferation. So far, the patch-clamp technique, which is the most powerful method to study the activity of ion channels, has not been applied to dinoflagellate cells, due to their complex cellulose-containing cell coverings. In this paper, we describe a new approach to overcome this problem, based on the preparation of spheroplasts from armored bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. We treated the cells of P. minimum with a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), and found out that it could also induce ecdysis and arrest cell shape maintenance in these microalgae. Treatment with 100-250 µM DCB led to an acceptable 10% yield of P. minimum spheroplasts and was independent of the incubation time in the range of 1-5 days. We show that such spheroplasts are suitable for patch-clamping in the cell-attached mode and can form 1-10 GOhm patch contact with a glass micropipette, allowing recording of ion channel activity. The first single-channel recordings of dinoflagellate ion channels are presented.

  1. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  2. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  3. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  4. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  5. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  7. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles (United States)


    installation introduces minimum friction to the steering system. 2.4.2 Auto -Pilot Device. A steering robot is used to analyze vehicle stability and...system. **The use of brand names does not constitute endorsement by the Army or any other agency of the Federal Government, nor does it imply that it...Size. (3) Construction (radial, bias ply, number of plies). (4) Brand and model. (5) Load range, maximum load carrying capacity. (6

  8. Vehicle Tracking and Security (United States)

    Scorer, A. G.


    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  9. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey (United States)


    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  10. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  11. Modular Robotic Vehicle (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)


    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  12. Launch vehicle selection model (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.


    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  13. The Research on the Method of Heneral Quality Charactistic Evaluation for New Armored Equipment%新型装甲装备通用质量特性评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇恒; 刘福胜; 刘永权


    As an important guarantee of armored mechanized troops fighting capacity factors, armored equipment general quality gets more and more attention by the people. So, it becomes an important link in the armored equipment quality work to take the effective technical measures and means to scientifically evaluate the general quality of armored equipment. Based on the analysis of the research status in China, this paper summarizes the domestic current situation of the armored equipment quality problem. Based on the AHP-FCE model, the general quality characteristics of the armor and equipment can be effectively evaluated. Combined with the latest type of main battle tanks, the model has been verified.%装甲机械化部队战斗力的重要指标之一就是装甲装备通用质量,它越来越受到人们的重视。所以,采取有效的技术措施和手段对装甲装备通用质量进行科学的评价,已成为装甲装备质量工作中最重要的一环。本文在对国内研究现状分析的基础上,归纳了国内装甲装备质量问题现状;基于AHP-FCE模型可以有效的评价装甲装备通用质量特性,并结合最新型的主战坦克对该模型进行了验证。

  14. 基于 ANP 的新型装甲装备保障能力综合评估方法研究%Evaluation of New Armored Equipment’s Support Capability Based on ANP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 穆歌


    针对层次分析法(the analytic hierarchy process,AHP)进行装备保障能力评估的缺陷,在充分考虑新型装甲装备保障能力评估特殊性的基础上,研究了基于网络分析法(the analytic network process,ANP)的新型装甲装备保障能力评估框架,给出了影响装备保障能力的主要指标集,分析了各指标间的影响关系,建立了装备保障能力评估的 ANP模型,提出了基于 ANP 法的新型装甲装备保障能力评估思路,并通过实例进行了模型验证,为基于使命的新型装甲装备保障能力评估提供了参考。%In illusion to the limitation from equipment’s support capability evaluation with (the analytic hierarchy process)AHP,with considering the characters of the evaluation of new armored equipment support capability,this paper researched on the evaluation frame of new armored equipment’s support capability based on ANP,and put forward the main index dictionary of new armored equipment’s support capability,with analysis of indexes relationship,and set up the evaluation model with ANP for new armored equipment’s support capability,and formed a way to evaluation of new armored equipment’s support capability based on ANP and validated the model with an example,which provides theory-reference for the next evaluating new armored equipment’s support capability based on mission.

  15. Preliminary Study on Emergency Logistics of Armored Equipment%装甲装备器材保障应急物流初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞纲夺; 代哲


    装甲装备器材保障应急物流关系着军队物流保障,关系着国家安全,对我国装甲装备器材保障应急物流进行研究,将对我国国防事业的完善和健全具有重要意义。文中对装甲装备器材保障应急物流的概念进行简述,对其特征、职能及保障环节进行研究,并结合当前我国装甲装备器材应急物流存在的问题,提出几点关于装甲装备器材保障应急物流的建设方面的建议,希望会对我国国防事业的顺利发展提供些许帮助和支持,为我国建立科学完备的装甲装备器材应急物流体系贡献一份力量。%Armored Equipment and equipment to protect the emergency logistics relationship with the military logistics support,the relationship between the national security,China's armored equipment and equipment to protect the emergency logistics research,will be of great significance to the improvement and perfection of China's defense industry.In the following,the author describes the concept of armored equipment support emergency logistics,the characteristics,functions,and the protection of the research,and combined with the existing problems of the emergency logistics in China,and put forward some suggestions on the construction of the emergency logistics.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng


    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  17. Chromosomal characterization of armored catfish Harttia longipinna (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): first report of B chromosomes in the genus. (United States)

    Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Traldi, Josiane Baccarin; Moreira-Filho, Orlando


    The B chromosomes are accessory elements that are widely distributed among eukaryotic genomes and often show non-Mendelian inheritance. They are considered dispensable for the growth, development, and reproduction of organisms. Some studies have suggested that these elements may affect sex determination. Harttia is a small armored catfish genus that shows sexual dimorphism, including hypertrophied odontodes on the pectoral fin spines and along the margins of the snout in mature males. They exhibit considerable karyotypic diversity with diploid number (2n) variation and heteromorphic sex system in H. carvalhoi. To date, no occurrences of B chromosomes in the Harttia genus were detected and no relation to sexual differentiation in Neotropical fish has been determined. To determine the validity of this claim, the present paper characterized specimens of Harttia longipinna by classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. The 2n found was 58 (16m + 12sm + 16st + 14a), but of the 50 specimens analyzed (30 male and 20 female), 23 specimens (16 males and seven females) show an intra-individual from 0 to 2 micro B chromosomes. The B chromosomes were completely heterochromatic. The single NORs were shown in the first acrocentric pair with silver staining and 18S rDNA probing. FISH performed with 5S rDNA probe showed a single cistron in the proximal region of the short arm of a small metacentric pair. Thus, the cytogenetic data obtained in this study of H. longipinna highlight the karyotypic diversity found within the genus Harttia, and represent the first description of B chromosomes for this genus.

  18. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  19. Energy management and vehicle synthesis (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.


    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  20. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini


    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  1. Tropic Testing of Vehicles (United States)


    kilometer track running through tropical forest . The track is a combination of a bauxite/dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-817A Tropic Testing of Vehicles 5a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Tropic Regions Test Center (TEDT-YPT) 301 C. Street Yuma, AZ



    S.Bharath Ram


    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  3. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  4. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt


    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  5. LM-3B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    LM-3B launch vehicle is a heavy three-stage liquid propellant strap-on launch vehicle, which was developed based on the mature technologies of the LM-3A and LM-2E. It not only has the highest payload capacity to send China's satellites to GTO, but is also one of the most advanced launch vehicles in the world with high reliability, reasonable price and perfect technological design.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  7. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.


    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  8. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  9. Electric-vehicle batteries (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid


    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  10. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.


    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.


    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  12. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens


    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing sol...

  13. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Limited Vehicle Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Taracena Sanz


    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem (VRP has been an important research topic during the last decades because of his vital role in the productive systems efficiency. Most of the work done in this area has been directed to solve large scale problems which may not apply for small companies which are a very important engine of the world economy. This paper approaches the problem when limited vehicle resources are present and road transportation is used. This study assumes variable customer orders. Variable volume and weight vehicle capacities are considered and the proposed algorithm develops the vehicle delivery routes and the set of customer orders to deliver per vehicle minimizing a cost objective function. In sampling small company’s logistics costs, big cost savings are found when using the proposed method.

  14. Expendable launch vehicle studies (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert


    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  15. Vehicle Dynamic Prediction Systems with On-Line Identification of Vehicle Parameters and Road Conditions


    Ling-Yuan Hsu; Tsung-Lin Chen


    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficie...

  16. String stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.


    In recent years, highway capacity has become a limiting factor, regularly causing traffic jams. Obviously, the road capacity can be increased by decreasing the inter-vehicle following distance di . As a consequence, however, vehicle automation in longitudinal direction is required in order to still

  17. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda


    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  18. Going Green with Electric Vehicles (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III


    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  19. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van


    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension ki

  20. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model (United States)


    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact

  1. LM-3A Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The LM-3A launch vehicle is a large three-stage liquidpropellant launch vehicle developed on the basis ot LM-3 ana LM-2C. By incorporating the mature technologies of LM-3 and adding a more powerful improved LOX/LH cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, LM-3A has a

  2. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.


    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  3. 基于整车虚拟样机的车体结构拓扑优化%Topology optimization for body structure based on vehicle virtual prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华顺刚; 赵海波; 朱志豪; 张丽娜


    Based on geometry models of vehicle components,a rigid-flexible coupling virtual prototype of a certain tracked armored vehicle was constructed by vehicle body finite element model meshing and modal analysis.After the multi-body dynamics simulation of the prototype under several typical driving conditions,the loads acting on the vehicle body at several typical moments were exported and imposed on the body finite element model.The structural mechanics analysis and multi-load steps topology optimization of the body structure were carried out.According to the optimization results,local structure of the body was modified.A new virtual prototype was constructed by the improved body and the simulation was executed again,from which the stress and deformation results of the body were got.Comparison with the original results shows that the structure topology optimization technology which combines dynamics simulation with finite element analysis can improve the mechanical properties of the key components,enhance the stiffness and strength,which provides an effective means to improve the structural performance of armored vehicle.%基于整车零部件几何模型,结合车体的有限元网格划分及模态分析,构建履带装甲车辆刚柔混合虚拟样机,进行典型工况下的多体动力学仿真分析,输出若干关键时间点车体承受的荷载.利用有限元分析技术将荷载加载到车体有限元模型上,对车体进行结构力学分析和多荷载步拓扑优化.根据拓扑优化结果修改车体局部结构,并重新构建虚拟样机模型再次进行仿真分析,将应力和变形分析结果与原仿真结果进行比较.结果表明,结合动力学仿真和有限元分析进行结构拓扑优化,可以改善关键零部件的力学性能,提高刚强度,为改善装甲车辆的结构性能提供了一种有效方法.

  4. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro


    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  5. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Mallinger


    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  6. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  7. The Mounting process and dielectric tests of the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6(220 Kv); Montaje y pruebas dielectricas de la estacion blindada en gas SF6 (220 kV) 'Parque Caballero'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoud, Carlos; Bobadilla, Alberto [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)


    This document approaches the aspects referring to the mounting and also dielectric tests for the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6. This type of installation represents a innovation regarding substations in urban centres. The most relevant items in relation to the mounting process are shown in a summarized way, as well as the aspects related to dielectric tests executed during the substation commissioning.

  8. 基于技术检测的装甲装备武器系统执行任务能力评估%Ability to Implement the Mandate Assessment of Armored Equipment Weapons System Based on Technical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辽宁; 屈洋; 张政; 邢旺


    Technology state affects the ability to implement the mandate of armored equipment weapons system greatly, yet there are few studies on its evaluation. Aimed at the problem, the paper put forward a method of evaluating the ability to implement the mandate of armored equipment based on the technical detection of equipment, and a case evaluation and analysis of a certain armored equipment weapon system is carried out. The method is operable and can provide data reference for the development of technical detection equipment and technology of armored equipment weapons system.%技术状态对装甲装备武器系统的执行任务能力有着重要影响,目前对其评估的研究还很少。针对这一问题,提出一种利用技术检测对装甲装备武器系统执行任务能力进行评估的方法,并结合某装甲装备武器系统进行了实例分析。分析结果表明:该方法具有可操作性,能够为装甲装备武器系统检测设备和技术的发展提供数据参考。

  9. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  10. 77 FR 40921 - Communication With Transport Vehicles (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Communication With Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory... withdrawing Regulatory Guide 5.32, Revision 1, ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May..., ``Communication with Transport Vehicles,'' published in May 1975. This RG describes radiotelephone...

  11. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.


    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  12. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.


    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  13. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commandeur Joris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  14. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  15. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey


    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  16. The Falcon I Launch Vehicle


    Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne


    Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...

  17. Vehicle Coordinated Strategy for Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuzzy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-shi Liu


    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem with fuzzy demands (VRPFD is considered. A fuzzy reasoning constrained program model is formulated for VRPFD, and a hybrid ant colony algorithm is proposed to minimize total travel distance. Specifically, the two-vehicle-paired loop coordinated strategy is presented to reduce the additional distance, unloading times, and waste capacity caused by the service failure due to the uncertain demands. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  18. Study on the Probability of Perforation for Soft Body Armor%软体防弹衣穿透概率的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常胜; 黄献聪; 李焱; 王雷; 李茂辉; 周宏


    穿透概率曲线(POP曲线)的建立为防护材料的评估提供更合理的方法,它能评估低速度的穿透概率,具有非常重要的实际意义.文中以超高分子量聚乙烯防弹衣(PE防弹衣)为研究对象,采用51式7.62 mm手枪弹进行弹击测试,通过逻辑回归和线性回归两种方法建立了POP曲线,获得了PE防弹衣的v50(穿透概率为50%的速度)和v05(穿透概率为5%的速度).两种方法得到的v50均为592 m/s,非常接近;逻辑回归法得到v05为538 m/s,而线性回归法则为514 m/s.结果表明逻辑回归法更适合推算低穿透概率的速度.%Probability of perforation ( POP) curve is a constructive method to estimate the ballistic performance. It can be used to estimate the low velocity at smaller penetration probability. POP curves have potential and promising application in body armor design. For this purpose, the performance of UH-MWPE unidirectional layers (PE armor) against 7.62 mm type 51 pistol bullet was investigated. POP curves was established by logistic function and binary logistic regression. v50 (velocity with 50% penetration probability) and v05 ( velocity with 5% penetration probability) of PE armor were derived from POP curves. v50 was 592 m/s determined by both methods, while v05 was 538 m/s and 514 m/s,respectively. The results indicate that the regression method is more suitable for the estimation of velocity at low penetration probability. The difference between the two POP curves was discussed.

  19. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration (United States)


    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  20. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation that can replace robotic vehicles in field studies. This proxy simulation will model the...

  1. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  2. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max


    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 2

  3. Robotic Vehicle Proxy Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes the development of a digital simulation to replace robotic vehicles in field studies. It will model the dynamics, terrain interaction,...

  4. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  5. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.


    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  6. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome


    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  7. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth


    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  8. Light and ultralight electric vehicles


    Van den Bossche, Alex


    Today electrical vehicles are again considered seriously. However, one is not yet used to their performance. An overview is given in what one can expect from electric vehicles, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical SUV. Special attention is given to the possibility of ultralight electric cars and the elbev concept, “Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle”. Together with high efficiency power plants, a CO2 emissions of about 10gr/km could be obtained.

  9. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) (United States)


    activities. Previous launch services were provided by Titan II, Delta II, Atlas II, and Titan IV launch vehicle systems. Additionally the program is...program, and combustion stability tool modeling with Georgia Tech Research Institute. SMC/LE is also working with SMC/Advanced Systems and Development...covered EELV’s combined launch capabilities. Previous launch services were provided by Titan II, Delta II, Atlas II, and Titan IV launch vehicle systems

  10. Lane marking aided vehicle localization



    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  11. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL


    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  12. 2014 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This is the sixth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales and technologies specific to heavy trucks. The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards. In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible tables and figures.

  13. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana


    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  14. De la motte au château d’artillerie, la fouille du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beuchet


    Full Text Available L’opération d’archéologie préventive du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor a été réalisée dans le cadre d'un projet de création d'une salle culturelle sur le site du château. La fouille a été menée sur une superficie de 2000 m², sur une durée effective de cinq mois entre octobre 2004 et mars 2005, avec un effectif moyen de sept personnes.À l’issue de la fouille, trois phases principales d’occupation peuvent être identifiées :la motte des Comtes de Guingamp (XIe-XIIe s. ;une enceinte polygon...

  15. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath


    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6202 - Vehicles. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 57.6202 Section 57.6202 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6202 Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1... operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1) No sparking material exposed in the...

  17. 36 CFR 331.12 - Vehicles. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 331.12 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.12 Vehicles. (a) The use of a vehicle off roadways is prohibited except as may be authorized by the District Engineer. (b) Vehicles shall not be parked in violation of any...

  18. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles. (United States)


    ... addition to the regulations in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply...

  19. 49 CFR 176.134 - Vehicles. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 176.134 Section 176.134 Transportation... Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.134 Vehicles. Closed vehicles may be used to transport Class... requirements relating to the transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicles....

  20. 15 CFR 265.19 - Unattended vehicles. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unattended vehicles. 265.19 Section... Unattended vehicles. No person shall leave a motor vehicle unattended on the site with the engine running or a key in the ignition switch or the vehicle not effectively braked....

  1. 36 CFR 327.2 - Vehicles. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 327.2 Section 327.2... Vehicles. (a) This section pertains to all vehicles, including, but not limited to, automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, mini-bikes, snowmobiles, dune buggies, all-terrain vehicles, and trailers, campers, bicycles,...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6202 - Vehicles. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles. 56.6202 Section 56.6202 Mineral... Vehicles. (a) Vehicles containing explosive material shall be— (1) Maintained in good condition and shall... device being used in the loading operation. (b) Vehicles containing explosives shall have— (1)...

  3. 23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from the... collection of abandoned motor vehicles from within the right-of-way must be a development project and not...

  4. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT... Excluded vehicles. When counting light duty motor vehicles to determine under this part whether a person has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  5. 32 CFR 263.7 - Emergency vehicles. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency vehicles. 263.7 Section 263.7 National... TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.7 Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle when operating with siren...

  6. 49 CFR 575.7 - Special vehicles. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special vehicles. 575.7 Section 575.7... 112(d) of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; General § 575.7 Special vehicles. A manufacturer who produces vehicles having a configuration not available for purchase by the general public...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.601 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 1926.601 Section 1926.601 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations § 1926.601 Motor vehicles. (a) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those...

  8. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  9. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection (United States)

    Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID


    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  10. Armor in Battle (United States)


    shout commands to your gunners. Picking targets they pepper away with the machine guns and six-pounders. The noise is terrific and the tank is filled...another heavy enemy artillery concentration fell among them, buc by a miracle caused only one light casualty, PVI’ Genar W. Ferguson , 2d "Infantry... peppered his neck with small fragments and smashed him down on the floor of the turret in a semi-conscious condition-but the tank crew continued on in

  11. Transparent Polyolefin Film Armor (United States)


    Routing is then accomplished with an 18,000 RPM hand held router using a 0.500 inch diameter, two flute carbide inlaid router bit. As long as the... router bit was kept sharp, there was no delarnination. 1" " I ROUTER COLLAR M" ,OLDED POLYOLEFIN _ 0,25 ACRYLIC 0,500 DIAM ETERROUTER BIT PRESSURE AREA...F-) LL- 0) 00 0-(N ) C0 co C cnc ) *(NJ 0) Cl C) 00. m) m -c 0) CC r~ )- 0~0 4-- C:. :3 (v 40 U) a) CL Lu CL E t,4- ’.) -x E E a) N~E -C0 0) 4- 0 C

  12. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebuda, D.T.


    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  14. U32: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Longer Combination Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Spezia, Tony [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC); Arant, Michael [Clemson University; Broshears, Eric [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Chitwood, Caleb [Battelle; Colbert, Jameson [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Hathaway, Richard [Western Michigan University; Keil, Mitch [Western Michigan University; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Pape, Doug [Battelle; Patterson, Jim [Hendrickson; Pittro, Collin [Battelle


    This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a single semitrailer. The goal was to measure and model the behavior of LCVs in simple maneuvers. Example maneuvers tested and modeled were single and double lane changes, a gradual lane change, and a constant radius curve. In addition to test track data collection and a brief highway test, two computer models of LCVs were developed. One model is based on TruckSim , a lumped parameter model widely used for single semitrailer combinations. The other model was built in Adams software, which more explicitly models the geometry of the components of the vehicle, in terms of compliant structural members. Among other results, the models were able to duplicate the experimentally measured rearward amplification behavior that is characteristic of multi-unit combination vehicles.

  15. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL


    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.


    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  17. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL


    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  18. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server


    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  20. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  1. 2008 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.; Davis, S.


    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop 'leap frog' technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  2. 2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL


    In the past five years, vehicle technologies have advanced on a number of fronts: power-train systems have become more energy efficient, materials have become more lightweight, fuels are burned more cleanly, and new hybrid electric systems reduce the need for traditional petroleum-fueled propulsion. This report documents the trends in market drivers, new vehicles, and component suppliers. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Vehicle Technologies Program, which develops energy-efficient and environmentally friendly transportation technologies that will reduce use of petroleum in the United States. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  3. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka


    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  4. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.


    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  5. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka


    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  6. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.


    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  7. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  8. 能量平衡法在防弹性能估算中的应用研究%Application of energy balance in estimating armor's ballistic resistance performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱锡; 梅志远; 王晓强


    In order to set rationalized armor-plates and effectively estimate armor's ballistic performance, the principle of energy balance was studied diagrammatically, and used in estimating armor-plates' ballistic performance. The results were validated by ballistic experiments of steel and basalt fiber composites reinforced by unsaturated polyester. Studies show that: in the method, it is not necessary to account for the armor's damage mechanism, and the influencial parameters are simplified, however, high precision of estimation is achieved. The V_(50) or V_t which is estimated by energy balance method has a deviation of lower than 50m/s, and a relative deviation of lower than 10%. These can meet engineering demands.%为了合理设置装甲板,并进行有效的性能评估,使用图解方法研究了能量平衡原理在装甲板弹道性能估算中的应用,并以不饱和聚酯树脂基玄武岩纤维增强复合材料和钢为例进行了实验验证,研究表明:估算过程中虽然没有从装甲板的毁伤机理方面研究,并简化了抗弹性能的影响参数,但保证了较高的估算精度,预测速度偏差在50m/s以下,预测相对偏差在10%以下,能够满足工程需要.

  9. Research on Armored Target Radiation Characteristics with Passive Millimeter Wave Detection Based on Multiple Reflection%基于多次反射的毫米波被动探测装甲目标辐射特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建利; 张效民


    In the past, the multiple reflection between armored target panels was ignored in the research of armored target radiation characteristics detection with passive millimeter wave.Therefore, we established the armored target radiation characteristics model with multiple reflection.Using ray tracing method, we deduced the calculation meth-od of multiple reflection and gave its calculation steps.The simulation results and their analysis verified preliminarily the correctness of multiple reflection and the necessity of its analysis.The results, we believe, provide a new analytical idea and theoretical basis for the study of millimeter wave radiation characteristics of armored tar-get.%针对以往毫米波被动探测装甲目标辐射特性研究中忽略了装甲目标面元之间辐射能量的多次反射问题,建立了装甲目标能量多次反射的辐射特性模型。采用射线跟踪方法从理论上推导了多次反射的计算方法并给出了计算步骤,仿真验证了多次反射的正确性及分析多次反射的必要性。为装甲目标的毫米波辐射特性研究提供了新的分析思路及理论依据。

  10. Approximation algorithms for some vehicle routing problems


    Bazgan, Cristina; Hassin, Refael; Monnot, Jérôme


    We study vehicle routing problems with constraints on the distance traveled by each vehicle or on the number of vehicles. The objective is either to minimize the total distance traveled by vehicles or to minimize the number of vehicles used. We design constant differential approximation algorithms for kVRP. Note that, using the differential bound for METRIC 3VRP, we obtain the randomized standard ratio . This is an improvement of the best-known bound of 2 given by Haimovich et al. (Vehicle Ro...

  11. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott


    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  12. Simulating thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor for the LIFE reactor design using the BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heltemes, T A; Prochaska, A E; Moses, G A, E-mail: taheltemes@wisc.ed [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison WI 53706 (United States)


    The BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code has been used to simulate the dynamic thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor with an indirect-drive laser fusion target for the LIFE reactor design. Two classes of simulations were performed: (1) short-time (0-2 ms) simulations to fully capture the hydrodynamic effects of the introduction of the LIFE indirect-drive target x-ray and ion threat spectra and (2) long-time (2-70 ms) simulations starting with quiescent chamber conditions characteristic of those at 2 ms to estimate xenon plasma cooling between target implosions at 13 Hz. The short-time simulation results reported are: (1) the plasma hydrodynamics of the xenon in the chamber, (2) dynamic overpressure on the tungsten armor, and (3) time-dependent temperatures in the tungsten armor. The ramifications of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) vs. non-LTE opacity models are also addressed.

  13. Review of Anti-Ballistic Confinement Effects of Ceramic-Metal Composite Armor%陶瓷/金属复合装甲抗弹约束效应述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂武; 倪长也; 金峰; 乔冠军; 卢天健


    The ceramic-metal composite armor and its confinement of ceramic are introduced. The characterization of ballistic performance and the effects of three confinements (axial, lateral and three-dimensional) on ballistic performance and anti-ballistic mechanisms are reviewed. The metal-encased ceramic composite armors fabricated by metal casting are proposed owing to their potential applications. It is pointed out that the studies on characterization of overall ballistic performances, dynamic characteristics and structural design optimization of new ceramic composite armors should be enhanced.%通过对陶瓷/金属复合装甲及其陶瓷约束的介绍,综述了陶瓷复合装甲的抗弹性能表征和3种陶瓷约束(轴向、侧向和三维约束)对抗弹性能及机理的影响.作者认为,采用金属铸造工艺制备金属封装陶瓷复合装甲具有潜在的应用前景,同时应加强对新型陶瓷复合装甲的综合抗弹性能表征、动力学特性、结构优化设计等方面的研究.

  14. 间隙对穿孔装甲抗弹性能影响的数值分析%Numerical Analysis about the Influence of Intervals on the Ballistic Performance of Perforated Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The numerical simulation of high-speed projectile vertically penetrating the hole edge of perforated armor plate is carried out by the method of ANSYS/LS-DYNA simulation in order to research the influence of intervals on the ballistic per-formance of perforated armor. The study of vertical penetration depth, residual velocity of projectile shows that the increase of space value can improve the ballistic performance of perforated target within a certain range, which provides significant basis for the design of armor protection.%为研究间隙对穿孔装甲抗弹性能的影响,应用ANSYS/LS-DYNA仿真计算方法对高速弹丸垂直侵彻穿孔装甲钢板孔边缘进行数值模拟,从弹丸对不同间隙后效靶垂直深度、弹体剩余速度等方面进行分析研究,结果表明在一定范围内,间隙的增大可提高多孔钢板的抗弹性能,为装甲防护设计提供重要依据。

  15. Simulation of Armor-piercing Explosive Projectile on Penetration Target Plate with Different Material%穿甲爆破弹对不同材料靶板的侵彻仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In order to research the simulation of armor-piercing explosive projectile on penetration target plate with different material,based on ANSYS/ls-dyna finite element analysis software,to the thickness of the target board variable parameters for simulation,armor blasting and target plate model, numerical simulation, the penetration process. The target state stress nephogram, explosive projectile wearing by stress conditions and residual velocity of projectile wearing a target such as conclusion, provide the basis for armor-piercing explosive projectile design of the penetration.%为获得穿甲爆破弹对不同材料靶板的侵彻情况,基于ANSYS/LS-DYNA有限元分析软件,以靶板的厚度参数为仿真变量,建立穿甲爆破弹及靶板模型,进行数值模拟,再现了侵彻过程。得到了弹丸穿靶状态受力云图、炸药所受应力情况和弹丸穿靶的剩余速度等结论,为半穿甲弹结构的设计提供了依据。

  16. Software architecture of biomimetic underwater vehicle (United States)

    Praczyk, Tomasz; Szymak, Piotr


    Autonomous underwater vehicles are vehicles that are entirely or partly independent of human decisions. In order to obtain operational independence, the vehicles have to be equipped with a specialized software. The main task of the software is to move the vehicle along a trajectory with collision avoidance. Moreover, the software has also to manage different devices installed on the vehicle board, e.g. to start and stop cameras, sonars etc. In addition to the software embedded on the vehicle board, the software responsible for managing the vehicle by the operator is also necessary. Its task is to define mission of the vehicle, to start, to stop the mission, to send emergency commands, to monitor vehicle parameters, and to control the vehicle in remotely operated mode. An important objective of the software is also to support development and tests of other software components. To this end, a simulation environment is necessary, i.e. simulation model of the vehicle and all its key devices, the model of the sea environment, and the software to visualize behavior of the vehicle. The paper presents architecture of the software designed for biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) that is being constructed within the framework of the scientific project financed by Polish National Center of Research and Development.

  17. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions... (United States)


    ... crash avoidance and other applications. Currently a public key infrastructure approach to security... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to-Infrastructure Transactions Workshop; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department...

  18. More Than Just Selling Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    FAW Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. (FTMS), a joint vehicle sales venture owned by auto giants China FAW Group Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp., was inaugurated in 2003 in an effort to strengthen the two firms’ operations in the world’s fastest-growing auto mark

  19. Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) (United States)


    demilitarization / demilitarization second destination tranportation repairable and consumerable parts associated with government furnished equipment / end...Details Date of Estimate: December 31, 2015 Source of Estimate: POE Disposal/ Demilitarization Total Cost (BY 2012 $M): Total costs for disposal...of all Vehicle are 191.5 Total Demilitarization Cost includes costs for disposal and transportation associated with disposal of JLTVs. The costs

  20. Vehicle Routing with Uncertain Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy)


    textabstractIn distribution networks a supplier transports goods from a distribution center to customers by means of vehicles with limited capacity. Drivers will drive routes on which they visit multiple customers to make deliveries. Typically, deliveries are made regularly and a fixed schedule is m

  1. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.


    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  2. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)


    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  3. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der


    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of t

  4. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua


    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  5. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van


    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging tec

  6. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong


    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  7. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  8. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj


    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  9. Navigation and Control of an Autonomous Vehicle


    Schworer, Ian Josef


    The navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle is a highly complex task. Making a vehicle intelligent and able to operate â unmannedâ requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An autonomous vehicle must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Navigation and control serves as the major limitation of the overall performance, accuracy and robustness of an autonomous vehicle. This thesis will address this problem and propose a uni...

  10. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.


    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  11. The Application in Body Armor Based on Shear Thickening Fluid%基于剪切增稠液体防护装甲的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 陈宏书; 王结良; 张五龙


    This paper has introduced the composition, basic properties and rheological mechanism of the shear thickening fluid (STF), factors affecting STF's theological mechanism and research methods studying STF's theological mechanism are discussed too. Besides, it has explained the preparation of silica and the polyethylene glycol (PEG) / nano-silica particles system in STF, PEG/SiO2 system's thickening mechanism has also been commented. Based on the research on STF, this paper has studied the liquid body armor composed of STF-fabric, excellent protective properties, mechanism of bulletproof and stab-resistant (anti-spike, anti-knife) of STF-fabric have been described, besides, the mechanism of stab-resistant of STF-Kevlar has also been introduced. Next, the paper has introduced drop tower testing and quasi-static testing. And the last part of the paper presents a vision on the future research on the liquid body armor.%综述了剪切增稠液体(ShearThickeningFluid,即STF)的基本性质、组成成分、流变机理,影响STF流变性能的诸多因素以及对STF流变性能的研究方法,介绍了STF中聚乙二醇(PEG)/纳米SiO:颗粒体系和Si02的制备方法,对PEG/SiO。的增稠机理进行了讲解。在对STF研究的基础上,阐述了STF-织物组成的液体防护装甲的优异防护性能、防弹和防刺(防锥、防刀)机理,讲述了STF—Kevlar构成的液体防护装甲及防刺机理,介绍了动态防刺测试和准静态防刺测试,最后对液体防护装甲未来研究方面进行了展望。

  12. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  13. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift... (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  14. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early...

  15. 75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard... (United States)


    ... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 571 and 585 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Low-Speed Vehicles Phase-In... Parts 571 and 585 RIN 2127-AK43 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal...

  16. World modeling for cooperative intelligent vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Brown, C.; Bartels, C.


    Cooperative intelligent vehicle systems constitute a promising way to improving traffic throughput, safety and comfort. The state-of-the-art intelligent-vehicle applications usually can be described as a collection of interacting, highly autonomous, complex dynamical systems (the individual vehicles

  17. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt;


    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  18. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  19. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian


    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  20. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation (United States)


    contained magnetometer-based navigation system. Indoor, urban, and canyon environments present challenges for GNSS in terms of limited or poor signal...Aztek sports utility vehicle (SUV), and a 2005 Nissan Altima car were chosen as typical vehicles. Each platform represented a different vehicle type in

  1. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath


    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  4. 49 CFR 387.305 - Combination vehicles. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combination vehicles. 387.305 Section 387.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... § 387.305 Combination vehicles. The following combinations will be regarded as one motor vehicle...

  5. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636.31... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police officer who finds or has knowledge of a...

  6. 15 CFR 265.13 - Emergency vehicles. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency vehicles. 265.13 Section 265.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle...

  7. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.


    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  8. Multisensor simultaneous vehicle tracking and shape estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfring, J.; Appeldoorn, R.; Kwakkernaat, M.


    This work focuses on vehicle automation applications that require both the estimation of kinematic and geometric information of surrounding vehicles, e.g., automated overtaking or merging. Rather then using one sensor that is able to estimate a vehicle's geometry from each sensor frame, e.g., a lida

  9. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed...

  10. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  11. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities (United States)

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.


    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  12. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.


    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL


    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  14. GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashood Mukhtar


    Full Text Available Security systems and navigators have always been a necessity of human‟s life. The developments of advanced electronics have brought revolutionary changes in these fields. In this paper, we will present a vehicle tracking system that employs a GPS module and a GSM modem to find the location of a vehicle and offers a range of control features. To complete the design successfully, a GPS unit, two relays, a GSM Modem and two MCU units are used. There are five features introduced in the project. The aim of this project is to remotely track a vehicle‟s location, remotely switch ON and OFF the vehicle‟s ignition system and remotely lock and unlock the doors of the vehicle. An SMS message is sent to the tracking system and the system responds to the users request by performing appropriate actions. Short text messages are assigned to each of these features. A webpage is specifically designed to view the vehicle‟s location on Google maps. By using relay based control concept introduced in this paper, number of control features such as turning heater on/off, radio on/off etc. can be implemented in the same fashion.

  15. Real Time Conflict Resolution in Automated Guided Vehicle Scheduling (United States)


    use an optimal n-I vehicle routing as the basis for obtaining an optimal n vehicle routing. When only one vehicle is present, the one vehicle routing problem is...scheduling algorithms in general, pointing out that most fall in the class of NP- Hard problems. Lenstra and Rinnoy Kan [581 showed the vehicle routing problem is...Dial-a-ride problems. Vehicle Routing Problems The vehicle routing problem is a very important problem in distribution management. Vehicles are routed

  16. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.


    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  17. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.


    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  18. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards (United States)


    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  19. Prospects For China's Expendable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Lehao; Wang Xiaojun; Rong Yi


    @@ The expendable launch vehicle ( ELV) is the major means for human beings to enter space. Up until April 2009, China's Long March (LM) series launch vehicle has conducted 117 launches, and realized 75 consecutive successful launches since October 1996, which marks China's ELV development has entered a new historical era. Based on the analysis of China's LM series launch vehicle development status, combining with the new generation launch vehicle development, this raises a development prospect for China's ELV to meet the demands for future launch vehicle technology development.

  20. Adaptive Fuzzy Control for CVT Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the simple continuously variable transmission (CVT) driveline model, the design of adaptive fuzzy control system for CVT vehicle is presented. The adaptive fuzzy control system consists of a scaling factor self-tuning fuzzy-PI throttle controller, and a hybrid fuzzy-PID CVT ratio and brake controller. The presented adaptive fuzzy control strategy is vehicle model independent, which depends only on the instantaneous vehicle states, but does not depend on vehicle parameters. So it has good robustness against uncertain vehicle parameters and exogenous load disturbance. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy strategy has good adaptability and practicality value.

  1. Analysis on Oil Seal Leakage for Sprocket Assembly of Armored Face Conveyors%刮板输送机链轮轴组油封漏油分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Armored face conveyor works in bad environment.Its floating oil seal installed in sprocket assembly is always failed and causes oil leakage,which may cause the lubricating oil waste and pollute the work environment,and even cause the damage of the bearing inside sprocket assembly.Various factors caused seal failure were analyzed from the quality of sprocket assembly floating oil seal,component installation,the habits of users and other aspects.It has a certain reference role to improve the seal reliability in sprocket assembly.%刮板输送机工作环境恶劣,其链轮轴组的浮动油封经常失效导致漏油,轻则造成润滑油浪费、工作环境被污染,重则导致链轮轴组内轴承损坏。从链轮轴组浮动油封自身质量、组件安装、用户使用等各环节对造成密封失效的各种因素进行分析,对提高链轮轴组密封可靠性有一定参考作用。

  2. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of armor grade AA7075 aluminum alloy friction stir weld nugget zone – Effect of post weld heat treatment and addition of boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Kumar


    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW of high strength aluminum alloys has been emerged as an alternative joining technique to avoid the problems during fusion welding. In recent times FSW is being used for armor grade AA7075 aluminum alloy in defense, aerospace and marine applications where it has to serve in non uniform loading and corrosive environments. Even though friction stir welds of AA7075 alloy possess better mechanical properties but suffer from poor corrosion resistance. The present work involves use of retrogression and reaging (RRA post weld heat treatment to improve the corrosion resistance of welded joints of aluminum alloys. An attempt also has been made to change the chemical composition of the weld nugget by adding B4C nano particles with the aid of the FSW on a specially prepared base metal plate in butt position. The effects of peak aged condition (T6, RRA and addition of B4C nano particles on microstructure, hardness and pitting corrosion of nugget zone of the friction stir welds of AA7075 alloy have been studied. Even though RRA improved the pitting corrosion resistance, its hardness was slightly lost. Significant improvement in pitting corrosion resistance was achieved with addition of boron carbide powder and post weld heat treatment of RRA.

  3. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dubey, R.V. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)


    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  4. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  5. A novel duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of hepatitis C viral RNA with armored RNA as internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shuang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV genome is extremely heterogeneous. Several HCV infections can not be detected using currently available commercial assays, probably because of mismatches between the template and primers/probes. By aligning the HCV sequences, we developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using 2 sets of primers/probes and a specific armored RNA as internal control. The 2 detection probes were labelled with the same fluorophore, namely, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM, at the 5' end; these probes could mutually combine, improving the power of the test. Results The limit of detection of the duplex primer/probe assay was 38.99 IU/ml. The sensitivity of the assay improved significantly, while the specificity was not affected. All HCV genotypes in the HCV RNA Genotype Panel for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques could be detected. In the testing of 109 serum samples, the performance of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was identical to that of the COBAS AmpliPrep (CAP/COBAS TaqMan (CTM assay and superior to 2 commercial HCV assay kits. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is an efficient and effective viral assay. It is comparable with the CAP/CTM assay with regard to the power of the test and is appropriate for blood-donor screening and laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection.

  6. Aerodynamic data of space vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Claus


    The capacity and quality of the atmospheric flight performance of space flight vehicles is characterized by their aerodynamic data bases. A complete aerodynamic data base would encompass the coefficients of the static longitudinal and lateral motions and the related dynamic coefficients. In this book the aerodynamics of 27 vehicles are considered. Only a few of them did really fly. Therefore the aerodynamic data bases are often not complete, in particular when the projects or programs were more or less abruptly stopped, often due to political decisions. Configurational design studies or the development of demonstrators usually happen with reduced or incomplete aerodynamic data sets. Therefore some data sets base just on the application of one of the following tools: semi-empirical design methods, wind tunnel tests, numerical simulations. In so far a high percentage of the data presented is incomplete and would have to be verified. Flight mechanics needs the aerodynamic coefficients as function of a lot of var...

  7. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown.......This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...

  8. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  9. Surface properties-vehicle interaction (United States)

    Huft, D. L.; Her, I.; Agrawal, S. K.; Zimmer, R. A.; Bester, C. J.

    Several topics related to the surface properties of aircraft runways are discussed. The South Dakota profilometer; development of a data acquisition method for noncontact pavement macrotexture measurement; the traction of an aircraft tire on grooved and porous asphaltic concrete; holes in the pavements; the effect of pavement type and condition on the fuel consumption of vehicles; the traction loss of a suspended tire on a sinusoidal road; the effect of vehicle and driver characteristics on the psychological evaluation of road roughness; the correlation of subjective panel ratings of pavement ride quality with profilometer-derived measures of pavement roughness; a microprocessor-based noncontact distance measuring control system, and, the representation of pavement surface topography in predicting runoff depths and hydroplaning potential are discussed.

  10. Surface properties-vehicle interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huft, D.L.; Her, I.; Agrawal, S.K.; Zimmer, R.A.; Bester, C.J.


    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: South Dakota profilometer; development of a data-acquisition method for noncontact pavement macrotexture measurement; traction of an aircraft tire on grooved and porous asphaltic concrete; holes in the pavement-an assessment of their influence on safety; effect of pavement type and condition on the fuel consumption of vehicles; traction loss of a suspended tire on a sinusoidal road; effect of vehicle and driver characteristics on the psychological evaluation of road roughness; correlation of subjective panel ratings of pavement ride quality with profilometer-derived measures of pavement roughness; microprocessor-based noncontact distance measuring control system; and, representation of pavement-surface topography in predicting runoff depths and hydroplaning potential.

  11. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  12. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao


    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  13. 基于建模仿真的战车分类算法研究%Research on the Military Vehicle Classification Algorithm Based on Modeling and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Recognition and classification of military vehicle is an important research content of information acquirement in battlefield. In order to collect data and study military vehicle classification algorithm, real external field experiment mode is popularly used, however it needs long time and expensive costs. In this paper, the tank model, armored vehicle model and truck model are built in the virtual battlefield simulation platform. The noise signals, magnetic field signals and vibration signals of the military vehicles in simulation environment are collected and used as the sample data for the research of military vehicle classification algorithm. In the same time this paper designs a classification algorithm of military vehicle based on the one-to-one multi-class SVM, and gives out an adjustment strategy for classifier parameters based on the cross-validation method. The experiment results show that, compared to AdaBoost algorithm, the present algorithm has higher classification accuracy on military vehicles.%战车类型的识别分类是现代情报获取的重要研究内容。为了获得数据并研究战车分类算法,常进行外场真实实验,但其时间长、耗资巨大。本文在虚拟战场仿真平台上建立坦克、装甲车、运兵车三种战车模型。利用仿真环境中的战车噪声、磁场、振动特征信号作为样本数据,进行战车的分类算法研究。同时基于一对一多分类支持向量机,设计了一种战车分类算法,并给出了分类器交叉验证参数调整策略。实验表明,相比于AdaBoost算法,文章提出的战车分类算法的分类准确率较高。

  14. Overarching Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Study (United States)


    trailer. The PM, Transportation, provided existing LCCEs for the various systems in the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ( ACEIT ) format. The...Advanced Assault Amphibious Vehicle AAO Approved Acquisition Objective ACE Aviation Combat Element ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tool ALMC... ACEIT , SVLCCM, and CASA) using two different CESs, and estimated in three different constant budget dollar years (i.e., FY95, FY96, and FY01). A

  15. Electric vehicle energy management system (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  16. Land Robotic Vehicles for Demining



    Considering large polluted areas and drawbacks of actual demining technologies main contributions of using robotic vehicles are expected in following topics: - Searching large areas and localization of mines and any explosives (UXO) by fast and reliable way. - Fast and reliable neutralization/destruction of mines without the need of personal assistance to be inside, or close to dangerous places. Demining process remains and will be still one of the most dangerous operations. For this reason n...

  17. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri


    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  18. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University


    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  19. Vehicle dynamic prediction systems with on-line identification of vehicle parameters and road conditions. (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin


    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event.

  20. Revolutionizing Technology Prioritizing Emergency Vehicles in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya Sundaram


    Full Text Available The following study brings to the fore a technology exclusively engineered to eradicate the snags and inadequacies persisting in the existing system of traffic control and thus aims to provide a sophisticated operation and uninterrupted course for the emergency vehicles. The traffic in Indian roads has shown a tremendous rise over the years and the conventional pre-timed traffic signals and frequent traffic congestions, delaying the road commuters, have led to outrage and chaos on several occasions. This traffic management system has proved a nuisance for the effective operation of emergency vehicles, with the public adding to the woes, as each driver races along with the signal, unmindful of the emergency vehicles. A life threatening scenario ensues when emergency vehicles get blocked by the traffic, due to inefficient traffic management system and subsequently these emergency vehicles get delayed. The existing system requires manual interruption to guide other vehicles when an emergency vehicle passes through traffic junctions. It is therefore essential to implement a self-regulating and automated system in the traffic signals to facilitate smooth movement of emergency vehicles without posing a danger to other vehicles. The innovative traffic control system devised by us provides a truly dependable alternative to monitoring traffic flow when emergency vehicles pass by.

  1. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen


    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  3. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  4. The vehicle routing problem with two classes of vehicles and a limit on the number of vehicles in each class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, P.; Gouveia, L.


    In this talk we discuss several linear integer programming formulations for a particular case of the Vehicle Routing Problem, where several classes of vehicles are considered and a fixed number of vehicles is imposed in each class. We also present a set of valid inequalities which lead to significant improvements on the lower bounds. Some heuristics are also discussed. We present computational results taken from a set of tests with the number of clients ranging from 13 to 75.

  5. Vehicle type choice and differentiated registration taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered as a useful tool for promoting environmental friendly vehicles. Such a tax was introduced in Denmark in 2007. During 2007, the pattern in new vehicle purchases in Denmark changed toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. We analyse...... to what extent the 2007 vehicle tax reform may explain these changes in purchasing behaviour using a discrete choice model. The model allows us to simulate the effect of price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. The analysis shows that the reform only changes purchase patterns slightly....... The changes in fuel prices during the year induce a similar minor effect in our simulation. We conclude that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it only explains a small part of the shift in fuel efficiency that happened....

  6. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S


    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  7. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett


    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  8. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  9. Vehicle Monitoring And Diagnostic Using IMS Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Sayyad,


    Full Text Available Convergence of technologies is important in this era to make progress in any field. The need to converge technologies arises from the concept of improvisation. This paper proposes a system architecture which is used to diagnose vehicle parameters and then relay the data via a feasible next generation network based on IMS architecture to a central server. Vehicles are to be equipped with a simple portable scan tool (PST device which will interface with the OBD-II port of the vehicle and record the diagnostic data and relay them to the server. Further if the vehicle owner wants real time remote updates of the vehicle then it can be done by using his/her cellular device. IMS architecture simplifies the process of user registration and help in achieving faster transmission speed. Lastly various secondary applications can be generated by this system as by using thissystem the vehicles are getting connected on a grid.

  10. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail


    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  11. Launch vehicle systems design analysis (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.


    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  12. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi


    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand...... instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

  13. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić


    Full Text Available The work considers different information systems, includingthe infonnation ~ystems with autonomous units, whichcany all their intelligence around with them, and those withcommunicating units, which infonn the motorist about the currentsituation of the road system by radio or other means. Thesymbols of various messages have three main objectives: to provideinstruction, to warn of oncoming dange1~ or to give adviceregarding parking or looking for altemative routes. When notused for these pwposes, they are used to provide general informationabout the weathe1~ temperature or possible attractions.The in-vehicle information systems fly to assist the motorist indriving, and they are promoted as part of the comprehensive intelligenttransport system.

  14. LM-4B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The history of LM-4B traces back to the end of the 1970s. The feasibility study of LM-4 began in 1982 and the engineering development was initiated in the following year.Initially, the LM-4 served as a back-up launch vehicle for LM-3 to launch China's communications satellites. After the successful launch of China's first communications satellites by LM-3 in 1984, the main mission of the LM-4 was shifted to launch sun-synchronous orbit meteorological satellites.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy (United States)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa


    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  16. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design (United States)


    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  17. In-Vehicle Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić


    Full Text Available The paper considers different systems, including thesystems with autonomous units, which cany all their knowledgewith them, and those with communication units, which informthe driver about the current situation of the road system byradio or other means. The symbols of various messageshave three main goals: to provide instruction, to warn ofoncoming danger, or to give advice regarding parking or lookingfor alternative routes. When not used for these purposes,they are used to provide general information about/he weathe1;temperature or possible attractions. The in-vehicle informationsystems try to assist the motorist in driving, and they arepromoted as part of the comprehensive intelligent transport system.

  18. Vehicles Vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Christlieb


    Full Text Available The present text attempts to do a description as well as a reflection of the cities from the point of departure of its means of transport and the urban being who uses them. In other words, it tries to show the city as a tissue made of vehicles.El presente texto pretende hacer una descripción y una reflexión de la ciudad a partir de sus medios de transporte y del ser urbano que los utiliza. Intenta mostrar a la ciudad como un tejido o un entramado de vehículos en movimiento.

  19. Three-dimensional SPH analysis of impact responses of ceramic/metal composite armors%陶瓷/金属复合装甲冲击响应的三维SPH法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 胡德安; 韩旭; 谭柱华


    采用自编三维SPH程序对弹体侵彻陶瓷/金属复合装甲问题进行了数值模拟.为了描述金属和陶瓷材料非线性变形及损伤特性,在程序中嵌入Johnson-Cook和Johnson-Holmquist Ⅱ本构模型及Mie-Gruneisen状态方程.SPH计算得到的典型位移随时间变化曲线与实验结果吻合较好.通过数值模拟合理再现了弹体侵蚀、陶瓷锥形成、飞溅和背板隆起撕裂等物理过程.研究了倾角对复合装甲抗侵彻性能的影响,结果表明,存在一个最优的靶板倾角,使得陶瓷/金属复合装甲的抗侵彻性能最佳.%A three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code was developed to simulate the penetration of ceramic/metal composite armors by projectiles. The Johnson-Cook and John-son-Holmquist Ⅱ constitutive models and the Mie-Griineisen equation of state were incorporated into the developed code to describe the nonlinear deformation and damage features of metal and ceramic materials. The typical displacement-time curves computed by the developed SPH code are in good a-greement with the experimental results. The numerical simulations can represent the major features of the composite armor system such as, projectile erosion, ceramic conoid formation and splash, backing plate failure and so on. And the obliquity effects on the penetration-resistance ability of the composite armor were investigated. The results indicate that there exists an optimal obliquity for the penetration-resistance ability.

  20. Liability Issues Concerning Self-Driving Vehicles


    Lohmann, Melinda Florina


    This article deals with the civil liability issues that arise when self-driving vehicles are admitted to our streets. Firstly, it is explained why strict liability regimes for the vehicle holder, which are in place in several jurisdictions across Europe, are a workable foundation for ensuring compensation of the victim. However, accidents caused by highly automated vehicles will raise the question of the manufacturer’s liability for a defective product. Accordingly, this article examines the ...

  1. A Generalized Assignment Heuristic for Vehicle Routing (United States)


    problem by ( VRP ). L. . . . .. i -3- Formulation of the Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ) min Z c X. (1)ijk 1) i jk S.t. Z aiYik < bk , k ,...,K (2) 1...Fisher and Ramchandran Jaikumar University of Pennsylvania August, 1979 ABSTR_2T We consider a common variant of the vehicle routing problem in which a...minimum size fleet that can feasibly service the specified demand. 1. Intrcduction Vehicle routing is a challenging logistics management

  2. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies (United States)


    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  3. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.


    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  4. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles


    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Cipcigan, Liana M.; Jenkins, Nick


    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  5. Navigation System for Reusable Launch Vehicle


    Schlotterer, Markus


    PHOENIX is a downscaled experimental vehicle to demonstrate automatic landing capabilities of future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). PHOENIX has flown in May 2004 at NEAT (North European Aerospace Test range) in Vidsel, Sweden. As the shape of the vehicle has been designed for re-entry, the dynamics are very high and almost unstable. This requires a fast and precise GNC system. This paper describes the navigation system and the navigation filter of PHOENIX. The system is introduced and the h...

  6. Reliable dynamic in-vehicle navigation


    Kaparias, I.


    Having started off from luxury makes and models, in-vehicle navigation systems are now gradually spreading through the entire vehicle fleet, as drivers appreciate their usefulness. Increasingly sophisticated systems are being developed, having much more advanced functions than simple driving directions. This thesis presents a new approach for in-vehicle navigation, in which travel time reliability is incorporated in the route finding component of the navigation system. Based on historical tra...

  7. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles


    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen


    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  8. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  9. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle (United States)

    Scully, Robert


    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  10. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  11. Defense Acquisitions. Rapid Acquisition of MRAP Vehicles (United States)


    safety, which required some modifying of designs and postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles were used. Also, long term sustainment costs...the form of reliability, mobility, and safety, which have required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, and adapting how vehicles...issues required some modifying of the designs, postproduction fixes, or adapting how vehicles were to be used. Testing of proposed Page 8 GAO-10-155T

  12. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  13. Technical Benefits of Tram Vehicle Energy Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Drazek


    Full Text Available Energy saving effects connected with use of energy accumulator on board of tram vehicle instead of substation are presented. Differences in results regarding weak and strong power supply system when taking into account energy losses and energy recuperation are pointed out. Running mode and energy changed from substation by a tram vehicle with accumulator is compared to a tram vehicle without on-board accumulator but supplied from substation equipped with energy accumulator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the up-to-date problem of motor vehicles safety. The author concludes that traffic safety in the transport system depends on the type and, accordingly, the measures taken in vehicles to protect objects from unauthorized access and, as a consequence, from the possibility of accident or disaster occurrence, while the safety of vehicles on a traffic route is determined by external natural impacts.

  15. 股骨髁上骨折应用L形加压钢板内固定后的早期康复治疗%The early rehabilitation intervention after internal fixation English Column with L-shaped compression armor plate for supracondylar fracture of femur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳红卫; 李国顺


    Background: The thickness and width of L shaped armor plate can antagonize muscle traction with the ability of anti inflecting, anti torsion and anti shearing force, which overcomes the weakness of common armor plate and osseous pin that have weaker fixation force and need external fixation. The fixation can satisfy the request of early functional training. And the functional training can be performed on the continuous passive movement (CPM) instrument 1 week after operation to prevent adhesion of knee joint, elasticity losing in soft tissue around joint, ankylosis, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

  16. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  17. Unmanned vehicle mobility: Limits of autonomous navigation (United States)

    McCormac, A. W.; Hanna, D. M.; McFee, J.

    Considerable research is being conducted on the development of unmanned vehicles for military and civilian applications, particularly for hostile environments. It is desirable to produce a vehicle which can select its own route, not requiring remote navigation, but then it would be required to sense its surroundings. Although imaging systems and modern computers make this possible, the extreme data processing demands usually make it impractical. It is suggested that an inverse relationship exists between vehicle mobility and the complexity of the autonomous navigation system required for an unmanned vehicle. An overview of vehicle navigation is presented which shows the degree to which navigation is affected by increasing inherent mobility. If the inherent mobility of a vehicle is greatly enhanced, the scene image processing requirements and navigational computations are greatly simplified. This means the vehicle path selection and speed and steering adjustments may be made more quickly, resulting in higher vehicle speeds whenever possible. Combined with reduced deviation from the intended path, this would greatly increase the speed of the vehicle from one given point to another, suggesting that high speed autonomous navigation may be feasible.

  18. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)


    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  19. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.


    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  20. Design of Scale Intelligent Vehicle System (United States)

    Wang, Junliang; Zhang, Zufeng; Jia, Peng; Luo, Shaohua; Zhang, Zufeng

    Nowadays, intelligent vehicle is widely studied all over the world. On considering cost and safety of test on real vehicle, it takes scale intelligent vehicle as a carrier platform, which uses visual sensors to capture the environmental information in a Wi-Fi wireless communication network environment, and creates a system including video surveillance system, monitoring command terminal, data server and three-dimensional simulating test traffic environment. The core algorithms, such as road recognition perception, image data processing, path planning and the implementation of motion control, have been completely designed and applying on the vehicle platform. The experimental results verified its good effects and the robustness and stability of the algorithm.